Biblical Criticism (Textual)聖經批評(文本)

Catholic Information 天主教信息

The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work the autograph of which has been lost.考證的目的是恢復盡可能接近原始文本的親筆簽名已經失去了工作。 In this textual criticism differs from higher criticism, whose aim is to investigate the sources of a literary work, study its composition, determine its date and trace its influence and various transformations throughout the ages.在這個文本的批評不同,從更高的批評,其目的是調查來源的文學作品,研究其組成,確定其日期和跟踪整個時代的影響力和不同的轉換。

A. Necessity and processes of textual criticism A.必要性和考證的過程

Textual criticism has no application except in regard to a work whose original does not exist; for, if extant, it could easily be reproduced in photogravure, or published, once it had been correctly deciphered.考證以外的任何應用程序方面的工作原本不存在的,如果現存的,它可以很容易地被複製照相,或發布的,一旦它已被正確破譯。 But no autograph of the inspired writings has been transmitted to us, any more than have the originals of profane works of the same era.但是沒有簽名的啟發著作已傳送給我們,任何以上有褻瀆同一個時代的作品的原件。 The ancients had not that superstitious veneration for original manuscripts which we have today.古人有沒有我們今天的原始手稿,迷信的崇拜。 In very early times the Jews were wont to destroy the sacred books no longer in use, either by burying them with the remains of holy personages or by hiding them in what was called a ghenizah.在非常早的時期,猶太人慣於不再使用破壞神聖的書籍,不論是神聖的人士的遺骸埋葬他們或通過隱藏在了所謂的ghenizah。 This explains why the Hebrew Bibles are, comparatively speaking, not very ancient, although the Jews always made a practice of writing the Holy Books on skin or parchment.這就解釋了為什麼希伯來文“聖經”,相比較而言,也不是很古老的,雖然猶太人總是讓皮膚或羊皮紙上寫的聖書的做法。 In the first centuries of the Christian era the Greeks and Latins generally used papyrus, a material that quickly wears out and falls to pieces.在第一世紀的基督教時代的希臘人和拉丁人普遍使用的紙莎草紙,迅速穿的材料和散花。 It was not until the fourth century that parchment was commonly used, and it is also from that time that our oldest manuscripts of the Septuagint and the New Testament date.但直到第四世紀,羊皮紙被普遍使用,它也是從那個時候,我們最古老的手稿,譯本和新約的日期。 Nothing short of a continuous miracle could have brought the text of the inspired writers down to us without alteration or corruption, and Divine Providence, who exercises, as it were, an economy of the supernatural, and never needlessly multiplies prodigies, did not will such a miracle.沒有持續的奇蹟,可能帶來的啟發作家的文本,我們沒有改變或腐敗,和神聖的普羅維登斯,誰行使,因為它是一個經濟的超自然,和從來沒有不必要的乘法天才,沒有這樣的一個奇蹟。 Indeed it is a material impossibility to transcribe absolutely without error the whole of a long work; and a priori one may be sure, that no two copies of the same original will be alike in every detail.事實上,這是一個的材料不可能的事,絕對沒有錯誤的抄寫整個長的工作;,和先驗可以肯定的,即沒有兩個相同的原始副本中的每一個細節都。 A typical example of this is furnished by the Augsburg Confession, presented to the Emperor Charles V on the evening of 25 June, 1530, in both Latin and German.這是一個典型的例子提供的奧格斯堡供述,提交給皇帝查爾斯五世在傍晚6月25日,1530年,在拉丁文和德文。 It was printed in September of the same year and published two months later by its author, Melanchthon; thirty-five copies of it are known to have been made in the second half of the year 1530, nine of them by signers of the Confession.這是印在同年9月,2個月後公佈其作者,梅蘭希35的副本,它已在今年下半年1530,其中九人簽名者的自白。 But, as the two originals are lost, and the copies do not agree either with one another or with the first editions, we are not sure of having the authentic text in its minutest details.但是,兩份原件已丟失,並且互相或與第一個版本的副本不同意,我們是不知道的真實文本中的微小細節。 From which example it is easy to appreciate the necessity of textual criticism in the case of works so ancient and so often transcribed as the books of the Bible.從這個例子是很容易理解的必要性考證的情況下,使古老的“聖經”的書常常轉錄為工作。

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Classes of textual errors類的文字錯誤

Corruptions introduced by copyists may be divided into two classes: involuntary errors, and those which are either wholly or partly intentional.可分為兩大類:非自願的錯誤,和那些全部或部分故意的抄寫員介紹的腐敗。 To these different causes are due the observed variations between manuscripts.這些不同的原因是由於觀測到的變化之間的手稿。

(a) Involuntary Errors (一)非自願錯誤

Involuntary Errors may be distinguished as those of sight, hearing, and memory, respectively.的視線,聽覺,記憶,可區分為自願的錯誤。 Sight readily confounds similar letters and words.視線容易混淆相似的字母和單詞。 Thus, as can be seen in the pictured example, similar letters are easily interchanged in square Hebrew, Greek uncial and Greek cursive writing.因此,在上圖的例子中可以看出,類似的信件很容易地互換廣場希伯來文,希臘文的uncial和希臘的草書。

When the exemplar is written stichometrically, the eye of the copyist is apt to skip one or several lines.的典範的書面stichometrically,當抄寫,眼睛容易跳過一個或幾行。 To this class of errors belongs the very frequent phenomenon of homoeoteleuton, ie omission of a passage which has an ending exactly like another passage which comes next before or after it.屬於這一類的錯誤非常頻繁的現象的homoeoteleuton,即遺漏的一個通道,其中有一個酷似結束之前或之後,隨之而來的另一段。 A similar thing happens when several phrases beginning with the same words come together.類似的事情發生,幾個詞組時,開始用同樣的話來。 Secondly, errors of hearing are of common occurrence when one writes from dictation.其次,聽力的錯誤是經常發生的,當一個人從聽寫中寫道。 But even with the exemplar before him, a copyist gets into the habit of pronouncing in a low tone, or to himself, the phrase he is transcribing, and thus is likely to mistake one word for another which sounds like it.但是,即使在他面前的典範,抄寫員進入發音的習慣,用低沉的語氣,或對自己,他這句話的轉錄,從而可能誤認為是另一種聽起來就像是一個詞來形容。 This explains numberless cases of "itacism" met with in Greek manuscripts, especially the continual interchange of hymeis and hemeis.這說明了無數案件“itacism會見了希臘手稿,尤其是不斷交換的hymeis和hemeis。 Lastly, an error of memory occurs when, instead of writing down the passage just read to him, the copyist unconsciously substitutes some other, familiar, text which he knows by heart, or when he is influenced by the remembrance of a parallel passage.最後,出現內存錯誤的時候,寫下來的通道,而不是只是讀給他聽,不自覺地抄寫替代一些其他的,熟悉的,文字的心臟,而他知道,當他是受懷念的一個平行通道。 Errors of this kind are most frequent in the transcription of the Gospels.這種錯誤是最常見的轉錄的福音。

(b) Errors Wholly or Partly Intentional (二)錯誤全部或部分有意

Deliberate corruption of the Sacred Text has always been rather rare, Marcion's case being exceptional.蓄意腐敗的神聖文本一直是非常罕見的,馬吉安的情況下例外。 Hort [IntroductiOn (1896), p.園藝[簡介(1896年),頁。 282] is of the opinion that even among the unquestionably spurious readings of the New Testament there are no signs of deliberate falsification of the text for dogmatic purposes." Nevertheless it is true that the scribe often selects from various readings that which favours either his own individual opinion or the doctrine that is just then more generally accepted. It also happens that, in perfectly good faith, he changes passages which seem to him corrupt because he fails to understand them, that he adds a word which he deems necessary for the elucidation of the meaning, that he substitutes a more correct grammatical form, or what he considers a more exact expression, and that he harmonizes parallel passages. Thus it is that the shorter form of the Lord's Prayer in Luke, xi, 2-4, is in almost all Greek manuscripts lengthened out in accordance with Matthew, vi, 9-13. Most errors of this kind proceed from inserting in the text marginal notes which, in the copy to be transcribed, were but variants, explanations, parallel passages, simple remarks, or perhaps the conjectures of some studious reader. All critics have observed the predilection of copyists for the most verbose texts and their tendency to complete citations that are too brief; hence it is that an interpolation stands a far better chance of being perpetuated than an omission. 282]認為,即使在“新約”無疑是虛假的讀數沒有任何跡象表明蓄意偽造的文字為教條的目的。“,但它是真實的,文士往往選擇從不同的讀數,這有利於自己的個人的意見或學說,這只是比較公認的,這也恰好的是,在完美的信念,他改變這似乎是他腐敗的段落,因為他不明白,他補充說一個字,他認為有必要闡明的意思,他的替代品更正確的語法形式,或者是他認為更準確的表達,他協調平行通道,因此,它是路加,十一,2-4主禱文在較短的形式,幾乎所有希臘手稿延長,按照馬修,六,9-13。這種錯誤的繼續插入,在副本中被轉錄,但變種,解釋,平行的通道,簡單的文字旁注的言論,或者一些好學的讀者的猜想。所有的批評者所觀察到的抄寫員的偏愛,最詳細的文字和他們的傾向是太簡單了完整引用,因此,它是一個內插的延續比站在一個更好的機會遺漏。

Other considerations其他注意事項

From the foregoing it is easy to understand how numerous would be the readings of a text transcribed as often as the Bible, and, as only one reading of any given passage can represent the original, it follows that all the others are necessarily faulty.從上述這是很容易理解如何眾多,將經常作為“聖經”的文字轉錄的讀數,並且,只有一個讀任何給定通道可以代表原,因此,所有的人都存在故障。 Mill estimated the variants of the New Testament at 30,000, and since the discovery of so many manuscripts unknown to Mill this number has greatly increased.穆勒估計為30,000,這個數字已經大大增加,因為這麼多的手稿的發現未知的磨坊“新約”的變種。 Of course by far the greater number of these variants are in unimportant details, as, for instance, orthographic peculiarities, inverted words, and the like.當然更大數量的這些變體是在不重要的細節,因為,例如,正投影的特殊性,倒置的詞語,和等。 Again, many others are totally improbable, or else have such slight warrant as not to deserve even cursory notice.同樣,許多人是完全不可能的,否則有這樣的輕微的認股權證不值得甚至是粗略的通知。 Hort (Introduction, 2) estimates that a reasonable doubt does not affect more than the sixtieth part of the words: "In this second estimate the proportion of comparatively trivial variations is beyond measure larger than in the former; so that the amount of what can in any sense be called substantial variation is but a small fraction of the whole residuary variation, and can hardly form more than a thousandth part of the entire text."園藝(導言,2)估計,合理的懷疑並不影響超過六十部分的話:“在這第二次估計的比例比較瑣細的變化是難以衡量大於前;什麼可以使被稱為在任何意義上的巨大變化,但整個剩餘變化的一小部分,並且難以形成超過千分之一的整個文本中的一部分。“ Perhaps the same thing might be said of the Vulgate; but in regard to the primitive Hebrew text and the Septuagint version there is a great deal more doubt.也許同樣的事情可能會說的武加大,但方面的原始希伯來文譯本的版本是一個偉大的交易,更多的疑問。

We have said that the object of textual criticism is to restore a work to what it was upon leaving the hands of its author.我們已經說過,文本批評的對象是恢復工作,這是什麼在離開其作者雙手。 But it is, absolutely speaking, possible that the author himself may have issued more than one edition of his work. ,但它是絕對講的,可能是作者自己可能已經發行多個版本,他的工作。 This hypothesis was made for Jeremias, in order to explain the differences between the Greek and Hebrew texts; for St. Luke, so as to account for the variations between the "Codex Bezæ" and other Greek manuscripts in the third Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles; and for other writers.這一假說是耶利米,為了解釋這些差異之間的希臘文和希伯來文聖路加,所以帳戶之間的“法典Bezæ”和其他希臘手稿在第三個福音和行為的變化使徒,和其他作家。 These hypotheses may be insufficiently founded, but, as they are neither absurd nor impossible, they are not to be rejected a priori.這些假設可能是不足的成立,但它們既不是荒謬的,也不是不可能的,他們不是被拒絕了。

B. General principles of textual criticism B.一般原則考證的

In order to re-establish a text in all its purity, or at least to eliminate as far as possible, its successive falsifications, it is necessary to consult and weigh all the evidence.為了重新建立其純度一文中,或至少要盡可能消除,其連續弄虛作假的,它是必要的諮詢和權衡所有證據。 And this may be divided into: external, or that furnished by documents reproducing the text in whole or in part, in the original or in a translation -- diplomatic evidence -- and internal, or that resulting from the examination of the text itself independently of its extrinsic attestation -- paradiplomatic evidence.並且這可以分為:外部的,或提供的再現全部或部分中的文本,在原來的或翻譯的文檔 - 外交證據 - 和內部,或從文本本身獨立的檢查所導致的的外在認證 - paradiplomatic證據。 We shall consider them separately.我們應考慮它們分開。

1. 1。 External (Diplomatic) Evidence外部的(外交)的證據

The evidence for a work of which the original manuscript is lost is furnished by;提供的證據的工作,其中原稿丟失;

(a) copies, (manuscripts), (一)份,(手稿),

(b) versions, and (二)版本,

(c) quotations. (三)報價。

These three do not always exist simultaneously, and the order in which they are here enumerated does not indicate their relative authority.這三個並不總是同時存在的,他們在這裡列舉的順序並不表示其相對權威。

(a) Manuscripts (一)手稿

In regard to the copies of ancient works three things are to be considered, namely:在古代作品的副本三件事情是要考慮的,即:

(i) age, (i)年齡,

(ii) value, and (ⅱ)的值,並

(iii) genealogy; and we shall add a word on (三)族譜;我們將添加一個字

(iv) critical nomenclature, or notation. (四)關鍵的術語,符號。

(i) Age (i)年齡

Age is sometimes indicated by a note in the manuscript itself; but the date, when not suspected of falsification, may simply be transcribed from the exemplar.年齡有時會顯示在手稿本身的說明;日,時涉嫌偽造,可能只是被轉錄的典範。 However, as dated manuscripts are usually not very old, recourse must be had to various palæographic indications which generally determine with sufficient accuracy the age of Greek and Latin manuscripts.然而,年手稿是不是很老,追索權,必須有的各種palæographic表明大致確定具有足夠的精度歲的希臘和拉丁手稿。 Hebrew palæography, though more uncertain, presents fewer difficulties, inasmuch as Hebrew manuscripts are not so old.希伯來文古文字,但更多的不確定性,提出了很多困難,因為希伯來文手稿是沒有那麼老。 Besides, the exact age of a copy is, after all, only of minor importance, as it is quite possible that an ancient manuscript may be very corrupt while a later one, copied from a better exemplar, may come nearer to the primitive text.此外,版本的需要,複製本館收藏的確切年齡,畢竟,只有輕微的重要性,因為它很可能是一個古老的手稿可能是非常腐敗的,而後面的一個,複製一個更好的典範,可能會更接近原始文本。 However, other things being equal, the presumption is naturally in favour of the more ancient document, since it is connected with the original by fewer intervening links and consequently has been exposed to fewer possibilities of error.然而,其他的事情都是平等的,推定自然是贊成的更古老的文件,由少干預的鏈接,因為它與原來的連接,因此已經暴露在可能出現的錯誤更少。

(ii) Value (二)值

It is more important to ascertain the relative value than the age of a manuscript.更重要的是,以確定相對值比手稿的年齡。 Some evidences inspire but little confidence, because they have frequently been found to be defective, while others are readily accepted because critical examination has in every instance shown them to be veracious and exact.有證據激發,但一點信心,因為他們經常被發現有缺陷,而另一些則欣然接受,因為在每一個實例表明,它們是誠實的和準確的嚴格審查。 But how is the critic to discriminate?但是,如何評論家歧視? Prior to examination, the readings of a text are divided into three or four classes: the certainly or probably true, the doubtful, and the certainly or probably false.檢查前,讀數的文本分為三個或四個類別:肯定或可能是真實的,可疑的,肯定或可能是假的。 A manuscript is rated good or excellent when it presents in general true readings and contains few or none that are certainly false; under contrary conditions it is considered mediocre or worthless.稿件被評為良好或優秀,它提出了在一般正確讀數,並包含很少或沒有,肯定是假的,相反條件下,它被認為是平庸的或毫無價值的。 Needless to add, the intrinsic excellence of a manuscript is not measured according to the greater or less care exercised by the scribes; a manuscript may teem with copyist's errors, though it be made from a very correct exemplar; and one transcribed from a defective exemplar may, considered merely as a copy, be quite faultless.添加的內在卓越的手稿測量的更多或更少照顧行使由文士;手稿可能天河城與抄寫的錯誤,雖然它可以做出一個非常正確的典範;和1轉錄從一個有缺陷的典範5月,僅應視為一個副本,是相當完美的。

(iii) Genealogy (三)家譜

The genealogy of documents, from a critical view-point, is most interesting and important.文件的家譜,從批判的眼光,是最有趣和最重要的。 As soon as it is proved that a manuscript, no matter what its antiquity, is simply a copy of another existing manuscript, the former should evidently disappear from the list of authorities, since its particular testimony is of no value in establishing the primitive text.只要事實證明,手稿,無論是它的古老,是一個簡單的複製另一個現有的手稿,前者應該從列表當局顯然消失,因為其特殊的證詞是沒有價值的建立原始文本。 This, for instance, is what happened to the "Codex Sangermanensis" (E of the Pauline Epistles) when it was proved to be a defective copy of the "Codex Claromontanus" (D of the Pauline Epistles).這一點,例如,發生了什麼事的“法典Sangermanensis”的保羅書信(E),當它被證明是有缺陷的副本的“法典Claromontanus”的保羅書信(D)。 Now, if a text were preserved in ten manuscripts, nine of which had sprung from a common ancestor, we would not therefore have ten independent testimonies but two, as the first nine would count for only one, and could not, therefore, outweigh the tenth, unless it were shown that the common exemplar of the nine was a better one than that from which the tenth was taken.現在,如果10手稿被保存在一個文本,其中9個已經異軍突起,從一個共同的祖先,我們也不會因此有10個獨立的證詞,但兩首九個月計算只有一個,不能,因此,超過第十,除非它的九個常見的典範,是一個更好的比第十屆。 The consequences of this principle are obvious, and the advantage and necessity of grouping the testimonies for a text into families is readily understood.這一原則的後果是顯而易見的,容易理解的優勢和必要性分組證詞的文本進入家庭。 It might be supposed that the critic would be mainly guided in his researches by the birthplace of a manuscript; but the ancient manuscripts often travelled a great deal, and their nationality is rarely known with certainty.它可能應該在他的研究手稿的發源地,評論家將主要指導,但大量古代手稿往往走了,很少有人知道他們的國籍肯定。 Thus, many are of the opinion that the Vaticanus and the Sinaiticus emanated from Cæsarea in Palestine, while others maintain that they were written in Egypt, and Hort inclines to the belief that they were copied in the West, probably in Rome (see CODEX VATICANUS; CODEX SINAITICUS).因此,許多人都認為,梵諦岡和西奈抄本出自cæsarea在巴勒斯坦,而其他人保持他們寫在埃及,園藝傾斜的信念,他們被複製在西方,可能是在羅馬(梵蒂岡抄本法典西奈抄本)。 Hence the critics' chief guide in this matter should be the careful comparison of manuscripts, upon the principle that identical readings point to a common source, and when the identity between two or more manuscripts is constant -- especially in exceptional and eccentric variants -- the identity of the exemplar is established.因此,在這個問題上批評的首席指導應該仔細比較的手稿,根據的原則是相同的讀數指向一個共同的來源,以及兩個或兩個以上手稿時的身份是不變的 - 尤其是在特殊和偏心變種 - 的示範性的身份被建立。 But this investigation encounters two difficulties.但是,本次調查遇到兩個困難。 A first, and a very embarrassing, complication arises from the mixture of texts.答:首先,一個很尷尬的,並發症出現的混合文本。 There are but few texts that are pure; that is to say, that are taken from a single exemplar.有,但很少是純文本的,這是說,這是從一個單一的典範。 The ancient scribes were nearly all to a certain extent editors, and made their choice from among the variants of the different exemplars.古代文士幾乎全是在一定程度上編輯,並從不同的範例變體之間做出選擇。 Moreover, the correctors or the readers often introduced, either on the margin or between the lines, new readings which were subsequently embodied in the text of the manuscript thus corrected.此外,校正或讀者,無論是在保證金或行間,新的讀數隨後被體現在文本的手稿從而糾正。 In such a case the genealogy of a manuscript is liable to become very complicated.在這種情況下,可能成為族譜的手稿是非常複雜的。 It also sometimes happens that two manuscripts which are closely related in certain books are totally unrelated in others.它有時也發生在其他的手稿,其中有密切的關係,在某些書籍是風馬牛不相及的。 As a matter of fact, the separate books of the Bible, in ancient times, used to be copied each upon its own roll of papyrus, and when they came to be copied from these separate rolls upon sheets of parchment, and bound together in one enormous "codex", texts belonging to quite different families might very possibly be placed together.事實上,獨立的“聖經”的書,在遠古時代,被複製後,自己卷的紙莎草紙,當他們來到被複製這些單獨的卷後,張羊皮紙,並結合在一起在一個巨大的“法典”,文字屬於完全不同的家庭,很可能被放在一起。 All these facts explain why critics frequently disagree in determining genealogical groupings.所有這些事實解釋了為什麼批評者經常不同意在確定家譜的分組。 (On this subject consult Hort, "Introduction," pp. 39-69: "Genealogical Evidence".) (在這個問題上徵詢園藝,“導言”,頁39-69:“家譜證據”)。

(iv) Critical Nomenclature, or Notation (四)重要術語或符號

When the copies of a text are not numerous each editor assigns them whatever conventional symbols he may choose; this was for a long time the case with the editions of the original Greek and Hebrew, of the Septuagint and the Vulgate, not to mention other versions.當拷貝的文本並不多,每個編輯器將它們分配給他可以選擇任何傳統的符號,這是很長一段時間的版本,原來的希臘文和希伯來文的譯本和武加大的情況下,更不要說其他版本。 But when, as nowadays, the number of manuscripts becomes greatly increased, it is necessary to adopt a uniform notation in order to avoid confusion.但時,作為時下,手稿的數目變得大大增加,這是必要採取統一的符號,為了避免混亂。

Hebrew manuscripts are usually designated by the figures assigned them by Kennicott and De Rossi.希伯來文手稿通常指定分配給他們的肯尼科特和德羅西的數字。 But this system has the disadvantage of not being continuous, the series of figures recommencing three times: Kennicott manuscripts, De Rossi manuscripts, and other manuscripts catalogued by De Rossi, but not belonging to his collection.但是,該系統具有不連續的缺點,一系列的數字重新開始三次:的肯尼科特手稿,德羅西手稿,以及其他手稿編目的德羅西,但不屬於他的收藏。 Another serious inconvenience arises from the fact that the manuscripts not included in the three preceding lists have remained without symbol, and can only be indicated by mentioning the number of the catalogue in which they are described.從這一事實,產生的另一個嚴重的不便,前三個列表中不包括的手稿仍然沒有符號,並且只能通過提目錄的數目,其中他們被描述表示。

The notation of Greek manuscripts of the Septuagint is almost the same as that adopted by Holmes and Parsons in their Oxford edition 1798-1827.希臘手稿的septuagint的符號是霍姆斯和帕森斯在其牛津版1798年至1827年,通過幾乎相同。 These two scholars designated the uncials by Roman figures (from I to XIII) and the cursives by Arabic figures (from 14 to 311).這兩位學者指定uncials由羅馬數字(從I到十三)和cursives的阿拉伯數字(從14到311)。 But their list was very defective, as certain manuscripts were counted twice, while others which were numbered among the cursives were uncials either wholly or in part, etc. For cursives the Holmes-Parsons notation is still retained; the uncials, including those found since, are designated by Latin capitals; but no symbols have been assigned to recently discovered cursives.但他們的名單是非常有缺陷的,因為某些手稿被計算了兩次,而其他編號之間的cursives uncials全部或部分等cursives霍姆斯 - 帕森斯表示法仍然保留; uncials,包括那些被發現以來,被指定由拉丁美洲的首都,但沒有符號被分配到最近發現cursives的。 (See the complete list in Swete, "An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek", Cambridge, 1902, p. 120-170.) (見Swete的完整清單,“舊約的希臘”,劍橋,1902年,第120-170)。

The nomenclature of the Greek manuscripts of the New Testament also leaves much to be desired.命名的希臘文手抄本新約聖經也留下很多不足之處。 Wetstein, the author of the usual notation, designates uncials by letters and cursives by Arabic figures.筆者通常的符號,Wetstein,指定uncials阿拉伯語的數字由字母和cursives的。 His list was continued by Birch and by Scholz, and afterwards by Scrivener, independently, by Gregory.繼續他的名單,樺木和肖爾茨,後由斯克里夫納,獨立,格里高利。 The same letters answer for many manuscripts, hence the necessity of distinguishing indices, thus Dev="Codex Bezæ", Dpaul=Codex Claromontanus, etc. Moreover, the series of figures recommences four times (Gospels, Acts and Catholic Epistles, Epistles of Paul, Apocalypse), so that a cursive containing all the books of the New Testament must be designated by four different numbers accompanied by their index.相同的字母回答的許多手稿,因此有必要區分指標,因此開發“食品法典Bezæ”,Dpaul食品法典委員會Claromontanus,等等。此外,一系列的數字重新開始的四倍(福音書,使徒行傳和天主教教會中,保羅書信,啟示),使草書包含了所有的新約聖經的書籍,必須指定由4個不同的電話號碼,伴隨著他們的指數。 Thus the manuscript of the British Museum "Addit. 17469" is for Scrivener 584ev, 228ac, 269pau, 97apoc (ie the 584th manuscript of the Gospel on his list, the 228th of Acts, etc.), and for Gregory 498ev, 198act, 255paul, 97apoc.因此,手稿,英博物館“ADDIT。17469”,228ac,269pau的斯克里夫納584ev,97apoc(即第584次在他的名單手稿的福音,的228行為等),和為格雷戈里498ev,198act的, 255paul,97apoc。 To remedy this confusion Von Soden lays down as a principle that uncials should not have a different notation from the cursives and that each manuscript should be designated by a single abbreviation.為了糾正這種混亂馮索登奠定了作為一個原則,uncials不應該有不同的符號從cursives,每篇稿件應指定由一個單一的縮寫。 Hence he assigns to each manuscript an Arabic figure preceded by one of the three Greek initial letters, epsilon, alpha, or delta, according as it contains the Gospels only (euaggelion), or does not contain the Gospels (apostolos), or contains both the Gospels and some other part of the New Testament (diatheke).因此,他分配給每個手稿一個阿拉伯語的數字,前面的三個希臘首個字母,ε,α,或三角洲,因為它包含的福音書(euaggelion),或不包含的福音(APOSTOLOS),或包含福音和新的的約(diatheke)的其它部分。 The number is chosen so as to indicate the approximate age of the manuscript.的數量被選擇,以便指示大約年齡的手稿。 This notation is unquestionably better than the other; the main point is to secure its universal acceptance, without which endless confusion will arise.這種表示法比其他的更好,這是無庸置疑的,主要的一點是,以確保其普遍接受,沒有這種無休止的混亂會出現。

For the Vulgate the most famous manuscripts are designated either by a conventional name or its abbreviation (am="Amiatinus", fuld="Fuldensis"); the other manuscripts have no generally admitted symbol.的vulgate最有名的手稿是通過傳統的名稱或其縮寫(AM =“Amiatinus”“,福爾德=”委員會fuldensis“)指定的其他手稿有沒有普遍承認的象徵。 (The present nomenclature is altogether imperfect and deficient. Critics should come to terms and settle upon special symbols for the genealogical groupings for manuscripts which are as yet almost entirely deprived of them. On this subject see the present writer's article, "Manuscrits bibliques" in Vigouroux, "Dict. de la Bible", IV, 666-698). (在目前的命名是完全不完善和缺陷。批評者應該來的條款和定居後,特殊符號的家譜的分組手稿這是因為還幾乎完全被剝奪,他們。在這個問題上看到了現在的作家的文章,“Manuscrits bibliques”在Vigouroux,“快譯通。德拉聖經”,IV,666-698)。

(b) Versions (二)的版本

The importance of the ancient versions in the textual criticism of the Sacred Books arises from the fact that the versions are often far anterior to the most ancient manuscripts.古老的版本考證神聖的書籍,來自版本的事實,往往是最古老的手稿遠前方的重要性。 Thus the translation of the Septuagint antedated by ten or twelve centuries the oldest copies of the Hebrew text that have come down to us.因此,翻譯的譯本早於10或12世紀的最古老的希伯來文的副本已回落到我們。 And for the New Testament the Italic and the Peshito versions are of the second century, and the Coptic of the third, while the "Vaticanus' and the "Sinaiticus", which are our oldest manuscripts, date only from the fourth. These translations, moreover, made on the initiative and under the superintendence of the ecclesiastical authorities, or at least approved and sanctioned by the Churches that made public use of them, have undoubtedly followed the exemplars which were esteemed the best and most correct; and this is a guarantee in favour of the purity of the text they represent. Unfortunately, the use of versions in textual criticism offers numerous and sometimes insurmountable difficulties. First of all, unless the version be quite literal and scrupulously faithful, one is often at a loss to determine with certainty which reading it represents. And besides, we have few or no ancient versions edited according to the exigencies of rigorous criticism; the manuscripts of these versions differ from one another considerably, and it is often hard to trace the primitive reading. When there have been several versions in the same language, as is the case, for example, in Latin, Syriac, and Coptic, it is seldom that one version has not in the long run reacted on the other. Again, the different copies of a version have frequently been retouched or corrected according to the original, and at various epochs some sort of recensions have been made. The case of the Septuagint is well enough known by what St. Jerome tells of it, and by the examination of the manuscripts themselves, which offer a striking diversity. For these various reasons the use of the versions in textual criticism is rather a delicate matter, and many critics try to evade the difficulty by not taking them into account. But in this they are decidedly wrong, and later it will be shown to what use the Septuagint version may be put in the reconstruction of the primitive text of the Old Testament.為新約全書的斜體和Peshito的版本的第二個世紀,科普特人的三分之一,而這些翻譯的“梵諦岡”和“西奈抄本”,這是我們最古老的手稿,迄今為止,只有從第四個。此外,作出的積極性和教會當局的監督下,或至少批准和認可的教會公眾使用的,無疑的典範,被尊重的最好的和最正確的,這是保證贊成他們所代表的文字的純潔性。不幸的是,使用的版本考證提供了許多,有時難以克服的困難。首先,除非該版本是相當的文字和嚴格的忠實,往往是處於虧損狀態,以確定確定性,閱讀它代表的意義。此外,我們有很少或沒有古老的版本編輯的迫切需要嚴格的批評,這些版本的手稿從一個相當不同的,而且往往是難以追查原始讀。當有了好幾個版本相同的語言,是的情況下,例如,在拉丁美洲,敘利亞和科普特人,是很少的一個版本還沒有從長期來看反應的其他同樣的版本,不同的副本經常被修飾或更正按照原來的,並在不同時代的某種作了校訂。的譯本的情況下,很好地了解什麼圣杰羅姆告訴它,和通過審查的手稿,對於這些種種原因提供了一個驚人的多樣性。使用中的版本考證是一個頗為棘手的問題,許多批評者試圖逃避不考慮到這些困難,但在這方面他們是決定性的錯誤後,它會被證明有什麼用可以放在重建原始文本的舊約七十士譯本。

(c) Quotations (三)報價

That the textual criticism of the Greek New Testament, the Septuagint and the Vulgate has profited by quotations from the Fathers is beyond question; but in using this authority there is need of caution and reserve.考證的希臘文新約聖經的譯本和武加大獲利的報價從父親是毫無疑問的,但在使用這種權力是需要謹慎和儲備。 Very often Biblical texts are quoted from memory, and many writers have the habit of quoting inaccurately.聖經經文經常被引用從內存中,許多作家都習慣引用不準確的。 In his Prolegomena to the eighth edition of Tischendorf (pp. 1141-1142), Gregory gives three very instructive examples on this subject.在他的蒂申多夫(第1141-1142)第八版緒論中,格雷戈里在這個問題上給出了三個非常有啟發性的例子。 Charles Hodge, the author of highly esteemed commentaries, when informed that his quotation from Genesis, iii, 15, "The seed of the woman shall bruise the serpent's head", was a serious inaccuracy, refused to change it on the ground that his translation had passed into use.查爾斯·霍奇,倍受尊敬的評注的作者,當得知他的報價從創世紀,III,15,“該種子的女子應瘀傷毒蛇的頭”,是一個嚴重的不準確,拒絕以改變它在地面上,他的翻譯已通過投入使用。 In his history of the Vulgate the learned Kaulen twice quoted the well-known saying of St. Augustine, once accurately: "verborum tenacior cum perspicuitate sentientiæ", and once inaccurately: "verborum tenacior cum sermonis perspicuitate".在他的歷史的vulgate學到考倫兩度引用著名的聖奧古斯丁說,一次準確:“ve​​rborum tenacior和暨perspicuitatesentientiæ”,而一旦不準確:的“verborum tenacior暨sermonis perspicuitate”。 Finally, out of nine quotations from John, iii, 3-5, made by Jeremy Taylor, the celebrated theologian, only two agree, and not one of the nine gives the words of the Anglican version which the author meant to follow.最後,列約翰,三,3-5,由傑里米·泰勒,著名的神學家,只有兩個同意,而不是之一的九九的報價為英國聖公會的版本,筆者的意思遵循的話。 Surely we should not look for greater rigour or accuracy from the Fathers, many of whom lacked the critical spirit.當然,我們不應該看的更嚴格或準確度的父親,他們中的許多人缺乏批判精神。 Furthermore, it should be noted that the text of our editions is not always to be depended upon.此外,應該注意的是,我們的版本的文本是並不總是要依靠。 We know that copyists, when transcribing the works of the Fathers, whether Greek or Latin, frequently substitute for Biblical quotations that form of text with which they are most familiar, and even the editors of former times were not very scrupulous in this respect.我們知道,抄寫員,抄寫工程的父親時,無論是希臘文或拉丁文,經常代替聖經的報價形式的文字,他們是最熟悉的,甚至從前的編輯在這方面不是很嚴謹的。 Would anyone have suspected that in the edition of the commentary of St. Cyril of Alexandria on the fourth Gospel, published by Pusey in 1872, the text of St. John, instead of being reproduced from St. Cyril's manuscript, is borrowed from the New Testament printed at Oxford?有人會懷疑,圣西里爾亞歷山大皮塞在1872年出版的第四個福音,評注的版本,新的文本,而不是聖約翰轉載自圣西里爾的手稿,是借來的,從舊約印在牛津大學嗎? From this standpoint the edition of the Latin Fathers undertaken in Austria and that of the ante-Nicene Greek Fathers published at Berlin, are worthy of entire confidence.從這個角度來看的版本進行的拉丁教父,在奧地利和在柏林公佈的前廳尼西亞的希臘教父,是值得整個信心。 Quotatations have a greater value in the eyes of the critic when a commentary fully guarantees the text; and the authority of a quotation is highest when a writer whose reputation for critical habits is well established, such as Origen or St. Jerome, formally attests that a given reading was to be found in the best or most ancient manuscripts of his time.的Quotatations有較大的價值的一篇評論時,充分保證了文本的評論家的眼睛,當一個作家的聲譽的關鍵習慣是公認的,權威的報價是最高的,如淵源或圣杰羅姆,正式證明一個給定的讀數是在他那個時代最好的或最古老的手稿被發現。 It is obvious that such evidence overrules that furnished by a simple manuscript of the same epoch.很明顯,這樣的證據推翻提供的一個簡單的手稿同一時代。

(2) Internal or Paradiplomatic Evidence (2)內部或Paradiplomatic證據

It frequently happens that the testimony of documents is uncertain because it is discordant, but even when it is unanimous, it may he open to suspicion because it leads to improbable or impossible results.它經常發生,見證的文件是不確定的,因為它是不和諧的,但即使是一致的,它可能開了懷疑,因為它會導致不大可能或不可能的結果。 It is then that internal evidence must be resorted to, and, although of itself it seldom suffices for a firm decision, it nevertheless corroborates, and sometimes modifies, the verdict of the documents.這是內部證據必須使出,雖然它本身很少,夠一個堅定的決定,但它證實了,有時修改,判決的文件。 The rules of internal criticism are simply the axioms of good sense, whose application calls for large experience and consummate judgment to ward off the danger of arbitrariness amid subjectivism.內部批評的規則是簡單的的公理感好,其應用程序調用的豐富經驗和精湛的判斷抵擋的危險之中主觀隨意性。 We shall briefly formulate and expound the most important of these rules.我們將簡要地制定和闡述這些規則中最重要的。

Rule 1.第1。 Among several variants that is to be preferred which best agrees with the context and most closely conforms to the style and mental habits of the author.其中幾個變種,是首選的最同意的情況下,最符合作者的風格和心理習慣。 -- This rule is thus explained by Hort ("The New Testament in the Original Greek", Introduction, London, 1896, p. 20): "The decision may be made either by an immediate and as it were intuitive judgment, or by weighing cautiously various elements which go to make up what is called sense, such as conformity to grammar and congruity to the purport of the rest of the sentence and of the larger context; to which may rightly be added congruity to the usual style of the author and to his matter in other passages. The process may take the form either of simply comparing two or more rival readings under these heads, and giving the preference to that which appears to have the advantage, or of rejecting a reading absolutely for violation of one or more of the congruities, or of adopting a reading absolutely for perfection of congruity." - 這條規則被解釋為園藝(“新約聖經的希臘原文”,介紹,倫敦,1896年,頁20)“的決定可能會立即通過,因為它是直觀判斷,或通過重謹慎地去彌補什麼叫感的各種元素,如符合語法和一致性的主旨其餘的這句話,在更大的範圍內,正確地添加一致性作者一貫的風格和他的事,在其他段落。這個過程可能採取的形式可以簡單地比較兩個或更多的競爭對手在這些頭的讀數,並給予優先出現有其優點,或拒絕讀一個絕對違反或更多的congruities,或通過讀出絕對完美的一致性。“ The application of this rule rarely produces certainty; it usually leads only to a presumption, more or less strong, which the documentary evidence confirms or annuls as the case may be.應用這條規則很少產生確定性,它通常會導致的推定,或強或弱的書面證據,證實或廢止(視情況而定)。 It would be sophistical to suppose that the ancient authors are always consistent with themselves, always correct in their language and happy in their expressions.這將是強辭奪理假定古代作家總是與自己保持一致,在他們的語言總是正確的,在他們的表情和快樂。 The reader is all too liable to imagine that he penetrates their thought, and to make them talk as he himself would have talked on a like occasion.讀者是太容易想像,他滲透他們的思想,使他們說話,因為他自己也談到在類似的場合。 It is but a step from this to conjectural criticism which has been so much abused.這是只有一步之臆測的批評了這麼多的濫用。

Rule 2.第2條。 Among several readings that is preferable which explains all others and is explained by none.在幾個讀數是最好的,這解釋了所有其他的解釋是沒有的。 -- Gregory, in his "Prolegomena" (8th critical ed. of the New Testament by Tischendorf, p. 63), says apropos of this rule: "Hoc si latiore vel latissimo sensu accipietur, omnium regularum principium haberi poterit; sed est ejusmodi quod alius aliter jure quidem suo, ut cuique videtur, definiat sequaturque." ,在他的“未來形而上學導論”(第8關鍵版的“新約”的提申多夫,P 63) - 格雷戈里說,中肯的這條規則:“特別SI latiore VEL latissimo意義上accipietur,Omnium公司regularum原理haberi poterit桑達美國東部時間ejusmodi狴alius aliter法律上quidem鎖,UT cuique videtur的,definiat sequaturque。“ It is, in fact, subject to arbitrary applications, which only proves that it must be employed with prudence and circumspection.這是,事實上,受任意應用程序,這只能證明它必須採用審慎和謹慎。

Rule 3.規則3。 The more difficult reading is also the more probable.更困難的讀數也更可能的。 -- "Proclivi scriptioni pr stat ardua" (Bengel). - “Proclivi scriptioni公關統計ardua”(格爾)。 -- Although it may seem entirely paradoxical, this rule is, in a certain measure, founded on reason, and those who have contested it most vigorously, like Wetstein, have been obliged to replace it with something similar. - 儘管它可能看起來完全矛盾的,這條規則是,在一定的措施,建立在理性的,和那些誰是最有爭議的大力,像Wetstein,已不得不用類似的東西來取代它。 But it is true only on condition that the clause be added, all other things being equal; else we should have to prefer the barbarisms and absurdities of copyists solely because they are more difficult to understand than the correct expression or the intelligently turned phrase.但它是真實的前提條件是增加條款,所有其他的事情都是平等的,否則,我們應該有喜歡的抄寫員的野蠻和荒謬,純粹是因為他們更難以了解比正確的表達或智能轉向短語。 Indeed copyists never change their text merely for the pleasure of rendering it obscure or of corrupting it; on the contrary, they rather try to explain or correct it.事實上抄寫永遠不會改變自己的文字,只為它晦澀或破壞它的樂趣,相反,他們寧願試圖解釋或者糾正。 Hence a harsh expression, an irregular phrase, and an unlooked-for thought are possibly primitive, but always, as we have said, on this condition: ceteris paribus.因此,一個嚴酷的表情,不規則的短語,一個不期的思想可能是原始的,但永遠,正如我們已經說過,在這樣的條件:在其他條件不變的情況下。 Nor must it be forgotten that the difficulty of the reading may arise from other causes, such as the ignorance of the scribe or the defects of the exemplar which he copies.也不一定要被人遺忘的閱讀困難,可能會出現的其他原因,如無知的劃線或複製的典範,他的缺陷。

Rule 4.第4條。 The shortest reading is, in general, the best.最短讀取是,在一般情況下,最好的。 -- "Brevior lectio, nisi testium vetustorum et gravium auctoritate penitus destituatur, præferenda est verbosiori. Librarii enim multo proniores ad addendum fuerunt, quam ad omittendum (Griesbach)." - “Brevior lectio,暫準命令testium v​​etustorum等gravium auctoritate penitus destituatur,præferenda美國東部時間verbosiori。Librarii enim好馬加鞭proniores廣告附錄fuerunt,華富嘉洛廣告omittendum(格里斯巴赫)。” The reason given by Griesbach, author of this rule, is confirmed by experience.的格里斯巴赫,這條規則的作者給出的理由,也證實了經驗。 But it should not be too generally applied; if certain copyists are inclined to put in an insufficiently authorized interpolation, others, in their haste to finish the task, are either deliberately or unknowingly guilty of omissions or abbreviations.但它不應該是太普遍適用,如果某些抄寫員都傾向於把不充分授權的插值,其他人,在他們爭先恐後地完成了任務,或刻意或在不知不覺中犯有遺漏或縮寫。

We see that the rules of internal criticism, in so far as they can be of any use, are suggested by common sense.我們看到內部批評的規則,在這麼遠,因為他們可以使用任何建議的常識。 Other norms formulated by certain critics are based on nothing but their own imaginations.其他規範的基礎上制定的某些批評者只有靠自己的想像力。 Such is the following proposed by Griesbach: "Inter plures unius loci lectiones ea pro suspectâ merito habetur quæ orthodoxorum dogmatibus manifeste præ ceteris favet."這就是下面提出的格里斯巴赫:的“國際plures unius基因位點lectiones EA親絲棉merito habetur奎艾orthodoxorum dogmatibus manifeste:præ在其他favet。” It would then follow that the variants suspected of heresy have all the probabilities in their favour, and that heretics were more careful of the integrity of the sacred text than were the orthodox.然後按照變種涉嫌異端所有的可能性,有利於自己的,更小心的完整的神聖文本比正統的異端。 History and reason combined protest against this paradox.聯合抗議這種矛盾現象的歷史和原因。

C. Conjectural Criticism C.臆測的批評

As a principle, conjectural criticism is not inadmissible.作為一項原則,臆測的批評是不可接受的。 In fact it is possible that in all existing documents, manuscripts, versions, and quotations, there are primitive errors which can only be corrected by conjecture.事實上,這是可能的,在所有現有的文件,手稿,版本,和報價,有原始的錯誤,可只得到糾正猜想。 The phrase primitive errors is here used to denote those that were committed by the scribe himself in dictated works or that crept into one of the first copies on which depend all the documents that have come down to us.這句話原始的錯誤,在這裡用來表示已提交的切割自己的口述作品,或躡手躡腳地依賴的所有文件已回落到我們的第一個副本之一。 Scrivener, therefore, seems too positive when he writes ("Introduction", 1894, Vol. II, p. 244): "It is now agreed among competent judges that Conjectural Emendation must never be resorted to even in passages of acknowledged difficulty; the absence of proof that a reading proposed to be substituted for the common one is actually supported by some trustworthy document being of itself a fatal objection to our receiving it."Many critics would not go thus far, as there are passages that remain doubtful even after the efforts of documentary criticism have been exhausted, and we cannot see why it should be forbidden to seek a remedy in conjectural criticism.斯科維娜,因此,似乎過於樂觀時,他寫道(“導言”,1894年,第二卷,第244):“現在是雙方同意的主管法官猜測校勘必須永遠不會被訴諸即使在通道承認困難;沒有證明的是,讀數擬取代常見的一種實際上是支持一些值得信賴的文檔本身就是一個致命的反對我們。“許多批評者不會去迄今為止,仍然懷疑,即使有通道紀錄片批評的努力已經用盡,我們可以不明白為什麼它應該被禁止尋求補救臆測的批評。 Thus Hort justly remarks ("Introduction", 1896, p. 71): "The evidence for corruption is often irresistible, imposing on an editor the duty of indicating the presumned unsoundness of the text, although he may be wholly unable to propose any endurable way of correcting it, or have to offer only suggestions in which he cannot place full confidence."因此,園藝公正的言論(“導言”,1896年,頁71):“腐敗的證據往往是不可阻擋的,強加的責任,表示的presumned的不健全的文字編輯器中,雖然他可能完全無法提出任何耐用糾正,或只提供建議,他可以不把充分的信心。“ But he adds that, in the New Testament, the rôle of conjectural emendation is extremely weak, because of the abundance and variety of documentary evidence, and he agrees with Scrivener in admitting that the conjectures presented are often entirely arbitrary, almost always unfortunate, and of such a nature as to satisfy only their own inventor.但他補充說,在新約中,推測校正的作用是極其微弱的,因為豐富多樣的書面證據,並且他同意與斯克里夫納承認的猜想往往是完全任意的,幾乎總是不幸的,這樣一種性質,只為了滿足自己的發明者。 To sum up, conjectural criticism should only be applied as a last resort, after every other means has been exhausted, and then only with prudent scepticism.總結,應該只適用於臆測的批評作為最後的手段,所有其他的手段已經用盡後,再審慎的懷疑態度。

D. Application of the principles and processes of textual criticism D.考證的原理和方法的應用

It remains briefly to explain the modifications which the principles of textual criticism undergo in their application to Biblical texts, to enumerate the chief critical editions, and to indicate the methods followed by the editors.它仍然簡要地解釋一下考證的原則進行修改,在他們的應用程序,以聖經的文本,列舉的主要關鍵版本,並表示方法的編輯。 We shall here speak only of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament and of the Greek text of the New.我們將在這裡講的希伯來文的舊約和新的希臘文。

1. 1。 Hebrew text of the Old Testament希伯來文的舊約

(a) The critical apparatus (一)的關鍵裝置

The number of Hebrew manuscripts is very great.希伯來文手稿的數量是非常大的。 Kennicott ("Dissertatio generalis in Vet. Test. hebraicum", Oxford, 1780) and De Rossi ("Vaniæ lectiones Vet. Testamenti", Parma, 1784-88) have catalogued over 1300.肯尼科特(“Dissertatio generalis職業教育和培訓。測試。hebraicum”,牛津大學,1780年)和已編目超過1300,德羅西(“獸醫Vaniælectiones。Testamenti”,帕爾馬,1784年至1788年)。 Since their day this figure has greatly increased, thanks to discoveries made in Egypt, Arabia, Mesopotamia, and above all in the Crimea.由於他們的日常大大增加,這個數字已經發現,在埃及,阿拉伯,美索不達米亞,最重要的是在克里米亞的感謝。 Unfortunately, for the reason given above under A. Necessity and Processes, the Hebrew manuscripts are comparatively recent; none is anterior to the tenth century or at any rate the ninth.不幸的是,鑑於上述原因,根據A.必要性和過程,希伯來文手稿是比較近,沒有一個是前十世紀或在任何率第九。 The "Codex Babylonicus" of the Prophets, now at St. Petersburg and bearing the date 916, generally passes for the oldest. “食品法典委員會Babylonicus”的先知,現在在聖彼得堡和註明日期916,一般通過最古老的。 According to Ginsburg, however, the manuscript numbered "Oriental 4445" of the British Museum dates back to the middle of the ninth century.然而,根據金斯伯格,稿件編號為“東方4445”的大英博物​​館的歷史可以追溯到九世紀到中間。 But the dates inscribed on certain manuscripts are not to be trusted.但在某些手稿落款日期是不被信任的。 (See on this subject, Neubauer, "Earliest manuscripts of the Old Testament" in "Studia Biblica", III, Oxford, 1891, pp. 22-36.) When the Hebrew manuscripts are compared with one another, it is amazing to find how strong a resemblance exists. (見關於這個問題,紐鮑爾,“最早的手稿舊約聖經”中“Studia Biblica”的,III,牛津,1891年,頁22-36)。當希伯來文手稿相互比較,它是驚人的發現如何存在相似的。 Kennicott and De Rossi, who collected the variants, found hardly any of importance.肯尼科特和德羅西,誰收集的變種,發現幾乎沒有任何的重要性。 This fact produces at first a favourable impression, and we are inclined to believe that it is very easy to restore the primitive text of the Hebrew Bible, so carefully have the copyists performed their task.這一事實產生的第一個良好的印象,我們傾向於認為,這是很容易恢復原始文本的希伯來文聖經,仔細抄寫員執行他們的任務。 But this impression is modified when we consider that the manuscripts agree even in material imperfections and in the most conspicuous errors.但是,這種印象被修改,當我們考慮到手稿同意即使在物質上的不完善之處,在最顯眼的錯誤。 Thus they all present, in the same places, letters that are larger or smaller than usual, that are placed above or below the line, that are inverted, and sometimes unfinished or broken.因此,他們目前,在同一個地方,是大於或小於通常的信件,是該行上方或下方放置,即倒,有時未完成或折斷。 Again, here and there, and precisely in the same places, may be noticed spaces indicating a hiatus; finally, on certain words or letters are points intended to annul them.同樣,在這裡和那裡,正是在同一個地方,可能會注意到的空間說明了他們,最後,在某些單詞或字母的點擬廢止。 (See Cornill, "Einleitung in die Kanon. Bücher des AT", 5th ed., Tübingen, 1905, p. 310.) All these phenomena led Spinoza to suspect, and enabled Paul de Lagarde to prove (Anmerkungen zur griechischen Uebersetzung der Proverbien, 1863, pp. 1, 2) that all the Hebrew manuscripts known come down from a single copy of which they reproduce even the faults and imperfections. (見Cornill,“導論模具加隆。書刊DES AT”,第5版,蒂賓根大學,1905年,頁310)。所有這些現象導致斯賓諾莎懷疑,並啟用了保羅·拉加德證明(Anmerkungen楚griechischen Uebersetzung德Proverbien 1863年,第1,2),所有的希伯來文手稿被稱為從一個單一的副本重現的缺陷和不完善之處。 This theory is now generally accepted, and the opposition it has met has only served to make its truth clearer.這個理論現在被普遍接受的,它已經達到的反對只是將它的真相更清晰。 It has even been made more specific and has been proved to the extent of showing that the actual text of our manuscripts was established and, so to speak, canonized between the first and second century of our era, in an epoch, that is, when, after the destruction of the Temple and the downfall of the Jewish nation, all Judaism was reduced to one school.甚至有人作出更具體的和已被證明的程度顯示,我們的手稿的實際文本的成立,並可以這麼說,冊封之間的第一和第二世紀,我們的時代,在一個具有劃時代意義,那就是,當後,破壞寺廟和猶太國的滅亡,,所有猶太教減少到一所學校。 In fact, this text does net differ from that which St. Jerome used for the Vulgate, Origen for his Hexapla, and Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotus for their versions of the Old Testament, although it is far removed from the text followed in the Septuagint.事實上,這種文字不淨的不同,圣杰羅姆的武加大,奧利他的Hexapla,和亞居拉,馬初斯,和奧多托斯他們的舊約版本,雖然它的文字在遠離七十。 As centuries elapsed between the composition of the various books of the Old Testament and the determining of the Massoretic text, it is but likely that more or less serious modifications were introduced, the more so as, in the interval, there had occurred two events particularly favourable to textual corruption, namely a change in writing -- the old Phœnician having given way to the square Hebrew -- and a change in spelling, consisting, for example, of the separation of words formerly united and in the frequent and rather irregular use of matres lectionis.幾百年過去了之間組成的各種書籍的舊約和確定的massoretic文本,但可能是或多或少嚴重的修改,更何況,中間隔有發生的兩個事件,特別是良好的文字腐敗,即以書面形式變化 - 老腓尼基的平方希伯來文 - 拼寫的變化,包括,例如,分離的話前身是美中使用頻繁,而不規則matres lectionis。 The variants that supervened may be accounted for by comparing parallel parts of Samuel and Kings with the Paralipomena, and above all by collating passages twice reproduced in the Bible, such as Ps.塞繆爾和國王的Paralipomena,通過比較平行的部分佔的變種,並發,兩次複製“聖經”,如PS整理通道。 xvii (xviii) with 2 Samuel 22, or Isaiah 36-39, with 2 Kings 18:17-20:19.十七(十八)2撒母耳記上22,或以賽亞書36-39,列王紀下18:17-20:19。 [See Touzard, "De la conservation du texte hébreu" in "Revue biblique", VI (1897), 31-47, 185-206; VII (1898), 511-524; VIII (1899), 83-108.] [見Touzard,“DE LA保護杜textehébreu”在“雜誌biblique”,VI(1897),31-47,185-206; VII(1898),511-524; VIII(1899年),83-108。]

An evident consequence of what has just been said is that the comparison of extant manuscripts enlightens us on the Massoretic, but not on the primitive text.剛剛的一個明顯後果是比較現存的手稿啟發我們的massoretic,但不是原始文本。 On the latter subject the Mishna and, for still stronger reasons, the remainder of the Talmud cannot teach us anything, as they were subsequent to the constitution of the Massoretic text; nor can the Targums, for the same reason and because they may have since been retouched.的後者受彌和,還強的原因,其餘的猶太法典不能教我們什麼,因為他們是massoretic文本的憲法後,也不該Targums,為同樣的原因,並因為他們可能有自被修飾。 Therefore, outside of the Massoretic text, our only guides are the Samaritan Pentateuch and the Septuagint version.因此,外界的massoretic文本中,我們唯一的指南是撒瑪利亞五和七十士譯本。 The Samaritan Pentateuch offers us an independent recension of the Hebrew text, dating from the fourth century before our era, that is, from an epoch in which the Samaritans, under their high-priest Manasseh, separated from the Jews; and this recension is not suspected of any important modifications except the rather inoffensive, harmless one of substituting Mount Gerizim for Mount Hebal in Deut., xxvii, 4.撒瑪利亞五經為我們提供了一個獨立的recension的希伯來文,歷史可追溯至第四世紀,在我們的時代,這是一個具有劃時代意義在撒瑪利亞人,在他們的大祭司瑪拿西,脫離猶太人的校訂不懷疑任何重要的修改,但而無害的,對人體無害的1代基利心山山hebal申,二十七,4。 As to the Septuagint version, we know that it was begun, if not completed, about 280 BC To Paul de Lagarde especially belongs the credit of drawing the attention of scholars to the value of the Septuagint for a critical edition of the Hebrew Bible.到七十的版本,我們知道這是開始,如果沒有完成,約公元前280年,保羅·拉加德尤其是信貸繪製的譯本的價值的一個關鍵版的希伯來文聖經學者的關注。

(b) Critical editions of the Hebrew text (二)關鍵版本的希伯來文

After the publication of the Psalms at Bologna in 1477, of the Pentateuch at Bologna in 1432, of the Prophets at Soncino in 1485, and of the Hagiographa at Naples in 1487, the entire Old Testament appeared at Soncino (1488), at Naples (1491-93), at Brescia (1494), at Pesaro (1511-17), and at Alcalá (1514-17).後在博洛尼亞的詩篇,出版於1477年,於1432年在博洛尼亞的五,在soncino在1485年的先知,並在1487年在那不勒斯的Hagiographa,整個舊約出現在soncino(1488),那不勒斯( 1491至1493年),在布雷西亞(14​​94),在佩薩羅(1511至1517年),以及在阿爾卡拉(一五一四至一七年)。 Then, between 1516 and 1568, came the four Rabbinic Bibles of Venice.然後,在1516年和1568年之間,來到威尼斯的拉比聖經。 It is the second, edited by Jacob ben Chayim and printed by Bomberg in 1524-1525, that is generally looked upon as containing the textus receptus (received text).這是第二,的雅各布本Chayim編輯和印刷由邦貝里在1524年至1525年,大致看了一下後包含:Web網站receptus(接收文本)。 The list of the innumerable editions which followed is given by Pick in his "History of the Printed Editions of the Old Testament" in "Hebraica" (1892-1893), IX, pp. 47-116.無數版本,其中的列表給出了匹克在他的“歷史的印刷版本的舊約”中的“Hebraica”(1892-1893),第九,第47-116。 For the most important editions see Ginsburg, "Introduction to the Massoretic-critical edition of the Hebrew Bible" (London, 1897), 779-976.對於最重要的版本,請參閱金斯伯格“的massoretic關鍵版的希伯來文聖經”(倫敦,1897),779-976。 The editions most frequently reprinted are probably those of Van der Hoogt, Hahn, and Theile; but all these older editions are now supplanted by those of Baer and Delitzsch, Ginsburg, and Kittel, which are considered more correct.最常見的重印的版本,可能是那些的哈恩,范德Hoogt和Theile,但所有這些舊的版本所取代的Baer和德里,金斯伯格,基特爾,這被認為是正確的。 The Baer and Delitzsch Bible appeared in fascicles at Leipzig, between 1869 and 1895, and is not yet complete; the entire Pentateuch except Genesis is wanting.貝爾和delitzsch聖經出現在各分冊在萊比錫,1869年和1895年之間,尚未完成,除了創世紀,整個摩西五是希望。 Ginsburg, author of the "Introduction" mentioned above, has published an edition in two volumes (London, 1894).金斯伯格,上述的“導言”的作者,已出版兩卷(倫敦,1894年)版。 Finally, Kittel, who had called attention to the necessity of a new edition (Ueber die Notwendigkeit und Möglichkeit einer neuen Ausgabe der hebraïschen Bibel, Leipzig, 1902) has just published one (Leipzig, 1905-06) with the assistance of several collaborators, Ryssel, Driver, and others.最後,基特爾,誰曾呼籲注意的必要性,一個新的版本(Ueber模具Notwendigkeit和Möglichkeiteine​​r諾伊恩Ausgabe得hebraïschen比貝爾,萊比錫,1902年)剛剛出版了一(萊比錫1905-06)的協助下,幾個合作者, Ryssel,驅動器等。 Almost all the editions thus far mentioned reproduce the textus receptus by correcting the typographical errors and indicating the interesting variants; all adhere to the Massoretic text, that is, to the text adopted by the rabbis between the first and second centuries of our era, and found in all the Hebrew manuscripts.迄今為止提到的幾乎所有的版本複製Web網站receptus都堅持到massoretic文本,這是的文本通過拉比們之間的第一和第二個世紀,我們的時代,並糾正印刷錯誤,並指出一個有趣的變體;發現在所有的希伯來文手稿。 A group of German, English, and American scholars, under the direction of Haupt, have undertaken an edition which claims to go back to the primitive text of the sacred authors. A組的德國,英國,和美國學者豪普特的方向下,已承諾的一個版本聲稱回到原始文本的神聖作者。 Of the twenty parts of this Bible, appearing in Leipzig, Baltimore, and London, and generally known under the name of the "Polychrome Bible" sixteen have already been published: Genesis (Ball, 1896), Leviticus (Driver, 1894), Numbers (Paterson, 1900), Joshua (Bennett, 1895), Judges (Moore, 1900), Samuel (Budde, 1894), Kings (Stade, 1904), Isaiah (Cheyne, 1899), Jeremiah (Cornill, 1895), Ezekiel (Toy, 1899), Psalms (Wellhausen, 1895), Proverbs (Kautzsch, 1901), Job (Siegfried, 1893), Daniel (Kamphausen, 1896), Ezra-Nehemiah (Guthe, 1901), and Chronicles (Kittel, 1895); Deuteronomy (Smith) is in press. ,這本書的第二部分,出現在萊比錫,巴爾的摩和倫敦,一般人都知道的名義下的“多彩聖經”16已經公佈:創世紀(鋼球,利未記(1896年),驅動器,1894年),數字(百德新,1900),約書亞(貝內特,1895年),法官(摩爾,1900年),塞繆爾(布德,1894年),國王(體育場,1904年)(陳,1899年),以賽亞,耶利米(Cornill,1895年),以西結書(玩具,1899年)(豪森,1895年),詩篇,箴言(Kautzsch,1901),工作(齊格弗里德,1893年),丹尼爾(Kamphausen,1896年),以斯拉,尼希米記(Guthe,1901年),和歷代志(基特爾,1895年);申命記(史密斯)正在印刷中。 It is needless to state that, like all who have thus far endeavoured to restore the primitive text of certain books, the editors of the "Polychrome Bible" allow a broad margin for subjective and conjectural criticism.這是不必要的狀態,像所有那些迄今努力,以恢復原始文本的某些書籍,“多彩聖經”的編輯允許廣泛的毛利率為主觀臆測的批評。

2. 2。 Greek text of the New Testament希臘文新約聖經

(a) Use of the critical apparatus (a)使用的關鍵設備

The greatest difficulty confronting the editor of the New Testament is the endless variety of the documents at his disposal.新約聖經的編輯面臨的最大困難,是各種層出不窮的文件在他的處置。 The number of manuscripts increases so rapidly that no list is absolutely complete.手稿的數量迅速增加,所以沒有名單,是絕對完整的。 The latest, "Die Schriften des NT" (Berlin, 1902), by Von Soden, enumerates 2328 distinct manuscripts outside of lectionaries (Gospels and Epistles), and exclusive of about 30 numbers added in an appendix, 30 October, 1902.最新的,“Schriften德NT”(柏林,1902年),由馮索登,列舉了2328個不同的手稿外的lectionaries(福音書和書信),不包括約30個號碼中添加了一個附錄,1902年10月30日。 It must be acknowledged that many of these texts are but fragments of chapters or even of verses.必須承認,這些文本是很多,但片段的章節,甚至詩句。 This enormous mass of manuscripts is still but imperfectly studied, and some copies are scarcely known except as figuring in the catalogues.的手稿這一巨大的質量仍然是,但不完全研究,除了一些副本幾乎沒有計算在目錄中。 The great uncials themselves are not yet all collated, and many of them have but lately been rendered accessible to critics.的偉大uncials本身尚未全部整理好,他們中許多人,但近來提供方便的批評。 The genealogical classification, above all, is far from complete.的譜系分類,最重要的是,還遠遠沒有完成。 and many fundamental points are still under discussion.和許多基本點仍在討論中。 The text of the principal versions and of the patristic quotations is far from being satisfactorily edited, and the genealogical relationship of all these sources of information is not yet determined.文本的主要版本和教父的報價是遠遠沒有得到令人滿意的編輯,和家譜的關係,所有這些來源的信息尚未確定。 These varied difficulties explain the lack of agreement on the part of editors and the want of conformity in the critical editions published down to the present day.這些不同的困難解釋缺乏的協議的一部分,編輯和出版到今天的關鍵要符合。

(b) Brief history of the critical editions and principles followed by editors The first New Testament published in Greek is that which forms the fifth volume of the Polyglot of Alcalá, the printing of which was finished 10 January, 1514, but which was not delivered to the public until 1520. (二)簡史關鍵的版本和原則,其次是編輯出版的新約聖經希臘文,形成第五卷阿爾卡拉了多元的,這是1514年1月10日完成,但沒有交付印刷公眾,直到1520。 Meanwhile, early in 1516, Erasmus had published his rapidly completed edition at Basle.同時,早在1516年,伊拉斯謨出版了他的迅速完成版在巴塞爾。 The edition that issued from the press of Aldus at Venice in 1518 is simply a reproduction of that of Erasmus, but Robert Estienne's editions published in 1546, 1549, 1550, and 1551, the first three at Paris and the fourth at Geneva, although founded on the text of the Polyglot of Alcalá, presented variants from about fifteen manuscripts, and into the last, that of 1551, was introduced the division of verses now in use. ,發出的新聞,Aldus在威尼斯在1518年的版本是簡單的伊拉斯謨的複製,但羅伯特·艾蒂安的版本在1546年發布,1549,1550,和1551,在第一個3,在巴黎和日內瓦第四,雖然成立阿爾卡拉了多元的文本,提出了約15手稿,並進入最後的變種,1551,部門的詩句介紹了目前使用的。 Theodore Beza's ten editions which appeared between 1565 and 1611 differ but little from the last of Robert Estienne's.西奧多beza的10個版本出現在1565和1611之間的不同,但很少從最後的羅伯特·艾蒂安。 The Elzevir brothers, Bonaventure and Abraham, printers at Leyden, followed Estienne and Beza very closely; their small editions of 1624 and 1633, so convenient and so highly appreciated by book-lovers, furnish what has been agreed upon as the textus receptus.在Elzevir兄弟,文德和亞伯拉罕,在萊頓的打印機,其次埃蒂安納和Beza非常密切,1624年和1633年,太方便了他們的小版本和高度讚賞圖書愛好者,提供已商定的Web網站receptus的。 -- "Textum ergo habes nunc ab omnibus receptum, in quo nihil immutatum aut corruptum damus" (Edition of 1633). - “Textum ERGO habes NUNC AB綜合receptum,在現狀nihil immutatum的引渡corruptum damus”(1633年版)。 It must suffice to mention here the editions of Courcelles (Amsterdam, 1658) and of Fell (Oxford, 1675), both of which adhere pretty closely to the textus receptus of Elzevir, and those of Walton (London, 1657) and of Mill (Oxford, 1707), which reproduce in substance the text of Estienne, but enrich it by the addition of variants resulting from the collation of numerous manuscripts.它必須足夠,這裡提到的版本的克斯拉斯伊(阿姆斯特丹,1658年)和下降(牛津,1675年),這兩個堅持非常密切的Elzevir Web網站receptus的,和那些的沃爾頓(倫敦,1657年)和穆勒(牛津大學,1707),它重現物質文本埃蒂安納,但豐富它由另外的變體,從而從核對無數手稿。 The principal editors who followed -- Wetstein (Amsterdam, 1751-1752), Matthæi (Moscow, 1782-1788), Birch (Copenhagen, 1788), and the two Catholics, Alter (Vienna, 1786-1787), and Scholz (Leipzig, 1830-1836) are noted chiefly for the abundance of new manuscripts which they discovered and collated.誰遵循的主要編輯 - Wetstein(阿姆斯特丹1751至1752年),馬特哈伊(莫斯科,1782-1788),樺木(哥本哈根,1788年),和兩個天主教徒,阿爾特(維也納,1786年至1787年),和肖爾茨(萊比錫1830至1836年)指出,主要是新的手稿,他們發現和整理的豐度。 But we must here limit ourselves to an appreciation of the latest and best-known editors, Griesbach, Lachmann, Tregelles, Tischendorf, Westcott and Hort.但在這裡,我們必須限制自己的最新和最知名的編輯,格里斯巴赫,拉赫曼,特里格利斯,提申多夫,Westcott和園藝的升值。

In his second edition (1796-1806) Griesbach, applying the theory that had previously been suggested by Bengel and subsequently developed by Semler, distinguished three great families of texts: the Alexandrian family represented by the codices A, B, C, by the Coptic versions and the quotations of Origen; the Western family, represented by D of the Gospels and the Acts, by the bilingual codices, the Latin versions, and the Latin Fathers; and lastly the Byzantine family, represented by the mass of other manuscripts and by the Greek Fathers from the fourth century onward.在他的第二版(1796年至1806年)格里斯巴赫,應用,以前曾建議由本格爾,隨後開發的塞姆勒的理論,區分A,B,C,科普特人的三個大家族的文本:亞歷山大抄本的家庭代表版本和報價的淵源,西方家庭,代表D的福音和使徒行傳,雙語抄本,拉丁語版本,和拉丁美洲的父親和最後的拜占庭式的家庭,所代表的其他手稿的質量和從第四世紀開始,希臘的父親。 Agreement between two of these families would have been decisive; but, unfortunately, Griesbach's classification is questioned by many, and it has been proved that the agreement between Origen and the so-called Alexandrian family is largely imaginary.這些家庭之間的協議將是決定性的,但不幸的是,格里斯巴赫的分類是很多人的質疑,它已被證明,奧利和所謂的亞歷山大家庭之間的協議在很大程度上是虛構的。 Lachmann (Berlin, 1842-1850) endeavoured to reconstruct his text on too narrow a basis.拉赫曼(柏林,1842至50年)努力重建他的文字過於狹窄的基礎上。 He took account of only the great uncials, many of which were then either entirely unknown or imperfectly known, and of the ancient Latin versions.他考慮到了只有偉大uncials,其中許多是要么完全未知或不完全的,和古拉丁語版本。 In his choice of readings the editor adopted the majority opinion, but reserved to himself the conjectural amendment of the text thus established -- a defective method which his successor Tregelles has not sufficiently avoided.在他選擇的讀數編輯器採用了多數人的意見,但保留自己的推測修訂的文本,從而確立 - 一個有缺陷的方法,他的繼任者特里格利斯沒有足夠的避免。 The latter's edition (1857-1872), the work of a lifetime, was completed by his friends.版(1857年至1872年),後者的工作了一輩子,完成了他的朋友。 Tischendorf contributed no less than eight editions of the New Testament in Greek, but the differences among them are decidedly marked.蒂申多夫貢獻不低於8個版本的希臘文新約聖經中,但它們之間的差異是決定性的標記。 According to Scrivener (Introduction, II, 283) the seventh edition differs from the third in 1296 places, and in 595 it goes back to the received text.斯克里夫納(介紹,II,283)第七版不同於第三在1296年的地方,並在595,它可以追溯到接收到的文字。 After the discovery of the "Sinaiticus', which he had the honour of finding and publishing, his eighth edition disagreed with the preceding one in 3369 places. Such an amount of variation can only inspire distrust. Nor did the edition contributed by Westcott and Hort (The New Testament in the Original Greek, Cambridge and London, 1881) win universal approval, because, after eliminating in turn each of the great families of documents which they designate respectively as Syrian, Western, and Alexandrian, the editors rely almost exclusively on the "Neutral" text, which is only represented by the "Vaticanus" and the "Sinaiticus", and, in case of disagreement between the two great codices, by the "Vaticanus" alone. The excessive preponderance thus given to a single manuscript was criticized in a special manner by Scrivener (Introduction, II, 284-297). Finally, the edition announced by Von Soden (Die Schriften des NT in ihrer ältesten erreichbaren Textgestalt) gave rise to lively controversies even before it appeared. (See "Zeitschrift fur neutest. Wissensehaft", 1907, VIII, 34-47, 110-124, 234-237.) All this would seem to indicate that, for some time to come, we shall not have a definite edition of the Greek New Testament.的“西奈抄本”,這是他的榮譽,尋找和發布後發現,他的第八版與前一在3369個名額不同意這樣的變化量,只能激發的不信任,也沒有貢獻Westcott和園藝的版本(新約在原希臘語,劍橋和倫敦,1881年)贏得普遍認可,因為,在打開消除後每個文件指定分別為敘利亞,西方,亞歷山大的大家族中,編輯們幾乎完全依賴於過度的優勢,從而給一個單一的手稿是“中性”的文字,“梵諦岡”和“西奈抄本”,並在兩個偉大的抄本,“梵諦岡”獨分歧的情況下,這是唯一代表。批評的一種特殊的方式斯克里夫納(導言,II ,284-297)。最後,馮索登(模具Schriften NT在ihrerältestenerreichbaren Textgestalt)公佈的版本,引起了熱鬧的爭議,甚至在它出現。(見“雜誌毛皮neutest。Wissensehaft“,1907年,八,34-47,110-124,234-237)。所有這一切似乎表明,今後一段時間內,我們沒有一個明確的版的希臘文新約。

Publication information Written by F. Prat.出版信息的書面F.寶勒巷。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯·J.·波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.獻給耶穌基督的聖心天主教百科全書,第四卷。 Published 1908.發布時間1908年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat. Nihil Obstat。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約

Bibliography 參考書目
The encyclopedias and dictionaries of the Bible have no special article on textual criticism which deals in a particular manner with Biblical texts, but most of the Introductions to Scripture dedicate one or several chapters to this subject; eg, UBALDI, Introductio (5th ed., Rome, 1901), II, 484-615 (De criticâ verbali sacrorum textuum); CORNELY, Introductio (Paris. 1885), I, 496-509 (De usu critico textuum primigeniorum et versionum antiquarum); GREGORY, Prolegomena to 8th ed.百科全書和字典“聖經”有沒有特別的考證文章,其中涉及在一個特定的方式與聖經的文本,但最重要的介紹聖經奉獻一個或幾個章節,這個問題如UBALDI,導論(第5版。羅馬,1901年),II,484-615(criticâverbali鐵桿textuum); CORNELY,導論(Paris. 1885年),I,496-509(通常指critico textuum primigeniorum等versionum antiquarum); GREGORY,緒論第8版。 of TISCHENDORF (Leipzig, 1884-1894); SCRIVENER, Introduction (4th ed., London 1894) II, 175-301; NESTLE, Einführung in das griech.的DAS griech蒂申多夫(萊比錫,1884年至1894年);代書,簡介(第4版,1894年倫敦)II,175-301,雀巢,Einführung。 NT (2nd ed., 1899) and HOLTZMANN, Einleitung in das NT (Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1892). NT(第2版,1899年)和HOLTZMANN,,導論在DAS NT(弗賴堡-IM-堡,1892年)。

The following may be mentioned as monographs: PORTER, Principles of Textual Criticism (Belfast, 1848); DAVIDSON, A Treatise of Biblical Criticism (1853); HAMMOND, Outlines of Textual Criticism (2nd ed., 1878); MILLER, Textual Guide (London, 1885); HORT, The NT in the Original Greek: lntroduction (2nd ed., London 1896).以下提到的專著:PORTER,考據學的原則(貝爾法斯特,1848年); DAVIDSON,聖經批評的一篇論文(1853年); HAMMOND,綱要考證(第2版,1878年);苗,考證指南(倫敦,1885年); HORT,新台幣在希臘原文:涵蘊輝煌(第二版,倫敦1896年)。 Although, like several of the preceding, this last work aims chiefly at the criticism of the New Testament, the entire second part (pp. 19-72, The Methods of Textual Criticism) discusses general questions.儘管像前面的幾個,最後這個工作的目的,主要是在新約聖經的批評,整個第二部分(第19至72歲,考據學的方法)討論了一般的問題。 On (b) Versions and (c) Quotations under B. General Principles, cf. (二)版本及(c)B.一般原則,比照下的報價。 BEBB, The Evidence of Early Versions and Patristic Quotations on the Text of the Books of the New Testament in II of the Oxford Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica. BEBB,證據的早期版本和教父語錄“文本的新約聖經在牛津Studia Biblica等Ecclesiastica II的書籍。

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