Witness, Witnessing證人,見證

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Properly, a "witness" (martys) is "one who testifies" (martyreo) by act or word his "testimony" (martyrion) to the truth.正確,“證人”(martys)的“證明”(martyreo)的行為或一詞,他的“證詞”(martyrion)的真相。 This act of testifying is called his "testimony" (martyria).這種行為被稱為作證他的“證詞”(martyria)。 In ancient days, as at the present, this was a legal term designating the testimony given for or against one on trial before a court of law.在古代,截至目前,這是一個法律術語,指定或反對一個在審判之前,法院的證詞。 In Christian usage the term came to mean the testimony given by Christian witnesses to Christ and his saving power.在基督教的使用這個詞來指基督教見證基督和他的節省電力的證詞。 Because such testimony often means arrest and scourging (cf. Matt. 10:18; Mark 13:9), exile (Rev. 1:9), or death (cf. Acts 22:20; Rev. 2:13; 17:6) the Greek was transliterated to form the English word "martyr," meaning one who suffers or dies rather than give up his faith.因為這樣的證詞往往意味著逮捕和鞭打(太10:18;馬可福音13:9),流放(啟示錄1:9),或死亡(參徒22:20,啟2:13; 17: 6)希臘音譯組成英文單詞“烈士”,即一個人受損或死亡,而不是放棄他的信仰。 However, in the NT suffering was an incidental factor in the word.然而,在NT的痛苦是這個詞的偶然因素。

A thorough study of witnessing would necessitate a study of the whole Bible.見證一個深入的研究,將須整本聖經的研究。 Such words as preaching, teaching, and confessing would have to be included.這樣的話,作為傳道,教學,承認被包括在內。 Greek words (fifteen in number) stemming from "witness" (martys) are used over two hundred times in the NT.希臘字(15號)從“證人”(martys)中得到超過200倍,在新台幣。 The most common usage is found in the Johannine writings, in which seventy-six instances are found.最常見的用法是在約翰的著作,其中76的情況下被發現。 Acts has thirty-nine instances and the Pauline writings thirty-five.使徒行傳39實例和寶蓮著作35。

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Leaving aside those uses of the word that refer to man's witness to men (cf. III John 12), God's witness to men (cf. Acts 13:22), man's witness against men (cf. Matt. 18:16), and miscellaneous uses (cf. John 2:25), we will consider the distinctively Christian use of the words.撇開那些使用這個詞是指人的見證男人(參見約翰三書12),神的見證男人(參見使徒行傳13:22),對男性的人的見證(參太18:16),雜項用途(參見約翰福音2:25),我們會考慮鮮明的基督教使用的話。

First, there are those testimonies which are meant to establish the incarnation and the truth of Christianity.首先,是那些證詞,這是為了建立的化身和基督教的真理。 In John's Gospel, where this is primary, we find instances of all the main witnesses.在約翰福音中,這是主要的情況下,我們發現所有的主要證人的實例。 John the Baptist "bears testimony" (martyreo) to Jesus as the coming Savior of the world (John 1:7-8, 15, 32, 34; 3:26; 5:32).施洗約翰“作為未來世界的救主(約翰1:7-8,15,32,34,3:26,5:32),耶穌承擔見證”(martyreo)。 The works that Jesus did were a testimony that he came from the Father (John 5:36); this explains why John called the miracles "signs" (semeion).的作品,耶穌做見證,他從父親(約翰福音5:36),這解釋了為什麼約翰被稱為奇蹟的“標誌”(semeion)。 The OT Scriptures are a testimony to Jesus (John 5:39); this thought is behind most of the NT quotations from the OT.舊約聖經的見證耶穌(約翰福音5:39);這種思想是最落後的NT報價從舊約。 After the resurrection the main evidences of the truth of Christianity are the ministry of the Holy Spirit (John 15:26), the witness of the disciples to the resurrection (Acts 1:22), and the signs and wonders by which God attested the ministry of the apostles and the churches (Heb. 2:4).復活後的主要依據基督教的真理是聖靈的事工(約翰福音15:26),復活的門徒的見證(使徒行傳1:22),和神蹟奇事的上帝見證事工和教會的使徒(希伯來書2:4)。

The pattern of Christian missionary and evangelistic activity is set in the NT.基督教傳教和布道活動的模式被設置在新台幣。 Several principles emerge.出現的幾個原則。

FL Fisher FL費舍爾
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Witness of the Spirit聖靈的見證

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Witness of the Spirit (Rom. 8:16), is the consciousness of the gracious operation of the Spirit on the mind, "a certitude of the Spirit's presence and work continually asserted within us", manifested "in his comforting us, his stirring us up to prayer, his reproof of our sins, his drawing us to works of love, to bear testimony before the world," etc.聖靈的見證(羅8:16),是意識在頭腦中的精神,親切的操作,“確定性聖靈的存在和工作的不斷宣稱在我們心中”,體現了“在他的安慰我們,他的攪拌我們祈禱的,他責備我們的罪,他吸引我們的愛的作品,在世人面前見證,“等等。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報字典)


Catholic Information 天主教信息

One who is present, bears testimony, furnishes evidence or proof.目前,見證,提交的證據或證明。 Witnesses are employed in various ecclesiastical matters, as in civil, in proof of a statement, fact, or contract.證人採用不同的教會事務,在民間,在一份聲明中,事實或合同的證明。 According to various circumstances a witness is one who is personally present and sees some act or occurrence and can bear testimony thereto; one who on request or in behalf of a party subscribes his name to an instrument to attest the genuineness of its execution; one who gives testimony on the trial of a cause, appearing before a court, judge, or other official to be examined under oath.根據各種情況的證人親自出席,看到一些行動或事件,可以見證其請求或代表的一方贊同他的名字的儀器,以證明其執行的真實性,一個誰作證的審判的原因,法院,法官,或其他官方檢查下宣誓前出現。 The espousals of Catholics ("Ne temere") to be binding must be in writing, signed by the contracting parties and ordinarily by two witnesses, or by a pastor or ordinary, each within his own territory, as sole witnesses.婚筵的天主教徒(“氦氖temere”的)有約束力,必須以書面形式簽署的,合同當事人通常由兩個證人,或由牧師或普通,每個在自己的領土上,作為唯一的證人。 In case either or both parties are unable for any cause to write, an additional witness is necessary.如果任何一方或雙方因任何原因無法寫的,額外的證人是必要的。 Catholics are incapable of entering into lawful wedlock ("Ne temere") except in the presence of a parish priest, or ordinary, or other priest duly delegated, and two witnesses.天主教徒是不能進入合法婚姻(“氦氖temere”的),除了在堂區主任司鐸,或普通,或其他牧師正式授予的,和兩名證人在場的。 Though not necessary for validity of the act, the Church desires in both cases that these witnesses be Catholics (SO, 19 Aug., 1891).雖然沒有必要的行為的有效性,教會希望在這兩種情況下,這些證人是天主教徒(SO,1891年8月19日)。 Witnesses of a marriage sign no ecclesiastical document, though they may be called upon by the state to attest by their own hand certain civil records.證人的婚姻沒有教會文件上簽字,儘管他們可能會要求由國家來證明自己的手一定的民事記錄。 Sponsors at baptism and confirmation are not properly witnesses; they assist for other purposes (see RELATIONSHIP).保薦人在洗禮和證實是不正確的證人,他們協助作其他用途(關係)。 A canonical precept, when employed, must be delivered in the presence of the vicar general or two others as witnesses (Cum magnopere, VII).一個規範的經商之道,當使用時,必須交付的副主教一般兩個人作為證人(優等magnopere,VII)的存在。 Ecclesiastical documents are attested or witnessed as circumstances require, eg, by the chancellor, clerk of the court, prothonotary apostolic.教會文件證明或目睹的情況下要求,例如,由校長,法庭書記員,prothonotary使徒。 Expert witnesses to some extent have a place in canon law.專家證人在一定程度上有一個地方教會法。 In ecclesiastical trials witnesses are adduced to prove a fact directly, or indirectly, ie, by establishing the falsity of the contrary.在教會的試驗中,證人是直接援引事實證明,或間接,即通過建立相反的虛假。

The essential qualifications of a witness are knowledge of the fact at issue and truthfulness: he must be an eye-witness and trustworthy.證人的基本資格是知識的問題和真實的事實:他必須是一個目擊證人和值得信賴的。 Hearsay witnesses, however, are admitted, if necessary, in matters not of a criminal nature, eg, in proof of consanguinity or other relationship, baptism, etc. Anyone not expressly prohibited may testify.傳聞證據的證人,但也承認,如果有必要的話,未盡事宜的犯罪性質,例如,在證明血緣關係或其他關係,洗禮,任何人都沒有明文禁止的作證。 Some, as the insane, infants, the blind or deaf, where sight or hearing is necessary for a knowledge of the facts in question, are excluded by the natural law; others by canon law, as those who are bribed or suborned, those who are infamous in law or in fact, convicted perjurors, excommunicated persons, all in a word whose veracity may be justly suspected.有些人,如精神失常,嬰幼兒,失明或耳聾,視力或聽力問題的事實是必要的知識,被排除的自然法則,其他的教會法,賄賂或唆使,那些誰在法律上或事實上是臭名昭著的,被定罪的的perjurors,驅逐的人,都在這個詞的準確度可能會得到公正的懷疑。 The law likewise rejects those who on account of affection or enmity may be biased, as well as those who may be specially interested in the case.該法也同樣拒絕這些人的感情或敵意可能失之偏頗,以及那些誰可能是特別感興趣的情況下。 Parents as a rule are not admitted for their children, particularly when the rights of a third party are at stake, or against them and vice-versa; relatives for one another; lawyers for their clients; accomplices or enemies for or against one another; Jews or heretics against Christians; lay persons against clerics, except their own interests are at stake, or there are no clerics to testify; minors or women in criminal cases tried criminally, unless their testimony is necessary, or they testify in favor of the accused.父母作為一項規則,不承認自己的孩子,尤其是在第三方的權利受到威脅,或對他們反之亦然;彼此的親戚,律師,為他們的客戶,或對彼此的同夥或敵人;針對基督徒的猶太人或異教徒;非法律專業人士對神職人員,除了他們自己的利益受到威脅時,或有沒有作證的神職人員,在刑事案件中的未成年人或婦女試圖刑事責任,除非他們的證詞是必要的,或他們中有利於被告作證。 Clerics, unless compelled by civil authorities, are not allowed to testify against the accused when sentence of death is to be imposed (see IRREGULARITY).牧師,除非由公務員主管部門,不得對被告判處死刑的罰款(見不規則)作證。 There are many exceptions to these general statements.有很多例外,這些一般性發言。 A witness is more easily admitted in favour of a person than against him, and in civil than in criminal trials.贊成的,而不是他一個人的證人更容易地承認,在民間不是在刑事審判。 No one is tolerated as a witness in his own case.沒有人作為證人在他自己的情況是不能容忍的。 Hence, those who are engaged in a similar cause, a judge who has adjudicated a like case, etc. are excluded.因此,那些從事類似的原因,法官已裁定等類似情況下,被排除在外。 False witnesses are those who under oath prevaricate or conceal the truth that they are bound to tell: they are guilty of perjury, and if convicted are infamous in law.虛假證人是那些誰下的誓言支吾其詞或隱瞞事實真相,他們一定會告訴他們是犯了偽證罪,如果罪名成立,在法律上是臭名昭著的。 Notaries or others by altering or falsifying documents substantially become guilty of forgery.通過改變或偽造文件的公證人或其他基本犯偽造。

Publication information Written by Andrew B. Meehan.出版信息的書面由安德魯·B.·米漢。 Transcribed by Michael T. Barrett.轉錄由邁克爾·巴雷特。 Dedicated to Jerry F. Kobelin The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV.獻給傑瑞F. Kobelin天主教百科全書,體積XV。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


Decret. Decret。 L., II, tit. L.,II,針鋒相對。 20, De testibus et Attestationibus; SANTI, Praelect. 20,testibus等Attestationibus:SANTI,Praelect。 Juris Can.; TAUNTON, The Law of the Church, sv法學。TAUNTON的教會法,SV

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