Theology of Matthew神學的馬修。

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In the literature of the church that remains from the first three centuries the Gospel most often referred to is Matthew's.從最初的三個世紀的教會仍然在文獻中最經常被提及的福音是馬修。 Its place in the order of the canon as the first Gospel probably reflects the church's estimation of its priority theologically rather than chronologically.在佳能的第一福音的順序,可能反映其優先神學,而不是按時間順序教會的估計。

In order to understand the theology of Matthew's Gospel it is helpful to begin at the ending.為了了解神學的馬太福音,它是開始的結局。 Its climatic conclusion, the Great Commission (28:16-20), has been called the key to the Gospel's theology.它的氣候總之,大使命(28:16-20),被稱為福音的神學。 Several important themes are brought together in these verses.幾個重要的主題都聚集在這幾節經文。

First is the focus on the resurrected Christ.首先是專注於基督的復活。 Each of the Gospel writers portrays a facet of Jesus' life and ministry.各福音書的作者描繪了耶穌的生活和事奉的一個方面。 Prominent in Matthew's Gospel is the picture of Jesus as the Christ, the messianic Son of God who was also the suffering servant.在馬太福音突出的是耶穌是基督,是彌賽亞神的兒子也是受苦的僕人的圖片。

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At this baptism Jesus told John that his ministry was "to fulfill all righteousness" (3:15).在這個洗禮的約翰,耶穌告訴他的事奉是“盡諸般的義”(3:15)。 Righteousness in Matthew is a term meaning covenant faithfulness, obedience to God.在馬太福音義是一個術語,意思是盟約的忠誠,對神的順服。 An angel told Joseph that Jesus "will save his people from their sins" (1:21).天使告訴約瑟,耶穌“要將自己的百姓從他們的罪孽”(1:21)。 Later Jesus told his disciples that he had come "to give his life as a ransom for many" (20:28).後來,耶穌告訴他的門徒說,他來了“,讓他的生命,為大眾作贖價”(20:28)。 The prayer of this righteous Son in Gethsemane, "not my will but yours be done" (26:39), was fulfilled on the cross and affirmed by the Roman soldier's confession, "Surely he was the Son of God" (27:54).在客西馬尼園的禱告這個義子,“不是我的意願,惟照你的意思”(26:39),在十字架上,應驗了肯定的羅馬士兵的供述,“當然,他是神的兒子”(27:54 )。 Christ had fulfilled all righteousness.基督已完成諸般的義。 He had been perfectly obedient to the Father's will.他已經完全服從父的旨意。 It was this resurrected Christ, possessing the regal authority of God (13:37-42; 26:64), who appeared to the disciples to commission them.這是復活的基督,擁有帝王權威的神(13:37-42; 26:64),委託他們的門徒顯現。

Another aspect of Matthean Christology is the affirmation of Christ's spiritual presence with the disciples. Matthean基督的另一個方面是基督的精神與弟子的存在的肯定。 Jesus assured the disciples, "I will be with you" (28:20).耶穌向門徒說:“我將與你同在”(28:20)。 The first of a series of OT texts cited by Matthew is Isaiah's prophecy of Immanuel (Isa. 7:14).第一的一系列馬太引用舊約經文是以賽亞書的預言以馬內利(以賽亞書7:14)。 Its significance is made clear in the phrase "God with us" (1:23; Isa. 8:10).它的意義在於明確一語中的:“上帝與我們同在”(1:23;以賽亞書8:10)。 Christ's presence continues.基督的存在繼續。 Jesus' promise to the disciples, "Where two or three come together in my name, there am I with them" (18:20), was additional confirmation of his presence.耶穌的應許門徒,“當有兩個或三個走到一起,我的名字,我與他們同在”(18:20),進一步確認他的存在。 Matthew wanted his readers to know that the regal ascended Christ was also spiritually present with his disciples (cf. Eph. 1:22-23).馬修希望他的讀者知道,富豪躋身基督是精神上與他的門徒(參弗1:22-23)。

This relates also to the Gospel's ecclesiology, the doctrine of the church.這還涉及到福音的教會學,教義的教會。 Alone among the Gospels Matthew used the word "church" (Gr. ekklesia, 16:18; 18:17).獨自一人的福音馬修用了“教會”(希臘文ekklesia,16:18,18:17)。 Not without reason has this been called "a pastoral Gospel."並非沒有道理,這被稱為“一個牧師的福音。” Matthew saw that much of what Jesus had taught the disciples was applicable to the church of his own day.馬修看到那麼多的耶穌教過的弟子適用於他自己的一天的教會。 Of great importance in this regard was the commission to make disciples of all nations (28:19).在這方面是非常重要的委員會,以讓民作主的門徒(28:19)。

Jesus preached the good news (4:23) to Jews (Galilee and Judea, 4:25) and Gentiles (Decapolis, 4:25).耶穌所宣揚的好消息(4:23)到猶太人(加利利和猶太4:25)和外邦人(德卡波利斯,4:25)。 His disciples and the church which they founded (16:18) were to do the same.他的門徒和教會他們成立(16:18)做同樣的。 John's Gospel records Jesus' self-confession, "I am the light of the world" (John 8:12).約翰福音記載耶穌的自我表白,“我是世界的光”(約翰福音8:12)。 Matthew, on the other hand, underscored the disciples' missionary responsibility by recording Jesus' statement, "You are the light of the world" (5:14).另一方面,馬太,強調門徒的傳教責任記錄耶穌的話,“你們是世上的光”(5:14)。

The disciples, and the church, were to continue the ministry of Christ.門徒,教會,繼續基督的事工。

They were to make disciples of all nations.他們要作我的門徒所有國家。 Israel, indeed, had been temporarily displaced as God's chosen instrument of ministry (21:43).事實上,以色列,已被暫時流離失所的神所揀選的器皿部(21:43)。 But this displacement was not permanent (19:28; 23:39).但這種位移是不是永久性的(19:28,23:39)。 However hard of heart most Jews might be to the gospel, the mission to Israel was to continue alongside the mission to the Gentiles until Christ returned at the end of the age (10:23; 28:20; cf. Rom. 11:11-12, 25-26).然而最硬的心猶太人可能是福音,對以色列的使命是一起繼續向外邦人的使命,直到基督返回結束時的年齡(10:23; 28:20;比照光盤。11:11 -12日,25日至26日)。

Making disciples involved more than preaching the gospel, however.讓弟子參與傳福音的多,但是。 Matthew recorded Jesus' commission to make disciples by "teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you" (28:20).馬太記錄耶穌的佣金,使門徒“教訓他們遵守我所吩咐你們的一切”(28:20)。 A disciple was to be righteous, to be obedient to God.一個弟子是公義的,要順服神。

The model for the disciple was Jesus, the perfect Son who fulfilled all righteousness by rendering complete obedience to the Father's will (4:4, 10).該模型是耶穌的弟子,完美的兒子履行所有正義提供完整的服從父的旨意(4:4,10)。 That same righteousness was to characterize the disciple (5:20).這義是表徵的門徒(5:​​20)。 Obedience to God was to be a priority in the disciple's life (6:33).順服上帝是一個優先事項,在門徒的生命(6:33)。 Complete devotion to the Father was the goal (5:48).完全奉獻給父(5:48)的目標。

The will of the Father was made known in the teaching of Jesus.在耶穌的教導天父的旨意。 Matthew devoted a considerable portion of his Gospel to the record of Jesus' teaching.馬太福音傾注了相當一部分他的福音書,耶穌的教導的記錄。 In addition to five distinct units (5-7, 10, 13, 18, 23-25), Jesus' instruction is repeatedly featured in the Gospel elsewhere (eg, 9:12-17).除了5個不同的單元(5-7,10,13,18,23日至25日),耶穌的指示,反复特色的福音其他地方(例如,9:12-17)。

But Matthew was under no illusion that knowledge alone would lead to righteousness.馬修是不抱任何幻想,知識本身會導致公義。 Teaching was essential, but it had to be met with faith.教學是必要的,但必須得到滿足與信仰。 Despite their scrupulous observance of the law, Jesus had excoriated the Pharisees for lack of faith (23:23).儘管他們一絲不苟地遵守法律,耶穌曾痛斥法利賽人缺乏信心(23:23)。 The righteousness recognized by God was first of all inward and spiritual (6:4, 6, 18; cf. Rom. 2:28-29).認可的神是公義的所有入口和精神(6:4,6,18,參羅2:28-29)。 Those who believed in Jesus had their lives transformed (8:10; 9:2, 22, 29).誰相信耶穌了自己的生命轉化(8:10; 9:2,22,29)。 Not so much the greatness but the presence of faith was important (17:20).與其說是偉大的,但存在的信仰是重要的(17:20)。

Where faith existed, however, it might be weak and wavering.信仰存在的地方,但是,它可能是軟弱和搖擺不定。 Matthew reminded his readers that even in the presence of the resurrected Christ, some of the disciples doubted (28:17).馬修提醒他的讀者,即使在復活的基督的存在,一些懷疑的弟子(28:17)。 Frequently Jesus addressed the disciples as ones of "little faith" (6:30; 8:26; 16:8).常見耶穌在門徒的“小信”(6:30; 8:26; 16:8)。 This was exemplified in Peter's experience.這方面的事例在彼得的經驗。 He boldly responded to Jesus' call to come to him on the water but then wavered in his faith because of the fearful circumstances (14:30).他大膽地回應耶穌“調​​用來他在水面上,然後在他的信仰動搖,因為可怕的情況下(14:30)。 Without the intervention of Jesus he might have perished.如果沒有耶穌的干預,他可能已經滅絕了。

Matthew likely saw an application in this for his readers.馬修可能看到他的讀者在本作中的應用。 Jesus had warned his disciples of the persecution facing those who proclaimed the gospel (5:11-12; 10:24-25).耶穌曾警告他的弟子的迫害,面對這些宣布的福音(5:11-12; 10:24-25)。 They would be opposed by Jew and Gentile (10:17-18).他們將反對猶太人和外邦人(10:17-18)。 The natural response in the face of such opposition was fear (10:26-31).面對這種反對的自然反應是恐懼(10:26-31)。 Self-preservation led to denial of Christ (10:32-33).自我保護否認基督(10:32-33)。 This was what Peter had done at Jesus' trial (26:69-74).這是彼得在耶穌的審判(26:69-74)。

Jesus responded to Peter's failure on the sea by rescuing him.耶穌回答彼得在海面上的失敗搶救他。 In the same way, failures of faith among the disciples and the sin that resulted should be met not with condemnation but with forgiveness and restoration (18:10-14).以同樣的方式,信仰的弟子的罪,導致故障應遭到譴責,但與寬恕和恢復(18:10-14)。

The designation "little ones" in 18:6, 10, 14 may refer to disciples like Peter whose faith was weak in the midst of difficult circumstances.指定的“小傢伙”在18點06分,10個,14個可參考的弟子們像彼得的信心是​​在困難的情況下,中間弱。 In 10:41-42 Matthew recorded Jesus' description of prophets and righteous men as "little ones." 10:41-42,馬太福音記載耶穌的描述先知和義人“小的。” The next verses relate the imprisonment of John the Baptist and his question about Jesus as Messiah (11:2-3).接下來的經文涉及的監禁施洗約翰和他的問題有關耶穌是彌賽亞(11:2-3)。 Jesus met John's doubts with assuring words (11:4-6) and went on to commend him (11:7-19).耶穌遇見約翰的疑慮,以保證字(11:4-6),並讚揚了他(11:7-19)。 That was the model for ministry to those in need (cf. 10:42; 25:34-40) and the spirit in which the Great Commission could be carried out.這是部模型為那些有需要的(參10:42; 25:34-40)和大使命的精神,可以進行。

This mission was to continue until the "end of the age" (28:20).這項任務是繼續,直到“直到世界的末了”(28:20)。 When the gospel had been preached to all nations, then the end would come (24:14) and Christ would reign as king (25:31-34).當福音傳給萬民,那麼最終會來(24:14),基督將要登基為王(25:31-34)。 Reference to a kingdom recurs throughout the Gospel.參考整個福音的國度再次出現。 The beginning verses link Jesus to David the king (1:1, 6).開始的詩句鏈接耶穌,大衛王(1:1,6)。 Unlike the other Gospels, Matthew uses the phrase "kingdom of heaven" far more frequently (thirty-three times) than the phrase "kingdom of God" (four times).與其他福音書不同的是,馬修使用短語“王國天堂”更加頻繁(33次)比短語“神的國”(4次)。 The expressions are probably equivalent with a possible difference in emphasis only.大概相當於只強調一個可能的差異表達。 The "kingdom of heaven" may stress the spiritual nature of the kingdom. “天國”,強調王國的精神本質。

The term "kingdom" seems to have a spiritual and a physical aspect to its meaning.長期的“王國”,似乎有一種精神和物理方面的意義。 The spiritual aspect was present in the ministry of Jesus (12:28) but the physical consummation is anticipated at his return (19:28).精神方面,是目前在該部的耶穌(12:28),但的的物理完善,預計在他的回歸(19:28)。 The kingdom of heaven about which Jesus preached was entered by repentance (4:17).關於耶穌講道進入天國悔改(4:17)。 Forgiveness was based ultimately on Christ's death (26:28).最終寬恕是基於基督的死(26:28)。

Opposed to the kingdom of heaven is the kingdom of Satan (4:8-9; 12:26), from whom those with faith in Christ are delivered (12:27-28).反對的天國是撒旦的國度(4:8-9; 12:26),從他那些在基督裡的信心傳遞(12:27-28)。 While Satan is powerless before the Spirit of God (12:28), nonetheless he will actively hinder and counterfeit the work of God until the consummation (13:38-39).當撒但是無能為力的上帝的靈前(12:28),然而他將積極阻礙和假冒神的工作,直到圓滿(13:38-39)。

The ministry of the kingdom carried on by Christ is continued by the church (16:18).由教會的事工繼續進行基督的國度(16:18)。 The Spirit who enabled Christ to carry out his work (12:28) will enable the disciples to continue it (10:20).聖靈使基督開展他的工作(12:28)將使弟子繼續(10:20)。 The ministry of the church is thus a phase of the kingdom program of God.因此,教會的事工是神的國方案的一個階段。 Ultimately God's program with Israel would also be compelted with a positive response to the gospel of the kingdom (19:28; 23:39; cf. Rom. 9:4-6; 11:25-27).神的計劃,以色列最終也將被compelted了積極的回應到天國的福音(19:28; 23:39;比照。羅馬書9:4-6; 11:25-27)。 Then the "end of the age" (28:20) will come. “直到世界的末了”(28:20)會來的。 The king will separate the righteous from the unrighteous (7:21-23), the sheep from the goats (25:31-46), the wheat from the tares (13:37-43).國王將單獨的義不義的(7:21-23),羊,山羊(25:31-46),小麥稗子(13:37-43)。 Those who have not done the Father's will (7:21), who have not believed in Christ (18:6), will merit eternal punishment (13:42; 25:46).這些誰沒有完成天父的旨意(7:21),誰不信基督(18:6),值得永恆的懲罰(13:42,25:46)。 The righteous will enter into eternal life (13:43; 25:46).義人將進入永恆的生命(13:43,25:46)。 Until then, the followers of Christ were to "make disciples of all nations" (28:19).在此之前,基督信徒“作我的門徒所有國家”(28:19)。

DK Lowery DK洛厄
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
EP Blair, Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew; PF Ellis, Matthew: His Mind and His Message; RH Gundry, Matthew: A Commentary on His Literary and Theological Art; D. Hill, The Gospel of Matthew; JD Kingsbury, Matthew: Structure, Christology, Kingdom; JP Meier, The Vision of Matthew; E. Schweizer, The Good News According to Matthew; REO White, The Mind of Matthew. EP布萊爾,耶穌在馬太福音,PF埃利斯,馬修:他的思想和他的信息,RH岡德里,馬修:他的文學和神學藝術述評; D.山,馬太福音,JD金斯伯里,馬修:結構,基督,英國的馬修·邁耶,視覺JP的好消息,據馬修·施魏策爾,選舉事務處白,“馬太福音”的精神。

Also, see:此外,見:
Theology of Mark 神學的標誌
Theology of Luke 神學路加福音
Theology of John 神學的約翰。
New Testament Theology 新約聖經神學

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