Catholic Information 天主教信息

(Abn Ali al Hosain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina, called by the Latins Avicenna). (ABN阿里Hosain·伊本·阿卜杜拉·伊本·新浪,稱為拉丁阿維森納)。 Arabian physician and philosopher, born at Kharmaithen, in the province of Bokhara, 980; died at Hamadan, in Northern Persia, 1037.阿拉伯醫生的哲學家,出生在Kharmaithen,,在全省的布哈拉,980;死在哈馬丹,在波斯北部,1037。 Avicenna was actually Persian, not Arabian阿維森納實際上是波斯語,而不是阿拉伯

From the autobiographical sketch which has come down to us we learn that he was a very precocious youth; at the age of ten he knew the Koran by heart; before he was sixteen he had mastered what was to be learned of physics, mathematics, logic, and metaphysics; at the age of sixteen he began the study and practice of medicine; and before he had completed his twenty-first year he wrote his famous "Canon" of medical science, which for several centuries, after his time, remained the principal authority in medical schools both in Europe and in Asia.從自傳體的草圖,已回落到我們學習,他是一個非常早熟的青年,10歲的他知道可蘭經的心,在他16歲之前,他已經掌握了什麼是可以學到的物理,數學,邏輯和形而上學,16歲的他開始研究和醫學實踐之前,他已經完成了他的二十一歲,他寫了他的著名的“佳能”的醫學科學,幾個世紀後,他的時間,仍然是醫學院校在歐洲和亞洲的主要權威。 He served successively several Persian potentates as physician and adviser, travelling with them from place to place, and despite the habits of conviviality for which he was well known, devoted much time to literary labours, as is testified by the hundred volumes which he wrote.他先後擔任幾個波斯君主醫生和顧問,他們從一個地方到另一個地方,和的歡樂,他是眾所周知的習慣,儘管花了很多時間,文學勞動力,這證明了百卷,其中他寫道。 Our authority for the foregoing facts is the "Life of Avicenna,", based on his autobiography, written by his disciple Jorjani (Sorsanus), and published in the early Latin editions of his works.對上述事實,我們的權力是“生命的阿維森納”,根據他的自傳,寫由他的的弟子Jorjani(Sorsanus),他的作品在早期的拉丁文版的發布。

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Besides the medical "Canon," he wrote voluminous commentaries on Arisotle's works and two great encyclopedias entitled "Al Schefa", or "Al Chifa" (ie healing) and "Al Nadja" (ie deliverance).除了醫療“佳能”,他寫了大量的評論對Arisotle的作品和兩個大百科全書有權的“基地Schefa”,或“基地吃法”(即癒合)和“基地娜佳”(即釋放)。 The "Canon" and portions of the encyclopedias were translated into Latin as early as the twelfth century, by Gerard of Cremona, Dominicus Gundissalinus, and John Avendeath; they were published at Venice, 1493-95. “佳能”和百科全書的部分被翻譯成拉丁文,早在十二世紀,由Gerard克雷莫納,多米尼克斯Gundissalinus,和約翰Avendeath的的,他們發表在威尼斯,1493年至1495年。 The complete Arabic texts are said to be are said to be in the manuscript in the Bodleian Library.完整的阿拉伯文本,說是說是在Bodleian圖書館的手稿。 An Arabic text of the "Canon" and the "Nadja" was published in Rome, 1593.阿拉伯文字的“佳能”和“娜佳”在羅馬出版,1593。

Avicenna's philosophy, like that of his predecessors among the Arabians, is Aristoteleanism mingled with neo-Platonism, an exposition of Aristotle's teaching in the light of the Commentaries of Thomistius, Simplicius, and other neo-Platonists.阿維森納的哲學,像他的前任阿拉伯人之間的是Aristoteleanism夾雜著新柏拉圖主義,闡述亞里士多德的教誨在光的評注的Thomistius,辛普立秋,和其他新柏拉圖主義者。

His Logic is divided into nine parts, of which the first is an introduction after the manner of Porphyry's "Isagoge"; then follow the six parts corresponding to the six treatises composing the "Organon"; the eighth and ninth parts consists respectively of treatises on rhetoric and poetry.他的邏輯是劃分成9部分,其中第一是後斑岩的“Isagoge”的方式的介紹,然後遵循的6部分對應的6論文撰寫的“歐加農”,第八和第九部分組成,分別的論文上修辭和詩歌。 Avicenna devoted special attention to definition, the logic of representation, as he styles it, and also to the classification of sciences.阿維森納特別重視的定義,邏輯的代表,他的風格它,同時也為科學的分類。 Philosophy, he says, which is the general name for scientific knowledge, includes speculative and practical philosophy.哲學,他說,這是對科學知識的總稱,包括投機性和實用的理念。 Speculative philosophy is divided into the inferior science (physics), and middle science (mathematics), and the superior science (metaphysics including theology).投機哲學分為遜色科學(物理),和中間的科學(數學),和卓越的科學(包括神學形而上學)。 Practical philosophy is divided into ethics (which considers man as an individual); economics (which considers man as a member of domestic society); and politics (which considers man as a member of civil society).實踐哲學分為道德(個人認為人),經濟學(國內社會的一員,認為人)和政治(認為人作為公民社會的一員)。 These divisions are important on account of their influence on the arrangement of sciences in the schools where the philosophy of Avicenna preceded the introduction of Aristotle's works.這些部門上的阿維森納的理念引入之前的亞里士多德的作品在學校的科學的安排自己的影響力,是很重要的。

A favourite principle of Avicenna, which is quoted not only by Averroes but also by the Schoolmen, and especially by St. Albert the Great, was intellectus in formis agit universalitatem, that is, the universality of our ideas is the result of the activity of the mind itself.喜愛的原則,阿維森納,這是引用,不僅的阿威羅伊也的schoolmen,尤其是聖偉業,是智洋在的松林AGIT universalitatem,這是我們的想法,普遍性的活動的結果思想本身。 The principle, however, is to be understood in the realistic, not in the nominalistic sense.的原理,但是,應當理解在現實的,而不是在唯名感。 Avicenna's meaning is that, while there are differences and resemblances among things independently of the mind, the formal constitution of things in the category of individuality, generic universality, specific universality, and so forth, is the work of the mind.阿維森納的意思是,而有不同事物之間的相似之處獨立的思想,正式憲法類的個性的東西,一般的普遍性,具體的普遍性,等等,是工作的初衷。 Avicenna's physical doctrines show him in the light of a faithful follower of Aristotle, who has nothing of his own to add to the teaching of his master. ,阿維森納的物理學說顯示了他在光亞里士多德的忠實追隨者,有沒有他自己的,他的主人的教學。 Similarly, in psychology, he reproduces Aristotle's doctrines, borrowing occasionally an explanation, or an illustration, from Alfarabi.同樣,在心理學上,他再現亞里士多德的學說,借用偶爾的解釋或說明,從阿爾法拉比。 On one point, however, he is at pains to set the true meaning, as he understands it, of Aristotle, above all the exposition and elaboration of the Commentators.然而,在一個點上,他煞費苦心設置的真諦,據他了解,亞里士多德,以上所有的論述和闡釋評論員。 That point is the question of the Active and Passive Intellect.這一點是主動和被動的智力問題。 (See ARABIAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY). (見ARABIAN哲學學院)。 He teaches that the latter is the individual mind in the state of potency with regard to knowledge, and that the former is the impersonal mind in the state of actual and perennial thought.他教導,後者是個人的心的狀態效力方面的知識,而且在實際的和長期的思想狀態,前者是客觀的頭腦。 In order that the mind acquire ideas, the Passive Intellect must come into contact with the Active Intellect.被動智力的心靈收購的想法,必須接觸到的Active智力。 Avicenna, however, insists most emphatically that a contact of that kind does not interfere with the independent substantiality of the Passive Intellect, and does not imply that it is merged with the Active Intellect.阿維森納,但是,最強調堅持一個接觸的那種不干預的獨立實體性的被動智力,並不意味著它是合併的積極的智慧。 He explicitly maintains that the individual mind retains its individuality and that, because it is spiritual and immaterial, it is endowed with personal immortality.他明確認為,​​個人的心,因為它是精神的和非物質的,它被賦予了個人不朽保留其個性和。 At the same time, he is enough of a mystic to maintain that certain choice souls are capable of arriving at a very special kind of union with the Universal, Active, Intellect, and of attaining thereby the gift of prophecy.同時,他是,夠一個神秘的維持,某些選擇的靈魂都能夠到達一個非常特殊的工會與通用的,主動的,智力,從而實現預言的恩賜。

Metaphysics he defines as the science of supernatural (ultra-physical) being and of God.形而上學他定義為科學的超自然(超物理的)和神。 It is, as Aristotle says, the theological science.這是,正如亞里士多德所說的,神學的科學。 It treats of the existence of God, which is proved from the necessity of a First Cause; it treats of the Providence of God, which, as all the Arabians taught, is restricted to the universal laws of nature, the Divine Agency being too exalted to deal with singular and contingent events; it treats of the hierarchy of mediators between God and material things, all of which emanated from God, the Source of all sources, the Principle of all principles.它把上帝存在的證明,這是一個第一原因的必要性,它把普羅維登斯的上帝,所有阿拉伯人教,僅限於自然界的普遍規律,太崇高神聖的機構處理單一及或然事件,它把神和物質上的東西之間的調停的層次結構,所有這一切都源自上帝,所有來源的所有原則,原則的來源。 The first emanation from God is the world of ideas.氣從神是世界的想法。 This is made up of pure forms, free from change, composition, or imperfection; it is akin to the Intelligible world of Plato, and is, in fact, a Platonic concept.這是由純粹的形式,免費變化,組合,或不完善的,它是類似於柏拉圖理解世界的,是的,其實,柏拉圖式的概念。 Next to the world of ideas is the world of souls, made up of forms which are, indeed, intelligible, but not entirely separated from matter.世界的想法是,由形式,確實可以理解的,但不能完全分開從物質世界的靈魂。 It is these souls that animate and energize the heavenly spheres.正是這些靈魂,動畫和激勵天上的領域。 Next to the world of souls is the world of physical forces, which are more or less completely embedded in terrestrial matter and obey its laws; they are, however, to some extent amenable to the power of intelligence in so far as they may be influenced by magic art.世界的靈魂是身體的力量,這是多還是少,完全嵌入在陸源物質和遵守其法律,他們的世界,但是,在一定程度上服從的力量,智力,到目前為止,因為它們可能會影響神奇的藝術。 Lastly comes the world of corporeal matter; this, according to the neo-Platonic conception which dominates Avicenna's thought in this theory of emanation, is of itself wholly inert, not capable of acting but merely of being acted upon (Occasionalism).最後來的是有形的物質世界;這一點,根據阿維森納的思想佔主導地位,在這個理論中,氣的新柏拉圖主義的概念,是對自己的完全惰性,不能夠採取行動,而只是採取行動(偶因)。 In this hierarchical arrangement of beings, the Active Intellect, which, as was pointed out above, plays a necessary role in the genesis of human knowledge, belongs to the world of Ideas, and is of the same nature as the spirits which animate the heavenly spheres.在這個層次的眾生安排的,積極的智慧,正如上文所指出的,在人類知識的起源中起到重要作用,屬於世界的想法,是性質相同的動畫天上的烈酒,領域。 From all this it is apparent that Avicenna is no exception to the general description of the Arabian Aristoteleans as neo-Platonic interpreters of Aristotle.從所有這一切很明顯,阿維森納是沒有例外的一般描述的阿拉伯Aristoteleans的新柏拉圖主義的解釋亞里士多德。

There remain two other doctrines of general metaphysical nature which exhibit him in the character of an original, or rather an Arabian, and not a neo-Platonic interpreter.還有兩個其他學說的一般形而上學的本質,表現出他的性格的一個原始的,或者更確切地說,是阿拉伯,而不是一個新柏拉圖主義的解釋。 The first is his division of being into three classes: (a) what is merely possible, including all sublunary things; (b) what is itself merely possible but endowed by the First Cause with necessity; such are the ideas that rule the heavenly spheres; (c) what is of its own nature necessary, namely, the First Cause.首先是他的部門被分為三類:(一)什麼是僅僅是可能的,包括所有的塵世生活的事情(二)什麼是本身僅僅是可能的,但擁有的第一個原因與必要性,這樣的想法,排除天球(三)什麼是需要它自己的性質,即,第一個原因。 This classification is mentioned and refuted by Averroes.這種分類被提及,並駁斥了阿威羅伊。 The second doctrine, to which also Averroes alludes, is a fairly outspoken system of pantheism which Avicenna is said to have elaborated in a work, now lost, entitled "Philosophia Orientalis".第二個學說,這也阿威羅伊暗示,是一個相當直言不諱系統的泛神論,阿維森納說,在工作中,已經闡述了,現在失去了,“”睿哲東方“。 The Scholastics, apparently, know nothing of the special work on pantheism; they were, however, aware of the pantheistic tendencies of Avicenna's other works on philosophy, and were, accordingly, reluctant to trust in his exposition of Aristotle.顯然,該scholastics,什麼都不知道的特殊工作泛神論,但是,他們是知道的泛神論傾向阿維森納的其他作品在哲學,和,因此,不願意相信,在他的論述中,亞里士多德。

Publication information Written by William Turner.出版信息的書面由威廉·特納。 Transcribed by Geoffrey K. Mondello, Amy M. Mondello, and Stephen St. Damian Mondello.轉錄由杰弗裡K.蒙德羅,愛美M.蒙德羅,和斯蒂芬聖達米安蒙德羅。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全書,第二卷。 Published 1907.發布時間1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約

Bibliography 參考書目
Avicenna Peripatetici...Opera (Venice, 1495); MUNK in Dict.阿維森納Peripatetici歌劇院(威尼斯,1495);在字典MUNK。 des sciences phil. DES SCIENCES菲爾。 (Paris,1844-52), art. (巴黎,1844-52),藝術。 Ibn-Sina; CARRA DE VAUX, Avicenne (Paris, 1900); UEBERWEG-HEINZE, Gesch.伊本·新浪CARRA DE VAUX,Avicenne(巴黎,1900年); UEBERWEG HEINZE,Gesch。 der Phil., 9th ed.得菲爾,第9版。 (Berlin, 1905), II,247, 248; tr. (柏林,1905年),II,247,248;文。 MORRIS (New York, 1890), 412, 413; STOCKL, Lehrb. MORRIS(紐約,1890年),412,413; STOCKL,Lehrb。 der Gesch.德Gesch。 der Phil.得菲爾。 (Mainz, 1888), I, 329 sqq., tr. (美因茨,1888年),I,329 SQQ。,TR。 FINLAY (Dublin, 1903) 293 sqq.; TURNER, Hist. FINLAY(都柏林,1903年)293 SQQ; TURNER,歷史。 of Phil.菲爾。 (Boston, 1903), 312, 313. (波士頓,1903年),312,313。

Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,可蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱的信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-h adiths從第一冊的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-h adiths從第二冊的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-h adiths從第三冊的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-h adiths從書展1 0個基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在taqseer ) -h adiths從書展2 0鋁布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝聖(朝覲) -h adiths從書展2 6鋁布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 爭取事業的阿拉(傑哈德) -h adiths圖書5 2鋁布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari 同一性,獨特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths圖書9 3鋁布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義。
Early Islamic History Outline 早在伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 天房,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥迪
Sahih, al-Bukhari sahih ,鋁-布哈里
Sufism 蘇非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 阿布巴克爾
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭馬亞王朝
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) 法蒂瑪王朝(什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀教派(什葉派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆

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