Theology of Luke神學的盧克

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The Evidence證據

The theology of Luke may be discerned by observing several converging lines of evidence.盧克的神學可以看出端倪通過觀察幾個趨同方面的證據。 Since a Gospel lacks the logical sequence of propositional statements characteristic of the epistles, great care is needed to assess this evidence accurately.由於福音缺乏邏輯順序的命題報表特性的書信,需要非常謹慎,準確地評估這方面的證據。 The following must be considered.必須考慮以下因素。

Narrative Structure敘事結構

The careful statement of purpose inserted before the narrative commences alerts the reader to observe factors that contribute to assurance regarding the truth of the Christian gospel.細心的語句插入的目的之前的敘述開始提醒讀者觀察的因素,有助於保證的基督教福音的真理。 The inclusion of the birth narratives, in contrast to Mark and John, and with different episodes from those in Matthew, directs the reader to certain themes regarding the messiahship and sonship of Jesus.列入出生的敘述,馬克和約翰,和不同的情節從在馬太福音,引導讀者到一定的主題,關於耶穌的彌賽亞和sonship。 The use of a chiastic structure in Zechariah's Benedictus (1:68-79) focuses attention on the middle theme, oath/covenant, along with the other repeated themes: God's "coming" (or "visitation"), his "people," "salvation," "prophets," the "hand" of the "enemies," and the "fathers."撒迦利亞的逐日者(1:68-79)一個交錯法的結構中使用的注意力集中在中間的主題,誓/盟約,與其​​他重複的主題:神的“未來”(或“探視權”),他的“人,” “救贖”,“先知”,“手”的“敵人”和“父親”。 The introduction of two witnesses Simeon and Anna, according to the accepted pattern of two witnesses, draws attention to and confirms the identity of the baby as the promised Messiah (2:25-38).引進的兩名證人西麥和安娜,根據公認的模式,兩名證人,提請注意並確認身份的嬰兒應許的彌賽亞(2:25-38)。

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Within the narrative of Jesus' ministry certain editorial touches have great effect in featuring theological themes.在敘述耶穌的傳道某些社論的觸摸有很大的影響,神學主題,。 For example, by omitting most of Mark's narrative of 6:45-8:26, Luke is able to move quickly from the stilling of the storm (Mark 4:35-41; Matt. 8:23-27; Luke 8: 22-25), with its significant climactic question, "Who is this?"例如,通過省略最馬克的敘述6:45-8:26,盧克是能夠迅速採取行動的消力的風暴(馬可福音4:35-41;馬太福音8:23-27,路加福音8:22 -25),其顯著高潮的問題,“是誰?” pausing for only a few incidents, mainly those with messianic significance, to the question of Herod, "Who, then, is this?"暫停只有少數幾個事件,主要是救世主的意義,到希律的問題,“是誰,然後,是這樣的嗎?” (Luke 9:9), and on to the question at Caesarea Philippi, "Who do you say I am?" (路9:9),並在該撒利亞腓立比的問題,“你說我是誰?” Another use of structure is the inclusion of the unique central section.的結構的另一種用途是獨特的中央部分的列入。 This not only contains a collection of Jesus' teachings but features a travel motif.這不僅包含了一系列的耶穌的教導,但設有一個旅遊主題。 There is a strong sense of movement toward Jerusalem, the city of destiny in God's plan (9:51; 53; 13:22; 33; 17:11; 18:31).對耶路撒冷城裡,在命運之神的計劃(9:51有一種強烈的運動感; 53; 13:22; 33; 17:11; 18:31)。 Cf.比照。 9:31; 19:11, 28 on Jerusalem, and 9:57; 24:13-17 for examples of Luke's specific references to traveling. 9:31,19:11,28日在耶路撒冷,9:57; 24:13-17盧克的具體提到旅遊的例子。 The introduction to this section looks ahead specifically to Jesus' ascension ("taken up," Luke 9:51; cf. the same term in Acts 1:2).本節介紹展望專門為“耶穌升天”(“走了,”盧克九點51分;比照相同期限的行為1:2)。 This is a unique emphasis of Luke, the final event of his Gospel (24:50-53).這是一個獨特的重點,盧克,最後一場比賽他的福音(24:50-53)。


Careful observation of word frequency, provides significant evidence of theological emphasis, especially in comparison with the other Gospels.仔細觀察字的頻率,提供了顯著的證據的神學重點,尤其是在比較與其他福音。 Observing the relative frequency of such words as "salvation," "sinner," "today," "God," "word," "city," and various words grouped in semantic fields such as those relating to poverty and wealth (to cite just a few) is foundational in assessing the theology of Luke.觀測的相對頻率,這樣的話“救贖”,“罪人”,“今天”,“神”,“詞”,“城市”和不同的詞組合在語義領域,如貧窮和財富有關的(舉短短數)是評估盧克的神學基礎。 One example is the unusual frequency of "today" (Luke 2:11; 4:21; 5:26; 12:28; 13:32, 33; 19:5, 9; 22:34, 61; 23:43 and nine times in Acts).一個例子是“今天”(路加福音2:11,4:21,5:26,12:28,13:32,33; 19:5,9 22:34,61; 23:43和不尋常的頻率在使徒行傳9次)。


Here we see especially the converging lines of evidence.在這裡,我們看到尤其是趨同的證據。 When several significant words occur together in a passage which clearly has theological importance, especially if it is at a crucial point in the narrative, the reader may be confident that the author is making a major theological statement.當幾個重要的字眼出現在一個通道,這顯然有神學的重要性,尤其是如果它是在一個關鍵點的敘述,讀者可能會相信,筆者做出了重要的神學聲明。 Jesus' conversation with Zacchaeus is an example.耶穌與撒該的對話,就是一個例子。 It occurs shortly before Jesus' triumphal entry, centers on one of the so-called sinners (Luke 19:7), social outcasts, and other unpopular people featured in Luke as the objects of Jesus' concern.前不久發生耶穌凱旋進入,集中在所謂的罪人(路加福音19:7),社會遺棄,和其他不受歡迎的人特色的盧克作為耶穌的關注的對象之一。 The vocabulary includes such key terms as "today" and "salvation."的詞彙主要條款包括“今天”和“救贖”。 Another significant event occurs at the beginning of Jesus' ministry: his preaching in the Nazareth synagogue.另一個重要的事件發生時開始的耶穌的事工:他在拿撒勒猶太教堂的講道。 This contains a programmatic statement about Jesus' anointing by the Spirit to preach good news to the poor.它包含了有關耶穌的恩膏的聖靈傳福音給貧窮的綱領性聲明。 The significant use of Isaiah 61 with its jubilee motif (the "year of the Lord's favor") contributes to its theological importance.其週年紀念主題(以賽亞書61章“年度主的青睞”)的重大利用其神學思想建設的重要性。

Geographical and Historical Background地理和歷史背景

Other indications of theology are seen in Luke's stress on these features.神學看到其他適應症在盧克的壓力這些功能。 Luke sets the salvation events within the sweep of human history.盧克設置內掃了人類歷史上的救贖事件。 His description of Jesus' orientation to Jerusalem from Luke 9:51 on points to the passion, resurrection, and ascension.他的描述,耶穌到耶路撒冷從路加福音9:51分的激情,復活,升天的方向。

In summary, every aspect of the Gospel, from individual words to the larger historical scene, is worth investigating for theological information.總之,每一個環節的福音,從個人到大的歷史場景,是值得探討的神學信息。

Theological Themes神學主題

Some of the specific themes and topics in Luke are:一些具體主題和議題,在盧克的是:


As in the other Gospels, Jesus is seen as Messiah (eg, Luke 9:20).在其他福音書,耶穌是彌賽亞(例如,路加福音9:20)。 He is also the Son of God, as the angel indicates (Luke 1:35) and as he himself recognizes at age twelve (Luke 2:49).他是神的兒子,天使指示(路1:35),正如他自己承認在十二歲(路加福音2:49)。 One unique contribution of Luke is the presentation of Jesus as a prophet.盧克的一個獨特的貢獻是耶穌為先知的介紹。 He is compared and contrasted with John the Baptist as a prophetic figure.他與施洗約翰作為一個先知的數字比較和對比。 Luke hints at his prophetic role in 4:24-27 and 13:33.盧克暗示了他的預言作用4:24-27和13:33。 Also the ministry of Elisha comes to mind at the raising of the son of the widow of Nain near where Elisha had raised the son of the "great woman" of Shunem.該部還以利沙想到在兒子的寡婦的兒子以利沙所提出的“偉大的女人”的書念的奈恩附近的提高。


Without question, Luke emphasizes the need and provision of salvation.毫無疑問,盧克強調了需求和供給的救贖。 The Gospel focuses on the cross through the passion predictions (9:22, etc.), in common in Matthew and Luke, in the early foreshadowings of 2:35; 5:35; and especially through the sayings at the Last Supper (22:19-22).通過激情的預言(9:22等),共同在馬太和路加的福音集中在十字架上,在早期預兆的2點35分,5時35分;,特別是通過在最後的晚餐“的說法(22 :19-22)。 In Acts the cross is seen as God's will, though accomplished by sinful people (Acts 2:23).在使徒行傳在十字架上被看作是上帝的旨意,雖然通過罪孽深重的人(使徒行傳2:23)。 If neither the Gospel nor Acts contains the explicit statements familiar from Paul on the theology of atonement, that does not mean Luke's doctrine is deficient.如果沒有的福音,也沒有使徒行傳包含了明確的陳述熟悉的保羅神學的贖罪,這並不意味著盧克的學說是不足的。 The Gospel presents the need of salvation and the progress of Jesus to the cross vividly; Acts declares the opportunity of forgiveness through Christ (eg, 2:38; 4:12; 10:43; 13:39). ,的福音提出了救恩的需要和進度,耶穌在十字架上生動地行為的聲明寬恕的機會,通過基督(例如,2:38,4:12; 10:43; 13:39)。


Nevertheless, Luke has a very strong theology of glory.儘管如此,盧克具有很強的神學的榮耀。 He emphasizes the victory of the resurrection, with a declaration of the vindication of Jesus (Acts 2:24; 3:15; 4:10; 10:39-42; 13:26-37; 17:31).他強調了勝利的復活,耶穌(使徒行傳2:24,3:15,4:10; 10:39-42; 13:26-37; 17:31)平反的聲明。 The ascension is stressed predictively in the middle of the Gospel (9:51) and in the middle of Luke's two-volume work, Luke 24 and Acts 1.在中間的福音(9:51),在盧克的兩卷工作,路加福音第24章,使徒行傳1中,強調預測的提升。


This theology of glory finds practical expression in repeated ascriptions of glory to God.這神學的榮耀發現實際表達中重複的歸屬榮耀歸給神。 These occur especially at the birth of Christ (2:14) and on the occasions of healing (eg, Luke 5:25-26; Acts 3:8-10).這些發生,特別是在基督的誕生(2:14)和癒合的場合(例如,路加福音5:25-26,徒3:8-10)。

The Holy Spirit聖靈

The Spirit is prominent from the beginning (Luke 1:15, 41; 2:25-35).精神是突出從一開始(路加福音1:15,41; 2:25-35)。 Jesus was conceived by the overshadowing of the Spirit (1:35).耶穌的構思是由陰雲密布的精神“(1:35)。 He was full of the Spirit and led by the Spirit at the time of his temptation (4:1).他是被聖靈充滿,聖靈引導的時候,他的誘惑(4:1)。 The Spirit was upon him in his ministry (4:18).在他的部(4:18),聖靈在他身上。 The Lord promised the Holy Spirit in answer to prayer (11:13) and in anticipation of Pentecost (24:49; Acts 1:4).主應許的聖靈在回答祈禱(11:13),並在預期的聖靈降臨節(24:49;使徒行傳1:4)。 The Holy Spirit is, of course, prominent throughout the book of Acts.聖靈是的,當然,突出整個書的行為。


This is especially significant at times of crisis in the life of Jesus (Luke 3:1; 6:12; 9:18) and in the early perilous days of the church (eg, Acts 4:23-31; 6:4, 6; 8:15; 9:11; 10:2; 13:3).這是特別重要的,在危機的時候,耶穌的生命(路加福音3:1; 6:12; 9:18),在早期的危險天的教會(例如,使徒行傳4:23-31; 6:4, 6,8:15,9:11,10:2,13:3)。

The Power of God上帝的力量

Along with the other Gospels, Luke records the miracles of Jesus and uses the word dynamis.隨著其他福音,路加記錄耶穌的奇蹟和使用這個詞潛能。 This emphasis continues throughout Acts.繼續強調在整個使徒行傳。

Sense of Destiny; Prophecy and Fulfillment預言的實踐與命運感;

This is a unique emphasis of Luke.這是一個獨特的重點,盧克。 The verb dei, "it is necessary," occurs frequently with reference to the things Jesus "must" accomplish (Luke 2:49; 4:43; 9:22; 13:33; 24:7, 26, 44-47).動詞DEI“,這是必要的,”頻繁發生的東西,耶穌“必須”完成(路加福音2:49,4:43,9:22,13:33,24:7,26,44-47) 。 This is seen both in terms of accomplishment (Luke 1:1, translating peplerophoremenon as "accomplished" or, with NIV, "fulfilled") and in terms of fulfillment of OT prophecy.這被認為是兩方面的成就感(路1:1,翻譯為“完成”或“為證,”完成“),並在履行舊約預言的peplerophoremenon。 "Proof from prophecy" is a significant aspect of Luke's writing. “從預言的證明”盧克的寫作是一個重要的方面。


This aspect of Luke's work has occasioned much discussion.盧克的工作已引起很多這方面的討論。 It was the view of H. Conzelmann that Luke wrote against a background of concern because Jesus had not yet returned.是H. Conzelmann,路加寫了一個值得關注的背景下,因為耶穌還沒有返回。 Luke supposedly met this alleged "delay of the parousia" by reworking Jesus' teachings which the church is to continue.據稱,盧克遇到這種所謂的“延遲圓滿”返工耶穌的教導,教會是繼續。 Without dealing here with Conzelmann's various ideas on this and other topics, we may note that further study has shown that, while Luke sees a period of faithful service prior to the Lord's return (eg, the parable of the nobleman, or the ten minas, Luke 19:11-27), he also retains strong eschatological teachings (eg, 12:35-40) and a sense of imminency (eg, 18:8).不處理這裡Conzelmann的各種想法和其他主題的情況下,我們可能會注意進一步研究表明,,而盧克看到一段真誠的服務之前,主的回報(例如,貴族的比喻,或在10米納斯,路加福音19:11-27),他還保留了強烈的末世論的教義(例如,12:35-40)和意識的迫切性(如18:8)。 It is misguided speculation (cf. Luke 17:20-21) which Luke rejected, not the imminency of the Lord's return.這是誤導性的猜測(參見路加福音17:20-21),盧克拒絕了,不是主的回報率的迫切性。 It is against this background that Luke's unique emphasis on "today" is to be seen.這是在這種背景下,盧克獨特的“今天”是被視為重點。

Israel and the People of God以色列和神的人

The word laos, "people," is used with special meaning in Luke.老撾的字,“人”,是用特殊的意義,在盧克。 In contrast to the crowds (ochloi) and the hostile rulers, the "people" are ready to receive Jesus.相反的的人群(ochloi)和敵對的統治者,“人”已經準備好接受耶穌。 Naturally, in the period of Luke-Acts most of these are Jews.當然,在此期間,盧克 - 使徒行傳,其中大部分是猶太人。 Luke seems to be dealing with the nature of the people of God, the position of the church in relation to the unbelieving Jews.盧克似乎要處理人與自然的神,不信的猶太人教堂的位置。 He emphasizes that thousands of the Jews believed (Acts 21:20), even though he shows Paul as turning to the Gentiles.他強調說,成千上萬的猶太人相信(徒21:20),儘管他表示保羅轉向外邦人的。

The Word of God神的話語

This is a more significant theme in Luke's writings than is generally recognized.這是在盧克的著作比是公認的一個更重要的主題。 Logos occurs in the Gospel prologue (1:2), in 4:22, 32, 36, and notably in the parable of the sower, which stresses obedience to the word of God (8:4-15).標誌發生在福音的序幕(1:2),4:22,32,36,特別是在撒種的比喻,強調服從神的話(8:4-15)。 In Acts the growth of the "word" parallels the growth of the church (Acts 4:31; 6:7; 12:24).在使徒行傳“字”的增長與增長的教會(使徒行傳4:31; 6:7; 12:24)。


Luke contains teachings not in the other Gospels.盧克包含的教誨而不是在其他福音。 In addition to 9:23-26, paralleled in Matthew and Mark, Luke has major sections on discipleship in 9:57-62; 14:25-33.除了9:23-26,並聯在馬修和馬克,路加的主要部分門徒9:57-62; 14:25-33。

Poverty and Wealth貧窮和財富

The Gospel, addressed to a wealthy person, records Jesus' mission to the poor (4:18).的福音,給一個富有的人,對窮人的記錄耶穌的使命(4:18)。 Luke refers to a future reversal of social roles in the Magnificat (1:46-55), the Beatitudes (along with the woes, which only Luke describes; 6:20-26), and the story of the rich man and Lazarus (16:19-31).盧克是指在未來的社會角色,在Magnificat(1:46-55),“八福”的困境,只有路加描述; 6:20-26逆轉,財主和拉撒路的故事( 16:19-31)。 Luke gives direct teaching on possessions (Luke 12:33), has the only comment on the Pharisees' greed (Luke 16:14), and emphasizes the church's generosity in sharing with those in need (Acts 2:44-45; 4:32-37; 11:27-30).盧克提供了直接的教學財產(路12:33),唯一的評論對法利賽人的貪婪(路加福音16:14),並強調​​了教會的慷慨分享有需要的人(使徒行傳2:44-45; 4: 32-37; 11:27-30)。

Recent Study最近的一項研究

The study of Luke's theology has been pursued with great vigor during the past several decades.盧克的神學的研究一直追求在過去的幾十年中的巨大活力。 The creative work of Conzelmann spawned a number of treatises on Luke's theology.盧克的神學上的論文的Conzelmann催生了一批創造性的工作。 At issue have been the purpose for which Luke wrote the Gospel and Acts, the extent and significance of his redaction (editing), and the effect the author's theological tendencies may have had on his historical reliability.目前的問題一直是目的,路加寫的福音和使徒行傳,他的新版本(編輯)的程度和意義,和作者的神學傾向可能有他的歷史可靠性的影響。 According to Conzelmann, Luke's purpose was to set forth his scheme of salvation history.在根據Conzelmann,盧克的目的是救恩歷史來闡述他的計劃。 Marshall sees Luke's work as a witness to salvation itself.馬歇爾認為盧克的工作作為證人的救恩本身。 Others have seen an apologetic motive (eg, defense of Christianity for one or another purpose) or a theological motive (eg, the identity of the people of God).其他已經看到了道歉的動機(例如,國防基督教或其他目的)或的的神學動機(例如,神的子民的身份)。 Evaluation of the extent of Luke's redactional work to serve his purposes depends on one's assessment of several matters.評估的程度盧克的redactional的工作,為他的目的,取決於對一個人的評價的幾個問題。 Is "S" given editorial modification due to theology, style, or sources used? “S”社論修改,由於神學,風格,或源使用嗎? If to sources, were there theological reasons for using a given source and for allowing its theological data to stand unmodified?如果消息人士透露,有神學的原因,使用一個給定的源代碼,並允許其神學站未修改的數據嗎? Must it be assumed, as is often done, that Luke's theological purposes affected his historical objectivity adversely?它必須假定,因為常常這樣做,盧克的神學目的影響了他的歷史的客觀性產生不利嗎? For a defense of Luke's credibility as both a historian and theologian, see Marshall's work below.對於防守盧克的信譽作為一個歷史學家和神學家,看到馬歇爾的工作。 In conclusion, Fitzmyer's caution against interpreting Luke's theology in terms of one's own thesis about Luke is itself a comment on many contributions to this subject.總之,Fitzmyer的告誡盧克的神學解釋自己的論文約路加福音本身就是一個評論對這個問題的許多貢獻。

WL Liefeld WL Liefeld
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
CK Barnett, Luke the Historian in Recent Study; H. Conzelmann, The Theology of St. Luke; NA Dahl, "The Purpose of Luke-Acts," in Jesus in the Memory of the Early Church; EE Ellis, Eschatology in Luke; H. Flender, St. Luke: Theologian of Redemptive History; JA Fitzmyer, The Gospel According to Luke I-IX; E. Franklin, Christ the Lord: A Study in the Purpose and Theology of Luke-Acts; J. Jervell, Luke and the People of God; LT Johnson, The Literary Function of Possessions in Luke-Acts; LE Keck and JL Martyn, eds., Studies in Luke-Acts; IH Marshall, Luke: Historian and Theologian; AJ Mattill, Jr., Luke and the Last Things; JC O'Neill, The Theology of Acts in Its Historical Setting; NB Stonehouse, The Witness of Luke to Christ; CH Talbert, Literary Patterns, Theological Themes and the Genre of Luke-Acts, and (ed.) Perspectives on Luke-Acts; DL Tiede, Prophecy and History in Luke-Acts. CK巴尼特在最近的一項研究,盧克·H. Conzelmann,聖路加的神學,NA達爾,盧克 - 使徒行傳“的宗旨,”早期教會在耶穌的記憶; EE埃利斯,在末世盧克; ·弗蘭德,聖路加福音:救贖歷史神學; JA Fitzmyer,福音根據到路加福音I-IX; E.富蘭克林,主基督:研究的目的和神學的盧克 - 使徒行傳J.耶韋爾,盧克神的子民; LT - 約翰遜,盧克 - 使徒行傳的文學功能的遺物,在LE凱克和JL馬丁,EDS,盧克 - 使徒行傳的研究; IH馬歇爾,盧克歷史學家和神學家,AJ Mattill,小,盧克過去的事情; JC奧尼爾,神學行為在它的歷史背景,NB斯通豪斯,盧克基督的見證,CH塔爾伯特,文學模式,神學主題和體裁的盧克 - 使徒行傳,和(主編)路加福音 - 使徒行傳DL Tiede,路加 - 使徒行傳的預言和歷史觀點。

Also, see:此外,見:
Theology of Matthew 神學的馬修。
Theology of Mark 神學的標誌
Theology of John 神學的約翰。
New Testament Theology 新約聖經神學

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