Pasch or Passover PASCH或逾越節

Catholic Information 天主教信息

Jews of all classes and ways of thinking look forward to the Passover holidays with the same eagerness as Christians do to Christmastide.的所有類和思維方式的猶太人的逾越節假期同樣熱切的心情期待為基督徒做Christmastide的。 It is for them the great event of the year.這是他們在今年的一件大事。 With the exception of the Temple sacrifices, their manner of observing it differs but little from that which obtained in the time of Christ.除了廟犧牲,觀察他們的方式不同,但很少在基督的時間獲得。 Directions for keeping the feast were carefully laid down in the Law (see Exodus 12, 13, etc.), and carried out with great exactness after the Exile.方向保持盛宴精心佈置的法律(見出埃及記“12,13,等),後流亡國外,並進行了非常精確。


The feast of the Passover begins on the fourteenth day of Nisan (a lunar month which roughly corresponds with the latter part of March and the first part of April) and ends with the twenty-first.逾越節開始於尼散月十四日(農曆正月這大致相當於後者的一部分,3月和4月的第一部分),並與二十一結束。 The Jews now, as in ancient times, make elaborate preparations for the festival.現在的猶太人,在遠古時代,精心準備的節日。 Every house is subjected to a thorough spring cleaning.每一個房子來個徹底的大掃除。

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The Saturday preceding the day of the Pasch (fifteenth) is called a "Great Sabbath", because it is supposed that the tenth day of the month Abib (or Nisan) -- when the Israelites were to select the Paschal lambs, before their deliverance from Egypt -- fell on a Sabbath.週六前一天的Pasch(正月十五)被稱為“大安息日”,因為它被認為是亞筆月內(即尼散月)的第十天 - 當以色列人被選擇的逾越節的羊羔,之前他們最終的解脫從埃及 - 在安息日下跌。 On this Sabbath, the day of the following week on which the Passover is to fall is solemnly announced.在這個安息日,在接下來的一周的逾越節是下降的日子隆重揭曉。

Some days before the feast, culinary and other utensils to be used during the festival are carefully and legally purified from all contact with leaven, or leavened bread.前幾天的盛宴,烹飪和其他節日期間要使用的用具都經過精心合法純化的所有接觸過酵,或發酵的麵包。 They are then said to be kosher.然後,他們說是符合猶太教教規。 Special sets of cooking and table utensils are not unfrequently kept in every household.特別烹飪台和餐具都沒有unfrequently保持在每家每戶。

On the evening of the thirteenth, after dark, the head of the house makes the "search for leaven" according to the manner indicated in the Mishna (Tractate Pesachim, I), which is probably the custom followed by the Jews for at least two thousand years.的13日晚,天黑後,頭部的房子的酵“搜索”的方式表示在密西拿(短文Pesachim,I),這可能是自定義的猶太人,至少有兩個千年。 The search is made by means of a lighted wax candle.搜索是由一個點燃的蠟燭。 A piece of ordinary, or leavened, bread is left in some conspicuous place, generally on a window-sill.一塊普通的,或熘,麵包留在一些顯眼的地方,通常是在一個窗台上。 The search begins by a prayer containing a reference to the command to put away all leaven during the feast.開始搜索的祈禱參考的命令,把所有的酵過程中的盛宴。 The place of the piece of bread just mentioned is first marked to indicate the beginning of the search.第一,剛才提到的一塊麵包的地方標記,以指示開始搜索。 The whole house is then carefully examined, and all fragments of leaven are carefully collected on a large spoon or scoop by means of a brush or bundle of quills.整個房子,然後仔細檢查,所有的酵片段精心收集的剛毛刷子或束通過一個大勺子或鏟子。 The search is ended by coming back to the piece of bread with which it began.搜索結束回來的一塊麵包,它開始。 This, also is collected on the scoop.這一點,也被收集的勺子。 The latter, with its contents, and the brush are then carefully tied up in a bundle and suspended over a lamp to prevent mice from scattering leaven during the night and necessitating a fresh search.後者,其內容,並刷,然後仔細地捆綁包中的懸浮在一盞燈,防止老鼠在夜間和散射酵需要一個新的搜索。 The master of the house then proclaims in Aramaic that all the leaven that is in his house, of which he is unaware, is to him no more than dust.房子的主人,然後宣布在阿拉姆語,所有的酵,是在他的房子裡,他不知道,他是不超過灰塵。

During the forenoon of the next day (fourteenth) all the leaven that remains is burnt, and a similar declaration is made.在午前的第二天(第十四屆)所有的酵,仍然是焚燒,是由一個類似的聲明。 From this time till the evening of the 22nd, when the feast ends, only unleavened bread is allowed.從這時起,直到22日晚上,當盛宴結束時,唯一的無酵餅是不允許的。 The legal time when the use of leavened bread was prohibited was understood to be the noon on the fourteenth Nisan; but the rabbis, in order to run no risks, and to place a hedge around the Law, anticipated this by one or two hours.發酵的麵包被禁止使用的法律時,被理解為中午十二時正第十四尼散月,但猶太教,以運行沒有任何風險,並把周圍的對沖法,預計由一個或兩個小時。


On this day, the fourteenth, the first-born son of each family, if he be above thirteen, fasts in memory of the deliverance of the first-born of the Israelites, when the destroying angel passed over Egypt.在這一天,第十四屆,第一個出生的兒子的每一個家庭,如果他是高於13,齋戒在內存中的第一個出生的,當滅命的天使在埃及的以色列人的解脫。 On the evening of the fourteenth the male members of the family, attired in their best, attend special services in the synagogue.在日晚,第十四男性的家庭成員,穿著他們最好的,參加特殊的服務,在猶太教堂。

On their return home they find the house lit up and the Seder, or Paschal Table, prepared.在他們返回家園,他們發現屋裡亮了起來,準備家宴,或逾越節表,。 The head of the family takes his place at the head of the table, where there is an arm-chair prepared for him with cushions or pillows.在表頭的,頭部的家庭需要他的地方,那裡有一張圈椅為他準備的墊子或枕頭。 A similar chair is also ready for the mistress of the house.類似的椅子也準備好了的房子的女主人。 The meal is called Seder by the Ashkenaziac Jews, and Haggadah (because of the story of the deliverance recited during it) by the Sephardic Jews.這頓飯被稱為逾越節的Ashkenaziac猶太人,和哈加達(因為在它的故事的解脫,其)由西班牙系猶太人。 All the members of the Jewish family, including servants, sit round the table.猶太家庭的所有成員,包括公務員,圍著桌子坐。

In front of the head of the family is the Seder-dish, which is of such a kind as to allow three unleavened cakes or matzoth, each wrapped in a napkin, to be placed on it one above the other.在前面的一家之主是家宴菜,這是一種允許無酵餅或matzoth,未經每個包裹在餐巾,被放置在一個以上的其他。 A shank bone of lamb (with a small portion of meat attached) which has been roasted on the coals is placed, together with an egg that has been roasted in hot ashes, on another dish above the three unleavened cakes.一個脛骨的羊肉(肉附加的一小部分),已在炭上烤,一起放在一個雞蛋已被烤熱灰,上面的三個無酵餅上另一道菜。 The roasted shank represents the Paschal lamb, and the roasted egg the chagigah, or free will offerings, made daily in the Temple.烤柄逾越節的羔羊,,烤雞蛋chagigah,或提供的自由意志,每天在寺廟中。 Bitter herbs, such as parsley and horseradish, a kind of sop called charoseth, consisting of various fruits pounded into a mucilage and mixed with vinegar, and salt water, are arranged in different vessels, sometimes disposed like candelabra above the leavened bread.苦菜,,如香菜和辣根,一種SOP“稱為charoseth,包括各種水果和醋混合,搗爛成膠漿水和鹽,被安排在不同的船隻,有時像燭台上面發酵的麵包出售。 The table is also furnished with wine, and cups or glasses for each person, an extra cup being always left for the prophet Elias, whom they expect as the precursor of the Messiah.表也​​配有酒,和每個人的杯子或眼鏡,一個額外的杯子總是離開的先知以利亞,他們為前驅體的彌賽亞的期望。

The First Cup第一杯

When all are seated around the table the first cup of wine is poured out for each.當所有圍坐一桌的第一杯葡萄酒倒入每個 The head of the house rises and thanks God for the fruits of the vine and for the great day which they are about to celebrate.頭的的房子上升,感謝上帝的葡萄樹所結的果實,並為他們即將迎來偉大的日子。 He then sits down and drinks his cup of wine in a reclining posture, leaning on his left arm.然後他坐下來,喝他一杯葡萄酒,斜倚著的姿勢,靠在他的左胳膊。 The others drink at the same time.其他在同一時間喝。 In the time of the Temple the poorest Jew was to drink four cups of wine during this joyful meal; and if he happened to be too poor, it was to be supplied out of public funds.在時間的廟最貧窮的猶太人在這個歡樂的飯,喝四杯葡萄酒,如果他碰巧是太可憐了,它是提供公共資金。 Though four cups are prescribed, the quantity is not restricted to that amount.雖然四個杯所規定,的數量並不限於該數額。 Some water is generally added to the wine.有些水一般的葡萄酒。 In early days red wine was used; but on account of the fear of fostering the groundless blood accusations against Jews, this usage was discontinued.在早期紅葡萄酒,但,促進反對猶太人的指責毫無根據的血液的恐懼,這種用法已經停產。 Unfermented raisin wine or Palestinian wine is now generally used.現在普遍使用未發酵的葡萄乾酒還是巴勒斯坦人的酒。

The Bitter Herbs and Afikoman苦菜和Afikoman的

After drinking the first cup the master rises and washes his hands, the others remaining seated, and Eldersheim is of the opinion that it was at this point of the supper that Christ washed the disciples feet.喝第一杯後,主上升和洗他的手,仍然坐在Eldersheim是認為這是在這一點上的晚飯,基督洗門徒的腳。 After washing his hands, the head of the family sits down, takes a small quantity of bitter herbs, dips them in salt water, and eats them, reclining on his left elbow.在洗他的手,一家之主坐了下來,需要少量的苦菜,逢低它們在海水中,吃他們,斜倚在他的左手肘。 Jewish interpreters say that only the first Passover was to be eaten standing, and with circumstances of haste.猶太口譯說,只有第一個逾越節是要被吃掉的地位和急速的情況。 During the Passovers commemorative of the first they reclined "like a king [or free man] at his ease, and not as slaves" -- in this probably following the example of the independent Romans with whom they came into contact.在逾越節紀念他們傾斜“像一個國王[或自由的人在他的輕鬆,而不是作為奴隸” - 這可能是下面的獨立羅馬與他們所接觸到的例子。 After the head of the family has eaten his portion of bitter herbs, he takes similar portions, dips them in salt water, and hands them round to be eaten by the others.頭後的家庭吃了他的部分苦菜,他採取了類似的部分,逢低他們在海水中,和他們轉而被吃掉的人的手中。

He then takes out the middle unleavened cake, breaks it in two, and hides away one-half under a pillow or cushion, to be distributed and eaten after supper.然後,他拿出中間的無酵餅,打破它一分為二,一個枕頭或坐墊下,隱藏了一個半,分發和晚飯後食用。 If this practice existed in the time of Christ, it is not improbable that it was from this portion, called afikoman, that the Eucharist was instituted.如果這種做法在基督的時間,這是完全可能的,這是這部分,稱為afikoman,聖體聖事被提起。 As soon as this portion is laid aside, the other half is replaced, the dish containing the unleavened cakes is uncovered, and all, standing up, take hold of the dish and solemnly lift it up, chanting slowly in Aramaic: "This is the bread of affliction which our fathers ate in Egypt. This year here, next year in Jerusalem. This year slaves, next year free."只要這部分被擱置一旁,另一半被替換,發現培養皿中的無酵餅,和所有,站起來,走的菜,莊嚴地抬不起來,高呼慢慢地在阿拉姆語:“這是麵包的痛苦,我們的祖宗吃在埃及,今年在這裡,明年在耶路撒冷。今年的奴隸,明年的自由。“

The Second Cup第二杯

The dish is then replaced and the shank bone, roasted egg, etc. restored to their places above it.盤,然後更換和脛骨,烤雞蛋,等恢復到它上面的地方。 All sit down, and the youngest son asks why this night above all other nights they eat bitter herbs, unleavened bread, and in a reclining posture.全部坐下,小兒子問,為什麼這個夜晚上述所有其他的晚上,他們吃的苦菜,無酵餅,斜倚著的姿勢。 The head of the house then tells how their fathers were idolaters when God chose Abraham, how they were slaves in Egypt, how God delivered them, etc. God is praised and blessed for His wondrous mercies to their nation, and this first part of the ceremony is brought to a close by their breaking forth with the recitation of the first part of the Hallel (Psalms 112 and 114) and drinking the second cup of wine, which is triumphantly held aloft and called the cup of the Haggadah or story of deliverance.頭的房子,然後告訴他們的父親是拜偶像的,當上帝選擇,他們是如何在埃及的奴隸,亞伯拉罕的神將他們等神的稱讚和祝福他奇妙的憐憫,他們的國家,這第一部分的他們打破規定的Hallel(詩篇112和114)的第一部分的背誦,喝第二杯葡萄酒,這是得意洋洋地高舉杯的釋放的哈加達或故事,並呼籲結束儀式。

The Meal Proper膳食適當的

The ceremony so far has been only introductory.儀式至今已經介紹的。 The meal proper now begins.這頓飯適當的開始。 First all wash their hands; the president then recites a blessing over the unleavened cakes, and, after having dipped small fragments of them in salt water, he eats them reclining.首先洗手,總統背誦的祝福,在無酵餅,和他吃,浸在海水中的小片段後,他們斜倚。 He next distributes pieces to the others.他接著件分發給其他。 He also takes some bitter herbs, dips them in the charoseth, and gives them to the others to be eaten.他還需要一些苦菜,抄底他們的charoseth,並給出了它們被吃掉的人。 He next makes a kind of sandwich by putting a portion of horse-radish between two pieces of unleavened bread and hands it around, saying that it is in memory of the Temple and of Hillel, who used to wrap together pieces of the paschal lamb, unleavened bread, bitter herbs, and eat them, in fulfilment of the command of Exodus 12:8.隨後,他把兩片無酵餅,並把它周圍的部分辣根一種三明治,說,這是在內存中寺和希勒爾,用來包裝件逾越節的羔羊,無酵餅,苦菜,和吃,在履行出埃及記12:8的命令。

The supper proper is now served, and consists of many courses of dishes loved by Jews, such as soup, fish, etc., prepared in curious ways unknown to Gentiles.晚飯適當的服務,包括許多課程的猶太人喜愛的菜餚,如湯,魚等,準備在外邦人未知的好奇的方式。 At the end of the meal some of the children snatch the afikoman that has been hidden away, and it has to be redeemed by presents -- a custom probably arising from a mistranslation of the Talmud.一些孩子在用餐結束搶奪afikoman已被隱藏起來,它有贖回的禮物 - 一個自定義可能產生的誤譯的“塔木德。 It is then divided between all present and eaten.這是劃分之間所有和食用。 Oesterly and Box think that this is a survival from an earlier time when a part of the paschal lamb was kept to the end and distributed, so as to be the last thing eaten. Oesterly和Box認為這是一種生存的一個較早的時間的一部分逾越節的羔羊時至年底,並保持分佈,從而是吃的最後一件事。

The Third Cup第三杯

When the afikoman is eaten, the third cup is filled; and grace after meals is said, and the third cup drunk in a reclining posture.當afikoman是吃,第三杯是充滿寬限期後,餐點是說,第三杯醉斜倚著的姿勢。 A cup of wine is now poured out for the prophet Elias, in a dead silence which is maintained for some time, and the door is opened.現在倒了一杯酒的先知以利亞,在死一般的寂靜,這是維持了一段時間,門被打開。 Imprecations against unbelievers, taken from the Psalms and Lamentations, are then recited.詛咒對非信徒,從詩篇和耶​​利米哀歌,然後背誦。 These were introduced only during the Middle Ages.這些介紹,僅在中世紀。

The Fourth Cup第四杯

After this the fourth cup is filled and the great Hallel (Psalms 115-118) and a prayer of praise are recited.在此之後的第四杯是充滿偉大的Hallel(詩篇115-118)和讚美的祈禱,背誦。 Before drinking the fourth cup, the Jews of some countries recite five poetical pieces and then the fourth cup is drunk.在喝第四杯之前,一些國家的猶太人背誦5個詩意的作品,然後第四杯是喝醉了。 At the end a prayer asking God to accept what they have done is added.在結束禱告,祈求上帝接受他們做了什麼。 Among the German and Polish Jews this prayer is followed by popular songs.在德國和波蘭的猶太人祈禱其次是流行的歌曲。


The same ceremonies are observed the next evening.同樣的儀式被觀察到的第二天晚上。 According to the Law the fifteenth and twenty-first were to be kept as solemn festivals and days of rest.根據該法第十五和第二十一要保持莊重的節日和休息日。 At present the fifteenth and sixteenth, the twenty-first and twenty-second are whole holidays, a custom introduced among the Jews of the Dispersion to make sure that they fulfilled the precepts of the Law on the proper day.目前,第十五屆和第十六屆,第二十一和第二十二屆是整個假期介紹了其中的猶太人分散,以確保他們履行了適當的一天戒律法,自定義。 The other days are half-holidays.其他的一半假期。 Special services are held in the synagogues throughout the Passover week.逾越節週的會堂,舉行特別的服務。 Formerly the date of the Pasch was fixed by actual observations [Schurer, History of the Jewish People (Edinburgh, 1902), I, II, Append.以前的日期是固定的Pasch通過實際觀測Schurer,猶太人民的歷史(愛丁堡,1902年),I,II,追加。 3]. 3]。 It is now deduced from astronomical calculations.據推斷,從天文學的計算。

Publication information Written by Cornelius Aherne.出版信息的書面科尼利厄斯Aherne。 Transcribed by John Looby.轉錄由約翰·嚕比。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.天主教百科全書,卷席。 Published 1911.發布時間1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography 參考書目
OESTERLY AND BOX, Religion and Worship of the synagogue (London, 1907); DEMBITZ, Jewish Services in the Synagogue and Home (Philadelphia, 1898); GINSBURG in KITTO, Cyclop. OESTERLY和Box,宗教和宗教的猶太教堂(倫敦,1907年);登比茨,猶太人在猶太教堂和家庭服務(費城,1898年); GINSBURG在KITTO的Cyclop。 Of Bibl. Bibl。 Lit..; ABRAHAMS in HASTINGS, Dict.點亮亞伯拉罕在黑斯廷斯,快譯通。 Of the Bible, sv Passover; SMITH, Bibl.對聖經sv逾越節SMITH,Bibl的。 Dict.; ZANGWILL, Dreamers of the Ghetto (London): JACOBS, Jewish Year Book (LONDON, annual); EDERSHEIM, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, II (London, 1900), 479.字典。贊格威爾,夢想家的少數民族居住區(倫敦):雅各布斯,猶太年鑑(倫敦,年度);愛德生,生活和時代的耶穌是彌賽亞,II(倫敦,1900),479。

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