Sermon on the Mount登山寶訓中

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The Sermon on the Mount is the discourse of Jesus in Matt.在登山寶訓中耶穌在馬太福音的話語。 5-7, containing the epitome of his ethical teaching. 5-7,他的倫理教學的縮影。 The shorter but parallel sermon in Luke 6:20-49 is usually known as the Sermon on the Plain, because of a different description of the setting.在路加福音6:20-49講道較短,但平行的,通常被稱為平原上的講道,因為不同的設置說明。 No other block of Jesus' teaching has enjoyed such wide influence and intense examination.耶穌的教導沒有其他塊已享受過如此廣泛的影響力和激烈的考試。 Its uniqueness derives not only from its impact as a whole, but also from the fact that some of its parts have attained classical status on their own.它的獨特性不僅來自其作為一個整體的影響,但也從一個事實,即它的一些部件已經達到了自己的經典地位。

The sermon has been called anything from essential Christianity to Jesus' manifesto, but it is best seen as the height of Jesus' ethical demands on his disciples occasioned by the nearness of the kingdom.布道被稱為什麼必要基督教耶穌的宣言,但它最好被看成是耶穌的倫理道德要求他的弟子所引起的貼近度的高度。 Since Matt.由於馬特。 portrays Jesus as seated in rabbinic posture teaching his disciples, the term "sermon" is an unfortunate, though now unavoidable, one.描繪耶穌教導他的弟子們坐在猶太法學博士的姿勢,“布道”是一種不幸,但現在不可避免的。

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Contexts of the Sermon登山寶訓的情況下


(1) Structure. (1)結構。 The body of Matt.該機構的馬特。 is organized around five discourses of Jesus, each ending with a transitional formula beginning, "When Jesus finished...."是圍繞著耶穌的話語開始一個過渡性的公式,每個結局,“當耶穌完成......” The sermon is the first of these discourses, and, coupled with the narrative section which follows in chs.布道的這些論述,是第一次,再加上在社區衛生服務如下的敘述部分。 8-9, forms a characterization of Jesus' early Galilean ministry. 8-9,形成了耶穌早期伽利略部的一個表徵。 Some of the Beautitudes have corresponding woes in ch.一些的Beautitudes都在CH相應的困境。 23, whereas in Luke these appear in the sermon itself. 23,而在路加福音出現在講道本身。

(2) Theology. (2)神學。 The sermon meshes well with the theology of Matt.布道網格與神學的馬特。 in several respects, especially in parallels with the Pentateuch and emphasis on the kingdom.在一些方面,尤其是在五和重點王國的相似之處。 The initial verse calls to mind early statements in Gen., and as he presents Jesus' preadult life, certain similarities with Moses are quite striking.最初的詩,讓人聯想到在創世紀的早期陳述,他提出了耶穌的成年期生活,與摩西一定的相似性是相當驚人的。 The sermon is set on a mountain, and Jesus comes to fulfill the law (5:17) and sets himself up as the authoritative interpreter of its true meaning in the antitheses of ch.在山上的講道,耶穌來履行法律(5:17),並設置自己的權威解釋其真正的意義對立的通道。 5. 5。 The kingdom theme combines with that of righteousness in 5:20 and 6:33, but its importance is seen above all in the Beatitudes, which begin and end with a promise of the kingdom, thus indicating that this is their overriding focus.王國主題結合,在5:20和6:33的正義,但它的重要性被看作高於一切,在真福,開始和結束王國的承諾,​​從而表明這是壓倒一切的重點。

Synoptic Gospels符類福音

Various attempts to place the sermon precisely in Jesus' ministry have proven problematic, but it certainly belongs early.各種嘗試將講道正是在耶穌的事工已被證明有問題,但它肯定屬於早期。 That it bears some relationship to Luke's Sermon on the Plain is evident, especially from the overall agreement in the ordering of parallel material.盧克的講道平原承擔一定的關係是顯而易見的,尤其是從整體協議的順序的並行材料。 The greatest difference is the absence in Luke of the Palestinian Jewish or OT background to the sayings and of the whole block of material where Jesus' teaching is set over against some of contemporary Judaism (5:17-6:18).最大的區別是盧克的情況下,巴勒斯坦的猶太人或OT背景的說法,並設置了耶穌的教導對一些的當代猶太教(5:17-6:18)的整個塊的材料。 Of the various explanations of the relationship between the two sermons, the most satisfactory one is that they represent two separate teaching occassions reflecting different versions of a discourse Jesus gave on several occasions, but adapted to each situation.的各種解釋兩者之間的關係講道,最滿意的是,他們代表了兩種獨立的教學occassions的反映了耶穌的話語在多個場合的不同版本,但適應每一種情況。 This allows for the redactional activity in Matt., but ascribes the basic sermon as it stands to Jesus himself.這使得在馬特。redactional活動,但賦予的基本講道,因為它代表耶穌自己。

NT as a Whole NT作為一個整體

The position of the sermon on the continuum of NT theology may be seen in light of the commonly perceived extremes, James and Paul.可以看出,在普遍認為極端,詹姆斯和保羅連續的NT神學的說教的位置。 There are more close parallels between the sermon and James than with any other NT writing, and both of them belong in the Wisdom tradition.之間的講道和詹姆斯比任何其他NT寫作有更密切的相似之處,他們都屬於傳統的智慧。 Because of the widespread belief that Paul and Jesus, in the sermon, taught faith-righteousness versus works-righteousness, the two are often seen as poles apart theologically.由於人們普遍認為保羅和耶穌在登山寶訓,義教信仰與行為稱義,這兩個常常被看作是南轅北轍神學。

Theological Assessment神評估

Famous Sections著名的第

Three parts of the sermon have wielded considerable influence in their own right on Christian consciousness and liturgy.三部分的說教已經揮起了相當大的影響力,在自己的權利基督教意識和禮儀。 The Beatitudes have the kingdom as their primary theme, but they also introduce other of the sermon's emphases. “八福”的國作為其主要的主題,但是,也帶來了其他的講道的重點。 In contrast to their consoling nature in Luke, in Matt.與此相反,以安慰性質的盧克,在馬特。 they assume the character of ethical demands, and the focus of the blessings themselves is eschatological.他們承擔道德要求的性格,和自己的祝福是末世論的焦點。 The Matthean version of the Lord's Prayer is poetic with beautiful symmetry and has heavily influenced Christian liturgy.的Matthean版本的主禱文是詩意與美麗的對稱性,並已嚴重影響了基督教的禮拜儀式。 Jesus uses it as an illustration of the need for simplicity in prayer, and some of its words suggest his follow-up principle of reciprocal forgiveness.耶穌使用它作為一個簡單的禱告需要說明,和它的一些話表明他的後續工作的原則,相互寬恕。 The Golden Rule (7:12) brings to their apex the sermon's earlier teachings on interpersonal relations.黃金法則(7:12)他們講道的頂點早期教導人際關係。 Its interpreters have often stressed Jesus' positive mode of formulating this principle in contrast to the negative way by other great religious teachers.它的口譯員往往強調耶穌的積極模式,制定這個原則在其他偉大的宗教教師的消極的方式。 In the context of Jesus' thought as a whole, the Golden Rule is his way of expressing Lev.在耶穌的思想作為一個整體背景下,黃金法則是他的方式表達列弗。 19:18b, which he elsewhere calls the second great commandment (Matt. 22:39), for he sees both as the epitome of the law and the prophets. 19:18,他在其他地方調用的第二大誡命(馬太福音22:39),因為他看見的律法和先知的縮影。

Troublesome Passages麻煩的旅費

Several of Jesus' precepts are presented in such an absolute form that many interpreters have questioned the sermon's applicability to the average Christian.在這樣一個絕對的形式,很多口譯員的平均基督教布道的適用性提出質疑耶穌的戒律。 Tolstoi, on the other hand, while failing to recognize Jesus' use of such techniques as hyperbole, found here maxims the serious person must literally observe.另一方面,托爾斯泰,而沒有認識到耶穌的使用等技術誇張,在這裡找到格言嚴重的人必須從字面上觀察。 Certainly the person who literally destroys an eye or a hand (5:29-30) has not solved his problem, because he still has another left.字面上破壞眼睛或手(5:29-30)的人當然沒有解決他的問題,因為他還有另一個左。 Hyperbole here serves to underscore the urgency of radical action to remove the source of a temptation.誇張法在這裡,強調激進行動的緊迫性,刪除源的誘惑。 Jesus' forbidding of judging (7:1) has led some to conclude that a Christian cannot be a judge or serve on a jury; however, he is not giving the word a legal meaning, but is talking about being judgmental in interpersonal relations.耶穌的判斷(7:1),禁止導致一些人認為,基督徒不能成為法官或陪審,然而,他沒有給這個詞的法律含義,但在談論評判在人際交往。 The prohibition against swearing (5:34) has led some to refuse to swear, even in court, but Jesus' words are best seen against the background of the elaborate rabbinic system of loopholes that precluded simple honesty in personal dealings.禁止髒話(5:34),導致了一些拒絕宣誓,甚至在法庭上,但耶穌的話,最好的映襯下精心製作的猶太法學博士的系統漏洞,排除簡單的誠實的個人交易。 Jesus himself took an oath (Mark 8:12).耶穌親自宣讀誓詞(馬可福音8:12)。 Finally, Jesus' principle of nonresistance (Matt. 5:39) has been applied even to military and police force, whereas, again, Jesus relates it to interpersonal relationships.最後,耶穌不抵抗“的原則(馬太福音5:39),甚至軍隊和警察,耶穌,而涉及到人際關係。

Influence and Interpretation影響和解釋


Since the second century no block of Scripture of comparable size has exerted as great an influence as the sermon.第二世紀以來沒有大的影響力的講道塊產生了相當規模的“聖經”。 In the pre-Nicene period, passages from this discourse were quoted or alluded to more than from any other part of the Bible.前尼西亞時期,從這一話語通道,引用或提到的超過任何其他部分的聖經。 To the present day these words still profoundly challenge Christians and non-Christians alike.這句話至今仍然深刻地挑戰基督徒和非基督徒的一致好評。 They caused Tolstoi to change completely his social theory and influenced the development of Gandhi's use of nonviolence as a political force.他們造成托爾斯泰徹底改變​​了他的社會理論和甘地的非暴力作為一種政治力量影響了發展。 Even Nietzche, who objected to the teachings of the sermon, did not ignore them.即使是尼采,誰反對的教義的說教,根本不理睬他們。

History of Interpretation歷史的解釋

The arresting nature of the sermon has produced numerous diverging efforts to explain, or even explain away, Jesus' words.逮捕的說教性質產生了許多不同的解釋,甚至解釋了,耶穌的話。 Many have resisted efforts to limit the sermon's applicability.許多人抵制限制了布道的適用性。 One approach sees Jesus teaching an obedience-righteousness that cannot be reconciled with Paul.一個方法看到耶穌教服從義,無法調和與保羅。 Anabaptists did not go so far, but insisted that Jesus' words are so absolute that their obedience precludes Christian participation in certain social and political institutionss.再洗禮派沒有走這麼遠,但堅持認為​​,耶穌的話是絕對的,他們服從排除一定社會和政治institutionss的基督徒參與。 Bonhoeffer reacted against those who would analyze and interpret but fail to do the sermon.朋霍費爾反應,對那些將分析和解釋,但不能做的布道。 It must be done, but the power to do it comes only from the cross.它必須做的,但這樣做的權力,只有從十字架上。 Luther attempted to avoid what he regarded as the extremes of both the Roman and Anabaptist interpretations and stressed the obligation to keep the sermon's commandments.路德試圖避免的,他認為是極端的羅馬和再洗禮派的解釋,並強調保持講道的誡命的義務。 Liberal Protestantism has seen the sermon as the heart of the gospel and as Jesus' program for reforming society.自由新教已經看到了布道的心臟的福音和耶穌的社會改革計劃。

Others have attempted to limit the sermon's applicability.其他人試圖限制布道的適用性。 The predominant Lutheran view, though not of Luther himself, is that the sermon presents an impossible ideal which cannot be realized, so its function is to show man his inadequacy so he will be prepared for the gospel.的主要路德會,雖然沒有馬丁·路德本人,是不能被實現,所以它的功能是顯示了他的不足之處,所以他將準備的福音講道提供了一個不可能的理想。 What is sometimes called the existential position sees Jesus as attempting to change attitudes, not actions.什麼是有時被稱為存在的位置看到耶穌試圖改變態度,而不是行動。 The medieval Catholic interpretation called these precepts "evangelical counsels" for the few who would seek perfection, rather than commandments for every Christian.中世紀天主教的解釋稱,這些戒律“福音律師”為少數人會追求完美,而不是每一個基督徒的誡命。 Two approaches limit the full applicability of the sermon to the breaking in of the kingdom, but with different results: Schweitzer saw Jesus primarily as an eschatological figure, so he coined the term "interim ethics" to emphasize that the stringent requirements of the sermon could apply only to the stress-packed times immediately before God introduced his kingdom, an event which never occurred, so the sermon does not apply to our modern situation.有兩種方法限制的說教完全適用的斷裂的國度,但不同的結果:施魏策爾看到了耶穌主要是作為一個末世的人物,所以他創造了“臨時道德”,強調的嚴格要求的說教只適用於壓力包裝的時候立刻​​在神面前介紹了他的王國,從未發生過的事件,所以在的講道並不適用於我們現代的情況。 Dispensationalists also limit the sermon's focus to the kingdom, so for them Jesus' teachings will fully apply only at its future coming.時代論者也限制了布道的焦點的國度,所以對他們來說,耶穌的教導將充分應用在其未來的未來。

Meaning of the Sermon登山寶訓的含義

Jesus concludes the sermon by setting up certain requirements that relate directly to one's being saved or lost.耶穌最後的布道,通過設置一定的要求,直接關係到一個人的被保存或丟失。 He divides mankind into three classes: those who (1) follow him (7:13-14, 17, 21, 24-25), (2) do not follow him (vss. 13-44, 26-27), and (3) pretend to follow him (vss. 15-20, 21-23).他劃​​分人類分為三類:誰(1)跟隨他(7:13-14,17日,21日,24日至25日),(2)不按照他(VSS的13-44,26-27),和(3)假裝跟著他(VSS的15-20,21-23)。 To be saved one must actually follow the teachings of the sermon, but Jesus does not say they must be performed perfectly.要保存,就必須真正按照教義的說教,但耶穌沒有說,他們必須表現完美。 The saved are those who accept and actually attempt to direct their lives by the sermon; the lost are those who pretend to follow or who reject these teachings.保存的接受和實際的說教,試圖引導他們的生活,失去的是那些誰假裝服從或拒絕這些教義的人。 Is this any different from Paul's man of faith?這是保羅的人的信仰有什麼不同嗎? Was Paul not scandalized by the notion that a person may live the way he wants?保羅不反感的概念,即一個人生活的方式,他希望嗎? The person who rests his faith in Jesus determines to follow him.在於他的信仰耶穌的人,決定跟他走。 This is Jesus and Paul.這是耶穌和保羅。 Mere profession of belief, without the following, will secure Jesus' condemnation, "I never knew you. You evildoers, depart from me" (vs. 23).僅僅界的信仰,如果沒有以下,將確保耶穌的譴責,“我從來不知道你,你作惡的人,離開我”(23節)。 An unfortunate feature of much post-Reformation Christianity has been the interpretation of Jesus in light of Paul rather than the converse.一個不幸的特點了多少改革後基督教的耶穌的保羅,而不是相反的解釋。 One of the contributions of Bonhoeffer's treatment of this sermon is his insistence on reading Paul in light of Jesus and, hence, his stressing the necessity of doing the sermon.潘霍華的治療,這講道的貢獻是他堅持讀保羅在耶穌的光,因此,他強調有必要做的布道。 Perfection is not demanded and aid is provided, but still the true disciple is "the who does the will of the Father" (vs. 21).完美是不要求提供援助,但仍是真正的門徒是“誰做的天父的旨意”(21節)。

GT Burke (Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) GT伯克(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
Augustine, Our Lord's Sermon on the Mount; M. Luther, The Sermon on the Mount; HK McArthur, Understanding the Sermon on the Mount; WS Kissinger, The Sermon on the Mount; A Dictionary of the Bible, extra vol., 1-45; K. Grayston, IDB, IV, 279-89; G. Friedlander, The Jewish Sources of the Sermon on the Mount; CG Montefiore, Rabbinic Literature and Gospel Teachings; D. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship; AN Wilder, IB, VII, 155-64; J. Jeremias, The Sermon on the Mount; WD Davies, The Setting of the Sermon on the Mount and The Sermon on the Mount; RM Grant, "The Sermon on the Mount in Early Christianity," Sem 12:215-31; R. Guelich, The Sermon on the Mount; JRW Stott, Christian Counter-Culture.奧古斯丁,我們的主的登山寶訓中,M.路德,在登山寶訓中,香港麥克阿瑟,了解登山寶訓中,WS基辛格,登山寶訓中,A字典的聖經,額外的卷,第1 - 45 K.格雷斯頓,美洲開發銀行,IV,279-89; G.弗雷蘭德,猶太人的來源登山寶訓的CG蒙特弗洛爾,拉比文學,福音教門徒的代價D.朋霍費爾,一個狂放,IB七,155-64的J. jeremias,登山寶訓的WD戴維斯,山登山寶訓“和”登山寶訓的設置,RM格蘭特,“在早期基督教的登山寶訓,”SEM 12:215-31; R. Guelich,登山寶訓的JRW斯托特,基督教反文化。

Sermon on the Mount登山寶訓中

Advanced Information 先進的信息

After spending a night in solemn meditation and prayer in the lonely mountain-range to the west of the Lake of Galilee (Luke 6:12), on the following morning our Lord called to him his disciples, and from among them chose twelve, who were to be henceforth trained to be his apostles (Mark 3:14, 15).在莊嚴的沉思和祈禱來度過一晚後,第二天早上到西部的加利利湖(路6:12),在偏僻的山村範圍我們的主打電話給他他的弟子們,從他們中間挑選十二個人,誰今後的訓練是他的使徒(馬可福音3:14,15)。 After this solemn consecration of the twelve, he descended from the mountain-peak to a more level spot (Luke 6:17), and there he sat down and delivered the "sermon on the mount" (Matt. 5-7; Luke 6:20-49) to the assembled multitude.這個莊嚴神聖的12後,他從山頂峰值下降到一個更點(路加福音6:17),他在那裡坐了下來,並發表了“山上寶訓”(馬太福音5-7路加福音6 :20-49)的組裝眾多。 The mountain here spoken of was probably that known by the name of the "Horns of Hattin" (Kurun Hattin), a ridge running east and west, not far from Capernaum.這座山在這裡講的是可能是已知的“角”哈廷(Kurun哈廷),脊東部和西部,不遠處的迦百農的名稱。 It was afterwards called the "Mount of Beatitudes."它後來被稱為“福山”。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報字典)

Also, see:此外,見:
Beatitudes beatitudes

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