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In discussing this term and its meaning, reference must be had to the cognate expressions, idealist, idealized, ideal (adjective), and the ideal (noun), all of which are derived from the Greek idéa.在討論這個詞,它的意思,必須同根詞句,理想主義的​​,理想化的,理想的(形容詞),理想(名詞),所有這些都來自希臘的想法。 This signifies "image", "figure, "form": it can be used in the sense of "likeness", or "copy" as well as in that of "type", "model", or "pattern": it is this latter sense that finds expression in "ideal", and "the ideal" and the derivatives are mentioned above. In speaking of "the ideal", what we have in mind is not a copy of any perceptible object, but a type. The artist is said to "idealize" his subject when he represents it as a fairer, nobler, more perfect than it is in reality.這標誌著“形象”,“圖,”形式“:它可以用在這個意義上的”樣式“,或”複製“的”型“,”模式“或”模式“:這個意義上後者體現在“理想”,“理想”,上述衍生工具。在談到“理想”,我們的想法是沒有任何可察覺的對象的副本,而是一種類型。藝術家說,“理想化”他的主題時,他表示作為一個更公平,更高貴,更完美的,比它是在現實中。

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Idealism in life is the characteristic of those who regard the ideas of truth and right, goodness and beauty, as standards and directive forces.生活中的理想主義是誰把真理和正義,善,美的思想,標準和指導部隊的特點。 This signification betrays the influence of Plato, who made idea a technical term in philosophy.這個意義背叛了柏拉圖,誰知道一個技術術語,在哲學的影響。 According to him the visible world is simply a copy of a supersensible, intelligible, ideal world, and consequently "things" are but the impress stamped on reality by that which is of a higher, spiritual nature.據他介紹,在可見世界是簡單的複製一個超感覺的,可理解的,理想的世界,並因此“東西”,但留下深刻的印象,這是一個更高的,精神的本質上加蓋現實。 Platonism is the oldest form of idealism, and Plato himself the progenitor of idealists.柏拉圖主義的理想主義是最古老的形式,柏拉圖自己的祖先的理想主義者。 It is usual to place in contrast Plato's idealism and Aristotle's realism; the latter in fact denies that ideas are originals and that things are mere copies; he holds that the essence is intelligible, but that it is immanent in the things of nature, whereas it is put into the products of art.這是通常放置在對比柏拉圖的理想主義和亞里士多德的現實主義;後者事實上否認,想法是正本和事情是單純的拷貝,他認為,在本質上是理解的,但是,它是內在的本質的東西,而它投入藝術產品。 It is more correct, therefore, to call his teaching an immanent idealism as contrasted with the transcendental idealism of Plato.這是正確的,因此,打電話給他的教學作為對比,柏拉圖的先驗唯心主義的一種內在的理想主義。 Both these thinkers reveal the decisive influence of that moral and æsthetic idealism which permeated Greek life, thought, and action; but for both, what lies deepest down in their philosophy is the conviction that the first and highest principle of all things is the one perfect spiritual Being which they call God, and to which they lead back, by means of intermediate principles--essence and form, purpose and law--the multifarious individual beings of the visible world.這兩個思想家揭示了決定性的影響,道德和審美理想主義滲透希臘人的生活,思想和行動,但在這兩方面,是什麼樣的最深的倒在他們的哲學是第一和最高原則,所有的東西,是一個完美的信念,精神被他們稱之為神,他們引回來,中間的原則 - 實質和形式,目的和法律的手段 - 可見的世界五花八門的獨立的個體。 In this sense idealism is dualism, ie the doctrine of a higher spiritual principle over against that which is lower and material; and this doctrine again is clearly opposed to the monism which would derive the higher and the lower alike out of one and the same All-being.在這個意義上唯心主義是二元論,即更高的精神的原則的教義對,這是較低和材料,以及這種學說再次明確反對將獲得較高的和下部都滿分一個和相同的所有的一元論幸福。 This older idealism teaches, not that there is One-All, but that there is an alpha and omega, ie a supermundane Cause and End, of the world.這個舊的理想主義,而不是教是一所有,但有一個阿爾法和歐米茄,即現世的原因和結束的世界。 By means of its principles, idealism maintains the distinctness of God and the world, of the absolute and finite, yet holds them together in unity; it adjusts the relations between reality and knowledge, by ascribing to things dimension, form, purpose, value, law, at the same time securing forethought the requisite certainty and validity; it establishes objective truth in the things that are known and subjective truth in the mind that knows them.通過其原則,理想主義保持清晰度,上帝和世界的,絕對的,有限的,但他們認為在團結一起,它調整的現實和知識之間的關係,所指稱的東西的尺寸,形式,目的,價值,法律,同時確保深謀遠慮必要的確定性和有效性;建立客觀真理的事情,是已知的和主觀的真理,知道他們在腦海中。 In this sense the Schoolmen teach that forma dat esse et distingui, ie the principle which formally constitutes the object, likewise, in the act of cognition, informs the mind.在這個意義上的schoolmen教備考數據ESSE等distingui,即原則正式構成的對象,同樣,在認知行為,通知頭腦。 Inasmuch as its principles express the cause and purpose of things, their determinate nature and value, idealism unites the speculative and the ethical, the true and the good, moral philosophy and the philosophy of nature.由於它的原則表達的事情的原因和目的,確定的性質和價值,理想主義團結的投機和道德的真與善,道德哲學和自然哲學。

In this sense St. Augustine developed the Platonic teaching, and in his philosophy is idealism in the genuine meaning of the term.從這個意義上說,聖奧古斯丁的柏拉圖式的教學,他的哲學是唯心論,在真正一詞的含義。 From him comes the definition of ideas which Christian philosophy has since retained: "Ideas are certain original forms of things, their archetypes, permanent and incommunicable, which are contained in the Divine intelligence. And though they neither begin to be nor cease, yet upon them are patterned the manifold things of the world that come into being and pass away. Upon these ideas only the rational soul can fix its gaze, endowed as it is with the faculty which is its peculiar excellence, ie mind and reason [mente ac ratione], a power, as it were, of intellectual vision; and for such intuition that soul only is qualified which is pure and holy, ie, whose eye is normal, clear, and well adjusted to the things which it would fain behold" (De diversis quaest., Q. xlvi, in PL, XL, 30).從他的想法來定義基督教哲學保留:“點子是某些原始形式的東西,他們的原型,永久和incommunicable,都包含在神的智慧。雖然他們既沒有開始也沒有停止,但在它們的圖案的世界,應運而生,並通過了歧管的事情,當這些想法只是理性的靈魂可以修復它的凝視,賦與教師,這是其特有的卓越,即頭腦和理性的,因為它是李來祥,黃幹,徐成,段炳志交流的理由,一個電源,因為它是,理智地觀察這種直覺的靈魂是合格的,這是純潔和神聖的,也就是說,他的眼睛是正常的,明確的,很好地調整到的東西,它會欣然不料“( diversis quaest,問:四十六,在PL,XL,30)。

This line of thought the Scholastics adopted, developing it in their treatises as ideology.這一思路的scholastics採納,在他們的論文作為意識形態的發展。 Their theory is described not as idealism, but as realism; but this does not imply that they are in conflict with the doctrine of Augustine; it means rather that the ideal principles possess real validity, that as ideas they subsist in the Divine mind before the things corresponding to them are called into existence, while, as forms and essences, they really exist in nature and are not really products of our thinking.他們的理論是不理想主義,但作為現實主義,但是這並不意味著他們在衝突與奧古斯丁的學說,這意味著相當理想的原則,具有真正的效力,即作為的想法,他們在神的心目中存在的與之對應的東西存在,被稱為形式和本質,同時,他們真的存在於自然界中,是不是真的我們的思想的產物。 In this last-named sense, ie, as subjective constructions, ideas had long before been regarded by the philosophers of antiquity and especially by the Stoics, who held that ideas are nothing else than mental representation.在這最後的意義,即作為主觀建設,思想很久以前被視為古代的哲學家,尤其是斯多葛學派,認為這想法是不是沒有別的心理表徵。 This erroneous and misleading view appeared during the Middle Ages in the guise of nominalism, a designation given to the system whose adherents claimed that our concepts are mere names (nomina), which have as their counterparts in the world of reality individual things, but not forms or essences or purposes.這種錯誤的和誤導性的出現在中世紀的唯名論的幌子,指定給系統,其信徒聲稱,我們的概念僅僅是名稱(標稱),其中有他們的同行在世界上的現實個人的事情,但不形式或本質或目的。 This opinion, which robs both science and moral principles of their universal validity, and which paves the way for Materialism and agnosticism, was combated by the leaders of Scholasticism--Anselm of Canterbury, Albertus Mangus, Thomas Aquinas, Bonaventure, and Duns Scotus--nevertheless, from the fourteenth century onwards, it had its champions and propagators, notably William of Occam.看來,這剝奪了科學​​和道德原則的普遍有效性,並鋪平了道路,為唯物主義和不可知論,是鬥爭的領導人士林 - 安瑟倫的坎特伯雷,馬庫斯(Mangus)的Albertus,托馬斯·阿奎那,文德,鄧司各脫,然而,從14世紀起,它有其擁護者和傳播者,特別是奧卡姆的威廉。 For the untrained mind it was easier to consider individual things as the only realities and to regard forms and essences as purely mental products.對於未經訓練的心態,這是比較容易考慮個人的事情,作為唯一的現實,並把形式和本質作為純粹的精神產品。

So it came to pass that the word idea in various languages took on more and more the meaning of "representation", "mental image", and the like.所以,過了這個詞的想法在各種語言中承擔了越來越多的含義的“代表”,“心理圖像”,像。 Hence too, there was gradually introduced the terminology which we find in the writings of Berkeley, and according to which idealism is the doctrine that ascribes reality to our ideas, ie our representations, but denies the reality of the physical world.因此也陸續出台的術語,我們發現在大學伯克利分校的著作,並根據理想主義是歸於現實的原則,即我們的想法,即我們的交涉,但否認現實的物理世界。 This sort of idealism is just the reverse of that which was held by the philosophers of antiquity and their Christian successors; it does away with the reality of ideal principles by confining them exclusively to the thinking subject; it is a spurious idealism which deserves rather the name "phenomenalism" (phenomenon, "appearance", as opposed to noumenon, "the object of thought").召開了古代的哲學家和他們的基督教接班人的理想主義是正好相反,它摒棄了現實的理想原則局限於他們專門為思維主體,它是一個虛假的理想主義,而是值得名“現象論”(現象,“外觀”,而不是到本體論“思想的對象”)。

The doctrine of Descartes has also per nefas been called idealism.笛卡爾學說也有每nefas的被稱為理想主義。 It is true that Cartesianism is in line with the genuine idealism of the earlier schools, inasmuch as it postulates God, thought, and spatial reality.笛卡兒是在較早的學校,因為真正的理想主義,因為它假設上帝,這是真的想,和空間的現實。 But, on the other hand, this system too employs idea only in a subjective signification and quite overlooks the intermediate position of ideal principles.但是,另一方面,該系統也採用了想法,只有在主觀意義和相當理想的原則,俯瞰著中間位置。 According to the theory of Leibniz, which has also been regarded as idealistic, our mind constructs from its own resources (de son propre fond) its scheme of the world; but, thanks to a pre-established harmony (harmonie préétablie), it accords with reality.根據萊布尼茨,這也被認為是理想主義的​​理論,我們的頭腦構造從自己的資源(兒子PROPRE喜歡)計劃的世界,但是,由於預先建立的和諧(防敏préétablie),它符合與現實。 This view, however, furnishes no solution for the epistemological problem.然而,這種觀點認為,提交的認識論問題沒有解決。 Kant claims that his critical philosophy is both a "transcendental idealism" and an "empirical realism"; but he declares ideas are "illusions of reason", and such ideal principles as cause and purpose are simply devices of thought which can be employed only in reference to phenomena.康德聲稱,他的批判哲學的“先驗唯心論”和“經驗現實主義”,但他宣稱想法是“幻想”的原因,而這種理想的原因和目的的原則是思想簡單的設備,可以只在引用現象。 Fichte took Kant as his starting--point but finally rose above the level of subjectivism and posited a principle of reality, the absolute Ego.費希特了康德,他的出發 - 點以上的水平,主觀主義,但最終上升和假定現實的原則,絕對的自我。 Hegel's doctrine can be termed idealism so far as it seeks the highest principle in the absolute idea, which finds its self-realization in form, concept, etc.--a view which amounts virtually to monism.黑格爾的學說可以稱為理想主義的​​,因為它的目的絕對理念的最高原則,認定其自我實現的形式,概念等,而這無形中給一元論 - 這一觀點。 The various offshoots of Kantian philosophy are incorrectly regarded as developments of idealism; it is more accurate to describe them as "illusionism" or "Solipsism", since they entirely sweep away objective reality.康德哲學的各個分支被錯誤地認為是唯心論的發展,這是更準確地描述他們的“迷狂說”或“唯我論”,因為他們完全掃除客觀現實。 In this connection a German philosopher declares:在這方面,德國哲學家宣稱:

I affirm without hesitation that the assertion, 'the existence of the world consists merely in our thinking', is for me the result of a hypertrophy of the passion for knowledge.我肯定毫不遲疑的斷言,“存在的世界的,只是在我們的思想,是我對知識的熱情肥大的結果。 To this conclusion I have been lead chiefly by the torture I endure in getting over 'idealism'.這樣的結論,我已經導致主要由我忍受的折磨中獲得過“理想主義”。 Whosoever attempts to take this theory in downright earnest, to force his way clean through it and identify himself with it, will certainly feel that something is about to snap in his brain (Jerusalem, "Die Urtheilsfunktion", Vienna, 1886, p.261). ,凡試圖採取這一理論,迫使他的方式清潔,並確定自己的,徹頭徹尾的認真,肯定會覺得有些卡在他的大腦(耶路撒冷,“Urtheilsfunktion”,維也納,1886年,p.261 )。

Similar conclusions are reached by J. Volkelt (Erfahrung u. Denken, Hamburg, 1886, p. 519);相似的結論由J.福克爾特(。DENKEN Erfahrungü,漢堡,1886年,頁519);

Any man who carries his theoretical doubts or denial of the external world so far that even in his everyday experience he is forever reminding himself of the purely subjective character of his perceptions.他的理論的質疑或拒絕外部世界的任何一個人到目前為止,甚至在他的日常經驗,他永遠提醒自己純粹是主觀的性格,他的看法。 . .will simply find himself flung out of the natural course and direction of life, stripped of all normal feeling and interest, and sooner or later confronted with the danger of losing his mind completely.就會很容易找到自己甩到生活的自然路線和方向,剝奪了一切正常的感覺和興趣,遲早面臨的危險,完全失去了他的頭腦。

It is certainly a matter of regret that the terms idea, idealist, and idealism, originally so rich in content, should be so far degraded as to signify such aberrations of thought.這當然是一個問題,遺憾的條款理念,理想主義者,理想主義,原來如此豐富的內容,應該是到目前為止退化以此來表示這種像差的思想。 The present writer, in his "Geschichte des Idealismus" (2nd ed., Brunswick, 1907) has taken the ground that the original meaning of these terms should be restored to them.目前的作家,在他的“歷史Idealismus”(第二版,不倫瑞克,1907年),理由是這些條款應該恢復到他們原來的意義。 In the index of this "Geschichte" and in his monograph, "Die Wichtigsten Philosophischen Fachausdrücke" (Munich, 1909), he traces in detail the changes and meaning which these words have undergone.在指數本“趨勢歷史”,並在他的專著,“死Wichtigsten PhilosophischenFachausdrücke”(慕尼黑,1909年),他詳細跟踪這些話都發生了變化及意義。

Publication information Written by Otto Willmann.出版信息的書面由奧托·維爾曼。 Transcribed by Peter S. Zehr and Patrick C. Swain.轉錄由彼得S. C.澤漢弗和帕特里克斯溫。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.天主教百科全書,卷VII。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

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