Heresies as described by the Second Ecumenical Council - 381 AD第二次大公會議所描述的異端邪說 - 381 AD

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Edited with Notes Gathered from the Writings of the Greatest Scholars編輯聚集的最偉大的學者的著作與注意事項

by Henry R. Percival, MA, DD由亨利·R.波斯富街,MA,DD

The Second Ecumenical Council, which was also the First Council of Constantinople, in 381 AD, condemned a number of competing concepts regarding Christianity.第二屆大公會議,這也是第一屆理事會君士坦丁堡,在381 AD,譴責了一些關於基督教的競爭觀念。 This following discussion is excerpted from the full BELIEVE presentation of that Council .下面的討論摘自完全相信介紹說,安理會

Excursus on the Heresies Condemned in Canon I.附記佳能I.譴責的異端邪說

In treating of these heresies I shall invert the order of the canon, and shall speak of the Macedonian and Apollinarian heresies first, as being most nearly connected with the object for which the Constantinopolitan Synod was assembled.在治療這些歪理邪說,我會顛倒順序的佳能,又用的馬其頓和阿波羅異端邪說的第一,最近與對象的君士坦丁堡主教組裝。

The Semi-Arians, Macedonians or Pneumatomachi.半白羊座的人,馬其頓人或Pneumatomachi。

Peace indeed seemed to have been secured by the Nicene decision but there was an element of discord still extant, and so shortly afterwards as in 359 the double-synod of Rimini (Ariminum) and Selencia rejected the expressions homousion and homoeusion equally, and Jerome gave birth to his famous phrase, "the world awoke to find itself Arian."和平確實似乎已抵押的尼西亞決定的,但也有不和諧的元素仍然現存的,並且不久之後在359雙的主教里米尼(Ariminum)和Selencia的同樣拒絕了的表達式homousion和homoeusion,杰羅姆了出生到他的那句名言,“世界上醒來時,發現自己阿里安”。 The cause of this was the weight attaching to the Semi-Arian party, which counted among its numbers men of note and holiness, such as St. Cyril of Jerusalem.這樣做的原因是半阿里安黨,算作其數量的注意和聖潔的人,如圣西里爾耶路撒冷附帶的重量。 Of the developments of this party it seems right that some mention should be made in this place, since it brought forth the Macedonian heresy.這個黨的發展似乎沒有提到在這個地方,因為它帶來了馬其頓異端的權利。

(Wm. Bright, DD, St. Leo on the Incarnation, pp. 213 et seqq.) (Wm.明亮,DD,聖獅子座的化身,第213頁et seqq。)

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The Semi-Arian party in the fourth century attempted to steer a middle course between calling the Son Consubstantial and calling him a creature.在第四世紀的半阿里安黨試圖,引導一條中間道路之間調用同體的兒子,給他打電話的生物。 Their position, indeed, was untenable, but several persisted in clinging to it; and it was adopted by Macedonius, who occupied the see of Constantinople.事實上,他們的立場是站不住腳的,但攀附在它的幾個堅持,以及通過馬其頓紐斯(Macedonius),誰佔領了君士坦丁堡。 It was through their adoption of a more reverential language about the Son than had been used by the old Arians, that what is called the Macedonian heresy showed itself.正是通過他們採用的兒子已使用老白羊座的更虔誠的語言,所謂的馬其頓異端表現出來。 Arianism had spoken both of the Son and the Holy Spirit as creatures.阿里烏斯教的都講了話,聖子和聖靈作為生物。 The Macedonians, rising up out of Semi-Arianism, gradually reached the Church's belief as to the uncreated majesty of the Son, even if they retained their objection to the homoousion as a formula.馬其頓人,上升了半阿里烏斯教,逐漸達到了教會的信仰的兒子非受造的威嚴,即使他們保留了他們的反對的homoousion公式。 But having, in their previously Semi-Arian position, refused to extend their own "homoiousion" to the Holy Spirit, they afterwards persisted in regarding him as "external to the one indivisible Godhead," Newman's Arians, p.不過話說,在以前的半阿里安位置,拒絕延長自己的“homoiousion”,聖靈,他們事後他為“外部的一個不可分割的神性,”紐曼白羊座的,對堅持。 226; or as Tillemont says (M ém. vi., 527), "the denial of the divinity of the Holy Spirit was at last their capital or only error." 226;或蒂耶蒙說(Mém.(六),527),“拒絕神的聖靈在他們的資本或唯一的錯誤。” St. Athanasius, while an exile under Constantius for the second time, "heard with pain," as he says (Ep. i. ad Serap., 1) that "some who had left the Arians from disgust at their blasphemy against the Son of God, yet called the Spirit a creature, and one of the ministering spirits, differing only in degree from the Angels:" and soon afterwards, in 362, the Council of Alexandria condemned the notion that the Spirit was a creature, as being "no true avoidance of the detestable Arian heresy."聖亞他那修,而君第二次流亡下,“聽到與疼痛,”他說,“一些(插曲。廣告小型企業研究資助計劃,1)已經離開了亞利安從厭惡他們對兒子的褻瀆神,但所謂的精神的生物,一個在服役的靈,不同的只是程度的天使“,不久,362,安理會的亞歷山大譴責的精神是生物的概念,作為”沒有真正避免可恨的亞略異端“。 See "Later Treatises of St. Athanasius," p.請參閱“聖亞他那修,後來論文的”P。 5. 5。 Athanasius insisted that the Nicene Fathers, although silent on the nature of the Holy Spirit, had by implication ranked him with the Father and the Son as an object of belief (ad Afros, 11).亞他那修堅持尼西亞的父親,雖然沉默的性質聖靈的,暗示他排與聖父和聖子作為對象的信念(廣告Afros,11)。 After the death of St. Athanasius, the new heresy was rejected on behalf of the West by Pope Damasus, who declared the Spirit to be truly and properly from the Father (as the Son from the Divine substance) and very God, "omnia posse et omnia nosse, et ubique esse," coequal and adorable (Mansi, iii., 483).去世後,聖亞他那修,新的異端代表的西方教皇達瑪斯聲明的精神,誰是真實,正確地從父親的兒子從神的物質,很神,“OMNIA一團被駁回等OMNIA nosse,ubique ESSE,“同等可愛的(曼西,三,483)。 The Illyrian bishops also, in 374, wrote to the bishops of Asia Minor, affirming the consubstantiality of the Three Divine Persons (Theodoret, HE, iv., 9).伊利里亞主教,在374,寫信給小亞細亞的主教,以確認同體的三個神聖的人(theodoret公司,HE,(四),9)。 St. Basil wrote his De Spiritu Sancto in the same sense (see Swete, Early History of the Doctrine of the Holy Spirit, pp. 58, 67), and in order to vindicate this truth against the Pneumatomachi, as the Macedonians were called by the Catholics, the Constantinopolitan recension of the Nicene Creed added the words, "the Lord and the Life-giver, proceeding from the Father, with the Father and the Son worshipped and glorified" etc., which had already formed part of local Creeds in the East.聖羅勒寫了他的Spiritu Sancto在同樣的意義(見Swete,早期的歷史聖靈的教義,第58頁,67),並為了以維護這個道理對Pneumatomachi的,作為馬其頓被稱為天主教徒,君士坦丁堡recension的尼西亞信經加了一句話,“主,生命的人,出發的父親,與父親和兒子崇拜和歌頌”等,已經形成了當地信條的一部分東。

From the foregoing by Canon Bright, the reader will be able to understand the connexion between the Semi-Arians and Pneumatomachi, as well as to see how the undestroyed heretical germs of the Semi-Asian heresy necessitated by their development the condemnation of a second synod.從上述佳能光明,讀者將能夠理解Connexion公司之間的半白羊座的和Pneumatomachi的,以及如何未被破壞的異端邪說的細菌半亞洲異端的需要其發展的第二次主教會議譴責。

The Apollinarians. Apollinarians。

(Philip Schaff, in Smith and Wace, Dict. Christ. Biog., sv Apollinaris.) (菲利普沙夫,在史密斯和Wace,快譯通。基督。Biog,亞坡理納SV)。

Apollinaris was the first to apply the results of the Nicene controversy to Christology proper, and to call the attention of the Church to the psychical and pneumatic element in the humanity of Christ; but in his zeal for the true deity of Christ, and fear of a double personality, he fell into the error of a partial denial of his true humanity.亞坡理納是第一個成果應用的尼西亞爭議基督正確的,並呼籲注意的教會在基督的人性的心理和氣動元件,但在真正的基督的神性,他的熱情和恐懼雙重人格,他陷入了錯誤的部分否定他的真實人性的。 Adopting the psychological trichotomy of Plato (soma psuche, pneuma), for which he quoted 1.採用心理三分法的柏拉圖(SOMA psuche,元氣),其中他引用1。 Thess.帖撒羅尼迦前書。 v. 23 and Gal.第23和Gal。 v. 17, he attributed to Christ a human body (soma) and a human soul (the psuche alogos, the anima animans which man has in common with the animal), but not a rational spirit (nous, pneuma, psuche logike, anima rationalis,) and put in the place of the latter the divine Logos.第17節,他歸因於基督,是人體(SOMA)和(psuche alogos,人與動物共同的靈魂animans)一個人的靈魂,但不是一個理性的精神(理性,元氣,psuche logike,動漫卡通rationalis,),並把後者的神聖標誌的地方。 In opposition to the idea of a mere connection of the Logos with the man Jesus, he wished to secure an organic unity of the two, and so a true incarnation; but he sought this at the expense of the most important constituent of man.反對的只是連接的標識與該名男子耶穌的想法,他希望獲得一個有機的統一體的兩個,一個真正的化身,但他尋求這人最重要的組成部分的費用。 He reached only a Theos sarkophoros as Nestorianism only an anthropos theophoros instead of the proper theandrotos .他只達到了一個的西奧斯sarkophoros作為景教的人類學theophoros,而不是正確theandrotos。 He appealed to the fact that the Scripture says, "the Word was made flesh"--not spirit; "God was manifest in the flesh" etc. To which Gregory Nazianzen justly replied that in these passages the term sarx was used by synecdoche for the whole human nature.他呼籲,聖經說:“道成了肉身”的事實 - 而不是精神;“神在肉身顯現”等格雷戈里Nazianzen公正地說,在這些通道的長期扎爾克斯使用的提喻整個人類的本性。 In this way Apollinaris established so close a connection of the Logos with human flesh, that all the divine attributes were transferred to the human nature, and all the human attributes to the divine, and the two merged in one nature in Christ.亞坡理納建立在這樣如此接近人肉的標識連接,所有的神的屬性被轉移到人的本性,和所有的人的屬性的神,和兩個合併,在基督裡的一個性質。 Hence he could speak of a crucifixion of the Logos, and a worship of his flesh.因此,他會說的一個十字架上的標識,和一個崇拜他的肉。 He made Christ a middle being between God and man, in whom, as it were, one part divine and two parts human were fused in the unity of a new nature.他做了基督,是神​​與人之間的中間,在其中,因為它是,一個神聖的兩部分人進行融合,在新的自然的統一。 He even ventured to adduce created analogies, such as the mule, midway between the horse and the ass; the grey colour, a mixture of white and black; and spring, in distinction from winter and summer.他甚至大膽援引創建的類比,如騾子,馬和驢的中間灰色,白色和黑色的混合物;和春季,冬季和夏季的區別。 Christ, said he, is neither whole man, nor God, but a mixture (mixis) of God and man.他說,基督,既不是完整的人,也不是神,但神和人的的混合物(mixis)。 On the other hand, he regarded the orthodox view of a union of full humanity with a full divinity in one person--of two wholes in one whole--as an absurdity.另一方面,他認為一個完整的充滿人性與神在一個人的聯合正統的觀點 - 在一個整體的兩個整體 - 一個荒謬的。 He called the result of this construction anthropotheos , a sort of monstrosity, which he put in the same category with the mythological figure of the Minotaur.他稱這的建設anthropotheos,一種怪物,這是他在同一類別中的神話人物的彌諾陶洛斯的結果。 But the Apollinarian idea of the union of the Logos with a truncated human nature might be itself more justly compared with this monster.但阿波羅工會的標識截斷人性的想法可能與這個龐然大物相比,更公正。 Starting from the Nicene homoousion as to the Logos, but denying the completeness of Christ's humanity, he met Arianism half-way, which likewise put the divine Logos in the place of the human spirit in Christ.開始的尼西亞homoousion的標誌,但他否認基督的人性的完整性,滿足阿里烏斯教的中途,它同樣把神聖的標誌,在基督裡的人的精神的地方。 But he strongly asserted his unchangeableness, while Arians taught his changeableness (treptotes).但他堅決聲稱他永不改變,而白羊座的教他的changeableness的(treptotes)。

The faith of the Church revolted against such a mutilated and stunted humanity of Christ which necessarily involved also a merely partial redemption.信仰教會起義反抗這樣的肢解和阻礙人類的基督必然涉及也僅僅是部分贖回。 The incarnation is an assumption of the entire human nature, sin only excluded.的化身,是整個人類的本性的假設,單只排除。 The ensarkosis is enanthropesis.的ensarkosis是enanthropesis。 To be a full and complete Redeemer, Christ must be a perfect man (teleios anthropos).要全面和完整的救贖,基督必須是一個完美的的人(teleios的人類學)。 The spirit or rational soul is the most important element in man, his crowning glory, the seat of intelligence and freedom, and needs redemption as well as the soul and the body; for sin has entered and corrupted all the faculties.的精神或理性的靈魂,是最重要的元素的人,他的至高無上的榮耀,智慧和自由的座位,以及需要贖回的靈魂和身體的罪已經進入和損壞,所有的院系。

In the sentence immediately preceding the above Dr. Schaff remarks "but the peculiar Christology of Apollinaris has reappeared from time to time in a modified shape, as isolated theological opinion."緊接在句子以上的博士沙夫的言論“,但亞坡理納特有的基督再次出現在修改後的形狀,不時作為獨立的神學意見。” No doubt Dr. Schaff had in mind the fathers of the so-called "Kenoticism" of to-day, Gess and Ebrard, who teach, unless they have been misunderstood, that the incarnate Son had no human intellect or rational soul (nous) but that the divine personality took its place, by being changed into it.毫無疑問,博士沙夫腦子裡想的父親來天,GESS和埃布拉德,誰教的的所謂“Kenoticism”,除非他們被人誤解,道成肉​​身的兒子有沒有人類的智慧和理性的靈魂(常識)但是,神聖的個性了它的位置,改變成。 By this last modification, they claim to escape from the taint of the Apollinarian heresy.通過這最後的修改,他們要求擺脫的污點的Apollinarian異端。 [229] [229]

The Eunomians or Anomoeans. Eunomians或Anomoeans。

(Bright, Notes on the Canons, Canon I. of I. Const.) (明亮,在大砲的注意事項,佳能I.一常量)。

"The Eunomians or Anomoeans." “Eunomians Anomoeans。” These were the ultra-Arians, who carried to its legitimate issue the original Arian denial of the eternity and uncreatedness of the Son, while they further rejected what Arius had affirmed as to the essential mysteriousness of the Divine nature (Soc., HE, iv., 7; comp. Athan., De Synod., 15).這些超白羊座的,其合法的問題進行原阿里安拒絕的兒子的的永恆和uncreatedness的,而他們進一步拒絕了阿里烏斯肯定的神性(Soc.必要的神秘性,HE,四的7排版。ATHAN,德主教,15)。 Their founder was A ëtius, the most versatile of theological adventurers (cf. Athan., De Synod., 31; Soc., HE, ii., 45; and see a summary of his career in Newman's Arians, p. 347); but their leader at the time of the Council was the daring and indefatigable Eunomius (for whose personal characteristics, see his admirer Philostorgius, x., 6).他們的創始人是Aëtius,最多才多藝的神學冒險家(參見ATHAN。,德主教,31日; SOC,HE,二,45;看到在紐曼的白羊座的,對他的職業生涯的一個總結。347) ,但他們的領袖在理事會的時間是的大膽和的不知疲倦的Eunomius(為他的個人特點,看到他的崇拜者Philostorgius,X,6)。 He, too, had gone through many vicissitudes from his first employment as the secretary of A ëtius, and his ordination as deacon by Eudoxius; as bishop of Cyzicus, he had been lured into a disclosure of his true sentiments, and then denounced as a heretic (Theod., HE, ii., 29); with A ëtius he had openly separated from Eudoxius as a disingenuous time-server, and had gone into retirement at Chalcedon (Philostorg., ix., 4).他也歷經滄桑,從他的第一次就業的秘書的Aëtius,和他的執事的Eudoxius協調;作為主教基齊庫斯,他被引誘到一個披露他的真實感情,然後指責為一個異教徒(Theod.,HE,二,29);與Aëtius他曾公開Eudoxius作為一個虛偽的時間服務器分開,並且已經到了退休的Philostorg.,九。卡爾西(4)。 The distinctive formula of his adherents was the "Anomoion."獨特的配方,他的追隨者是“Anomoion”。“ The Son, they said, was not "like to the Father in essence"; even to call him simply "like" was to obscure the fact that he was simply a creature, and, as such, "unlike" to his Creator.的兒子,他們說,這是不是“喜歡在本質上的父親”,甚至稱他為簡單的“喜歡”掩蓋了一個事實,他是一個簡單的生物,並且,正因為如此,“不像”,他的創造者。 In other words, they thought the Semi-Arian "homoiousion" little better than the Catholic "homoousion": the "homoion" of the more "respectable" Arians represented in their eyes an ignoble reticence; the plain truth, however it might shock devout prejudice, must be put into words which would bar all misunderstanding: the Son might be called "God," but in a sense merely titular, so as to leave an impassable gulf between him and the uncreated Godhead (see Eunomius's Exposition in Valesius's note on Soc., HE, v., 10).換句話說,他們認為半阿里安“homoiousion”一點不比的天主教“homoousion”:的“homoion”更“體面”白羊座的代表,在他們眼中一個卑鄙的沉默,明擺著的事實,但它可能衝擊虔誠的偏見,必須把進入的話它會禁止所有的誤解:的兒子可能被稱為“上帝”,但在一定意義上只是名義上的,所以作為以離開一個不可逾越的鴻溝之間他和的非受造的神性(Valesius的說明請參閱Eunomius的博覽會上,HE,五,10)。 Compare Basil (Epist., 233, and his work against Eunomius), and Epiphanius (Hær., 76).比較:羅勒(Epist.,233,​​和他對Eunomius的工作),和埃皮法尼烏斯(Hær.,76頁)。

The Arians or Eudoxians.白羊座的或Eudoxians的。

(Bright. Ut supra.) (Bright. UT段。)

"The Arians or Eudoxians." “亞利安或Eudoxians。” By these are meant the ordinary Arians of the period, or, as they may be called, the Acacian party, directed for several years by the essentially worldly and unconscientious Eudoxius.通過這些是期間的普通白羊座的,或者,因為它們可能被調用,Acacian的黨,為幾年的基本上是世俗和工作不Eudoxius的。 His real sympathies were with the Anomoeans (see Tillemont, M émoires, vi., 423, and compare his profane speech recorded by Socrates, HE, ii., 43): but, as a bishop of Constantinople, he felt it necessary to discourage them, and to abide by the vague formula invented by Acacius of Cæsarea, which described the Son as "like to the Father," without saying whether this likeness was supposed to be more than moral (cf. Newman, Arians, p. 317), so that the practical effect of this "homoion" was to prepare the way for that very Anomoeanism which its maintainers were ready for political purposes to disown.他真正的同情是與該Anomoeans(見回憶錄,蒂耶蒙,(六),423,和比較他的褻瀆講話記錄的蘇格拉底,HE,二,43):但是,作為君士坦丁堡的主教,他覺得有必要勸阻他們,並沒有說是否相像,應該是比道德更遵守模糊cacius的愷撒,它描述為“像父親,”兒子發明的公式(參見紐曼,白羊座的,第317頁),這樣的這個“homoion”的實際效果,非常Anomoeanism斷絕政治目的的維護者準備,準備的方式。

The Sabellians. Sabellians。

(Bright. Ut supra.) (Bright. UT段。)

"The Sabellians," whose theory is traceable to Noetus and Praxeas in the latter part of the second century: they regarded the Son and the Holy Spirit as aspects and modes of, or as emanations from, the One Person of the Father (see Newman's Arians, pp. 120 et seqq.). “Sabellians,”他們的理論是可追溯至Noetus和Praxeas中的後者部分的第二個世紀:他們認為的聖子和聖靈的方面和模式,或作為emanations從,在一個人的父(見紐曼的白羊座的,第120頁et seqq)。 Such a view tended directly to dissolve Christian belief in the Trinity and in the Incarnation (Vide Wilberforce, Incarnation, pp. 112, 197).這種觀點往往直接溶解基督教信仰三位一體的化身,(韋迪威爾伯福斯,道成肉身,第112,197)。 Hence the gentle Dionysius of Alexandria characterised it in severe terms as involving "blasphemy, unbelief, and irreverence, towards the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit" (Euseb., HE, vii.. 6).因此,溫和的狄奧尼修斯的亞歷山大特點嚴厲“的褻瀆,不信,不敬,對父,子,聖靈”(Euseb.,HE,七.. 6)涉及。 Hence the deep repugnance which it excited, and the facility with which the imputation of "Sabellianizing" could be utilised by the Arians against maintainers of the Consubstantiality (Hilary, De Trinit., iv., 4; De Synod., 68; Fragm., 11; Basil, Epist., 189, 2).因此,深刻的反感,它高興的設施,將的歸集可以利用的“Sabellianizing”的亞利安對的同體的維護者(希拉里的Trinit的,(四),4,德主教,68; Fragm,。 ,11;羅勒,Epist,189,2)。 No organized Sabellian sect was in existence at the date of this anathema: but Sabellian ideas were "in the air," and St. Basil could speak of a revival of this old misbelief (Epist., 126).沒有組織Sabellian的教派是存在的,在這詛咒之日起但Sabellian的想法是“在空中”,和聖羅勒會說話的復興這個老misbelief的(Epist.,126)。 We find it again asserted by Chilperic I., King of Neustria, in the latter part of the sixth century (Greg. Turon., Hist. Fr., v., 45).我們再次找到它的天幕,王Chilperic一所宣稱的第六個世紀中後期(格雷格。特倫歷史。神父,五,45)。

The Marcellians. Marcellians。

(Bright. Ut supra.) (Bright. UT段。)

"The Marcellians," called after Marcellus bishop of Ancyra, who was persistently denounced not only by the Arianizers, but by St. Basil, and for a time, at least, suspected by St. Athanasius (Vide Epiphan., Hær., 72, 4) as one who held notions akin to Sabellianism, and fatal to a true belief in the Divine Sonship and the Incarnation. “Marcellians,之後,的馬塞勒斯主教的安該拉”之稱,持續譴責不僅由Arianizers,但聖羅勒和今後一個時期,至少,懷疑是聖亞他那修(見Epiphan,Hær,72 4)舉行的概念類似於的Sabellianism的,致命的一個真正的信仰的神聖sonship和化身。 The theory ascribed to him was that the Logos was an impersonal Divine power, immanent from eternity in God, but issuing from him in the act of creation, and entering at last into relations with the human person of Jesus, who thus became God's Son.歸功於他的理論是,該標誌是一個客觀的神聖權力,內在的永恆的神,但發行從他的創造行為,並進入最後一個到的人的人,耶穌,誰從而成為神的兒子的關係。 But this expansion of the original divine unity would be followed by a "contraction," when the Logos would retire from Jesus, and God would again be all in all.的原始神聖的統一,但是這種發展將遵循的“收縮”的標誌時,從耶穌退休,和神將再次成為這一切的一切。 Some nine years before the council, Marcellus, then in extreme old age, had sent his deacon Eugenius to St. Athanasius, with a written confession of faith, quite orthodox as to the eternity of the Trinity, and the identity of the Logos with a pre-existing and personal Son, although not verbally explicit as to the permanence of Christ's "kingdom,"--the point insisted on in one of the Epiphanian-Constantinopolitan additions to the Creed (Montfaucon, Collect. Nov., ii., 1).大約九年前理事會,馬塞勒斯,然後在極端的晚年,送了他的執事葉夫根尼聖亞他那修,以書面的信仰告白,很正統的,永恆的三位一體,和身份的標識與現有的和個人的兒子,雖然沒有口頭明確的為的持久基督的王國“,” - 點堅持在君士坦丁堡的信條(蒙福,收集Epiphanian-11,II,1 )。 The question whether Marcellus was personally heterodox--ie whether the extracts from his treatise, made by his adversary Eusebius of Cæsarea, give a fair account of his real views--has been answered unfavourably by some writers, as Newman (Athanasian Treatises, ii., 200, ed. 2), and D öllinger (Hippolytus and Callistus, p. 217, ET p. 201), while others, like Neale, think that "charity and truth" suggest his "acquittal" (Hist. Patr. Antioch., p. 106).馬塞勒斯是是否親自非正統的問題 - 即是否提取物尤西比烏斯的cæsarea他的對手從他的論文,他的真實想法,給出一個公正的帳戶 - 已回答了不利的一些作家,作為紐曼(亞他那修論文,II ,200,編輯。2),和多林格(西波呂和卡利斯圖斯,第217,ET。201),而另一些,像尼爾認為,“愛德和真理”表明他的“無罪釋放”(Hist. PATR的安提阿。頁106)。 Montfaucon thinks that his written statements might be favourably interpreted, but that his oral statements must have given ground for suspicion.蒙福認為,他的書面聲明,可能有利於解釋,但他的口頭陳述,必須有地面的懷疑。

The Photinians. Photinians。

(Bright. Ut supra. ) (Bright. UT段。)

"The Photinians," or followers of Marcellus's disciple Photinus, bishop of Sirmium, the ready-witted and pertinacious disputant whom four successive synods condemned before he could be got rid of, by State power, in ad 351. “Photinians”或追隨者的馬塞勒斯的弟子Photinus,主教舍米安,連續四次主教會議譴責之前,他可以擺脫的,由國家權力,在公元351現成的機智和執拗的爭論者。 (See St. Athanasius's Historical Writings, Introd. p. lxxxix.) In his representation of the "Marcellian" theology, he laid special stress on its Christological position--that Jesus, on whom the Logos rested with exceptional fulness, was a mere man. (見聖亞他那修的史書,請選確認。頁LXXXIX)在他的“Marcellian”神學表示,他特別強調基督位置 - 耶穌,人的理性與特殊豐滿的休息,是一個單純的人。 See Athanasius, De Synodis, 26, 27, for two creeds in which Photinianism is censured; also Soc.亞他那修,德Synodis,26日,27日,2信條在這Photinianism,譴責,也SOC。 HE ii., 18, 29, 30; vii., 32.二,18,29,30;七,32。 There is an obvious affinity between it and the "Samosatene" or Paulionist theory.它和“Samosatene”或Paulionist的理論有一個明顯的親和力。


[229] The theological views of Gess and Ebrard I know only from the statements of them in writers on the subject of the Incarnation, especially from those made by the Rev. AB Bruce, D D., Professor at Free Church College, Glasgow, in his work "The Humiliation of Christ." [229] Gess稱和Ebrard的神學觀點,我只知道從報表的作家,他們在道成肉身的主題,特別是那些由D D.牧師AB布魯斯,自由教會學院教授,格拉斯哥,在他的作品“基督的屈辱。” (Lecture IV.) The following passage (cited by Dr. Bruce) seems to prove his contention so far as Gess is concerned. (演講IV。)下面這段話(引博士布魯斯)似乎證明他的論點,至今Gess稱是。 "Dass eine wahrhaft menschliche Seele in Jesu war, versteht sich f ür und von selbt: er war ja sonst kein wirklicher Mensch. Aber die Frage ist, ob der in's Werden eingegangene Logos selbst diese menschliche Seele, oder ob neben dem in's Werden eingegangenen Logos noch eine becondere menschliche Seele in Jesu war?" “達斯> wahrhaft menschliche SEELE在JESU戰爭,versteht SICH獻給和馮selbt:呃戰爭,JÃsonst KEIN,wirklicher門施。阿伯模具Frage主義者,因河畔的Werden eingegangene圖案的自我diese menschliche SEELE,奧德OB neben DEM的Werden eingegangenen的標誌NOCH> becondere menschliche SEELE JESU戰爭嗎?“ (Gess. Die Lehre vd Person Christi, ii. p. 321.) Bruce understands Gess to teach that "The only difference between the Logos and a human soul was, that he became human by voluntary kenosis, while an ordinary human soul derives its existence from a creative act." (Lehre VD Gess.模人斯蒂,二,第321頁)。布魯斯了解Gess稱教“之間的唯一區別的標誌和一個人的靈魂,使他成為人類自願的kenosis的,而一個普通的人類靈魂來自其存在一個創造性的行為。“ (And refers to Gess, ut supra, p. 325 et seqq.) For Ebrard's view, see his Christliche Dogmatik, ii., p. (是指GESS,UT同上,第325頁et seqq)。埃布拉德的看法,看他的Christliche刑法信條學,二,。 40. 40。 Ritschl dubbed the whole kenotic theory as "Versch ämter Socinianismus."里奇爾被稱為虛己的理論中作為“VerschämterSocinianismus。”

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