Theology of Mark神學的標誌

Advanced Information 先進的信息

A growing consensus has emerged in recent years that the sacred evangelists were both historians and theologians.越來越多的共識已經出現在最近幾年,神聖的福音歷史學家和神學家。 They produced accurate histories of the life of Christ and at the same time preached its implications for life in the church.他們製作了準確的歷史基督的生命和,同時宣揚其在教會生活的影響。 Further, each evangelist had a distinctive message, seen in the way he selected and omitted certain scenes and details.此外,每個傳播者的方式,他選擇了和省略某些場景和細節,看到一個獨特的信息。 It is therefore accurate to speak of a "theology of Mark."因此,準確的說是一個“神學的標記。” His major themes will here be traced and an attempt made to delineate the way in which each is seen throughout his Gospel.他的主要主題將在這裡進行跟踪,並試圖描繪的方式,都被認為是整個他的福音。


The book itself declares that it is "the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God."這本書本身宣稱,這是“耶穌基督的福音,神的兒子。” There is a great difference of opinion as to the central emphasis in this regard. ,中央強調在這方面有一個很大的不同看法。 Many have thought that Christ/Messiah is predominant and expresses Mark's portrayal of Jesus as the antitype of the suffering servant of Yahweh.很多人認為基督/彌賽亞是佔主導地位的,並表示馬克antitype的耶穌受苦的僕人,耶和華的寫照。 This is then linked to a royal stress in King of Israel (15:32), ie, in Mark the servant becomes messianic King.這是再聯繫到皇室的壓力在以色列的國王(15:32),即,在馬克的僕人成為救世主國王。 While this is no doubt true, it is not the major stress; in fact, Jesus is seen as demanding that this fact be kept secret.雖然這是毫無疑問的,它是不是巨大的壓力,事實上,耶穌被視為要求,這個事實必須保密。 Here we find the primary critical problem of the Gospel.在這裡,我們找到主的福音的關鍵問題。 Every group with which Jesus is involved is forced to silence: the demons (1:23-25, 34; 3:11-12), those healed (1:40-44; 5:43; 7:36; 8:26), the disciples (8:30; 9:9).每個組都與耶穌所涉及的被迫沉默:惡魔(1:23-25​​,34; 3:11-12),這些癒合(1:40-44; 5:43,7:36,8:26 ),門徒(8:30; 9:9)。 In addition, the leaders are kept from the truth (3:22; 4:10-12; 8:11-12), and Jesus withdraws from the crowds (4:10; 7:17; 9:28) and hides from them (7:24; 9:30).此外,領導人保持的真相(3:22; 4:10-12; 8:11-12),耶穌退出的人群(4:10,7:17,9:28)和生皮(7:24; 9:30)。 Many have thought that Mark created the theme in order to explain why Jesus was never recognized during his life (Wrede) or to oppose the disciples themselves, whom Mark believed were proclaiming a false gospel (Weeden).很多人認為,馬克創造的主題,以解釋為什麼耶穌在他的生活(Wrede)從來不承認或反對自己的弟子,馬克認為宣布一個假福音(維登)。 However, neither explanation is necessary.然而,無論是說明是必要的。 The crowds were not allowed to hear such teaching because they considered Jesus to be only a "wonder worker," and the disciples could not proclaim it due to their own misunderstanding regarding the meaning of his office, ie, they interpreted it in light of the Jewish expectation of a conquering king rather than a suffering servant.眾人都沒有聽到這樣的教學,因為他們認為耶穌是唯一的一個“奇蹟工人”,和徒弟不能因自己的誤解,關於他的辦公室的意義,即宣布它,他們的解釋,在光的猶太人的期望征服的國王,而不是一個受苦的僕人。 The demons were silenced as part of the "binding of Satan" theme (cf. 3:27 and further below), and the leaders were kept from understanding as sign of God's rejection of them.惡魔被壓制的“具有約束力的撒旦”的主題(參見3:27下文)的一部分,領導人保持理解,上帝的拒絕,他們的標誌。 On the whole, Mark stresses that Jesus' messiaship is essentially incognito, hidden from all except those with spiritual insight.從總體上看,馬克,強調,耶穌的messiaship是基本上隱姓埋名,隱藏所有除了那些精神洞察力。 In short, while Jesus is indeed a wonder worker, Mark wishes to clarify the implications carefully.總之,耶穌的確是一個奇蹟工作者,馬克希望認真澄清的影響。

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In this regard we must note "Son of God," the title which begins the Gospel (1:1) and occurs at the climax in the centurion's cry (15:39).在這方面,我們必須注意“神的兒子”的稱號開始的福音(1:1),發生在高潮,在百夫長的哭(15:39)。 The stress on sonship occurs at the baptism (1:11) and transfiguration (9:7) and is a key element in Jesus' control over the demonic realm (3:11).上的壓力,兒子的名分發生的洗禮(1:11),變身(9:7)和惡魔般的境界(3:11)耶穌的控制權是一個關鍵因素。 Further, Jesus is seen as omniscient (2:8; 5:32, 39; 6:48; 8:17; 9:4, 33; 11:2, 14; 12:9; 13:12) and omnipotent over demons, illness, death, and the natural elements.此外,耶穌被視為無所不知的(2:8; 5:32,39; 6:48; 8:17; 9:4,33; 11:2,14; 12:9; 13:12),萬能的惡魔,疾病,死亡,與自然元素。 Yet at the same time Mark stressed his humanity: his compassion (1:41; 6:34; 8:2), indignation (3:5; 9:19; 10:14), and his distress and sorrow (14:33-36).然而,在相同的時間標記強調他的人性:他的同情心(1:41; 6:34; 8:2),憤怒(3:5; 9:19; 10:14),他的​​痛苦和悲傷(14:33 -36)。 Jesus "sighs" (7:34; 8:12) and shows anger (1:43; 3:5); he becomes weary (4:38) and admits limitations regarding miracles (6:5-6) and knowledge (13:32).耶穌“的感嘆”(7:34; 8:12),並顯示憤怒(1:43; 3:5);他變得厭倦(4:38),並承認限制奇蹟(6:5-6)和知識(13 :32)。 The balance between these is important and demonstrates that Mark is probably trying to present a balanced picture in order to correct an overly enthusiastic stress on the supernatural aspects.之間的平衡,這是很重要的,並表明,標記,以糾正過分熱情的超自然方面的壓力可能是試圖提出一個平衡的畫面。

Mark's favorite designation is "Son of man," a term which undoubtedly was Jesus' own self-designation but which also went beyond to picture the heavenly figure of Dan.馬克的最喜歡的名稱是“人子”一詞,這無疑是耶穌自己的自我定位,但也超出了想像天上的圖丹。 7:13. 7:13。 In Mark it speaks of his humanity (2:10, 27-28); his betrayal, suffering, and death (the passion predictions of 9:12; 14:21, 41); and his exaltation and future reign (13:26).在馬克說他的人性(2:10,27-28);他的背叛,痛苦和死亡(的熱情預測,9:12,14:21,41);和他的提升和未來的統治(13:26 )。 It is obvious that here we have the correction of misunderstandings regarding his purpose and personhood, especially since it occurs primarily in the second half of the Gospel, where Jesus begins to correct the disciples' views.很明顯,在這裡,我們有改正的關於他的目的和人格的誤解,特別是因為它主要發生在下半年的福音,耶穌開始糾正弟子的意見。 It seems definite that Mark wishes to combine a theologia crucis with a theologia gloria.這似乎是明確的,馬克希望結合神學crucis的一個神學凱萊。 Therefore the so-called messianic secret centers upon the fact that the cross is the path to glory and that Jesus' live exaltation can be understood only by comprehending the significance of his suffering.因此,所謂的救世主的秘密中心的事實,十字架是通向光榮的道路和耶穌的生活提高後的意義,只有通過理解他的痛苦是可以理解的。

The final aspect of Mark's emphases is Jesus as teacher.最後一個方面的馬克的重點是耶穌為老師。 In the past this designation was usually attributed only to Matthew, but recently it has been more and more recognized that Mark gives Jesus' teaching office prime place in his work.在過去的指定,通常只歸咎於馬修,但最近,它已被越來越多的承認,馬克給了耶穌的教導他的工作主要在辦公室。 The one who performs such great and mighty deeds is demonstrated as the one who teaches; in fact, the first is subordinate to the second, for it is in his activity as teacher (4:38; 5:35; 9:17, 38; 10:51; 11:21) that both the disciples and the opponents are confronted with the reality of the Christ event.執行這樣的偉大和強大的事蹟被證明是誰教;事實上,第一是從屬於第二,它是作為老師在他的活動(4:38,5:35,9:17,38 10:51,11:21),無論是弟子和對手都面臨著現實的基督事件。 It is in his teaching that true authority is manifest (1:22), and therefore this may well be the major stress.正是在他的教導,真正的權力是明顯的(1:22),因此,這很可能是主要的壓力。

Cosmic Conflict宇宙的衝突

In Mark, Christ is presented as the one who "binds" Satan (3:27).在馬可福音中,基督是作為一個“綁定”撒旦(3:27)。 Where Matthew centers upon healing miracles, Mark stresses exorcism.凡馬修中心後,癒合的奇蹟,,馬克強調驅魔。 This is nowhere seen better than by comparing Mark and Matthew with respect to the healing of the demon-possessed/ epileptic child.這是行不通見過比,馬克和馬修與對於的惡魔附身/癲癇兒童的癒合比較好。 Matthew mentions the demon only at the point of the miracle (17:14-18), while Mark relates an amazingly detailed narrative with four separate descriptions of the effects of the possession (9:18, 20, 22, 26).馬太提到的惡魔,只有在該點的奇蹟(17:14-18),而馬克的影響,藏有4個獨立的描述(9:18,20,22,26)涉及一個令人驚訝的詳細敘述。 Jesus is pictured as one who violently assaults sin and the cosmic forces of evil.耶穌被描繪成一個誰猛烈攻擊罪和宇宙的邪惡勢力。 Moreover, he passes on this eschatological ministry to the disciples, who participate with him in his victory (3:15; 6:7, 13; for the problem of 9:18 see below).此外,他通過在此末世部的弟子,參加與他在他的勝利(3:15; 6:7,13; 9:18的問題,請參閱下文)。 Implicit in 3:27 also is the idea of "plundering" Satan's realm.隱在3:27的想法是“掠奪”撒旦的境界。 This is certainly the thrust of the exorcism miracles (1:23-26; 3:11-12; 5:6-13; 9:14-27).這是肯定的主旨驅魔奇蹟(1:23-26; 3:11-12; 5:6-13; 9:14-27)。 When the demons utter Jesus' name, they are not unwittingly acting as his "PR" agents, but rather are trying to gain control of him.當的惡魔徹底耶穌“的名字,他們在不知不覺中充當他的”PR“代理,而是試圖獲得他的控制。 In the ancient world (as in many tribal areas today) one would gain power over a spirit-creature by learning his "hidden name."在古代世界(在許多部落地區今天)將獲得的精神力量在生物學習他的“隱藏的名稱。” When Jesus forced silence upon them (1:25, 34; 3:12) or made them reveal their own names (5:9) this signified his mastery over the satanic forces.當耶穌在他們身上(1:25,34; 3:12)或被迫沉默,讓他們透露自己的名字(5:9),這標誌著他的掌握在邪惡的勢力。 The authority and other blessings given Jesus' followers are the spoil from that victory.部門和其他祝福耶穌的追隨者的破壞,勝利。


Many have stated that Mark is primarily a proponent of a futuristic eschatology, perhaps even calling the church to the imminent parousia in Galilee (Marxsen).許多人表示,主要標誌是一個未來的末世論的支持者,甚至是呼籲教會即將圓滿加利利(Marxsen)。 Yet the Markan emphasis goes beyond this.然而,馬可重點不止於此。 According to 1:15, the kingdom has already come, and the time of fulfillment is here.到1:15,王國已經來了,和履行的時間是在這裡。 Jesus' deeds and words demonstrate the presence of the kingdom within history, and Jesus will continue to mediate this end-time power until the final consummation of the divine plan (8:38; 13:24-27; 14:62).耶穌的言行證明了存在的國度在歷史中,耶穌將繼續調解結束時間,直至最後圓滿的神的計劃(8:38; 13:24-27; 14:62)電源。 Therefore the disciple exists in present hope, and Mark's eschatology is "inaugurated" rather than final, ie, it recognizes the "beginning" of the "end" and the fact that the believer lives in a state of tension between the two.因此,存在的弟子,在目前的希望,和馬克的末世論“,而不是最終決定,即”揭牌,它確認了“開始”和“結束”,信徒住在兩者之間的緊張狀態。

At the same time we must acknowledge the stress on the future parousia in Mark.同時,我們必須承認的壓力,對未來圓滿的標誌。 The three passages mentioned above (8:33; 13:26; 14:62) show that the suffering of Christ could be understood properly only in light of his coming glory at both the resurrection/exaltation and parousia.上面提到的三個段落中顯示(8:33,13:26,14:62),可以正確理解基督的苦難,只有在他的榮耀的復活/提升和圓滿。 One event that illustrates the connection between the resurrection and the eschaton is the transfiguration (9:2-8); when one realizes that it is surrounded by passages on suffering, the point made here becomes clear.一個事件,說明之間復活和eschaton的連接是變身(9:2-8),當人們意識到它的四周通道上的痛苦,一點變得清晰起來。 the same is true of the Olivet discourse (ch. 13), which demonstrates once more that suffering and persecution lead to glory.同樣是真正的司科特話語(章13),這再一次表明,通向光榮的痛苦和迫害。 Yet even here we are not free of the strong realized stress, for it is seen in the great accent on watchfulness (13:5, 9, 23, 33, 35, 37) which permeates the chapter.然而,即使在這裡,我們是不自由的實現的強大壓力,因為它被認為是偉大的口音警覺(13:5,9,23,33,35,37),瀰漫在本章。 The true disciple will be characterized by an expectant alertness in light of the imminent inbreaking of the final kingdom.的特點將是最後的王國即將插入中繼期待的警覺性,真正的門徒。

The Miracles and Soteriology奇蹟和救恩

One cannot ignore the centrality of the miracle stories, for they form one fifth of the Gospel and 47 percent of the first ten chapters.一個不能忽視的奇蹟故事的中心,因為他們的五分之一的福音和47%的前十章。 The basic word, as in all the Synoptics, is "power" (dynamis), which points to the power of God operative in his Son.基本單詞,在對觀福音,是“權力”(潛能),其中指出,神術的力量,在他的兒子。 Mark, however, is careful to stress that the miracles do not form apologetic proof that Jesus is the Christ.馬克,然而,謹慎地強調,奇蹟沒有形成道歉的證明耶穌是基督。 The central theme in Mark is that they can be known only by faith; they cannot produce faith.在馬克的中心主題是,他們可以被稱為只有信仰,他們不能產生信仰。 The disciples misunderstand them (4:40; 6:52; 8:17-18), and their effect is diminished by the apparent humanity of Jesus himself (6:1-3; cf. 3:19-21).門徒誤解(4:40; 6:52; 8:17-18),並減少了他們的作用是明顯的人類的耶穌自己(6:1-3;比照3:19-21)。 With the presence of many miracle workers, many of them false prophets (13:22), the common people could draw only erroneous conclusions.存在的許多奇蹟的工人,他們中的許多假先知(13:22),普通百姓可以借鑒,只有錯誤的結論。 Therefore, they needed his teaching and his person to understand properly (1:37-38; 2:5; 4:40; 5:34).因此,他們需要他的教導和正確理解他的人(1:37-38; 2:5; 4:40; 5:34)。 Mark was stressing the hiddenness of God in Jesus and wished to demonstrate that even his miracles were only glimmers of the true reality and as such comprehensible only by faith.馬克強調在耶穌和神的hiddenness的,希望證明,即使是他創造奇蹟的只有微弱的真正的現實,只有通過信仰這樣理解的。 Further, they are symbols of God's forgiveness; as the miracle is performed, the spiritual need is met (4:35-41; 6:45-52; 7:31-37; 8:22-26).此外,他們象徵上帝的寬恕的奇蹟,精神的需要得到滿足(4:35-41; 6:45-52; 7:31-37; 8:22-26)。

The connection of the miracles with faith and forgiveness leads to the further point: when faith is present, the miracles point to the salvific power of God in Christ.有信心和寬恕的奇蹟連接導致進一步指出:當信仰存在,奇蹟神在基督的救贖。 By actualizing the power and authority of God in the situation, they make the reader cognizant of the radical demands of God.他們現狀的權力和權威的神的情況下,使讀者認識到神的激進的要求。 It has often been said that Mark has no true soteriology.人們常常說,,馬克沒有真正的救世。 Yet that is to deny the implication of such key passages as 10:45, which presents Christ as the one who gave his life "as a ransom for many."然而,這是否定的含義等關鍵通道,10時45分,以基督作為一個誰給他的生活“為大眾作贖價。” Mark seeks to drive men to decision, which he accomplishes by setting two scenes in contrast, thereby highlighting the issues and demanding encounter with God (eg, 3:7-12, where the demons acknowledge him, and 3:20-35, where Jesus is called Beelzebub; or 11:12-21, which shows that the cleansing of the temple prefigured the "curse" of God upon Israel).馬克旨在推動人的決定,他完成兩個場景對比,從而突出的問題和要求的遭遇與神(例如,3:7-12,在那裡的惡魔承認他,並3:20-35,耶穌被稱為魔王; 11:12-21,這表明潔淨聖殿預示了“禍根”上帝對以色列)。 Mark constantly shows men, common people, leaders, and disciples, in the conflict of decision.馬克不斷的人,普通的人,領導者和弟子,在衝突中的決策。


The final emphasis in Mark, and in some ways the major emphasis along with Christology, is the discipleship motif.最後強調的標記,而且在某些方面主要強調隨著基督的門徒,是主題。 Again there is certainly controversy here, as some have argued that Mark has a negative thrust intended to show the error of the disciples (Weeden).同樣有一定的爭議在這裡,有些人認為,馬克有一個負推力打算顯示錯誤的門徒(維登)。 However, this is hardly true of the Gospel as a whole.然而,這是作為一個整體的福音絕非如此。 Mark does wish to stress the radical nature of the call and the difficulties of achieving the goal.馬克想強調的激進性質的調用和實現目標的困難。 However, the reader is expected to identify with the disciples in this dilemma, and it indeed forms the heart of the Gospel.然而,讀者將確定的弟子在這兩難的境地,它確實形成了心臟的福音。

At the beginning of Mark's Gospel, Jesus fulfills his own message of repentance (1:15) by calling the disciples to be "fishers of men" (cf. Matt. 4:18-22 and Luke 5:1-11, where it comes much later).耶穌在馬可福音開始,履行自己的懺悔(1:15)消息通過調用弟子要“得人如得魚一樣”(太4:18-22和路加福音5:1-11,來晚得多)。 Then after the conflict narratives (2:1-3:6) Jesus cements his "withdrawal" (3:7) by turning to the disciples and commissioning them (3:13-19), in a scene filled with election terminology and centering upon their authority and responsibility. (2:1-3:6),然後在衝突結束後敘述耶穌鞏固了他的“撤軍”(3:7)轉向門徒,委託他們(3:13-19),在一個場景中充滿與選舉有關的術語和定心在他們的權力和責任。 Finally, the first segment of the Gospel concludes with a missions scene in which Jesus "sends" his disciples, again with authority and in complete dependence upon God (6:7-13).最後的福音,第一段的最後一個任務場景中,耶穌“發送”他的弟子,又具有權威性和完全依靠神(6:7-13)。 From here, however, the relationship seems to deteriorate, and the central section of Mark (6:7-8:30) has two themes, the withdrawal of Jesus from the crowds combined with his time with the twelve, and the failure of the disciples to comprehend his teaching.然而,在這裡,關係似乎惡化,和馬克(6:7-8:30)的中央部分有兩個主題,結合自己的時間與12個從人群撤出耶穌,和失敗的弟子理解他的教學。 They are amazingly obtuse with respect to all aspects of his teaching and are both uncomprehending (6:52; 7:18; 8:17-18) and even "hardened" (6:52; 8:17), a startling term in light of its theological connotations and its presence after the two feeding miracles.他們是令人驚訝的遲鈍,他的教學的各個方面,都理解的(6:52; 7:18; 8:17-18),甚至“硬化”(6:52; 8:17),一個令人吃驚的任期其神學內涵和及其後兩個供給奇蹟的存在。

However, once more this failure is not the final point, although it is certainly stressed at the very end, especially if Mark ends at 16:8.然而,一旦這種失敗不是最後一點,雖然它肯定是在最後強調,特別是如果馬克在16點08分結束。 Yet in the last section of the Gospel before the passion (8:31-10:52), the solution is seen in the presence of Jesus the teacher, who patiently and lovingly instructs them.然而,在最後一節的福音的激情(8:31-10:52)前,該解決方案被認為是耶穌的老師,耐心和精心指導他們的存在。 Note that in 8:31 Jesus "began to teach" them, an act clearly linked to their failure to understand (8:32-33), which is countered by his instruction (8:34-38).請注意,在8:31耶穌“開始教”的行為,顯然與他們不明白(8:32-33),這是反駁他的指令(8:34-38)。 This in itself follows the important healing of the blind man (8:22-26), a two-stage miracle which may have been intended to prefigure a two-stage overcoming of the disciples' blindness (cf. 8:17-21) via first Peter's confession (partial sight, as seen in 8:31-33) and then by the transfiguration, which solidified the revelation of God to the disciples.這本身就遵循的重要癒合的盲人男子(8:22-26),分兩個階段奇蹟,這可能預示著一個兩階段克服的門徒的盲目性(參見8:17-21)通過第一彼得的懺悔(部分視線,看到8:31-33),然後變身,鞏固了神的啟示來的弟子。 The passion predictions are followed by very serious failures on their part, and at the healing of the demonpossessed child this comes to a crisis when the disciples are unable to perform that which previously had been a significant sign of their authority (cf. 9:18 with 6:13).激情預測,其次是非常嚴重的故障,對他們的一部分,並癒合的demonpossessed的孩子,這涉及到危機時的弟子無法執行,這在以前是一個重要的標誌,他們的權力(參見9:18 6:13)。 The solution is seen in awakened faith (9:24) and its response, prayer (9:29).的解決方案是在喚醒信仰(9:24)和響應,祈禱(9:29)。 Steps of this growing awakening are seen in the passion narrative, and there the core of the problem becomes even more evident: discipleship is a call to the cross, and it cannot be understood until the cross.這一日益嚴重的覺醒步驟的激情敘述,最核心的問題變得更加明顯:門徒在十字架上,是一個調用,它不能被理解,直到在十字架上。 The triumphal entry is an incognito message regarding Jesus' true mission, and it is followed by the judgment on the temple (ch. 11).凱旋進入耶穌的真正使命,是一個隱姓埋名的消息,它後面的廟宇(CH. 11)的判斷。 In three major scenes Jesus begins to lift further the veil, and the disciples are called to understanding, the anointing at Bethany (14:3-9), the eucharistic words at the Last Supper (14:22-25), and Gethsemane (14: 32ff.).在三個主要場景耶穌開始進一步解除的面紗,門徒被稱為理解,在伯大尼(14:3-9),聖體聖事的話,最後的晚餐(14:22-25),和客西馬尼園的恩膏( 14:32FF)。 Finally, at the resurrection failure is still seen (16:8, with most scholars realizing that the women are to be identified with the disciples), but it is obviated by the promise of Jesus' presence (16:7).最後,在復活失敗仍然被(16:8,多數學者意識到,婦女是被發現的弟子),但耶穌的存在(16:7)的承諾,避免。 As the reader identifies first with the problem of discipleship and then with Jesus (the solution), victory becomes an act of faith.由於閱讀器識別第一個問題的門徒,然後與耶穌(解決方案),勝利成為一種信仰。

GR Osborne GR奧斯本
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
P. Achtemeier, Mark and "'He Taught Them Many Things': Reflections on Marcan Christology," CBQ 42:465-81; GR Beasley-Murray, "Eschatology in the Gospel of Mark," SwJT 21:37-53, and "The Parousia in Mark," SwJT 21:565-81; E. Best,"The Miracles in Mark," RE 75:539-54, and Following Jesus: Discipleship in the Gospel of Mark; JL Blevins, "The Christology of Mark," RE 75:505-17; WD Carroll, "The Jesus of Mark's Gospel," BT 103:2105-12; RT France, "Mark and the Teaching of Jesus," in Gospel Perspectives, I, ed. P.阿克提美亞,馬克和“他教訓他們許多事:Marcan的基督論思考”,CBQ 42:465-81 GR的比斯利 - 穆雷,“末世福音的標誌,”SwJT 21:37-53, “在標記再來”,21:565-81; E. SwJT最好的,“奇蹟的標記,”RE 75:539-54,並跟隨耶穌的門徒在馬可福音的JL Blevins,“基督論標記“RE 75:505-17,WD卡羅爾,”馬克福音的耶穌,“BT的103:2105-12; RT法國,”馬克和基督的教導,“在福音的角度,我,編輯。 RT France and D. Wenham; JJ Kilgallen, "The Messianic Secret and Mark's Purpose," BTB 7:62-65; R. Martin, Mark: Evangelist and Theologian; W. Marxsen, Mark the Evangelist; RP Meye, Jesus and the Twelve; NP Petersen, ed., Perspectives on Mark's Gospel; PS Pudussery, "The Meaning of Discipleship in the Gospel of Mark," Jeev 10:93-110; Q. Quesnell, The Mind of Mark; D. Rhoads and D. Michie, Mark as Story; J. Rohde, Rediscovering the Teaching of the Evangelists; D. Senior, "The Gospel of Mark," BT 103:2094-2104; RC Tannehill, "The Disciples in Mark: The Function of a Narrative Role," JR 57:386-405; TJ Weeden, Mark, Traditions in Conflict; W. Wrede, The Messianic Secret. RT法國和D. Wenham的JJ基爾加倫,“彌賽亞秘密和馬克的目的,”BTB 7:62-65; R.馬丁,馬克福音傳教士和神學家“W. Marxsen,馬克的福音,RP Meye,耶穌和十二,NP彼得森,編輯,觀點馬克的福音; PS Pudussery,在馬可福音“的含義門徒,”,米哈辛10:93-110 Q. Quesnell,馬克的心; D.羅茲和D.米基,標記為故事J.羅德,重新發現的福音教學; D.高級,“馬可福音”,BT 103:2094-2104; RC坦尼希爾,“馬克的弟子,在敘事的角色功能“JR 57:386-405 TJ維登,馬克,傳統的衝突,W. Wrede,彌賽亞的秘密。

Also, see:此外,見:
Theology of Matthew 神學的馬修。
Theology of Luke 神學路加福音
Theology of John 神學的約翰。
New Testament Theology 新約聖經神學

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