Resurrection of the Dead死人復活

General Information 一般資料

In the OT在OT

Several considerations moved OT thought away from the early, universal, animistic ideas about postmortem survival which underlay necromancy (I Sam. 28:8-9), funeral provisions, directions for the dead, and Sheol/Hades, the shadowy underworld of ghosts (Ezek. 32:17-32).提出幾個注意事項OT以為遠離初期,普遍的,萬物有靈論的想法死後生存,這背後死靈(我心。28:8-9),葬禮的規定,死者的方向,陰間/冥府,陰間的鬼魂在朦朧的(以西結書32:17-32)。

Everyday observation, plus the belief that God made man's body in his own image, led to the conviction that man was not "soul" imprisoned within a physical frame but embodied spirit, a unity of body and living self.日常觀察,再加上相信神照著自己的形象造人的身體,導致的信念,人是沒有“靈魂”,被囚禁在一個物理幀,但體現的精神,團結的身體和生活的自我。 Sheol's disembodiment in forgetfulness, hopelessness, without knowledge or relationships (II Sam. 12:23; Job 7:9ff.; 10:20-22; Ps. 30:9; Eccles. 9:2, 5, 10) therefore struck horror, as subhuman.因此襲擊​​的恐怖陰間的disembodiment健忘,絕望,沒有知識或關係(二,三。12:23;職位7:9隊友。; 10:20-22;詩30:9;埃克爾斯9:2,5,10)。非人。 Hence Israel's care for the bodies of the dead (Gen. 23; 50:2, 25; Jer. 8:1ff.; 14:16).因此,以色列的照顧的屍體死(創23; 50:2,25;耶8:1; 14:16)。

At first Yahweh's rule did not extend beyond death (Pss. 6:5; 88:10-12, Isa. 38:18), until prophetic insistence on his universal sovereignty claimed Sheol also within his jurisdiction (Ps. 139:7-8).在第一耶和華的規則並沒有超出死亡(Pss. 6:5; 88:10-12,以賽亞書38:18),直到預言的堅持對他的普遍的主權聲稱陰間的他的管轄範圍內(詩139:7-8 )。 The emphasis of Jeremiah and Ezekiel on individual relationships with God led to more religious conceptions of the afterlife (Pss. 16:8-11; 73:23-26).個人與神的關係的重點耶利米和以西結導致的來世的宗教觀念(詩16:8-11; 73:23-26)。 No shadow existence could sustain divine fellowship, but only restoration to full personality in resurrection (Matt. 22:31).無陰影的存在,可以維持神聖的獎學金,但只恢復到個性十足的復活(馬太福音22:31)。

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Longing for acquittal from the accusation that great suffering implies great sin made Job contemplate waiting in Sheol until God's wrath be past and he, released, would live again (Job 14:7-15).渴望巨大的痛苦意味著大罪的指控無罪釋放,從工作考慮在陰間等待,直到神的忿怒過去和他釋放,將再次生活(約伯記14:7-15)。 Despite its difficulties, Job 19:25-27 likewise appears to anticipate immortality in some bodily form.儘管有困難,就業19:25-27同樣出現在一些體形預期不朽。 Pss. PSS的。 73:17; 49:14-15; Isa. 73:17;以賽亞書49:14-15; 53:10ff. 53:10 FF。 similarly relieve the injustice of suffering by the hope of life with God beyond Sheol.同樣減輕痛苦生活的希望與超越陰間之神的不公。

Some think the promises of national vindication and prosperity in the day of the Lord, unless confined to "the final generation," first prompted thoughts of resurrection of intervening generations, although Hos.有些人認為在主的日子的國家辯護和繁榮的承諾,除非局限於“的最後一代,”第一次提示復活的干預世代的思考,雖然何氏。 6:2; 13:14; Ezek. 6:2; 13:14;以西結書。 37:1-14 use resurrection language as already familiar. 37:1-14使用復活語言已經很熟悉的。 Isa.伊薩。 24-27 (especially 25:6-8; 26:19ff.) and Dan. 24-27(25:6-8; 26:19 FF)和丹。 12:1-4 anticipate the return of men in bodily integrity to share Israel's glory.圖12:1-4預計回報男性身體完整性分享以色列的榮耀。 Isa.伊薩。 26:14 denies resurrection to foes; Daniel includes resurrection "to life" (for Jews faithful under persecution), and "to everlasting contempt" (for Jews who joined the persecutors, 11:32ff.). 26:14否認復活的敵人丹尼爾包括復活“的生活”(忠實下迫害的猶太人),和“永恆的蔑視”(對誰加入猶太人的迫害,11:32 FF)。 No general resurrection is implied: here, too, justice is the argument.沒有復活的暗示:在這裡,太,公正的說法。

Zoroastrian, Egyptian, Assyrian, and Babylonian allusions may be either sources or parallels to developing Jewish thought.瑣羅亞斯德教,埃及,亞述和巴比倫的典故,可以是源或相似之處發展猶太思想。

Intertestamental Apocalyptic Thought Intertestamental啟示思想

Intertestamental apocalyptic ranged widely. Intertestamental,世界末日的範圍廣泛。 Some writers applied moral distinctions within Sheol, with reward and punishment implying some degree of judgment.有些作家適用於道德的區別在陰間,獎勵和懲罰某種程度的判斷。 Promises to the faithful, especially martyrs, included earthly glory; justice would likewise resurrect oppressors (with their deformities) to be recognized and punished (II Apoc. Bar.; cf. Mark 9:42ff.).承諾,忠實的,尤其是烈士,包括地上的榮耀,正義同樣復活壓迫者(畸形)確認和懲罰(II載脂蛋白C。酒吧。比照馬克9:42起)。

Hellenized Judaism preferred immortality of the soul, more richly conceived, to resurrection of the body.希臘化猶太教的首選不朽的靈魂,更豐富的構思,復活的身體。 Palestinian Judaism clung to resurrection.巴勒斯坦猶太教堅持復活。 "Garments of glory" (of life) were required for life beyond death (I-II Enoch), "nakedness" (disembodiment) being abhorred. “服裝的榮耀”(生活)需要死後的生命(I-II諾),“赤身露體”(disembodiment)被唾棄的。 Some speak of a spiritual body, counterpart to the physical and coexistent with it.有些人講的是靈性的身體,對應的物理和與它共存。 I Enoch says the body buried will rise "glorious"; II Apoc.我世孫以諾曾表示,將屍體埋上升的“輝煌”; II載脂蛋白C。 Bar.酒吧。 resembles I Cor.就像我肺心病。 15:35ff. 15:35 FF。 but holds the transformation comes later; most speak of the risen body as "like angels...made of the light and glory of God"; others of its needing neither food nor marriage.但持有的轉型來得晚,大部分發言的復活的身體“像天使一樣的光與神的榮耀”,其他需要既沒有食物,也沒有結婚。

Those raised to share Messiah's temporary (earthly) or final (supernatural) kingdom will be righteous (Jews).提出的那些問題,分享(塵世)彌賽亞的臨時或最終(超自然)王國將成為義人(猶太人)。 Other writers assume a general resurrection; II Esdras, a resurrection of Messiah and all men after the messianic age.其他作家的假設一般的復活II埃斯德拉斯後救世主的時代,一個復活的彌賽亞,所有的人。 In I Enoch 22 those already punished remain in Sheol; those not punished move to torturing Gehenna; I Enoch 67 has some wicked raised for judgment.在我伊諾克22那些已經受到懲罰留在陰間;那些沒有受到懲罰使用酷刑地獄,我伊諾克67有一些邪惡的判斷提出。 Apocalyptists invent various stages of judgment, kingdom, resurrection. Apocalyptists發明的判斷,王國,復活的各個階段。。 Benj. BENJ。 10:6ff. 10:6 FF。 makes patriarchs rise first, then sons of Jacob, then all men.使得先祖上升,然後雅各的兒子們,然後所有的人。 II Macc., perhaps following hints of Isa.二Macc。,也許在伊薩的提示。 24-27 and Daniel, suggests martyrs deserve priority. 24-27和Daniel,建議,烈士應優先。

By the first century most Jews held to general resurrection; rabbis argued Abraham so believed (Heb. 11:19).一世紀最猶太人舉行全面復活,拉比們認為這樣認為亞伯拉罕(希伯來書11:19)。 Pharisees expected resurrection of the just (Acts 23:8), so probably did Essenes and Qumran covenanters.法利賽人預期的復活剛剛(使徒行傳23:8),所以大概essenes和庫姆蘭盟約。 Sadducees denied resurrection as not "Mosaic," and possibly as a foreign idea (Mark 12:18; Josephus says they believed the soul died with the body).撒都該人否認復活不是“馬賽克”,並有可能作為一門外語的想法(馬可福音12:18;約瑟夫說,他們相信靈魂與身體死亡)。 A few, holding matter evil, denied resurrection altogether.幾下,持有此事邪惡,完全否認復活。

In the NT在NT

New Christian contributions include基督教新的貢獻包括

Johannine reflection moves even nearer than Paul's toward incorporeal immortality.約翰反射動作更近,比保羅的走向無形的不朽。 Eternal life is experienced now (John 3:36); the faithful never see death (8:51); believers have already "crossed over" from death to life (5:24), as have those who love (I John 3:14).永恆的生命是經驗豐富的(約翰福音3:36),忠實從來沒有看到死亡(8:51),信徒已經“越過”從生命死亡(5:24),作為那些誰愛(約翰福音3章: 14)。 Faced with Martha's talk about resurrection at the last day, Jesus replies that he himself, and relationship to him, constitute the resurrection and the life (11:25; 17:3) just as belief in him avoids judgment and unbelief is judgment (John 3:18-21).面對瑪莎的談論復活的最後一天,耶穌回答說,他本人和他的關係,構成了復活和生命(11:25; 17:3),就像他的信念,避免判斷和不信的判斷(約翰福音3:18-21)。 As Christ's own life (preexistent, earthly, postmortem) passes through death unquenched, so believers will never die (8:51).正如基督自己的生命(先在地上的,死後)通過死亡淬滅,所以信徒永遠不會死(8:51)。 Those who disobey the Son do not see life (3:36).誰不服從的兒子看不到生活(3:36)。 As does Paul, John appears to discount physical resurrection, yet 5:25, 28ff.至於保羅,約翰似乎折扣身體復活,但5:25,28ff。 declare a general resurrection, and 6:39-40, 44, 54 a resurrection of believers "at the last day", hardly an accommodation to earlier views or interpolation, since Lazarus's restoration to this life and Christ's physical resurrection mean so much to John.聲明一般的復活,並6:39-40,44,54復活的信徒“最後一天”,幾乎沒有一個住宿的早期觀點或內插,因為拉撒路的修復這種生活和基督的身體復活的意思是這麼多約翰。 Faith was still exploratory.信仰還是探索性的。

Further Developments進一步的發展

Later thought further illustrates the tension between Hebrew and Greek emphases.後來想了想,進一步說明了希伯來文和希臘之間的緊張關係重點。 Gnostic dualism infiltrated Christian teaching about God, Christ, and morality with the alien Greek principle that matter is inherently evil and must be destroyed, resurrection being impossible.諾斯底二元論滲透基督教關於上帝,基督,教學與外星人希臘的原則和道德問題,本質上是邪惡的,必須銷毀,復活是不可能的。 But (except in asceticism) the church rejected dualism.但(除了禁慾主義),教會拒絕二元論。 I and II Clement, Barnabas ("a general resurrection"), and Tertullian ("the soul inherently immortal and death unnatural, yet the same body will be raised") express the orthodox view. I和II克萊門特,巴納巴斯(“復活”),良(“靈魂內在的不朽和死亡的不自然,但相同的身體會引發”)表示的正統觀點。 Ignatius follows John: Christ is eternal life, but "flesh and spirit" will be raised through the Eucharist ("medicine of immortality") and the Spirit.伊格如下約翰:基督是永恆的生命,但將通過聖體聖事(“藥不死”)的精神提出“肉體和精神”。 Origen insists that the natural body is dissolved into dust, but will be raised and "advance to a spiritual body", so striving to reconcile Hebrew and Platonic ideas.奧利堅持認為,純天然的身體被分解成塵埃,但會提出,“推進到一種精神體”,因此力求調和希伯來語和柏拉圖的理念。 Aquinas, too, held our fleshly bodies rise and remain fleshly; like Tertullian, he finds spiritual uses for redundant physical organs.阿奎那,也認為我們的肉體的身體上升,並保持肉體的,如良,他發現精神的用途多餘的身體器官。

A typical modern statement runs: "The term immortality is preferable. The argument that religious experience implies personal survival points to the immortality of the soul and its values rather than to resurrection of the body."一個典型的現代語句運行:“是最好的長期不朽。宗教經驗的說法,意味著個人生存點的不朽的靈魂和它的價值,而不是復活的身體。” This attracts many, who do not always realize the values conserved by the traditional resurrection emphasis: the permanence not only of abstract personality and values but of the individual, with consciousness, relationships, memories, and love, against theories of absorption ("a drop in the eternal ocean of being"), racial survival ("continuing to contribute to ongoing humanity"), or sentimental immortality ("to live in the hearts of those we love is not to die").這吸引了許多,誰不總是實現由傳統的復活重點保守的價值觀:不僅是抽象的個性和價值觀,但個人的持久性,意識,人際關係,記憶和愛,對理論的吸收(“一滴在永恆的海洋“),的種族生存(繼續推動正在進行的人類”),或感傷的不朽(“住在我們所愛的心是不會死”)。 Essentially, Christians believe that he who called men into being and into fellowship with himself can sustain all persons under eternal conditions, in complete and enriched humanity, in such bodily garment as eternal life requires.從本質上講,基督徒相信他的人叫男人到與自己相交,完整和豐富了人類永恆的條件下,可以保持所有的人,在這種身體上的服裝作為永恆的生活需要。

REO White選舉事務處白
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
DS Russell, Between the Testaments; J. Baillie, And the Life Everlasting; JH Leckie, World to Come and Final Destiny; Tertullian, On the Resurrection of the Flesh. DS羅素之間的聖經,J.貝利,和生命永恆; JH萊基,世界的未來,並最終命運;良,在復活的肉。

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