Saint Mary Magdalen聖瑪麗抹大拉

Catholic Information 天主教信息

Mary Magdalen was so called either from Magdala near Tiberias, on the west shore of Galilee, or possibly from a Talmudic expression meaning "curling women's hair," which the Talmud explains as of an adulteress.所謂的“瑪麗Magdalen無論是從抹大拉的太巴列附近,西岸的加利利,或可能從一個塔木德表達的意思是”冰壺女子的頭髮,“塔木德解釋的淫婦。 In the New Testament she is mentioned among the women who accompanied Christ and ministered to Him (Luke 8:2-3), where it is also said that seven devils had been cast out of her (Mark 16:9).在“新約”中,她提到的婦女當中,伴隨著基督的服事他(路加福音8:2-3),它​​也說,七個鬼被趕出去,她(馬可福音16:9)。 She is next named as standing at the foot of the cross (Mark 15:40; Matthew 27:56; John 19:25; Luke 23:49).她的下一個名為站在腳下的十字架上(馬克15:40,馬太福音27:56,約翰福音19:25;路加福音23:49)。 She saw Christ laid in the tomb, and she was the first recorded witness of the Resurrection.她看到基督奠定了在墳墓裡,她是第一個記錄證人的復活。

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The Greek Fathers, as a whole, distinguish the three persons:希臘的父親,作為一個整體,區分三種人:

the "sinner" of Luke 7:36-50; “罪人”路加福音7:36-50;

the sister of Martha and Lazarus, Luke 10:38-42 and John 11; and姐姐馬大和拉撒路,路加福音10:38-42和約翰福音11章;

Mary Magdalen.瑪麗magdalen。

On the other hand most of the Latins hold that these three were one and the same.另一方面,大多數的拉丁人認為這三個分別為一個和相同的。 Protestant critics, however, believe there were two, if not three, distinct persons.新教的批評,但我相信有兩個,如果不是三,不同的人。 It is impossible to demonstrate the identity of the three; but those commentators undoubtedly go too far who assert, as does Westcott (on John 11:1), "that the identity of Mary with Mary Magdalene is a mere conjecture supported by no direct evidence, and opposed to the general tenour of the gospels."這是不可能的三個證明身份,但毫無疑問,那些評論家走的太遠,誰主張一樣,韋斯科特(約翰福音11:1),“馬利亞抹大拉的馬利亞的身份僅僅是一種猜測,沒有直接的證據支持,反對向了福音一般tenour。“ It is the identification of Mary of Bethany with the "sinner" of Luke 7:37, which is most combatted by Protestants.這是確定的,住在伯大尼的馬利亞“罪人”路加福音7:37,這是最防治的新教徒。 It almost seems as if this reluctance to identify the "sinner" with the sister of Martha were due to a failure to grasp the full significance of the forgiveness of sin.它幾乎好像不願確定的“罪人”瑪莎的妹妹由於未能掌握的全部意義,罪得赦免。 The harmonizing tendencies of so many modern critics, too, are responsible for much of the existing confusion.這麼多的現代批評的融洽傾向,也有許多現有的混亂負責。

The first fact, mentioned in the Gospel relating to the question under discussion is the anointing of Christ's feet by a woman, a "sinner" in the city (Luke 7:37-50).的福音所討論的問題中提到的第一個事實,是一個女人,一個在城市的“罪人”(路7:37-50)基督的腳的恩膏。 This belongs to the Galilean ministry, it precedes the miracle of the feeding of the five thousand and the third Passover.這是屬於伽利略部,它先餵養五千人,第三逾越節的奇蹟。 Immediately afterwards St. Luke describes a missionary circuit in Galilee and tells us of the women who ministered to Christ, among them being "Mary who is called Magdalen, out of whom seven devils were gone forth" (Luke 8:2); but he does not tell us that she is to be identified with the "sinner" of the previous chapter.緊接著聖路加描述一個傳教士電路,加利利,並告訴我們服事基督的女性,其中包括“瑪麗被稱為抹大拉,出來的人都走了七個鬼出來”(路8:2),但他不告訴我們,她是要確定與前一章的“罪人”。 In 10:38-42, he tells us of Christ's visit to Martha and Mary "in a certain town"; it is impossible to identify this town, but it is clear from 9:53, that Christ had definitively left Galilee, and it is quite possible that this "town" was Bethany. 10:38-42,他告訴我們,基督的訪問馬大和馬利亞“在一定的城市”,它是不可能確定這個小鎮,但很顯然,從9時53分,基督已經明確地離開加利利,和它是非常有可能的是,這個“城”是伯大尼。 This seems confirmed by the preceding parable of the good Samaritan, which must almost certainly have been spoken on the road between Jericho and Jerusalem.這似乎證實了前面的比喻好撒瑪利亞人,這幾乎肯定傑里科和耶路撒冷之間的道路上曾出現。 But here again we note that there is no suggestion of an identification of the three persons (the "sinner", Mary Magdalen, and Mary of Bethany), and if we had only St. Luke to guide us we should certainly have no grounds for so identifying them.但在這裡,我們注意到,有沒有建議的三人(“罪人”,瑪麗magdalen,和瑪麗的伯大尼)的識別,如果我們只有聖路加來指導我們,我們當然應該有任何理由所以識別他們。 St. John, however, clearly identifies Mary of Bethany with the woman who anointed Christ's feet (12; cf. Matthew 26 and Mark 14).然而,聖約翰,清楚地表明,住在伯大尼的瑪利亞的女人受膏者基督的腳(12;比照。馬太福音第26和馬克14)。 It is remarkable that already in 11:2, St. John has spoken of Mary as "she that anointed the Lord's feet", he aleipsasa; It is commonly said that he refers to the subsequent anointing which he himself describes in 12:3-8; but it may be questioned whether he would have used he aleipsasa if another woman, and she a "sinner" in the city, had done the same.值得注意的是,已經在11時02分,聖約翰說“瑪麗,她抹主的腳”,他aleipsasa我們常說,他指的是他自己介紹了12:3隨後的恩膏 - 8,但它可能會質疑,他會用他aleipsasa如果另外一個女人,她是一個“罪人”的城市,已做了同樣。 It is conceivable that St. John, just because he is writing so long after the event and at a time when Mary was dead, wishes to point out to us that she was really the same as the "sinner."這是可以想像的,聖約翰,只是因為他寫了這麼長時間,在事件發生後,在瑪麗的時候,已經死了,希望向我們指出,她是真正的“罪人”。 In the same way St. Luke may have veiled her identity precisely because he did not wish to defame one who was yet living; he certainly does something similar in the case of St. Matthew whose identity with Levi the publican (5:7) he conceals.聖路加可能會以同樣的方式蒙蔽她的身份,正是因為他沒有要詆毀一個還活著,他一定做了類似的聖馬太與Levi稅吏(5:7),他的身份的情況下,掩蓋了。 If the foregoing argument holds good, Mary of Bethany and the "sinner" are one and the same.如果上述論點成立,伯大尼的馬利亞和“罪人”是同一個。 But an examination of St. John's Gospel makes it almost impossible to deny the identity of Mary of Bethany with Mary Magdalen.但考試聖約翰福音,使得它幾乎不可能否認的身份,住在伯大尼的馬利亞抹大拉的瑪麗。 From St. John we learn the name of the "woman" who anointed Christ's feet previous to the last supper.從聖約翰我們學習的受膏者基督的腳前最後的晚餐“女人”的名稱。 We may remark here that it seems unnecessary to hold that because St. Matthew and St. Mark say "two days before the Passover", while St. John says "six days" there were, therefore, two distinct anointings following one another.我們可以認為,它似乎是不必要的,因為聖馬太和聖馬可說:“前兩天逾越節”,而聖約翰說:“六天”,因此,有兩種截然不同的恩膏彼此備註。 St. John does not necessarily mean that the supper and the anointing took place six days before, but only that Christ came to Bethany six days before the Passover.聖約翰並不一定意味著吃晚飯的恩膏發生6天前,只不過是基督來到伯大尼逾越節的前六天。 At that supper, then, Mary received the glorious encomium, "she hath wrought a good work upon Me . . . in pouring this ointment upon My body she hath done it for My burial . . . wheresoever this Gospel shall be preached . . . that also which she hath done shall be told for a memory of her."吃晚飯,然後,瑪麗獲得了輝煌的推崇,“她倒在我身上造成一個良好的工作,在這香膏澆在我的身上,她所行的是為我安葬在何處,這福音要傳遍... ,也應被告知她的記憶中,她所行的。“ Is it credible, in view of all this, that this Mary should have no place at the foot of the cross, nor at the tomb of Christ?是可信的,這一切,這個瑪麗有沒有地方在腳下過,也沒有在基督的墳墓嗎? Yet it is Mary Magdalen who, according to all the Evangelists, stood at the foot of the cross and assisted at the entombment and was the first recorded witness of the Resurrection.然而,這是瑪利亞·抹大拉,根據所有福音,站在腳下的交叉,並協助在埋葬,是第一次記錄到證人的復活。 And while St. John calls her "Mary Magdalen" in 19:25, 20:1, and 20:18, he calls her simply "Mary" in 20:11 and 20:16.而聖約翰叫她的“瑪麗Magdalen”在19:25,20:1和20:18,他叫她“瑪麗”在20:11和20:16。

In the view we have advocated the series of events forms a consistent whole; the "sinner" comes early in the ministry to seek for pardon; she is described immediately afterwards as Mary Magdalen "out of whom seven devils were gone forth"; shortly after, we find her "sitting at the Lord's feet and hearing His words."在視圖中,我們提倡的一系列事件形成一個連貫的整體;部尋求赦免“罪人”來得早,她描述之後立即瑪麗magdalen“人都走了七個鬼來回”後不久, ,我們發現她的“坐在主的腳前聽他的話。” To the Catholic mind it all seems fitting and natural.對天主教的態度,這一切似乎配件和自然。 At a later period Mary and Martha turn to "the Christ, the Son of the Living God", and He restores to them their brother Lazarus; a short time afterwards they make Him a supper and Mary once more repeats the act she had performed when a penitent.在後一時期馬大和馬利亞“基督,永生神的兒子”,他恢復到他們的兄弟拉撒路,很短的時間之後,他們讓他晚飯和瑪麗​​再次重複她的行為時,一個懺悔。 At the Passion she stands near by; she sees Him laid in the tomb; and she is the first witness of His Resurrection--excepting always His Mother, to whom He must needs have appeared first, though the New Testament is silent on this point.熱衷於她站在附近,她看見他奠定了在墳墓裡,她是第一個見證他的復活 - 除了他的母親,他所必須首先出現,雖然新約聖經是沉默的,在這一點上。 In our view, then, there were two anointings of Christ's feet--it should surely be no difficulty that St. Matthew and St. Mark speak of His head--the first (Luke 7) took place at a comparatively early date; the second, two days before the last Passover.然後,在我們看來,有兩個恩膏基督的腳 - 它當然應該沒有什麼困難,聖馬修和聖馬克說他的頭部 - 第“(盧克7)發生在比較早的日期;第二,前兩天最後的逾越節。 But it was one and the same woman who performed this pious act on each occasion.但它是一個和同一個女人,每次執行此虔誠的行為。

Subsequent history of St. Mary Magdalen隨後的聖瑪麗抹大拉的歷史

The Greek Church maintains that the saint retired to Ephesus with the Blessed Virgin and there died, that her relics were transferred to Constantinople in 886 and are there preserved.希臘教會認為,聖人退休到了以弗所,聖母和去世後,她的遺物被轉移到君士坦丁堡在886,並在那裡保存。 Gregory of Tours (De miraculis, I, xxx) supports the statement that she went to Ephesus.格雷戈里的旅行團(德miraculis,我,XXX)支持的聲明,她來到以​​弗所。 However, according to a French tradition (see SAINT LAZARUS OF BETHANY), Mary, Lazarus, and some companions came to Marseilles and converted the whole of Provence.但是,根據一個法國傳統(SAINT拉撒路,住在伯大尼),馬利亞,拉撒路,和一些同伴來到馬賽,並轉換整個普羅旺斯。 Magdalen is said to have retired to a hill, La Sainte-Baume, near by, where she gave herself up to a life of penance for thirty years.抹大拉說,已退休的一座小山,洛杉磯聖 - 波美附近,在那裡她給自己三十年的苦修的生活。 When the time of her death arrived she was carried by angels to Aix and into the oratory of St. Maximinus, where she received the viaticum; her body was then laid in an oratory constructed by St. Maximinus at Villa Lata, afterwards called St. Maximin.當到達她的時候,她的死亡是由天使到AIX到演講的馬克西勉聖,她收到viaticum的;她的身體,然後放置在聖馬克西勉在建造別墅拉塔的演講,後來叫St。最大最小化。 History is silent about these relics till 745, when according to the chronicler Sigebert, they were removed to Vézelay through fear of the Saracens.歷史這些文物是沉默,直到745,根據編年史西熱貝爾時,他們被拆除維澤萊怕的撒拉遜。 No record is preserved of their return, but in 1279, when Charles II, King of Naples, erected a convent at La Sainte-Baume for the Dominicans, the shrine was found intact, with an inscription stating why they were hidden.沒有記錄保存他們的回報,但在1279年,那不勒斯國王查爾斯二世,在洛杉磯聖 - 波美多米尼加共和國,搭建起一座修道院,神社被發現完好無損,說明為什麼他們被隱藏題詞。 In 1600 the relics were placed in a sarcophagus sent by Clement VIII, the head being placed in a separate vessel.在1600年文物被置於在一個石棺發送克萊門特八,頭被放置在一個單獨的容器。 In 1814 the church of La Sainte-Baume, wrecked during the Revolution, was restored, and in 1822 the grotto was consecrated afresh. 1814年,教堂的洛杉磯聖 - 波美,破壞了革命期間,被恢復,並於1822年重新石窟是神聖的。 The head of the saint now lies there, where it has lain so long, and where it has been the centre of so many pilgrimages.頭的聖人,現在躺在那裡,在那裡已經躺這麼久,一直如此眾多的朝聖中心。

Publication information Written by Hugh T. Pope.出版信息的書面休噸教皇。 Transcribed by Paul T. Crowley.轉錄由Paul T.克勞利。 In Memoriam, Sr. Mary Leah, OP and Sr. Mary Lilly, OP The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.在悼念中,高級瑪麗利亞,OP和高級瑪麗禮來公司,OP天主教百科全書,體積九。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約

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