Orthodox Church Beliefs東正教信仰

General Information 一般資料

The Basic Doctrines基本教義

Councils and Confessions議會和自白

All Orthodox credal formulas, liturgical texts, and doctrinal statements affirm the claim that the Orthodox Church has preserved the original apostolic faith, which was also expressed in the common Christian tradition of the first centuries.所有東正教的教義公式,禮儀文本,和理論陳述肯定的說法,保留了原來的使徒信仰的東正教教堂,也表達了共同的基督教傳統,在第一世紀。 The Orthodox Church recognizes as ecumenical the seven councils of Nicaea I (325), Constantinople I (381), Ephesus (431), Chalcedon (451), Constantinople II (553), Constantinople III (681), and Nicaea II (787) but considers that the decrees of several other later councils also reflect the same original faith (eg, the councils of Constantinople that endorsed the theology of St. Gregory Palamas in the 14th century).東正教承認合一的七個理事會的尼西亞(325),君士坦丁堡(381),以弗所(431),卡爾西(451),君士坦丁堡第二(553),君士坦丁堡III(681),和尼西亞第二(787)但認為該法令的一些其他較後政局也反映了同樣的原始信仰(例如,議會通過的神學的聖格雷戈里帕拉瑪斯在14世紀的君士坦丁堡)。 Finally, it recognizes itself as the bearer of an uninterrupted living tradition of true Christianity that is expressed in its worship, in the lives of the saints, and in the faith of the whole people of God.最後,認識到自身所承載的一個不間斷的生活,真正的基督教傳統的崇拜表示,在生活的聖人,而在整個神的子民的信仰。

In the 17th century, as a counterpart to the various "confessions" of the Reformation, there appeared several "Orthodox confessions," endorsed by local councils but, in fact, associated with individual authors (eg, Metrophanes Critopoulos, 1625; Peter Mogila, 1638; Dosítheos of Jerusalem, 1672).在17世紀,對應不同的“自白”的改革,出現了一些“正統招供”,由地方議會認可,但事實上,與個別作家(例如,Metrophanes Critopoulos,1625;彼得莫吉拉, 1638Dosítheos的耶路撒冷,1672年)。 None of these confessions would be recognized today as having anything but historical importance.沒有這些供詞將被承認今天有什麼,但重要的歷史意義。 When expressing the beliefs of his church, the Orthodox theologian, rather than seeking literal conformity with any of these particular confessions, will rather look for consistency with Scripture and tradition, as it has been expressed in the ancient councils, the early Fathers, and the uninterrupted life of the liturgy.表達的信仰,他的教堂,東正教的神學家,而不是尋求任何文字符合這些特定的逼供時,反而會尋找與聖經和傳統的一致性,因為它已經表示在古老的議會,早期教父,和不間斷地生活的禮儀。 He will not shy away from new formulations if consistency and continuity of tradition are preserved.他不會迴避新配方,如果一致性和連續性的傳統被保留下來。

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What is particularly characteristic of this attitude toward the faith is the absence of any great concern for establishing external criteria of truth - a concern that has dominated Western Christian thought since the Middle Ages. 這種態度的信心是特別的特徵是沒有任何極大的關注,建立外部真理標準 -中世紀以來的一個問題一直困擾著西方基督教思想。 Truth appears as a living experience accessible in the communion of the church and of which the Scriptures, the councils, and theology are the normal expressions.真理出現在共融的教會和生活體驗的“聖經”,兩個市政局和神學是正常的表達。 Even ecumenical councils, in the Orthodox perspective, need subsequent "reception" by the body of the church in order to be recognized as truly ecumenical.即使是合一議會,在正統的角度,需要後續的“接收”身體的教會為了被認可為真正的合一。 Ultimately, therefore, truth is viewed as its own criterion: there are signs that point to it, but none of these signs is a substitute for a free and personal experience of truth, which is made accessible in the sacramental fellowship of the church.因此,歸根結底,真相被視為其自己的標準:有跡象表明,指向它,但沒有這些標誌是一個免費的替代品和個人經歷的真理,這是在聖教會的團契。

Because of this view of truth, the Orthodox have traditionally been reluctant to involve church authority in defining matters of faith with too much precision and detail. This reluctance is not due to relativism or indifference but rather to the belief that truth needs no definition to be the object of experience and that legitimate definition, when it occurs, should aim mainly at excluding error and not at pretending to reveal the truth itself that is believed to be ever present in the church. 因為這種觀點的真理,東正教傳統上一直不願意涉及太多的精度和細節確定事項的信仰與教會的權威。這種不情願是由於相對或冷漠,而是要相信真理不需要定義經驗和合法的定義的對象,當它發生時,目標應該主要是排除錯誤,而不是在假裝揭示真理本身,被認為是在教會中永遠存在的。

God and Man上帝和人

The development of the doctrines concerning the Trinity and the incarnation, as it took place during the first eight centuries of Christian history, was related to the concept of man's participation in divine life.關於三位一體的化身,因為它發生在第一世紀的基督教歷史,教​​義的發展與人的參與神聖的生命的概念。

The Greek Fathers of the church always implied that the phrase found in the biblical story of the creation of man (Gen. 1:26), according to "the image and likeness of God," meant that man is not an autonomous being and that his ultimate nature is defined by his relation to God, his "prototype."希臘教父的教會總是暗示,這句話在“聖經”故事的人的創造(創1:26),根據“的神的形象和樣式”的意思,這名男子是不是一個自治的福祉,他的最終性質被定義為他的神,他的“原型”。 In paradise Adam and Eve were called to participate in God's life and to find in him the natural growth of their humanity "from glory to glory."在天堂裡,亞當和夏娃被稱為神的生命和參與發現,在他的自然增長,其人性化“從輝煌走向輝煌。” To be "in God" is, therefore, the natural state of man. “神”,因此,在自然狀態下的人。 This doctrine is particularly important in connection with the Fathers' view of human freedom.這是特別重要的,在與父親的觀點對人類自由的學說。 For theologians such as Gregory of Nyssa (4th century) and Maximus the Confessor (7th century) man is truly free only when he is in communion with God; otherwise he is only a slave to his body or to "the world," over which, originally and by God's command, he was destined to rule.格雷戈里的nyssa(4世紀)和Maximus懺悔(公元7世紀)的人是真正的自由,只當他是在與天主共融,否則他只是一個奴隸,他的身體或“世界神學家,如,”過,最初由上帝的命令,他是注定要統治。

Thus, the concept of sin implies separation from God and the reduction of man to a separate and autonomous existence, in which he is deprived of both his natural glory and his freedom.因此,罪的概念,從神和人的減少意味著分離到一個獨立的和自主的存在,他被剝奪了他的自然光彩和他的自由。 He becomes an element subject to cosmic determinism, and the image of God is thus blurred within him.他成了一個元素受宇宙的決定,在他心中神的形象被模糊。

Freedom in God, as enjoyed by Adam, implied the possibility of falling away from God.在上帝的自由,所享有的亞當,暗示的可能性下降遠離上帝。 This is the unfortunate choice made by man, which led Adam to a subhuman and unnatural existence.這是不幸的人,一個非人的,不自然的存在而導致亞當的選擇。 The most unnatural aspect of his new state was death.他的新的國家最不自然的方面是死亡。 In this perspective, "original sin" is understood not so much as a state of guilt inherited from Adam but as an unnatural condition of human life that ends in death.從這個角度來看,“原罪”是繼承了亞當的內疚,但作為一個國家,作為一種不自然的狀態,人的生命,結束在死亡不明白這麼多。 Mortality is what each man now inherits at his birth and this is what leads him to struggle for existence, to self-affirmation at the expense of others, and ultimately to subjection to the laws of animal life.死亡是每個人現在可以繼承他的出生,這是什麼導致他掙扎求生存,以犧牲別人的自我肯定,並最終服從動物生活的法律。 The "prince of this world" (ie, Satan), who is also the "murderer from the beginning," has dominion over man. “這個世界的王子”(即撒旦),誰是“兇手從一開始,”對人的統治。 From this vicious circle of death and sin, man is understood to be liberated by the death and Resurrection of Christ, which is actualized in Baptism and the sacramental life in the church.從這個惡性循環的死亡和罪惡,人的死亡和復活的基督,這是現實的洗禮和聖事在教會生活的理解中解放出來。

The general framework of this understanding of the God-man relationship is clearly different from the view that became dominant in the Christian West--ie, the view that conceived of "nature" as distinct from "grace" and that understood original sin as an inherited guilt rather than as a deprivation of freedom.成為佔主導地位的西方基督教認為,這種認識的神人關係的總體框架顯然是不同的 - 即,認為構思不同的“寬限期”和“自然”,作為理解原罪繼承內疚,而不是剝奪自由。 In the East, man is regarded as fully man when he participates in God; in the West, man's nature is believed to be autonomous, sin is viewed as a punishable crime, and grace is understood to grant forgiveness.在東方,男人被認為是完全的人,當他參與神在西方,人的本性被認為是自主罪被看作是受到懲罰的罪行,被理解為給予寬恕和恩典。 Hence, in the West, the aim of the Christian is justification, but in the East, it is rather communion with God and deification.因此,在西方的基督教,其目的是理由,但在東方,這是相當共融與神和神化。 In the West, the church is viewed in terms of mediation (for the bestowing of grace) and authority (for guaranteeing security in doctrine); in the East, the church is regarded as a communion in which God and man meet once again and a personal experience of divine life becomes possible.在西方,教會被認為在調解賜予的恩典和權威(保證安全學說);在東方,教會視為在神和人的共融再次開會和個人經驗神聖的生命成為可能。


The Orthodox Church is formally committed to the Christology (doctrine of Christ) that was defined by the councils of the first eight centuries.東正教教會的基督(基督道理的開端),這是首八個月的世紀的議會所定義的正式承諾。 Together with the Latin Church of the West, it has rejected Arianism (a belief in the subordination of the Son to the Father) at Nicaea (325), Nestorianism (a belief that stresses the independence of the divine and human natures of Christ) at Ephesus (431), and Monophysitism (a belief that Christ had only one divine nature) at Chalcedon (451).與西方拉丁教會的,它已經拒絕了阿里烏斯教(一種信念的從屬的兒子的父親)在尼西亞(325),景教(一個信念,強調基督的神性和人性的獨立性)以弗所(431),和基督一性(一個信念,即只有一個基督的神性)卡爾西(451)。 The Eastern and Western churches still formally share the tradition of subsequent Christological developments, even though the famous formula of Chalcedon, "one person in two natures," is given different emphases in the East and West.東部和西部教會正式交流的傳統,隨後基督的發展,即使卡爾西著名的公式,“一個人在兩個性質,”在東方和西方不同的側重點。 The stress on Christ's identity with the preexistent Son of God, the Logos (Word) of the Gospel According to John, characterizes Orthodox Christology.的著作權人和原神的兒子,標識(字)據約翰福音的基督的身份與壓力,東正教基督的特點。 On Byzantine icons, around the face of Jesus, the Greek letters '' --the equivalent of the Jewish Tetragrammaton YHWH, the name of God in the Old Testament--are often depicted.在拜占庭式的圖標,在臉部周圍的耶穌,希臘字母“ - 相當於Tetragrammaton耶和華的猶太人,在舊約中神的名字 - 經常被描述。 Jesus is thus always seen in his divine identity.因此,耶穌是總是出現在他的神聖身份。 Similarly, the liturgy consistently addresses the Virgin Mary as Theotokos (the "one who gave birth to God"), and this term, formally admitted as a criterion of orthodoxy at Ephesus, is actually the only "Mariological" (doctrine of Mary) dogma accepted in the Orthodox Church.同樣,禮儀一貫作為聖母的聖母瑪利亞(“一生下神”),這個名詞,正式成為一個標準的正統在以弗所,實際上是唯一的“Mariological”的學說的瑪麗教條接受東正教。 It reflects the doctrine of Christ's unique divine Person, and Mary is thus venerated only because she is his mother "according to the flesh."它反映了基督的教義獨特的神的人,和瑪麗崇敬,不僅因為她是他的母親“的肉。”

This emphasis on the personal divine identity of Christ, based on the doctrine of St. Cyril of Alexandria (5th century), does not imply the denial of his humanity.這與偏重於個人神聖的基督的身份,圣西里爾亞歷山大(公元5世紀)的學說的基礎上,並不意味著否定他的人性。 The anthropology (doctrine of man) of the Eastern Fathers does not view man as an autonomous being but rather implies that communion with God makes man fully human.的東方教父的人類學學說的人不查看作為一個自主的存在的人,而是意味著與神溝通,人完全的人。 Thus the human nature of Jesus Christ, fully assumed by the divine Word, is indeed the "new Adam" in whom the whole of humanity receives again its original glory.因此,人性化的耶穌基督,充分履行神聖的字,確實是一個“新的亞當”在整個人類再次接收其原有的風采。 Christ's humanity is fully "ours"; it possessed all the characteristics of the human being--"each nature (of Christ) acts according to its properties," Chalcedon proclaimed, following Pope Leo--without separating itself from the divine Word.基督的人性是完全的“我們”,它擁有的所有特徵的人 - “性質(基督)根據它的屬性,”迦克墩宣布,教皇利奧 - 不分離從神的話語。 Thus, in death itself--for Jesus' death was indeed a fully human death--the Son of God was the "subject" of the Passion.因此,在死亡本身 - 耶穌的死確實是一個完整的人的死亡 - 神的兒子,是“主體”的激情。 The theopaschite formula ("God suffered in the flesh") became, together with the Theotokos formula, a standard of orthodoxy in the Eastern Church, especially after the second Council of Constantinople (553). theopaschite公式(“神在肉體遭受”)一起成為東正公式,一個標準的東方教會的正統,特別是在第二屆理事會君士坦丁堡(553)。 It implied that Christ's humanity was indeed real not only in itself but also for God, since it brought him to death on the cross, and that the salvation and redemption of humanity can be accomplished by God alone--hence the necessity for him to condescend to death, which held humanity captive.這意味著,不僅本身,但也是上帝基督的人性是確實存在的,因為它帶來了他死在十字架上,而且對人類的救贖之神可以通過單獨的 - 因此他屈尊的必要性死亡,它認為人類的俘虜。

This theology of redemption and salvation is best expressed in the Byzantine liturgical hymns of Holy Week and Easter: Christ is the one who "tramples down death by death," and, on the evening of Good Friday, the hymns already exalt his victory.這神學的救贖和救恩是最好的表達在拜占庭禮儀聖歌聖週和復活節,“基督是誰”踐踏下死亡死亡,耶穌受難日晚上,讚美詩已經高舉他的勝利。 Salvation is conceived not in terms of satisfaction of divine justice, through paying the debt for the sin of Adam--as the medieval West understood it--but in terms of uniting the human and the divine with the divine overcoming human mortality and weakness and, finally, exalting man to divine life.救恩是不是在構思神聖的正義的滿意度,通過支付債務的罪,亞當 - 中世紀西方的理解是 - 但在團結人與神,與神克服人類的死亡率和弱點和最後,高舉神聖的生命的人。

What Christ accomplished once and for all must be appropriated freely by those who are "in Christ"; their goal is "deification," which does not mean dehumanization but the exaltation of man to the dignity prepared for him at creation.基督完成一次和自由的那些“在基督裡”的人,都必​​須撥他們的目標是“神化”,這並不意味著非人化,但提高人的尊嚴為他準備在創作。 Such feasts as the Transfiguration or the Ascension are extremely popular in the East precisely because they celebrate humanity glorified in Christ--a glorification that anticipates the coming of the Kingdom of God, when God will be "all in all."在東方,這種變形或升天的節日是非常受歡迎的,正是因為他們慶祝基督的榮耀 - 一個榮耀,預計在未來的神的國度的人類,當神將“所有的一切。”

Participation in the already deified humanity of Christ is the true goal of Christian life, and it is accomplished through the Holy Spirit.參與已經被神化人類的基督是基督徒生活的真正目的,它是通過聖靈。

The Holy Spirit聖靈

The gift of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost "called all men into unity," according to the Byzantine liturgical hymn of the day; into this new unity, which St. Paul called the "body of Christ," each individual Christian enters through Baptism and "chrismation" (the Eastern form of the Western "confirmation") when the priest anoints him saying "the seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit."在五旬節“聖靈的恩賜,稱為成團結所有的人,”根據拜占庭禮儀聖歌的一天,到這個新的統一,聖保羅被稱為“基督的身體,”每個人通過洗禮和基督教進入“chrismation”(東部西方的“確認書”的形式),當牧師恩膏他說:“聖靈的恩賜,密封。”

This gift, however, requires man's free response.這件禮物,然而,需要人的免費響應。 Orthodox saints such as Seraphim of Sarov (died 1833) described the entire content of Christian life as a "collection of the Holy Spirit."東正教聖人如薩羅夫的塞拉芬(死於1833年)中描述的基督徒生活的全部內容為“收集的聖靈。” The Holy Spirit is thus conceived as the main agent of man's restoration to his original natural state through Communion in Christ's body.聖靈是這樣設想作為主劑的人的通過聖餐的基督的身體恢復到他原來的自然狀態。 This role of the Spirit is reflected, very richly, in a variety of liturgical and sacramental acts.這個角色反映的精神是非常豐富的,在各種禮儀及聖事的行為。 Every act of worship usually starts with a prayer addressed to the Spirit, and all major sacraments begin with an invocation to the Spirit.崇拜的每一個行為通常開始的祈禱的精神,和所有的的主要聖禮開始,調用的精神。 The eucharistic liturgies of the East attribute the ultimate mystery of Christ's Presence to a descent of the Spirit upon the worshipping congregation and upon the eucharistic bread and wine.東方聖體聖事禮儀的屬性的終極奧秘基督的面前敬拜的會眾的精神後,在聖體聖事的麵包和葡萄酒的下降。 The significance of this invocation (in Greek epiklesis) was violently debated between Greek and Latin Christians in the Middle Ages because the Roman canon of the mass lacked any reference to the Spirit and was thus considered as deficient by the Orthodox Greeks.這個調用的意義(希臘的epiklesis)是希臘語和拉丁語的基督徒在中世紀,因為羅馬佳能的質量沒有任何參考的精神,並因此被視為缺乏的希臘東正教之間劇烈的辯論。

Since the Council of Constantinople (381), which condemned the Pneumatomachians ("fighters against the Spirit"), no one in the Orthodox East has ever denied that the Spirit is not only a "gift" but also the giver--ie, that he is the third Person of the holy Trinity.由於安理會的君士坦丁堡(381),譴責Pneumatomachians(對精神的“戰鬥機”),沒有人在東正教地區曾經否認的精神不僅是“禮物”,而且送禮者 - 即,他是神聖的三位一體的第三位。 The Greek Fathers saw in Gen. 1:2 a reference to the Spirit's cooperation in the divine act of creation; the Spirit was also viewed as active in the "new creation" that occurred in the womb of the Virgin Mary when she became the mother of Christ (Luke 1:35); and finally, Pentecost was understood to be an anticipation of the "last days" (Acts 2:17) when, at the end of history, a universal communion with God will be achieved.希臘的父親看到在創世紀1:2聖靈的合作在神聖的行為,創造一個參考;當她成為母親的精神也被認為是發生在子宮內的聖母瑪利亞的“新創造”基督(路1:35);最後,聖靈降臨節被理解的“最後的日子”(使徒行傳2:17)的時候,在歷史的終結,通用與天主共融將達到預期。 Thus, all the decisive acts of God are accomplished "by the Father in the Son, through the Holy Spirit."因此,所有的決定天災完成“的父親的兒子,通過聖靈。”

The Holy Trinity聖三一

By the 4th century a polarity developed between the Eastern and Western Christians in their respective understandings of the Trinity.到4世紀之間的東方和西方的基督徒在各自的理解三位一體的極性。 In the West God was understood primarily in terms of one essence (the Trinity of Persons being conceived as an irrational truth found in revelation); in the East the tri-personality of God was understood as the primary fact of Christian experience.在西方上帝的理解主要的一個本質(三位一體的人被看作是一種非理性的真理的啟示),在東三個性被理解為上帝的基督教經驗的基本事實。 For most of the Greek Fathers, it was not the Trinity that needed theological proof but rather God's essential unity.對於大多數的希臘教父,是不是需要三位一體神學的證明,而是神的基本統一。 The Cappadocian Fathers (Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Basil of Caesarea) were even accused of being tri-theists because of the personalistic emphasis of their conception of God as one essence in three hypostases (the Greek term hypostasis was the equivalent of the Latin substantia and designated a concrete reality).卡帕多細亞的父親(格雷戈里的果樹,格雷戈里的高利,和羅勒的撒利亞),甚至被指責是三有神論者,因為作為一個本質的概念,上帝的人治重點在三個本質(希臘文原質相當於拉美主要和指定一個具體的現實)。 For Greek theologians, this terminology was intended to designate the concrete New Testamental revelation of the Son and the Spirit, as distinct from the Father.對於希臘神學家,這個術語是為了指定的具體的新Testamental啟示的聖子和聖靈,有別於父親。

Modern Orthodox theologians tend to emphasize this personalistic approach to God; they claim that they discover in it the original biblical personalism, unadulterated in its content by later philosophical speculation.現代東正教神學家往往強調人治的方法來神,他們聲稱,他們發現在它原來的聖經人格,純粹的,其內容後來的哲學思辨。

Polarization of the Eastern and the Western concepts of the Trinity is at the root of the Filioque dispute. The Latin word Filioque ("and from the Son") was added to the Nicene Creed in Spain in the 6th century. 極化的東方和西方的概念的三位一體的filioque爭議的根源。拉丁詞聖子(“從子”)於公元6世紀在西班牙的尼西亞信經。 By affirming that the Holy Spirit proceeds not only "from the Father" (as the original creed proclaimed) but also "from the Son," the Spanish councils intended to condemn Arianism by reaffirming the Son's divinity.肯定聖靈的收益不僅是“從父”的(如原來的信條自稱),但也從兒子“,”西班牙議會譴責阿里烏斯教,重申的兒子的神性。 Later, however, the addition became an anti-Greek battle cry, especially after Charlemagne (9th century) made his claim to rule the revived Roman Empire. ,但是後來,除了成為一個反希臘的戰鬥口號,尤其是在9世紀查理曼()做了他的要求,以排除復興的羅馬帝國。 The addition was finally accepted in Rome under German pressure.此外德國的壓力下終於在羅馬接受。 It found justification in the framework of Western conceptions of the Trinity; the Father and the Son were viewed as one God in the act of "spiration" of the Spirit.理由,在西方的三位一體的概念框架,父親和兒子都被視為一個上帝的行為“劉永東,張忠元,鄧”的精神。

The Byzantine theologians opposed the addition, first on the ground that the Western Church had no right to change the text of an ecumenical creed unilaterally and, second, because the Filioque clause implied the reduction of the divine persons to mere relations ("the Father and the Son are two in relation to each other, but one in relation to the Spirit").拜占庭式的神學家反對,先在地面上,西方教會沒有權利來改變文字的基督教信條單方面,第二,因為filioque條款隱含的神聖的人,單純的關係(下稱“父親和減少的兒子是兩個相互關係,但關係的精神“)。 For the Greeks the Father alone is the origin of both the Son and the Spirit.希臘人的父親單獨的聖子和聖靈的起源。 Patriarch Photius (9th century) was the first Orthodox theologian to explicitly spell out the Greek opposition to the Filioque concept, but the debate continued throughout the Middle Ages.祖師Photius(9世紀)是第一個東正教的神學家明確地拼出來的希臘反對的聖子的概念,但辯論一直持續到中世紀。

The Transcendence of God神的超越

An important element in the Eastern Christian understanding of God is the notion that God, in his essence, is totally transcendent and unknowable and that, strictly speaking, God can only be designated by negative attributes: it is possible to say what God is not, but it is impossible to say what he is. 在東部的基督徒對上帝的理解的一個重要因素是,上帝在他的本質,是完全超越性和不可知的,嚴格來說,神只能被指定的負面屬性的概念:它是可以說神是不但它是不可能的,說他是什麼。

A purely negative, or "apophatic" theology--the only one applicable to the essence of God in the Orthodox view - does not lead to agnosticism, however, because God reveals himself personally - as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit - and also in his acts, or "energies."一個純粹消極的,或“apophatic”神學 - 只適用於上帝的本質的正統觀點 - 不會導致不可知論,但是,因為上帝揭示了自己的個人 - 聖父,聖子,聖靈 - 也在他的行為,或“能量”。 Thus, true knowledge of God always includes three elements: religious awe; personal encounter; and participation in the acts, or energies, which God freely bestows on creation.因此,真正的認識神總是包括三個要素:宗教的敬畏,個人的遭遇,以及參與的行為,或能量,上帝自由地賜給創造。

This conception of God is connected with the personalistic understanding of the Trinity.這上帝的概念是與人治的三位一體的理解。 It also led to the official confirmation by the Orthodox Church of the theology of St. Gregory Palamas, the leader of Byzantine hesychasts (monks devoted to divine quietness through prayer), at the councils of 1341 and 1351 in Constantinople.這也導致了官方的確認,由東正教的神學,領導者的的拜占庭hesychasts(和尚致力於通過祈禱的神聖的寂靜)的聖格雷戈里帕拉瑪斯,在1341和1351年在君士坦丁堡的議會。 The councils confirmed a real distinction in God, between the unknowable essence and the acts, or "energies," which make possible a real communion with God.理事會確認神,不可知的本質和行為,或“能量”,這使一個真正的共融與神之間的真正區別。 The deification of man, realized in Christ once and for all, is thus accomplished by a communion of divine energy with humanity in Christ's glorified manhood.神化的人,在基督裡實現一勞永逸的,因此,通過一個共融的基督的榮耀的男子氣概與人類神聖的能量。

Modern Theological Developments現代神學發展

Until the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks (1453), Byzantium was the unquestioned intellectual centre of the Orthodox Church.直到征服君士坦丁堡的土耳其人(1453),拜占庭的東正教教堂是毋庸置疑的知識中心。 Far from being monolithic, Byzantine theological thought was often polarized by a Humanistic trend, favouring the use of Greek philosophy in theological thinking, and the more austere and mystical theology of the monastic circles.從單一,拜占庭式的神學思想往往是兩極化的人文趨勢,有利於使用的古希臘哲學中的神學思想,和更嚴峻的神秘神學修道界。 The concern for preservation of Greek culture and for the the political salvation of the empire led several prominent Humanists to adopt a position favourable to union with the West.保存希臘文化和政治的拯救帝國的關注,幾個著名的人文主義通過工會與西方有利的位置。 The most creative theologians (eg, Symeon the New Theologian, died 1033; Gregory Palamas, died 1359; Nicholas Cabasilas, died c. 1390), however, were found rather in the monastic party that continued the tradition of patristic spirituality based upon the theology of deification.然而,最有創意的神學家(例如,Symeon新的神學家,死亡2052;格雷戈里·帕拉瑪斯,死於1359年,尼古拉斯Cabasilas,死於1390年),被發現,而在延續了傳統的教父靈性根據的神學修道院黨神化。

The 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries were the dark age of Orthodox theology.第16,第17和18世紀的東正教神學的黑暗時代。 Neither in the Middle East nor in the Balkans nor in Russia was there any opportunity for independent theological creativity.無論是在中東,也不在巴爾幹地區,也沒有在俄羅斯是有獨立的神學創造力的任何機會。 Since no formal theological education was accessible, except in Western Roman Catholic or Protestant schools, the Orthodox tradition was preserved primarily through the liturgy, which retained all its richness and often served as a valid substitute for formal schooling. Most doctrinal statements of this period, issued by councils or by individual theologians, were polemical documents directed against Western missionaries.由於沒有正式的神學教育是方便,除了在西方的羅馬天主教或新教學校,東正教的傳統被保留下來主要是通過禮儀,保留其豐富,常常作為一個有效的替代正規的學校教育。 這一時期的理論陳述,由議會發出的或個別的神學家,對西方傳教士的論戰文件。

After the reforms of Peter the Great (died 1725), a theological school system was organized in Russia.改革開放後,彼得大帝(死於1725年),一所神學院系統在俄羅斯舉辦。 Shaped originally in accordance with Western Latin models and staffed with Jesuit-trained Ukrainian personnel, this system developed, in the 19th century, into a fully independent and powerful tool of theological education.原來的形狀按照西方拉丁模型和烏克蘭耶穌訓練有素的人員配備,該系統在19世紀,神學教育成為一個完全獨立的,功能強大的工具。 The Russian theological efflorescence of the 19th and 20th centuries produced many scholars, especially in the historical field (eg, Philaret Drozdov, died 1867; VO Klyuchevsky, died 1913; VV Bolotov, died 1900; EE Golubinsky, died 1912; NN Glubokovsky, died 1937).在19世紀和20世紀的的俄羅斯神學風化的許多學者,特別是在歷史領域(如,Philaret DROZDOV,死於1867年,VO Klyuchevsky,死於1913年,VV博洛托夫,死1900,EE Golubinsky,死於1912年,NN Glubokovsky,逝世,享年1937)。 Independently of the official theological schools, a number of laymen with secular training developed theological and philosophical traditions of their own and exercised a great influence on modern Orthodox theology (eg, AS Khomyakov, died 1860; VS Solovyev, died 1900; N. Berdyayev, died 1948), and some became priests (P. Florensky, died 1943; S. Bulgakov, died 1944).獨立的官方神學學校,培訓與世俗的外行發展自己的神學和哲學傳統和現代東正教神學(例如,作為Khomyakov行使很大的影響,死於1860年; VS Solovyev,死亡1900; N. Berdyayev,死於1948年),有的成了祭司(P. Florensky,死於1943年,S.布爾加科夫,死於1944年)。 A large number of the Russian theological intelligentsia (eg, S. Bulgakov, G. Florovsky) emigrated to western Europe after the Russian Revolution (1917) and played a leading role in the ecumenical movement.在俄國革命後(1917年)和大量移民到西歐的俄羅斯神學知識分子(例如,S.布爾加科夫,G. Florovsky)合一的運動中發揮了主導作用。

With the independence of the Balkans, theological schools were also created in Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Romania.獨立的巴爾幹地區,希臘,塞爾維亞,保加利亞,羅馬尼亞和神學學校也創造了。 Modern Greek scholars contributed to the publication of important Byzantine ecclesiastical texts and produced standard theological textbooks.現代希臘學者提供重要的拜占庭教會文字出版和標準的神學教科書。

The Orthodox diaspora - the emigration from eastern Europe and the Middle East - in the 20th century has contributed to modern theological development through their establishment of theological centres in western Europe and America.東正教猶太人散居地 - 來自東歐和中東的移民 - 在20世紀的現代神學的發展作出了貢獻,通過其在西歐和美國的神學中心的建立。

Orthodox theologians reacted negatively to the new dogmas proclaimed by Pope Pius IX: the Immaculate Conception of Mary (1854) and papal infallibility (1870).東正教神學家反對由教皇庇護九世:聖母無原罪聖母瑪利亞(1854年)和羅馬教皇犯錯誤(1870年)宣布的新的教條。 In connection with the dogma of the Assumption of Mary, proclaimed by Pope Pius XII (1950), the objections mainly concerned the presentation of such a tradition in the form of a dogma.在與教條的假設,瑪麗,由教宗庇護十二世(1950)宣布,反對意見主要涉及這樣的傳統教條的形式的呈現。

In contrast to the recent general trend of Western Christian thought toward social concerns, Orthodox theologians generally emphasize that the Christian faith is primarily a direct experience of the Kingdom of God, sacramentally present in the church. Without denying that Christians have a social responsibility to the world, they consider this responsibility as an outcome of the life in Christ. 相反,最近的趨勢,西方基督教思想對社會的關注,東正教神學家一般強調的是,基督教的信仰主要是直接經驗的神的國度,聖事在教會不否認,基督徒有社會責任的世界上,他們認為這是責任的生命在基督裡的一個結果。 This traditional position accounts for the remarkable survival of the Orthodox Churches under the most contradictory and unfavourable of social conditions, but, to Western eyes, it often appears as a form of passive fatalism.這種傳統的位置佔了顯著的生存的東正教教堂下的矛盾和最不利的社會條件,但是,西方人眼中,它往往作為一種被動的宿命論。

Orthodox Church Beliefs東正教信仰

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Tradition in the Orthodox Church東正教的傳統

Terminology and Meaning.術語和意義。

The term "tradition" comes from the Latin traditio , but the Greek term is paradosis and the verb is paradido . “傳統”來自拉丁文的traditio,但希臘的術語是paradosis和動詞是paradido的 It means giving, offering, delivering, performing charity.這意味著,出售,交付,履行慈善。 In theological terms it means any teaching or practice which has been transmitted from generation to generation throughout the life of the Church.在神學術語,它是指任何教學或實踐已發送一代又一代的整個生命週期的教會。 More exactly, paradosis is the very life of the Holy Trinity as it has been revealed by Christ Himself and testified by the Holy Spirit.更確切地說,paradosis生活是非常神聖的三位一體,因為它已被發現的耶穌和聖靈作證。

The roots and the foundations of this sacred tradition can be found in the Scriptures.在“聖經”中可以找到這個神聖的傳統的根和基礎。 For it is only in the Scriptures that we can see and live the presence of the three Persons of the Holy Trinity, the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit.因為這是只有在聖經中,我們可以看到和生活存在的聖靈三位一體的聖父,聖子和聖靈三個位格的。 St. John the Evangelist speaks about the manifestation of the Holy Trinity: "For the Life was manifested, and we have seen it, and bear witness, and show unto you that eternal life, which was with the Father, and was manifested unto us" (1 John 1:2).聖約翰福音談到聖三一的表現:“對於生命已經顯現出來,我們已經看到它,又作見證,並顯示給你,永遠的生命,與父同在,且顯現給我們“(約翰一書1:2)。

The essence of Christian tradition is described by St. Paul, who writes: "But now in Christ Jesus, you that used to be so far apart from us have been brought very close, by the blood of Christ. For He is peace between us, and has made the two into one and broken down the barrier which used to keep them apart, actually destroying in His own person the hostility caused by the rules and decrees of the Law. This was to create one single man in Himself out of the two of them and by restoring peace through the Cross, to unite them both in a single body and reconcile them with God. In His own person He killed the hostility. . . Through Him, both of us have in one Spirit our way to come to the Father" (Ephes. 2:13-14).聖保羅基督教傳統中的精華,描述,他寫道:“如今卻在基督耶穌,你曾經是相距甚遠我們已經帶來了非常密切的,由基督的血,因為他是我們之間的和平,和兩個為一體,打破了障礙,讓他們除了在他自己的人,實際上是破壞所造成的敵意的規則和法令的規定,這是創造出一個男人在自己的他們兩個人,和通過交叉恢復和平,團結在一個單一的機構和協調他們與神的。在他自己的人,他殺死了敵意......通過他,我們倆在一個精神的方式來到父“(Ephes. 2:13-14)。 He also makes clear that this Trinitarian doctrine must be accepted by all Christians: "If any man preach any other gospel to you than you have received ( parelavete ) let him be condemned" (Gal. 1:8-9).他還明確所有的基督徒都必須接受,這三位一體的教義:“若有人傳福音給你們,比任何其他您已收到(parelavete)讓他受到譴責”(加拉太書1:8-9)。 Speaking about the Holy Eucharist, which is a manifestation of the Holy Trinity, he writes: "For I have received ( parelavon ) of the Lord that which I also delivered to you" ( paredoka ) (1 Cor. 11:23).在談到聖體聖事,這是一個神聖的三位一體的表現,他寫道:“我已收到(parelavon),我還向你的上帝”(paredoka)(哥林多前書11:23)。 Again speaking about the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ, St. Paul writes: "For I delivered to you ( paredoka ) first of all that which I also received" ( parelavon ).再次談到死亡,埋葬和復活的耶穌基督,保羅寫道:“我交付給你(paredoka)我也收到”(parelavon)。 Finally he admonishes: "Brethren, stand fast and hold the traditions ( tas paradoseis ) which you have been taught, whether by word or our epistle" (1 Thessal. 2:15).最後,他告誡:“弟兄們,堅守和保持傳統(TAS paradoseis),你從小受到的教育,無論是言語或書信”(1 Thessal。2:15)。 The sole source and cause and principle of the Trinitarian unity is the Father Himself (Ephes. 4:4-6).的唯一來源,原因和原則三位一體的統一是父親(Ephes. 4:4-6)。

The Apostolic Tradition使徒傳統

Theologians call this teaching of the Scriptures "the Apostolic Tradition."神學家稱此教學聖經“使徒的傳統。” It encompasses what the Apostles lived, saw, witnessed and later recorded in the books of the new Testament.它包含了什麼使徒生活,看到了,親眼目睹,後來記錄在新約聖經的書籍。 The bishops and presbyters, whom the Apostles appointed as their successors, followed their teaching to the letter.主教和長老,他們的使徒獲委任為他們的繼任者,教學的信。 Those who deviated from this apostolic teaching were cut off from the Church.偏離這使徒的教誨被切斷,從教堂。 They were considered heretics and schismatics, for they believed differently from the Apostles and their successors, thus separating themselves from the Church.他們被認為是異端和schismatics,因為他們相信不同的使徒和他們的繼任者,從而將自己從教會的。 This brings into focus the Church as the center of unity of all Christians.這涉及到的所有基督徒的統一集中的教會為中心。 This is the ecclesiastical or ecclesiological characteristic of Tradition.這是傳統的教會或教會學特性。 The Church is the image and reflection of the Holy Trinity since the three persons of the Holy Trinity live, indwell, and act in the Church.教會是聖三一聖三一活,留置,和教會的行為,因為這三個人的形象和反映。 The Father offers His love, the Son offers His obedience, the Holy Spirit His comfort.的父親提供的兒子提供了他的愛,他的服從他的安慰,聖靈。 Only in the historical Church can we see, feel, and live the presence of the Holy Trinity in the World.只有在歷史的教會,我們可以看到,感覺,和生活在世界的聖三一的存在。 In describing this reality St. Paul writes: "So he came and proclaimed the good news: peace to you who were far off, and peace to those who were near by; for through him we both alike have access to the Father in the one Spirit. Thus you are no longer aliens in a foreign land, but fellow-citizens with God's people, members of God's household. You are built upon the foundation laid by the Apostles and prophets, and Christ Jesus Himself is the cornerstone. In him the whole building is bonded together and grows into a holy temple in the Lord. In him you too are being built with all the rest into a spiritual dwelling of God" (Ephes. 2:17-22).在描述這一現實,保羅寫道:“他來了,宣布一個好消息:平安,遙遠的人,和那些誰是附近的和平,通過他,我們都是一樣的父親在一個精神。因此,你是沒有較長的外國人在異鄉,但老鄉見老鄉,公民與神的子民,神的家庭成員。您是建成後,奠定了在使徒和先知的基礎,並有基督耶穌自己的基石。在他整個建築結合在一起,成長為在主的聖殿。在他身上,你也正在興建的所有轉變為精神神的住處休息“(Ephes. 2:17-22)。

The unity of the Holy Trinity, being the fundamental reality in the Church and of the Church, also requires a real unity among all its members.神聖的三位一體的統一,在教會和教會的基本現實,還需要一個真正的所有成員之間的團結。 All the members of the Church live in the bond of love and unity through the Holy Trinity.所有的教會的成員在通過聖三一愛和團結的紐帶。 This truth is described by St. Peter: "But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God's own people, that you may declare the wonderful deeds of Him who called you out of the darkness into His marvelous light. Once you were no people, but now you are God's people; once you had not received mercy, but now you have received mercy."這個真理是聖彼得所描述的:“但你是一個揀選的族類,是有君尊的祭司,是聖潔的國度,神自己的人,你可以聲明他叫你走出黑暗入奇妙光明的精彩事蹟。一旦你的人,但現在你是上帝的人,一旦你沒有接到手軟,但現在你已經接到手軟。“ (1 Peter 2: 9-10). (彼得前書2:9-10)。 This Church was established as a historical reality on the day of Pentecost, with the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles: "While the day of Pentecost was running its course they were all together in one place, when suddenly there came from the sky a noise like that of a strong driving wind, which filled the whole house where they were sitting. And there appeared to them tongues like flames of fire, dispersed among them and resting on each one. And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to talk in other tongues, as the Spirit gave them power of utterance" (Acts 2: 1-4).這個教會的歷史現實五旬節那一天,被確定為下降聖靈的使徒:“五旬節那一天正在運行的過程,他們都聚集在一個地方,當突然有來自天空噪音了強勁的風,充滿了整個屋​​子,他們所坐的地方。出現舌頭如火焰的火,在每一個分散在他們和休息。他們就都被聖靈充滿了,開始談論其他方言,所賜他們權柄的話語“(使徒行傳2:1-4)。

Only in this Church, where the Holy Trinity lives and acts constantly could the teaching of Christ, the very revelation of truth, as received and transmitted by the Apostles, abide and be sustained.只有在這個教堂,聖三一的生活和行為不斷基督的教訓,真理的啟示,作為接收和傳輸的使徒,遵守和維持。 Thus truth in its fullness does not exist outside the Church, for there is neither Scripture, nor Tradition.因此,在其豐滿的真理不存在在教會之外,既不是聖經,也不是傳統。 This is why St. Paul admonishes the Galatians that even if an angel from heaven preaches another gospel to them, he must be condemned: "If any man preach any other gospel to you than that you have received ( parelavete ) let him be condemned" (1:8-9).這就是為什麼保羅告誡加拉太書,即使天使從天上來宣揚他們的另一個福音,他必須受到譴責:“若有人傳福音給你們,比任何其他您已收到(parelavete),讓他受到譴責” (1:8-9)。 And he writes to his disciple Timothy to follow strictly the "precepts of our faith" and the "sound instructions" he received from him and avoid "godless myths" (1 Tim. 4: 4-7).他寫信給他的門徒提摩太嚴格遵守戒律“我們的信心”,他收到了來自他的“聲音指令”,避免“不信神的神話”(提摩太前書4:4-7)。 He also admonishes the Colossians to avoid "merely human injunctions and teachings" (2: 22), and to follow Christ: "Therefore, since Jesus was delivered to you as Christ and Lord, live your lives in union with Him. Be rooted in Him; be built in Him; be consolidated in the faith you were taught; let your hearts overflow with thankfulness. Be on your guard; do not let your minds be captured by hollow and delusive speculations, based on traditions of man-made teaching and centered on the elemental spirits of the universe and not on Christ. For it is in Christ that the complete being of the Godhead dwells embodied, and in Him you have been brought to completion" (Col. 2: 6-8).他還告誡歌羅西書,以避免“只是人類的禁令和教義”(2:22),並跟隨基督:“因此,因為作為基督和主耶穌被交付給你的,住你的生活中與祂聯合。植根於他,可他建於合併在你教的信仰,讓你的心洋溢著感恩。你們要謹慎自守,不要讓你的心被捕獲空洞而虛幻的猜測,根據傳統的人造教學集中在元素的宇宙,而不是基督精神,因為在基督的神性的持續時間,完全被體現,並在他你已經完成“(歌羅西書2:6-8)。

This teaching or Apostolic Tradition was transmitted from the Apostles themselves to their successors, the bishops and the presbyters.這種教學或使徒傳統使徒自己發送給他們的繼承人,主教和長老。 St. Clement, Bishop of Rome (second century AD), and probably a disciple of the Apostles himself, described this historical truth: "The Apostles preached to us the Gospel received from Jesus Christ, and Jesus Christ was God's Ambassador. Christ, in other words, comes with a message from God, and the Apostles with a message from Christ. Both these orderly arrangements, therefore, originate from the will of God. And so, after receiving their instructions and being fully assured through the Resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ, as well as confirmed in faith by the word of God, they went forth, equipped with the fullness of the Holy Spirit, to preach the good news that the Kingdom of God was close at hand. From land to land, accordingly, and from city to city they preached; and from among their earliest converts appointed men whom they had tested by theSpirit to act as bishops and deacons for the future believers" ( Letter to the Corinthians, ch. 42). ,羅馬主教聖克萊門特(公元二世紀),可能是自己弟子的使徒,形容這是歷史的真理:“使徒們傳福音給我們從耶穌基督的福音,和耶穌基督是上帝的大使。基督,換句話說,上帝的信息,消息從基督和使徒與這兩個有秩序的安排,因此,來自於神的旨意。所以,之後接受他們的指示,充分保證,通過我們的主的復活耶穌基督,以及確認在信仰的神的話,他們就出去,配備了豐滿的聖靈,傳好消息,神的國是近在咫尺。從土地到土地,因此,和他們所宣揚的從城市到城市,從他們最早將任命他們已經測試通過theSpirit作為未來的信徒“( 信哥林多前書 42章)的主教和執事的男子。 One can clearly see how the message of salvation originating from God the Father was taught by Jesus Christ, witnessed to by the Holy Spirit, preached by the Apostles and was transmitted by them to the Church through the clergy they themselves appointed.人們可以清楚地看到救恩的信息來源於上帝的父親是老師,見證耶穌基督的聖靈,使徒們所宣揚的,並轉發了他們對教會的神職人員,他們本身獲委任。 This became the "unerring tradition of the Apostolic preaching" as it was expressed by Eusebius of Caesarea, bishop of the fourth century, who is considered the "father" of Church History ( Church History, IV, 8).這成了“無過錯的使徒傳統說教”,因為它是表達的優西比烏的愷撒,主教的第四個世紀,被認為是“父親”的教會歷史( 教會歷史,IV,8)。

The Patristic Tradition教父的傳統

From what has been said so far, it can be seen that there is no theological distinctions or differences or divisions within the Tradition of the Church.已經說了這麼遠,可以看出,它是在傳統的教會沒有神學的區別或差異或分歧。 It could be said that Tradition, as an historical event, begins with the Apostolic preaching and is found in Scriptures, but it is kept, treasured, interpreted, and explained to the Church by the Holy Fathers, the successors of the Apostles.可以說,傳統,歷史事件,開始與使徒的說教,在聖經中發現的,但它被保留,珍而重之的解釋,並解釋教會的聖教父們,接班人的使徒。 Using the Greek term Pateres tes Ecclesias , the Fathers of the Church, this "interpretive" part of the Apostolic preaching is called "Patristic Tradition."希臘的長期Pateres工商業污水附加費Ecclesias,父親教會的使徒說教,這個“解釋”的部分被稱為“教父的傳統。”

The Fathers, men of extraordinary holiness and trusted orthodoxy in doctrine, enjoyed the acceptance and respect of the universal Church by witnessing the message of the Gospel, living and explaining it to posterity.父親,男人的非凡的聖潔和值得信賴的正統學說,廣為接受和尊重普世教會的福音,生活中看到的消息,並解釋它給後人。 Thus, Apostolic Preaching or Tradition is organically associated with the Patristic Tradition and vice versa. This point must be stressed since many theologians in the Western churches either distinguish between Apostolic Tradition and Patristic Tradition, or completely reject Patristic Tradition.所以,使徒說教或傳統的有機與教父的傳統,反之亦然, 這一點必須強調,因為許多西方教會的神學家,在使徒傳統和教父的傳統,或完全拒絕教父的傳統區分。

For the Orthodox Christian, there is one Tradition, the Tradition of the Church, incorporating the Scriptures and the teaching of the Fathers.對於正統基督教,有一個傳統,傳統的教會,把聖經和教學的父親。 This is "the preaching of the truth handed down by the Church in the whole world to Her children" (St. Irenaeus, Proof of the Apostolic Preaching , 98).這是“說教流傳下來的教會她的孩子在整個世界的真相”(聖愛任紐, 證明使徒說教 ,98)。 St. Athanasius, the Great "Pillar of Orthodoxy," who was bishop of Alexandria during the fourth century, gives the most appropriate definition of the Church's Tradition: "Let us look at the very tradition, teaching, and faith of the catholic Church from the very beginning, which the Logos gave ( edoken ), the Apostles preached ( ekeryxan ), and the Fathers preserved ( ephylaxan ). Upon this the Church is founded" ( tethemeliotai ).聖亞他那修,大“支柱的正統,”誰是亞歷山大的主教在第四世紀,教會的傳統中給出了最恰當的定義:“讓我們來看看在非常傳統,教學和信仰的天主教教會一開始,這標誌了(edoken),使徒鼓吹(ekeryxan)的,和父親保留(ephylaxan)的後成立的教會“(tethemeliotai)。 (St. Athanasius, First Letter to Serapion , 28). (聖亞他那修, 謝拉皮翁 ,28的第一個字母 )。 In retrospect, Tradition is founded upon the Holy Trinity, it constantly proclaims the Gospel of Christ, it is found within the boundaries of the Christian Church, and it is expounded by the Fathers.現在回想起來,是建立在神聖的三位一體的傳統,它不斷地宣揚基督的福音,它被發現的基督教教會的界限內,並闡述了父親。

Universality and Timelessness of Tradition傳統的普遍性和永恆性

Another characteristic still needs to be added, namely that the Tradition of the Church is universal in space and time.另一個特點還需要加以補充,即傳統的教會是萬能的,在空間和時間。 St. Vincent of Lerins, a bishop and writer in France during the fifth century, writes that "we must hold what has been believed everywhere, always, and by all" ( Common , 2).勒蘭在第五個世紀,法國的主教和作家,聖文森寫道:“我們必須保持一直認為無處不在,無時不,以及所有”( 通用 ,2)。 Indeed, the Church with all her members, always, from the time of her inception until the end of time, accepts and teaches everywhere the redemptive work of Christ.事實上,教會她所有的成員,總是從她開始直到結束的時間,接受並教導世界各地的基督救贖的工作。 This does not mean that the Church and Her Tradition move within numerical, geographical or chronological limits.這並不意味著,教會和她的傳統內移動,數字,地域或時間的限制。 The Church and Her Tradition, although they live in history, are beyond history.教會和她的傳統,雖然他們生活在歷史,超越歷史。 They have eternal value, because Christ, the Founder of the Church, has no beginning and no end.他們有永恆的價值,因為基督的教會的創辦人,沒有開始,也沒有結束。 In other words, when the universality of the Church Tradition is mentioned, it refers to the gift of the Holy Spirit, which enables the Church to preserve until the end of time the Apostolic truth unadulterated, unbroken, and unaltered.換句話說,在教會的傳統中提到的普遍性,它是指在聖靈的恩賜,使教會的使徒的真相純粹的,完整的,並沒有改變,直到結束的時間保存。 This is true because Tradition expresses the common Orthodox mind ( phronema ) of the whole Church against all heresies and schisms of all times.這是因為傳統的整個教會對異端邪說和分裂的所有時間表達了共同的東正教的頭腦(phronema)。

It is important to emphasize both the temporality as well as the timelessness, two fundamental aspects of Holy Tradition.重要的是要強調的時間性,以及永恆的神聖傳統,兩個基本方面。 The late Fr.已故的神父。 Georges Florovsky wrote that "Tradition is not a principle striving to restore the past, using the past as a criterion for the present. Such a conception of tradition is rejected by history itself and by the consciousness of the Orthodox Church. . . Tradition is the constant abiding of the Spirit and not only the memory of words. Tradition is a charismatic, not a historical event" ("The Catholicity of the Church" in Bible, Church, Tradition , p. 47).喬治florovsky寫道:“傳統是不是一個原則,努力恢復過去,用過去的標準目前這樣的傳統觀念被拒絕的歷史本身的東正教教堂的意識和傳統恆定的守法的精神,不僅是記憶單詞。傳統是一個有魅力的,不是一個歷史事件“(”天主教教會的“ 聖經,教會,傳統 ,頁47)。 In other words, Tradition is a gift of the Holy Spirit, a living experience, which is relived and renewed through time.換句話說,傳統的禮物的聖靈,生活體驗,這是我們眼前,並再次通過時間。 It is the true faith, which is revealed by the Holy Spirit to the true people of God.這是真正的信仰,這是聖靈所揭示的真正的人民的上帝。

Tradition, therefore, cannot be reduced to a mere enumeration of quotations from the Scriptures or from the Fathers.傳統,因此,不能降低到僅僅列舉的報價從聖經,從父親。 It is the fruit of the incarnation of the Word of God, His crucifixion and resurrection as well as His ascension, all of which took place in space and time.這是道成肉身的神的話語,祂被釘十字架和復活,以及祂升天,所有這一切都發生在時間和空間的果實。 Tradition is an extension of the life of Christ into the life of the Church.傳統到生活的教會是基督的生命的延伸。 According to St. Basil, it is the continuous presence of the Holy Spirit: "Through the Holy Spirit comes our restoration to paradise, our ascension into the kingdom of heaven, our return as adopted sons, our liberty to call God our Father, our being made partakers of the grace of Christ, our being called children of light, our sharing in eternal glory, and, in a word, our being brought into a state of a "fullness of blessing" (Rom. 15: 29), both in this world and in the world to come. . ."據聖羅勒,它是持續存在的聖靈:“通過聖靈降臨我們的恢復,我們提升到天國的天堂,通過兒子打電話給神我們的父,我們的自由,我們的回報,我們的有分基督的恩典,我們被稱為光明之子,我們分享永恆的榮耀,一個字,我們被帶到一個“豐滿的祝福”(羅馬書15:29),兩者成為一個國家的在這個世界上,在世界上...“ (St. Basil of Caesaria, On the Holy Spirit , XV.). (聖羅勒Caesaria, 聖靈 ,XV)。

Tradition and traditions傳統與傳統

This description by St. Basil gives the true "existential" dimensions of the Holy Tradition of the Church.這說明聖羅勒提供了真正的“存在主義”尺寸的教會的聖傳。 For the Orthodox, therefore, Tradition is not a static set of dogmatic precepts, or the uniform practices of the liturgical ritual of the Church.因此,對於正統的,傳統是不是一個靜態的教條戒律,或禮儀的教會儀式的統一做法。 Although Church Tradition includes both doctrinal and liturgical formulas and practices, it is more properly the metamorphosis, the continuous transfiguration of the people of God, through the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, the love of God the Father and the communion of the Holy Spirit, as experienced in the daily life of the Church.雖然教會的傳統教義和禮儀的配方和做法,更為恰當的蛻變,不斷變身的神的子民,通過我們的主耶穌基督的恩典,神的愛的父親和聖靈的共融所經歷的教會在日常生活中。 This does not mean that Tradition is something abstract and theoretical or that it ignores the daily needs of human nature.這並不意味著傳統是一些抽象的,理論性的東西,它忽略了日常需求的人性化。 On the contrary, the "rule of faith" becomes every day the "rule of worship."與此相反,“法治誠信”成為每一天“法治崇拜”。 Doctrine, prayer, moral guidance, and liturgical practices are indispensable parts of Holy Tradition.學說,祈禱,道德指導和禮儀的神聖傳統的做法是不可缺少的組成部分。 Some theologians speak about traditions with a small " t ," as being the written or unwritten practices of the daily Christian life, in contrast with Tradition with capital " T ," which encompasses the basic doctrines of revelation and our salvation in Christ.有些神學家說傳統的小“T”的日常基督徒生活的成文或不成文的做法,在對比傳統與大寫字母“T”,這包括基本教義的啟示,我們在基督的救恩。

This type of distinction is rather misleading.這種類型的區別是相當誤導的。 Tradition and traditions are the integral parts of the life of the Church and they express the totality of the Christian way of life which leads to salvation.傳統與傳統的教會生活中不可分割的組成部分,他們表達了基督徒的生活方式導致救贖的整體。 The doctrine of incarnation, the historical truth of the crucifixion and resurrection, the Eucharist, the sign of the cross, the threefold immersion in the baptismal font, the honor and respect due to the Virgin Mary and to the saints of the Church, are all important for the Christian, who wants to find himself in the "perimeter" of salvation in Christ.教義的化身,耶穌的受難和復活的歷史真相,聖體聖事,十字架的符號,三倍浸泡的洗禮,榮譽和尊重的聖母和聖徒教會的,都是對於基督徒來說,想找到自己的“雷池”基督的救恩重要。 This is what the Church has taught through the centuries.這是經過幾個世紀的教會教。 "Therefore we must consider the Tradition of the Church trustworthy," St. John Chrysostom writes, "it is Tradition, seek no more" ( Second Letter to Thessal.: Homily ). “因此,我們必須考慮到傳統的教會值得信賴的,”聖約翰金口寫道,“這是傳統,尋求更多的”( 第二封信Thessal:講道 )。

The Ecumenical Councils基督教議會

As has already been noted, the authority, the power, and the impact of Tradition are found in the Scriptures and the Patristic teaching as a total and unified expression of the revelation of the Holy Trinity in the world.正如已經指出的那樣,權威,權力,和傳統的影響,發現在聖經和教父的教學作為一個整體和統一的表達在世界上的聖三一的啟示。 Christ, as the ultimate and supreme Teacher, Shepherd and King, exercises His authority in the Holy Spirit through the Apostles and their successors.基督,為最終和最高的教師,牧羊人和國王,行使他的權力,在聖靈透過使徒和他們的繼任者。 The Apostles, their successors and the whole people of God are the Body of Christ extending throughout the ages.使徒們,他們的繼任者和全體人民的上帝是基督的身體,在整個年齡。 "There is no private teaching save the common doctrine of the Catholic Church," wrote St. Maximos the Confessor (seventh century; Migne PG , 90, 120C). “有沒有私教保存常見的天主教教會的教義中寫道,”聖馬克西莫斯的懺悔(七世紀,米涅PG,90,120℃)。 In the reply to Pope Pius IX in 1848, the Eastern Patriarchs wrote that "the Defender of the faith is the very Body of the Church, that is the people, who want their faith kept constantly unvarying and in agreement with the Fathers."在答复教皇庇護九世於1848年,東部始祖這樣寫道:“後衛的信仰是非常機構的教堂,這是他們的信仰的人,誰想要保持不變的和一致的父親。” Thus the clergy and the laity are both responsible for the preservation of the authentic and genuine Holy Tradition in and through the life of the Church.因此,神職人員及平信徒都負責保存,並通過教會生活的真實和真正的神聖傳統。 In this context, particularly, the Ecumenical Councils of the Church, and more generally, the Local Councils of the Church are of great importance. ,尤其是在這種情況下,大公會議的教會,和更普遍的是,地方議會的教會是非常重要的。 The first Council Synod of the Church was the Apostolic Synod, which took place in Jerusalem in 51 AD Later, bishops used to meet either locally, or on the "ecumenical" or universal, the all-encompassing level of the universal Christian empire, the oikoumene , in order to discuss and solve serious dogmatic and canonical issues which had arisen.首局主教的教會在耶路撒冷發生在51 AD後來的使徒主教 ,主教,以滿足本地,或在“合一”或普遍的,無所不包的普遍基督教帝國, oikoumene,以討論和解決出現的問題,嚴重的和教條式的規範。

The Orthodox Church accepts the following seven Ecumenical Councils:東正教教堂接受了以下七個大公會議:

  1. The Council of Nicea in 325 , which discussed and condemned Arianism. 325的尼西亞會議 ,討論和譴責阿里烏斯教。
  2. The Council of Constantinople in 381 which principally condemned Apollinarianism. 安理會的君士坦丁堡在381主要譴責亞波里拿留主義。
  3. The Council of Ephesus in 431, which condemned Nestorianism. 431,譴責安理會的以弗所景教。
  4. The Council of Chalcedon in 451, which condemned Monophysitism. 安理會的卡爾西在451,,譴責基督一性。
  5. The Second Council of Constantinople , in 553, which condemned Origen and other heretics. 第二屆理事會君士坦丁堡 ,在553,譴責奧利和其他異教徒。
  6. The Third Council of Constantinople in 680-81, which condemned Monothelitism. 第三屆理事會君士坦丁堡在680-81,譴責Monothelitism。
  7. The Second Council of Nicea , in 787, which condemned Iconoclasm. 第二屆理事會的尼西亞 ,在787,譴責聖像破壞運動。

The Orthodox Church also assigns ecumenical status to The Council in Trullo in 692, which took place in Constantinople.東正教教會也將理事會的Trullo 692年,發生在君士坦丁堡普世狀態。 Eastern bishops took part in it, and they passed disciplinary canons to complete the work of the Fifth and the Sixth Ecumenical Councils and, thus, it is known as the Fifth-Sixth ( Quinisext or Penthekti ).東部主教參加,而且他們通過學科大砲第五和第六次大公會議才能完成的工作,因此,它被稱為的第五第六(Quinisext或Penthekti)的。

These Ecumenical Councils became instruments for formulating the dogmatic teachings of the Church, for fighting against heresies and schisms and promoting the common and unifying Tradition of the Church which secures her unity in the bond of love and faith.這些基督教議會成為制定的教條教義的教會,打擊異端邪說和分裂,促進共同,統一的傳統,教會,保護她的團結在愛和信仰的債券工具。 Although convened by the emperors, the Church Fathers who participated came from almost all the local dioceses of the Roman Empire, thus expressing the faith and practice of the Universal Church.雖然由皇帝召集,教父誰參加了幾乎所有的當地教區的羅馬帝國,從而表達的普世教會的信仰和實踐。 Their decisions have been accepted by the clergy and the laity of all times, making their validity indisputable.他們的決定已被接受的神職人員及平信徒的所有時間,其有效性不爭的。 The Fathers followed the Scriptures as well as the Apostolic and Patristic Tradition in general, meeting under the guidance of the Holy Spirit.父親遵循“聖經”以及一般的使徒和教父的傳統,在聖靈的引導下舉行會議。 St. Constantine the Great, who convened the First Ecumenical Council at Nicea, wrote that "the resolution of the three hundred holy bishops is nothing else than that the determination of the Son of God, especially of the Holy Spirit, pressing upon the minds of such great men brought to light the divine purpose."聖君士坦丁大帝,誰在尼西亞召開了第一屆大公會議的分辨率300點神聖主教寫道:“是不是沒有別的神的兒子的決心,尤其是聖靈在人的頭腦之中,按這麼大的人敗露神的旨意。“ (Socrates, Church History , 1:9). (蘇格拉底, 教會歷史 ,1:9)。 In the Fourth Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon, it was stated that "The Fathers defined everything perfectly; he who goes against this is anathema; no one adds, no one takes away" ( Acta Concil. II, 1).在第四次大公會議的chalcedon,說:“父親定義一切完美,他違背這是詛咒,沒有一個人,沒有人拿走”( 文獻Concil II,1)。 Sabas, the bishop of Paltus in Syria in the fifth century, speaking about the Council of Nicea said: "Our Fathers who met at Nicea did not make their declarations of themselves but spoke as the Holy Spirit dictated."在第五世紀在敘利亞的主教Paltus,Sabas,尼西亞會議的發言說:“我們的父輩們在尼西亞舉行會議並沒有使他們對自己的聲明,但說話的聖靈決定。” "Following the Fathers . . " becomes a fixed expression in the minutes and the declarations of the Ecumenical Councils as well as of the local ones. “繼父親。”變得分鐘,聲明基督教議會以及作為當地的一個固定的表達。 Thus, the Ecumenical Councils and also some local councils, which later received universal acceptance, express the infallible teaching of the Church, a teaching which is irrevocable.因此,基督教議會和一些地方議會,後來獲得普遍接受,表達了犯錯的教學,教學的教會是不可撤銷的。

Are the Ecumenical Councils of the Church the only infallible and correct instruments in proclaiming and implementing the faith of the Church?基督教議會宣布和實施的信仰教會在教會的唯一無誤的和正確的工具嗎? Certainly, no bishops by themselves, no local churches, no theologians can teach the faith by themselves alone.當然,沒有自己的主教,沒有地方教會,沒有神學家可以教的信心由自己做出的選擇。 The Ecumenical Councils are among the most important means which inscribe, proclaim, and implement the faith of the Church, but only in conjunction with Scripture, and the Tradition.大公會議題,宣布和實施的信仰教會之間的最重要的手段,但只有在結合聖經和傳統。 The Ecumenical Councils are an integral part of the ongoing Tradition of the Church.正在進行的傳統,教會大公會議的一個組成部分。 Thus, the Orthodox Church claims that she has kept intact the faith of the first seven Ecumenical Councils.因此,東正教教會聲稱,她的第7基督教議會保持不變的信念。

Other Councils and Confessions of Faith其他議會和信仰的自白

There are also other means of re-affirming the universality of the Orthodox faith.也有其他的方式重新肯定的普遍性信仰東正教。 There are, for instance, Councils which were convened during the fourteenth century in Constantinople dealing with the Palamite controversy, that is, the teaching of Gregory Palamas concerning the distinction between divine essence and divine energy.有,例如,在14世紀的君士坦丁堡召開的議會處理的的Palamite爭議,那就是高利·帕拉瑪斯有關神的本質和神聖的能量之間的區別,教學。 These councils are accepted as having ecumenical status.這些委員會接受具有普世狀態。 There are the writings and Confessions of Faith written by great teachers of the Church during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.還有的著作,並寫在十七和十八世紀偉大的教師,教會的信仰告白。 Examples might include the letter of Mark of Ephesus (1440-1441) to all Orthodox Christians; the correspondence of Patriarch Jeremiah II of Constantinople with the German Reformers (1573-1581); the council of Jerusalem (1672) and the Confession of Faith by Patriarch Dosítheos of Jerusalem (1672), and the writings of St. Nicodemos of the Holy Mountain, who published the Rudder, a book of great canonical and theological importance (1800).例如,可能包括所有東正教基督徒信的馬克的以弗所(1440至1441年);耶利米書第二君士坦丁堡宗主教與德國改革者(1573年至1581年)的對應關係理事會的耶路撒冷(1672)和信條祖師Dosítheos耶路撒冷(1672),和著作的的聖Nicodemos的聖山,發表舵,一本書的規範和神學思想建設的重要性(1800)。 Also to be included are the encyclical letters of the Ecumenical patriarchate and the other Orthodox patriarchates dealing with important and significant issues of the Church.也應包括在內諭字母的宗主教和教會的重要和重大問題的處理與其他東正教主教的職位。 A collection of most of these Orthodox documents with ecumenical importance has been made and published by Professor John Karmires, a distinguished Orthodox theologian in Greece.收集的最合一的重要性,這些的東正教文件與已公佈的教授約翰Karmires的,傑出的希臘東正教的神學家。 There is still no English translation of this important collection.這個重要的收藏品目前還沒有英文翻譯。

In sum, the Ecumenical Councils, together with the Scriptures and the Patristic writings, are the universal voice of the Church.總之,基督教議會,連同聖經和教父的著作,是在教會的普遍呼聲。 The position of the Ecumenical Councils in the Church and their universal authority is enhanced by the fact that they issued not only dogmatic definitions of faith, but also formulated important canons of the Church which concern Orthodox spiritual life and help the individual in the growth of his life in Christ.基督教議會在教會中的地位和他們的普遍權力增強的事實,他們不僅發出的信仰教條式的定義,而且還制定了重要的大砲的教會有關的東正教精神的生活,並幫助個人對他的成長在基督裡的生活。 Not all these canons have the same value today as they had when first written; still, they are like compasses which direct our lives toward a Christian lifestyle and orient us towards a high spiritual level.並非所有這些大砲都具有相同的價值,因為他們今天第一次寫入時,他們仍然是像圓規指揮我們的生活朝著一個基督徒的生活方式和我們東方向高的精神層面。 Canons which concern our moral life, fasting, and Holy Communion are indeed important for our daily life as good Orthodox Christians.關注我們的道德生活,禁食,和聖餐是大砲的確很重要,我們每天的生活,良好的東正教徒。

The Living Tradition of the Eucharist聖體聖事生活的傳統

It is interesting to emphasize another form of the Synodical system, which accentuates the importance of Tradition: the Eucharist itself.有趣的是強調synodical在系統的另一種形式,以突出的傳統的重要性:聖體本身。 In the Eucharist, all Orthodox Christians meet together and in absolute agreement, in doctrine and practice witness the presence of the Holy Trinity on the altar of the Church.在聖體聖事,所有東正教基督徒聚在一起,在絕對的協議,在理論和實踐證人的教堂的祭壇上存在的聖三一。 The bishop and the priest pray to God the Father to send the Holy Spirit and transform the bread and wine into the very body and blood of Christ.主教和牧師向上帝祈禱父親送聖靈和改造的麵包和酒進入非常身體和基督的血。 All the faithful present are called to receive Communion and become active members of the Body of Christ.所有的忠實目前被稱為接受聖餐的基督的身體,並成為活躍的成員。 In the liturgy, as it was instituted by the Lord Himself, the whole Church meets every day to proclaim and live the oneness and the unity of faith in Jesus Christ.在禮儀中,因為它是由主自己制定的,整個教會滿足每天宣講和生活在基督耶穌裡的統一性和團結的信念。 In the Orthodox liturgy, we see all the history of Tradition embodied in the body and blood of Christ.在東正教禮儀中,我們看到所有的歷史傳統,體現在基督的身體和血的。 St. Gregory Palamas writes the following in connection with the Holy Eucharist: "We hold fast to all the Traditions of the Church, written and unwritten, and aboveall to the most mystical and sacred celebration and communion and assembly ( synaxis ), whereby all other rites are made perfect . . . " ( Letter to Dionysius , 7).聖格里高利·帕拉瑪斯與聖體聖事中寫入以下內容:“我們堅守所有的教會的傳統,成文和不成文,aboveall最神秘和神聖的慶祝和交流和組件(synaxis),而所有其他儀式完美的......“( 狄奧尼修斯 ,7)。 This emphasis on the Eucharist shows that Tradition is a dynamic way of life unfolding continuously in the liturgical framework of the Church.這表明,傳統的生活展開連續的教會在禮儀框架是一個動態的方式強調聖體聖事。 By participating in the Eucharist, we proclaim our Tradition as living and active members of the Church.通過參加在聖體聖事,我們宣布我們的傳統的教會生活和積極的成員。

Of course, to live according to the Traditions of the Orthodox Church, to participate, fully, in the life of Tradition is not an easy task.當然,根據東正教的傳統生活,參與,充分,在傳統的生活是不容易的事。 We need the imparting of the Holy Spirit, in order to live in a mystical and mysterious way the life of Christ.我們需要聖靈的傳授,為了生活在一個神秘的,神秘的方式基督的生命。 As St. Gregory Palamas wrote: "All those dogmas which are now openly proclaimed in the Church and made known to all alike, were previously mysteries foreseen only by the prophets through the Spirit. In the same way the blessings promised to the saints in the age to come are at the present stage of the Gospel dispensation still mysteries, imparted to and foreseen by those whom the Spirit counts worthy, yet only in a partial way and in the form of a pledge" ( Tomos of the Holy Mountain, Preface).正如聖格列高利拉馬斯說:“所有這些的教條是現在在教會中公開宣稱,知道都一樣,以前只有通過精神的先知預見的奧秘。以同樣的方式祝福答應聖徒在年齡來在現階段的傳福音的奧秘,傳授和可預見的人的精神計數值得的,但只在部分的方式和形式的承諾“(TOMOS的聖山,前言) 。

Thus, the Tradition of the Church is a living reality, which the Orthodox Christian must live daily in a mystical way.因此,傳統的教會是一個活生生的現實,東正教基督徒必須每天都生活在一種神秘的方式。 By adhering to the teaching of the Scriptures, the Ecumenical Councils, and the Patristic writings, by observing the canons of the Church, by frequently participating in the Eucharist, where Tradition becomes an empirical reality, we are members of the Body of Christ and are led to the "contemplation of God" to repeat a beautiful expression of St. Neilos (fifth century).堅持教學的聖經,基督教議會,和教父的著作,經常參加在聖體聖事的教會的教規,通過觀察,傳統成為一個經驗事實,我們是基督的身體,是導致“沉思上帝”重複一個美麗的表達聖Neilos(第五世紀)。 St. Gregory Palamas, in summing up the Patristic doctrine of Christian life, suggests that the ultimate purpose of man's life is theoptia, that is, seeing God.聖格雷戈里·拉馬斯,在總結教父教義的基督徒生活,人的生命的最終目的是theoptia,就是看到神。 ( In Defense of the Hesychasts , 1, 3, 42) or to use St. Gregory of Nyssa's words, man's life is a strenuous and endless ascent towards God, that is, deification ( theosis ). (國防Hesychasts,1,3,42),或使用聖格雷戈里的果樹的話,人的生命是一個艱苦的和無休止的上升,這是對神,神化( 神化 )。 ( On the Life of Moses , ed. by W. Jaeger, 112ff.).在生活的摩西 ,由W.積,112ff)。

Orthodox Tradition, therefore, is not a dead letter, a collection of dogmas and practices of the past.東正教的傳統,因此,是不是一紙空文,在過去的教條和實踐的集合。 It is the history of salvation.它是歷史的救贖。 It is the life of the Holy Spirit, who constantly illuminates us in order for all Orthodox Christians to become sons and daughters of God, living in the Divine light of the All-blessed Trinity.這是聖靈,不斷照亮我們聯繫,以便為所有東正教基督徒成為神的兒子和女兒的,住在神聖的光,全天主聖三的生命。

George S. Bebis Ph.D.喬治·S. Bebis博士
Holy Cross School of Theology聖十字學院的神學

Bibliography 參考書目
G. Florovsky, Bible, Church, Tradition: An Eastern Orthodox View, Belmont, Mass., 1972.; V. Lossky, "Tradition and Traditions", in In The Image and Likeness of God , ed. G. Florovsky, 聖經,教會傳統東正教查看,貝爾蒙,馬薩諸塞州,1972年。V. Lossky,“傳統與傳統”, 在形象和樣式造神 ,編輯。 JH Erickson and TE Bird, Crestwood, NY, 1974, pp. 141-168.; J. Meyendorff, "The Meaning of Tradition," in Living Tradition , pp. 13-26.; GS Bebis, "The Concept of Tradition in the Fathers of the Church," Greek Orthodox Theological Review , Spring 1970, Vol. JH埃里克森和TE鳥,克雷斯特伍德,NY,1974年,頁141-168。J. Meyendorff,“傳統意義”的生活傳統 ,頁13-26。GS Bebis,“傳統的概念父親的教會, 希臘東正教神學評論 ,1970年春季,卷。 XV, No. 1, pp. 22-55.; C. Scouteris, "Paradosis: The Orthodox Understanding of Tradition," Sobornost-Eastern Churches Review , Vol. XV,第1期,頁22-55。; C. Scouteris,的“Paradosis:東正教的傳統認識, 稱之為聚議性的東方教會 4, No. 1, pp. 30-37. 4,第1號,第30-37。

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