Targum, Early History of the Bible根,早期歷史的“聖經”


General Information 一般資料

A Targum is any of the Aramaic translations, more or less literal, of portions of the Old Testament used in the synagogues of Palestine and Babylonia.一個根是任何的阿拉姆語翻譯,更多的還是比較少的文字,在巴勒斯坦和巴比倫猶太教堂的舊約部分。 When, after the Babylonian Captivity in the 6th century BC, Aramaic replaced Hebrew as the generally spoken language, it became necessary to explain the meaning of readings from the Scriptures.之後,當在公元前6世紀巴比倫的圈養替換希伯來語,亞拉姆語作為一般的語言,它成為必要的讀數從聖經解釋的意思。 Only a small portion of the many oral Targums that were produced survived.只有一小部分的生產存活的許多口服塔古姆譯本。 Among these are the originally Judean Targum known as the Targum Onkelos; three late and incomplete Targums, the so-called Jerusalem Targums, on the Pentateuch; the Judean Targum on the Prophets; later fragments of another paraphrase of the Prophets; and Targums on Psalms, Job, Proverbs, the five so-called megillahs (Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Esther, Ecclesiastes), Chronicles, and the deuterocanonical additions to Esther.其中有最初的根Onḳelos猶太爾三晚和不完整的塔古姆譯本,所謂的耶路撒冷塔古姆譯本,對五的猶太爾的另一個意譯的先知的先知,後來片段和塔古姆譯本上的詩篇,工作,諺語,所謂的megillahs(宋所羅門,露絲,哀歌,以斯帖記,傳道書),地方志,和次經以斯帖記的。

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Advanced Information 先進的信息

A Version is a translation of the holy Scriptures. A版本是一個翻譯的聖經。 This word is not found in the Bible; nevertheless, as frequent references are made in this work to various ancient as well as modern versions, it is fitting that some brief account should be given of the most important of these.在聖經中找不到這個詞,但是,作為經常提到了在這項工作中的各種古代以及現代版本,它是恰當的一些簡短的帳戶應該考慮的最重要的。 These versions are important helps to the right interpretation of the Word.這些版本是很重要的,有助於正確的解釋的詞。 (See Samaritan Pentateuch article, below.) (見撒瑪利亞五經的文章,下文)。


Catholic Information 天主教信息

Targum is the distinctive designation of the Aramaic translations or paraphrases of the Old Testament.根指定的阿拉姆語翻譯或轉述的舊約是獨特的。 After the return from exile Aramaic gradually won the ascendancy as the colloquial language over the slowly decaying Hebrew until, from probably the last century before the Christian era, Hebrew was hardly more than the language of the schools and of worship.回歸後流亡阿拉姆語,逐漸贏得了優勢在慢慢腐爛的希伯來語作為口語,直到前基督教時代大概是從上個世紀,希伯來文是很難超過的語言學校和崇拜。 As the majority of the population ceased to be conversant with the sacred language it became necessary to provide translations for the better understanding of the passages of the Bible read in Hebrew at the liturgical services.由於大部分的人口不再是熟悉神聖的語言,它成為必要提供翻譯,為更好地理解“聖經”的經文讀希伯來文的禮儀服務。 Thus to meet this need it became customary to add to the portions of the Scriptures read on the Sabbath an explanatory oral translation - a Targum.因此,為了滿足這一需求,它成了習慣,添加說明的口語翻譯 - 一個根在安息日讀“聖經”的部分。 At first this was probably done only for the more difficult passages, but as time went on, for the entire text.起初,這可能是做只是為了更​​困難的段落,但隨著時間的推移,整個文本。 The "Mishna" gives more elaborate instructions as to the way in which this translating should be done. “米示拿”給出了更詳盡的說明,該翻譯應做的方式。 According to the "Megillah" (IV, 4), when the lesson to be read aloud was from the "Torah" only one verse was to be read to the translator (Methurgeman).根據“複雜事情”(IV,4),朗讀時的教訓是只有一節經文被讀取到的翻譯(Methurgeman)的“聖經”。 When the lesson was from the "Nebi'im" it was permitted to read three to him, unless each verse formed a special division.當教訓是從“Nebi'im”這是允許讀三到他,除非每首詩歌形成了一種特殊的部門。 The directions also state which portions are to be read aloud but not translated (cf. for instance "Meg.", IV, 10), and a warning is given against translations that are either to free, palliative, allegorical, etc.方向也說明哪些部分是朗讀,但沒有翻譯(例如參見“梅格。”,IV,10),並發出警告,對翻譯是免費的,治標不治本,寓言等

Another regulation was that the Targum was not to be written down ("Jer. Meg.", IV, i = fol. 74d).另有規定的根是不寫下來(“耶梅格。”,IV,I = FOL。74D)。 This prohibition, however, probably referred only to the interpretation given in the synagogue and did not apply to private use or to its employment in study. ,但是,這項禁令可能只是指在會堂裡給出的解釋,並沒有適用於私人用途或研究其就業。 In any case, written Targums must have existed at an early date.在任何情況下,書面塔古姆譯本必須已經存在,在早期的日期。 Thus, for instance, one on the Book of Job is mentioned in the era of Gamaliel I (middle of the first century AD), which he, however, was not willing to recognize ("Sabb.", 115a; cf. "Tos. Sabb.", 13, 2=p. 128, ed. Zuckermandel).因此,舉例來說,在約伯記提到加馬利亞I(公元一世紀中),他,然而,是不是願意承認(SABB。“,115A;比照的時代。”TOS SABB。“,13日,2 = P。,128,版楚克曼德爾)。 If Matt., xxvii, 46, gives the Aramaic form of Ps., xxi, 2, the last utterance of the Saviour upon the Cross, this shows that even then the Psalms were current among the people in the Aramaic language; moreover, Ephes., iv, 8, has a closer connection with the Targum to Ps., lxvii, 19, than with the Masoretic text. ,如果馬特,二十七,46歲,給阿拉姆語形式的PS。,21,2,最後的話語在十字架上的救世主,這表明,即使在當時的詩篇在阿拉姆語的語言的人之間的電流,而且,弗大,四,八,有較密切的聯繫,對根的PS。,LXVII,19,比馬所拉文本。 In addition, the "Mishna Yadayim", IV, 5, and "Sabb.", XVI, also indicates the early existence of manuscripts of the Targum.此外,“密西拿Yadayim”,四,五,和“SABB。”,XVI,也表明了早期存在的手稿的根。 These manuscripts, however, were only owned privately not officially as for a long period the Targums were without authoritative and official importance in Palestine.然而,這些手稿,私人擁有不正式,很長一段該Targums沒有在巴勒斯坦的權威和官方的重要性。 This authoritative position was first gained among the Babylonian Jews and through their influence the Targums were also more highly esteemed in Palestine, at least the two older ones.這第一次獲得權威地位之間的巴比倫的猶太人,並通過他們的影響,該Targums也更倍受尊敬的巴勒斯坦,至少有兩名年齡較大的。 In the form in which they exist at present no Targum that has been preserved goes back further than the fifth century.在以何種形式存在,目前沒有根,一直保留進一步追溯到比第五世紀。 Various indication, however, show the great antiquity of the main contents of many Targums, their theology among other things.然而,各種跡象顯示,顯示塔古姆譯本很多,他們的神學其中包括的主要內容非常古老的。 That as early as the third century the text, for instance, of the Targum on the Pentateuch was regarded by the synagogue as traditionally settled is evident from the "Mishna Meg.", IV, 10, "Jer. Meg.", 74d, "Hab. Kidd.", 49d, "Tos. Meg.", IV, 41. ,早在三世紀的文字,例如,對五的根,被視為傳統結算的猶太教堂是顯而易見的,從“密西拿”梅格。“,IV,10,耶。”梅格。“,74D, “哈,基德。”,49D,“陶氏。梅格。”,IV,41。 There are Targums to all the canonical books excepting Daniel, Ezra, and Nehemiah; for some books of the Bible there are several Targums.所有典型的書籍,除了丹尼爾,以斯拉,尼希米記有塔古姆譯本“聖經”的一些書,有幾個塔古姆譯本。 As regards age and linguistic character they may be divided into three classes: (1) Targum of Onkelos and Targum of Jonathan; (2) Jerusalem Targums; (3) Targum on the Hagiographa.至於年齡和語言的字符可以分為三類:(1)根的昂克羅斯和根的喬納森(2)耶路撒冷塔古姆譯本;(3)根的Hagiographa。

The form of language used in the Targums is called specifically "Targum dialect".使用在該Targums中的形式語言被稱為“根方言”。 It belongs to western Aramaic and more particularly to the Aramaic of Palestine.它屬於西部阿拉姆語,特別是巴勒斯坦阿拉姆語的。 Its home in to be sought in Judea, the ancient seat of the learning of the scribes.其家中,尋求在朱迪亞,文士的學習古老的座位。 It should be borne in mind that this Targumic language does not represent the spoken Aramaic, but is the result of the labours of scholars.應該牢記,這Targumic的語言並不代表口語阿拉姆語,但學者的勞動的結果。 Consequently the point under discussion turns on a literary Aramaic originally formed in Judea.因此,在討論的點會在最初形成於猶太文學阿拉姆語。 This is particularly true of the two earlier Targums; the later ones show generally an artificially mixed type of language.這是特別真實的兩個較早塔古姆譯本後來者表明一般人為的混合類型的語言。 The traditional pointing of the texts is valueless and misleading: a more certain basis was first offered by manuscripts from Southern Arabia in which the pointing for the vowels was placed above the line.傳統指向的文本是無價值的和誤導性的:有更明確的基礎上,首次提出由南部阿拉伯手稿中,指向的元音放在上面的線。 In Arabia the old synagogal custom of reciting the Targum at the religious services had been retained, and consequently more interest was felt there in the pronunciation. synagogal在沙特阿拉伯的老定制的宗教服務,背誦根被保留,因此更覺得有興趣的發音。 It must be acknowledged, however, that this cannot be regarded as a direct pronunciation of the Palestinian pronunciation; it may have sprung from a formal treatment of the Targum of Onkelos customary among the Babylonian scholars.然而,必須承認,這不能被視為一個直接的巴勒斯坦發音發音習慣之間的巴比倫學者的昂克羅斯的根,從正規的治療,它可能會如雨後春筍般湧現。 As regards the method of translation all Targums in common strive to avoid as much as possible anthropomorphisms and anthropopathic terms, as well as other apparently undignified expressions concerning, and descriptive of God.至於翻譯的方法塔古姆譯本在共同的努力,以避免盡可能anthropomorphisms可能和擬人的條款,以及其他顯然是不莊重的表達和描述的神。 The Targums are printed in the Rabbinical and Polyglot Bibles, although the two do not always contain the same Targums or an equal number of them.該Targums打印的猶太法學博士,通曉數種語言的聖經,雖然兩人並不總是包含相同的塔古姆譯本或同等數量的。 See below for particulars as to individual editions.個人版本的詳情,請參閱以下。


The official Targum to the Pentateuch is designated by the name of Onkelos.該負責人根在五指定的名稱昂克羅斯的。 In the Babylonian Talmud and in the Tosephta, Onkelos is the name of a proselyte who is mentioned as a contemporay of the elder Gamaliel ("Aboda zara", 11a; cf. "Tos. sabb.", 8=p. 119, ed. Zuckermandel).在巴比倫塔木德和在Tosephta,昂克羅斯的名字是提到的老加馬作為當代中國起動之歷史透視(“奧波達ZARA”,11A;比照“條款。SABB。”,8 = 119,編一個proselyte 。楚克曼德爾)。 The labours of Onkelos are referred to in "Meg.", 3a, in the following words: "Rab Jeremiya, according to others Rab Hiya bar Abba says: 'According to the statement of Rab Eliezer and Rab Josua, Onkelos the proselyte has said, that is, has orally formulated, the Targum of the Torah'".勞動力的昂克羅斯被稱為“梅格。”,3A,在下面的話:“饒Jeremiya,根據其他人拉布華洋酒吧阿爸說:”根據的聲明埃利澤和饒饒Josua,昂克羅斯的proselyte說,就是口服制定的根,托拉“。 Gaon Sar Shalon (d. 859) was the first who, taking this passage as a basis, called the Pentateuch-Targum the Targum of Onkelos. Gaon的:范德薩Shalon(卒於859年)是第一個,以這段話為基礎,被稱為摩西五經根的根的昂克羅斯。 This he did in an opinion concerning the Targum which he evidently had before him at the time in a written copy.這一點,他的根,他顯然在他面前的時候在一份書面意見中。 The designation that thus arose became customary through its acceptance by Rashi and others. Rashi和其他通過接受成為習慣,從而產生的指定。 It is evident, however, that in the passage mentioned ("Meg.", 3a) there has been a confusion with the name of Aquila, the translator of the Bible, for the older parallel passage of the Palestinian Talmud ("Meg.", I, 11 = fol. 71c) says the same of Aquila and his Greek translation of the Bible.然而,很明顯,在通道中提到(“梅格。”,3A)的名稱的雕,“聖經”的翻譯出現了混亂,平行通道的巴勒斯坦猶太法典(“MEG”。 11,I = FOL 71C)說,亞居拉和他的希臘文譯本“聖經”相同。 Compare also Midrash, Tanchuma, Mishpatim, 91, 92 (ed. Mantua, 1863, fol. 36b).也比較米德拉士,Tanchuma,Mishpatim,91,92(編輯曼圖亞,1863年,奧德耶克。36B)。 Thus it seems that in Babylonia the old and correct knowledge of the Greek translation of the proselyte Aquila was erroneously transferred to the anonymous Aramaic translation, that consequently Onkelos (instead of Akylas) is a corrupted form or a provincial modification of Aquila.這樣看來,在巴比倫的舊的和正確的性知識的proselyte拉奎拉希臘翻譯錯誤地轉移​​到匿名的阿拉姆語翻譯,因此昂克羅斯(而不是Akylas)是一個已損壞的形式或省級修改雕。 xxxxx always (five times) for xxxxx.--> It is not necessary to discuss here earlier views concerning this point.為XXXXX總是為XXXXX。(5次) - >這是沒有必要在這裡討論的意見這一點。 The effort to prove the existence of an Onkelos distinct from Aquila is still made by Friedmann ("Onkelos and Aquila" in "Jahresber. der Israelit.-theol. Lehranstalt in Wien", 1896), but the proof adduced is not convincing (cf. Blau in "Jewish Quarterly Review," IX, 1897, p. 727 sqq.).的努力來證明從拉奎拉不同的一個昂克羅斯的存在仍然是弗里德曼(“昂克羅斯和Aquila”在“Jahresber。德Israelit. theol。Lehranstalt在維也納”,1896年)的,但提出的證據是不能令人信服(CF布勞的“猶太評論季刊,”九,1897年,第727 SQQ)。

Thus it is not known who wrote the Targum named after Onkelos.因此,不知道是誰寫的名字命名的昂克羅斯爾。 In any case the Targum, at least the greater part of it, is old, a fact indicated by the connection with Rab Eliezer and Rab Josua, and belongs probably to the second, or it may be to the first century of our era.根,在任何情況下至少有更大的一部分,是舊的,事實表明由拉布埃利澤和饒Josua的連接,可能是屬於第二,或它可能是我們這個時代的第一個世紀。 It arose, as the idiom shows, in Judea, but it received official recognition first from the Babylonian Rabbis, and is therefore called by them "our Targum", or is quoted with the formula "as we translate". ,因為它產生的成語顯示,在朱迪亞,但它得到了官方的認可,首先從巴比倫的拉比,因此被稱為“我們的根”,或者是引用的公式“為我們翻譯。” Rab Natronay (d. 869) in speaking of this says, that it is not permitted to replace it in the services of the synagogue by any other translation of the Pentateuch.拉布Natronay(卒於869年),在談到這個說,這是不允許更換任何其他服務的猶太教堂的翻譯五。 The high reputation of this authorized translation is shown by the fact that it has a Masorah of its own.所示的事實,它具有它自己的Masorah本授權翻譯的很高的聲譽。 The fixing of the written form, and thereby the final settlement of the text as well, should not be assigned to a date before the fifth century.的書面形式固定,從而最終解決的文字,不應該指定日期前第五世紀。 The language is, in general, an artificial form of speech closely connected with the Biblical Aramaic.語言是,在一般情況下,人工與聖經阿拉姆語形式的講話緊密相連。 It is probably not the spoken Aramaic used as a dialect by the Jewish people, but a copy made by scholars of the Hebraic original, of which the Targum claims to give the most faithful reproduction possible.這可能是不說話的猶太人民的阿拉姆語的一種方言,但製作的複製品,學者希伯來原來,它的根,聲稱給最忠實的再現可能。 In doing this the Aramaic language is treated similarly to the Greek in the translation of Aquila, consequently the many Hebraic idioms.在這樣做的亞拉姆語同樣被視為希臘在拉奎拉,因此許多希伯萊語成語的翻譯。 There is no positive proof (Dalman, "Gramm", 13) of a corrupting influence of the Babylonian dialect as Noldeke held ["Semit. Sprachen" (1887), 32; (2nd ed., 1899), 38].有沒有有力的證據(達爾曼“格拉姆”,13)的巴比倫方言的破壞影響Noldeke舉行[“Semit。Sprachen”(1887),32(第二版,1899年),38]。

As regards the character of the translation it is, taken altogether, fairly literal.至於性質的翻譯,完全,相當文字。 Anthropomorphic and anthropopathic expressions are avoided by roundabout expressions or in other ways; obscure Hebrew words are often taken without change into the text; proper names are frequently interpreted, as Shinar-Babylon, Ishmaelites-Arabs; for figurative expressions are substituted the corresponding literal ones.擬人化和擬人的表達或以其他方式避免迂迴的表達往往採取模糊的希伯來字的文本沒有變化;適當的名稱,拿地,巴比倫,以實瑪利阿拉伯人經常解釋比喻的表達被替換為相應的文字。 Haggadic interpretation is only used at times, for instance in prophetic passages, as Gen., xlix; Num., xxiv; Deut., xxxii.有時只用haggadic的解釋是,例如在預言性的章節,將軍,xlix民,二十四;申三十二。 This Targum was first printed at Bologna (1482) together with the Hebrew text of the Bible and the commentary of Rashi; later, in the Rabbinical Bibles of Bomberg and Buxtorf, and with a Latin translation in the Complutensian Polyglot (1517), and the Polyglots of Antwerp (1569), Paris (1645), and London (1657).這根印在博洛尼亞(1482)的希伯來文“聖經”和評rashi後,在猶太教的“聖經”的邦貝里和布克斯托夫,和拉丁美洲的翻譯在Complutensian多語種(1517),和多種語言的安特衛普(1569),巴黎(1645年),倫敦(1657年)。 Among separate editions of the Targum special mention should be made of that printed in 1557 at Sabbioneta.在單獨版本的根,特別提到應印於1557年在Sabbioneta。 More modern editions are: Berliner, "Targum Onkelos" (2 vols., Berlin, 1884), in which vol.更現代的版本是:柏林,“根Onḳelos”(2卷,柏林​​,1884年),其中體積。 I contains the text according to the Sabbioneta edition, and vol.我包含文本的Sabbioneta版,卷。 II, elucidations; the Yemanites at Jerusalem have printed with an edition of the Pentateuch (sefer Keter tora) from manuscripts the Arabic translation by Saadya (Jerusalem, 1894-1901), in which publication the vowel pointing above the line has been changed to sublinear pointing; Barnheim, "The Targum of Onkelos to Genesis" (London, 1896), on the text of the Yemen manuscripts.二,的闡發; Yemanites在耶路撒冷印版的五(之書海科特TORA)的手稿,,阿拉伯語翻譯Saadya(耶路撒冷,1894年至1901年),出版元音,指著上面的線已更改為次線性指點; Barnheim,“創世紀”(倫敦,1896年),根的昂克羅斯的也門手稿上的文字。 In addition to the Latin translations in the Polyglot Bibles there is one by Fagius (Strasburg, 1546); there is also an English translation by Etheridge, "The Targum of Onkelos and Jonathan ben Uzziel on the Pent., with the Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum", from the Chaldee (2 vols., London, 1862-65).此外在通曉數種語言的聖經翻譯的拉丁是一個由Fagius(斯特拉斯堡,1546),也有由Etheridge的英語翻譯,“根昂克勞和喬納森本Uzziel被壓抑。,片段的耶路撒冷根“,從迦勒底(2卷,倫敦,1862年至1865年)。


The Targum to the Prophets (priores, historical books; posteriores, the actual Prophets) now in existence is ascribed to Jonathan ben Uzziel, who is said on the authority of the Babylonian "Megillah", 3a, to have formulated it orally, in accordance with the instructions of Haggai, Zachariah, and Malachi.先知(priores的,歷史的書籍; posteriores,實際先知)的根,以現在存在的衝高喬納森本Uzziel,誰是說,巴比倫的“複雜事情”,3A的權威,都制定了口頭,按照哈,撒迦利亞,瑪拉基書的指示。 This assertion probably means that in his exposition he gives the traditional interpretation that had been handed down from one generation to another since early times.這種說法可能意味著在他的論述中,他給人的傳統解釋,從一代到另一代,因為早期流傳下來的。 According to the Babylonian "Sukkah" (28a = baba bathra 134a), he was the most noted pupil of the elder Hillel, and is therefore assigned to the first Christian century.根據巴比倫的“Sukkah”(28A =巴巴bathra 134A的),他是最引人注目的瞳孔的老希勒爾,因此分配給第一個基督教世紀。 The Babylonian Talmud in quoting passages from this Targum ascribes them to Rab Joseph bar Hiya (d. 333), the head of the school at Pumbaditha.巴比倫塔木德中引述這根歸咎於他們饒約瑟夫酒吧華洋(卒於333年),學校負責人在Pumbaditha。 Rab Joseph was regarded as a great authority on the tradition of the Targum and his judgment on the translation of many individual passages was eagerly listened to; he may perhaps be considered as the editor of this Targum.饒約瑟夫被認為是一個極大的權威的傳統的根和許多個別段落的翻譯急切地聽取了他的判斷,他可能算得上是編輯器的根。 For Jonathan as for Onkelos the final settlement of the written form did not occur until the fifth Christian century.對於喬納森的Onḳelos的最終結算的書面形式並沒有出現,直到第五個基督教的世紀。 Cornill claims to show ("Einleitung", 2nd., ed., 1893, p. 308) that the Targum on the Prophets is older than the Torah-Targum, but the reasons produced are not convincing (cf. Dalman, 15, passim). Cornill聲稱顯示(“導論”,第2,編輯,1893年,頁308),在根的先知年紀比律法,根,但產生的原因是沒有說服力的(參見達爾曼,15日,各處)。 Linguistically, this Targum approaches most closely that of Onkelos; in grammatical construction the two are alike but the words used differ, and this Targum is more paraphrastic.語言上,這根接近最緊密的,昂克羅斯;語法結構是一樣的,但所用的字眼不同,這根paraphrastic。 In the historical books Jonathan himself is often the expounder, but in the actual prophetic books the exposition is in reality Haggadic.在歷史的書籍,喬納森本人是經常的闡述者,但在實際的預言書的論述,是在現實中haggadic的。 The religious opinions and theological conceptions of the era that are interwoven are very instructive.的意見和宗教神學觀念相互交織的時代,是非常有益的。 The text, further, is not free from later additions; from this cause arise the double translations of which the Targum contains several.進一步的文字,是不是後來增加的,從這個原因出現的重複翻譯的根包含幾個。 The "Prophetae priores" was the first printed with the Hebrew text and the commentaries of Gimhi and Levi at Leiria, Portugal, in 1494. “Prophetae priores”的第一印有希伯來文和的的評注Gimhi和Levi在Leiria,葡萄牙,1494年。 At a later date the whole Targum was printed in the Rabbinical Bibles of Bomberg and Buxdorf and in the Polyglot Bibles of Antwerp, Paris, and London.在以後的日子根印在的聖經,邦貝里和Buxdorf拉比和通曉數種語言的聖經,安特衛普,巴黎和倫敦。 The last edition is that of de Lagarde, "Prophetae chaldice e fide codicis Reuchliniani" (Leipzig, 1872).最後一版的拉加德,“Prophetae chaldiceé真正codicis Reuchliniani”(萊​​比錫,1872年)。 There are supplementary additions to this from an Erfurt manuscript in "Symmicta", I, 139.有補充愛爾福特的手稿在“Symmicta”,我,139。 The Targum to the Haphtarah is to be found in what is called the Pentateuch edition of the Yemanites at Jerusalem.根的Haphtarah是發現什麼叫做摩西五版在耶路撒冷的Yemanites的。 English translations are: Pauli, "The Chaldee Paraphrase on the Prophet Isaiah Translated" (London, 1871); Levy, "Targum on Isaiah," I (London, 1889).英文翻譯是:保利,“迦勒底意譯的的先知以賽亞翻譯”(倫敦,1871年);徵收“根在以賽亞書”(倫敦,1889年)。


This designation is not correct; the older and more correct name, "Palestinian Targum", is found for instance in the writings of Gaon Hai (d. 1038).這個稱號是不正確的,舊的,更正確的名稱,“巴根”,例如在加翁海(卒於1038年)的著作。 date this designation was displaced by the term xxxxxxx, just as before this the Palestinian Talmud (xxxx xxx xxxx) is called in the writings of Gaon Sar Shalon xxxxxxxxx.--> Fundamentally the language of these Targums is Palestinian Aramaic but of a very mixed type.指定日期的長期XXXXXXX流離失所,就像在此之前,巴勒斯坦塔木德(XXXX XXX XXXX)被稱為gaon范德薩Shalon的XXXXXXXXX的著作 - 從根本上語言的兩個targums是巴勒斯坦阿拉姆語,但很複雜類型。 Neither of them is homogeneous grammatically and lexically.他們都不是均勻的語法和詞法。 Besides expressions that recall the Galilean dialect of the Palestinian Talmud a preference is shown for imitation of the language of the Targum of Onkelos, while there are also various terms belonging to the language of the Babylonian Talmud.除了的表達式記得伽利略​​方言的巴勒斯坦猶太法典的偏好顯示模仿的根的昂克羅斯的語言,但也有各種條款的巴比倫塔木德的語言。

A. Targum Yerushalmi I on the Pentateuch A.根•耶路莎米我對五

This is generally called the Targum of Jonathan or of the Pseudo-Jonathan, because it is cited in the first printed edition (Venice, 1591) under the name of Jonathan ben Uzziel.這通常被稱為根的喬納森或偽喬納森,喬納森本Uzziel的名義下,第一次印刷版(威尼斯,1591年)中,因為它被引用。 This designation, however, rests on a mistaken solution of an abbreviation.這個稱號,但是,建立在一個錯誤的解決方案的縮寫。 The Targum could not have appeared in its present form before the second half of the seventh century.的根,不能以其目前的形式出現在下半年七世紀前。 For example (Genesis 21:21), a wife and daughter of Mohammed are mentioned.例如(創世記21:21),穆罕默德的妻子和女兒被提及。 Compare also (Genesis 49:26) the position of Esau and Ishmael as representatives of the Mohammedan world.也比較的​​位置,以掃和以實瑪利(創49:26)為代表的伊斯蘭教世界。 The Targum covers the entire Pentateuch.的根,涵蓋了整個五。 The only passages that are lacking are: Gen., vi, 15; x, 23; xviii, 4; xx, 15; xxiv, 28; xli, 49; xliv, 30-31; Exod., iv, 8; Lev., xxiv, 4; Num., xxii, 18; xxx, 20b, 21a; xxxvi, 8-9.所缺少的唯一通道是:將軍,六,15,X,23十八,4,XX,15,二十四,28;四十一,49;四十四,30日至31日,出埃及記,四,八,利。 ,24,4號,二十二,18,XXX,20B,21A,三十六,8-9。 As to its form it is a free Haggadic treatment of the text, that is, an exposition of rather than a translation.它的形式,它是一個免費的haggadic治療的文字,那就是,博覽會,而不是翻譯。 A large part of it is made up of legendary narratives; there are also dialogues, rhetorical and poetical digressions.它的很大一部分是由傳說中的敘述,也有對話,修辭學和詩的枝節問題。 The paraphrase also discusses religious and metaphysical conceptions, as was the custom of the Jewish mystics of the seventh century.意譯還討論了宗教和形而上學的概念,是公元七世紀的猶太神秘主義者的自定義。 This Targum was first printed at Venice in 1591.這根在威尼斯,1591年第一次印刷。 It was also to be found in volume IV of the London Polyglot.它也將被發現在倫敦多語種的第四卷。 A separate edition of this Targum was edited from the manuscript in the British Museum (manuscript Addit. 27031) by Ginsburger, "Targum Jonathan ben Usiel zum Pentat," (Berlin, 1903).編輯從這份手稿在大英博物館(手稿ADDIT。27031)金斯布格爾的根,是一個單獨的版本,“根喬納森本Usiel ZUM Pentat,”(柏林,1903年)。 Concerning this codex cf.關於這一法典,比照。 Barnstein in "Jew. Quart Rev.", XI (1899), 167 sqq. Barnstein在“猶太人夸脫牧師”,第十一章(1899年),167 SQQ。 An English translation has been published by Etheridge (supra).瑟里奇(見上文)已出版的英文翻譯。

B. Targum Yerushalmi II B.根耶路沙米II

Targum Yerushalmi on the Pentateuch is also called the Fragmentary targum because the Targum on the entire Pentateuch has not been preserved, but only portions of it on numerous longer and shorter passages, frequently only the Targum on individual verses or parts of such.根•耶路莎米對五也叫的零碎爾,因為還沒有保存的根在整個五,但只有部分在眾多更長和更短的通道,經常只有這樣的根在個人的詩句或部分。 These fragments were first printed in the rabbinical Bible of 1517.這些片段,第一次印刷1517年在猶太教的聖經。 In language, method of translation, and exegetical form they are related to the Pseudo-Jonathan.在語言,翻譯方法和訓詁的形式,它們與偽喬納森。 A perspicuously arranged compilation of the fragments that have been preserved is given by Ginsburger in the "ZDMG", LVII (1903), 67 sqq., and in loc.一個perspicuously安排,已保存的片段彙編金斯布格爾“ZDMG”,57(1903年),67 SQQ。,並在祿。 cit., LVIII (1904), 374 sqq., on a page that came from a geniza or repository in a synagogue for damaged manuscripts.前,LVIII(1904年),374 SQQ,在頁面上,從geniza或在猶太教堂,為受損的手稿庫。 A Latin translation from the Venice edition of 1517 was published by Taylor (London, 1649); English tr.一個從1517年威尼斯出版的拉丁文譯本出版由泰勒(倫敦,1649年);英語TR。 by Etheridge (supra).者Etheridge的(見上文)。 Opinions concerning the connection between the Targums Jerushalmi I and Jerushalmi II agree in general that both are to be traced back to different recensions of an old Jerusalem Targum.意見有關的塔古姆譯本Jerushalmi我和Jerushalmi II的之間的連接一般都同意要追溯到耶路撒冷的老根不同的recensions。 This is the view of Zunz (p. 73, and passim), and also that of Geiger, "Urschrift und Udersetzungen der Bibel" (Berlin, 1857), 454.這是聰茨(第73頁,並各處),蓋革“Urschrift和Udersetzungen德比貝爾”(柏林,1857),454。 Bassfreund (infra) reaches the conclusion that the basis both of the Fragmentary Targum and that of the Pseudo-Jonathan is a complete Jerusalem Targum of post-Talmudic origin, but that the two Targums, Jerushalmi I and II, presuppose the existence of the Targum of Onkelos. Bassfreund(紅外線)得出結論的基礎上的零星根和偽喬納森是一個完整的耶路撒冷後塔木德根的起源,但是這兩個塔古姆譯本,Jerushalmi I和II,假定存在的根昂克羅斯。 The Fragmentary Targum gives from this ancient Jerusalem Targum gives from this ancient Jerusalem Targum, according to Bassfreund, only matter supplementary to Onkelos, while Onkelos and the Jerusalem Targum have been used in preparing the Pseudo-Jonathan.零碎的根給這個古老的耶路撒冷根給這個古老的耶路撒冷根,根據,以Bassfreund的,只有物質的補充昂克羅斯,而昂克羅斯和耶路撒冷根已被用於製備的偽喬納森。 In the preface to his edition of the Pseudo-Jonathan (see below) Ginsburger tries to prove that both the Fragmentary Targum and the Pseudo-Jonathan may be traced back to a very ancient Palestinian Targum, which was not influenced by the Targum of Onkelos until a later date.在序言中他的版本的偽喬納森(見下文)金斯布格爾試圖證明,無論是零碎的根和偽喬納森可以追溯到一個非常古老的巴勒斯坦根,這是不會影響的根的昂克羅斯的,直到稍後的日期。 The Fragmentary Targum, in Ginsburger's opinion, represents a variant collection, not to Onkelos (as Bassfreund thinks), but to another recensions of that ancient Jerusalem Targum.零碎的根,在金斯布格爾的意見,代表一個變種集合,而不是昂克羅斯(如Bassfreund認為),但另一個校訂,古耶路撒冷根的。 Ginsburger's views will have to be accepted as the more probable.金斯布格爾的意見,更可能將不得不接受。

C. Targum Yerushalmi III C.根耶路沙米III

Targum Yerushalmi III is the name assigned by Dalman (Gramm., 29) to fragments which are given in old editions of the Pentateuch, as Lisbon (1491), Salonica (1520), Constantinople (1546), Venice (1591), and in several manuscripts Nearly all have been published by Ginsburger, "Das Fragmententargum" (1899), 71-74.根•耶路莎米III的名稱的達爾曼(Gramm.,29)片段中給出了這些老版本的五,里斯本(1491),薩洛尼卡(1520),君士坦丁堡(1546),威尼斯(1591年),並在分配幾個手稿,幾乎所有已出版的金斯布格爾,的“資本Fragmententargum”(1899年),71-74。

D. Other Jerusalem Targums D.其他耶路撒冷塔古姆譯本

There have also been Jerusalem Targums on the Prophets and on individual books of the Hagiographa.此外,亦有耶路撒冷的先知和個別書籍的Hagiographa塔古姆譯本。 As regards the Targums on the Prophets de Lagarde has given Reuchlin's notes from the "Nebi'im Codex" in the introduction (pp. VI-XLII) to his "Prophetae chaldice" (infra).至於該Targums,去拉加德的先知reuchlin的筆記從“Nebi'im法典”(第VI-XLII)在介紹他的“Prophetae chaldice”(紅外)。 There are fragments on Josue, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaias, Jeremias, Amos, Jonas, Zacharias.有碎片若蘇埃,法官,薩穆埃爾,國王,伊薩亞斯說是耶利米,阿莫斯,喬​​納斯,撒迦利亞。 [Cf. [CF。 Bacher in "ZDMG", XXVIII (1874), 1-72; XXIX (1875), 157 sqq., 319 sq.]巴切爾在“ZDMG”,二十八(1874年),1-72 XXIX“(1875年),157 SQQ。,319平方米]


They are the work of various authors and have the character more or less of private undertakings, with the production of which the schools had nothing to do.他們是不同作家的作品,有更多或更少的字符私人事業,生產的學校一點關係都沒有。 Linguistically they are to be regarded as the work artificially produced of a late age.語言,它們是被視為人為的工作產生的年齡較晚。 They depend in the main on the Jerusalem Targums and probably belong to the same era; the Targum on Chronicles may be somewhat later.他們在主要取決於耶路撒冷塔古姆譯本,可能屬於同一個時代的根在歷代志上可能會有些晚。 Three groups are to be distinguished as regards linguistic character and relation to the original text:至於語言的字符和有關原始文本加以區分三組:

(a) Targums to Proverbs, Psalms, and Job; (一)塔古姆譯本箴言,詩篇,和工作;

(b) Targums to the five Megilloth, that is Ruth, Esther, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Canticles; (二)塔古姆譯本的五個Megilloth,是露絲,以斯帖記,耶利米哀歌,傳道書,Canticles;

(c) Targums to the Books of Chronicles. (三)塔古姆譯本書記載。

The Targums mentioned under (a) adhere relatively closest to the text of the Bible.塔古姆譯本上文第(一)堅持相對接近“聖經”的文字。 The Targum to Proverbs is in language and contents very dependent on the text of the Syriac Peschitto, and is but little more than a Jewish recension of the same.箴言的根,是非常依賴於文本的敘利亞Peschitto在語言和內容,但多一點的一個猶太recension的相同。 [Cf. [CF。 Noldeke in "Merx' Archiv fur wissenschaftl. Erforschung des AT", II (1872), 246 sqq.' “Noldeke在MERX'檔案館毛皮wissenschaftl的。Erforschung DES AT”,II(1872年),246 SQQ“。 Baumgartner, "Etude critique sur l'etat du texte du livre des Proverbes" (Leipzig, 1890), 267 sqq.] Haggadic additions are found only occasionally in the Targum on the Psalms.鮑姆加特納,“練習曲批判SUR L'政變,杜texte杜書”德Proverbes“(萊比錫,1890年),267 SQQ。haggadic增加,只是偶爾在根上的詩篇。 In a number of passages a second translation is introduced with the remark "another Targum".在一些段落中的第二個翻譯引入的“另一根”的話。 The Targum to Job contains many more additions.根來的工作包含許多增加。 There are also variants of the usual formula of citation, and much oftener than in the Targum on the Psalms.也有通常的公式引用的變種,和許多更經常比在詩篇中的根。 In style and language this Targum resembles that on the Psalms, consequently both perhaps are the work of the same author.這根類似於在風格和語言的詩篇,因此既可能是同一個作者的工作。

(b) The Targums on the Megilloth are not in reality translations but rather Haggadic commentaries. (b)本塔古姆譯本上Megilloth是不是在現實翻譯而是haggadic的評注。 the Biblical text is most clearly evident in the Targums to Ruth and to Lamentations.聖經的文字是露絲和耶利米哀歌在該Targums最為明顯。 The Targum to Ecclesiastes is a tasteless declamation upon the text on which it is based; that on Canticles is an allegorico-mystical Midrash.的根,以傳道書是一種無味朗誦那樣拿腔作勢後的文本,它是基於對Canticles是一個allegorico神秘的米德拉士。 There are two Targums to Esther, the one closely resembles a paraphrase and has no legends interwoven with it; the other, called Targum scheni, has altogether the character of a Midrash.塔古姆譯本以斯帖記有兩個,一個非常類似的大意,並沒有傳說交織在一起,稱為根scheni,共米德拉士的性格。 It is only to a small degree a translation; the greater part of it consists of stories, legends, and discourses that have but slight connection with the contents of the book.它是只一個翻譯小的程度;更大的一部分,它包括,但書的內容與故事,傳說和話語。

(c) A Targum on the Books of Chronicles was edited from a manuscript in Erfurt by Matthias Beck (2 pts., Augsburg, 1680-83); a more complete and correct text taken from a manuscript at Cambridge was edited by Wilkins, "Paraphrasis Chaldica in librum priorem et posteriorem Chronicorum" (Amsterdam, 1715). (三)根在書記載了從手稿在埃爾富特的編輯馬蒂亞斯·貝克(2分,奧格斯堡,1680年至1683年);從手稿在劍橋的一個更完整,更正確的文本編輯威爾金斯,“ Paraphrasis Chaldica librum priorem等posteriorem Chronicorum“(阿姆斯特丹,1715年)。 All the Targums to the Hagiographa (excepting Chronicles) were printed for the first time in the Bomberg Bible in 1517; afterwards in the "Polyglots" of Antwerp, Paris, and London.該Targums的Hagiographa(除記載)在1517年第一次在邦貝里聖經印刷,之後在安特衛普,巴黎和倫敦的“多種語言的”。 A modern edition from the Bomberg text, with Chronicles from the Erfurt Codex, was edited by de Lagarde, "Hagiographa chaldaice" (Leipzig, 1873).一個現代版從邦貝里文字,記載從埃爾富特食品法典委員會,由拉加德編輯,“Hagiographa chaldaice”的(萊比錫,1873年)。

Publication information Written by Fr.出版信息所作的神父。 Schühlein. Schühlein。 Transcribed by John D. Beetham.轉錄由約翰D.比瑟姆。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat 7月1日,1912。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


GENERAL: ZUNZ, Die gottesdienstlichen Vortrage der Juden (Berlin, 1832), 61-83; HAUSDORFF, Zur Gesch.一般:Zunz,大模gottesdienstlichen Vortrage德國猶太人(柏林,1832),61-83;子的,祖爾Gesch。 der Targumim nach talmudischen Quellen in Monatschr.德Targumim,回到talmudischen Quellen Monatschr。 fur Gesch.毛皮Gesch。 u. U。 Wissensch. Wissensch。 des Judentums, XXXVIII (1894), 203 sqq., 241 sqq.; MAYBAUM, Die Anthropomorphien u. DES Judentums,三十八(1894年),203 SQQ,241 SQQ。MAYBAUM,模具Anthropomorphienü。 Anthropopathien bei Onkelos u. Anthropopathien北昂克羅斯U。 in den spateren Targumim (Breslau, 1878); GINSBURGER, Die Anthropomorphismus in den Thargumim in Jahrbucher fur prot.在,書房spateren Targumim(布雷斯勞,1878年);金斯布格爾,模具Anthropomorphismus在書房Thargumim Jahrbucher毛皮PROT。 Theol. theol的 (Brunswick, 1891), 262 sqq., 430 sqq. (不倫瑞克,1891年),262 SQQ,430 SQQ。 As regards the language: DALMAN, Grammatik des judisch-palastinischen Aramaisch (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1905); IDEM, Aramaisch-neuhebr.至於語言:達爾曼,Grammatik DES judisch palastinischen Aramaisch(第二版,萊比錫,1905年);同上,Aramaisch neuhebr。 Worterbuch (Frankfort, 1897-1901). Worterbuch(法蘭克福,1897-1901)。

I. THE TARGUM OF ONKELOS: KAUTZSCH, Mitteilung uber eine alte Handschr. I.根,OF昂克羅斯:KAUTZSCH,Mitteilung尤伯杯>阿爾特Handschr。 des Targ.德塔爾格。 Onk. ONK。 in Cod.在鱈魚。 Socini, No. 84 (Halle, 1893); BERLINER, Die Massorah zum Targ.第84號(Socini,哈雷,1893年); BERLINER中,模具Massorah ZUM塔爾格。 O. (Leipzig, 1877); LANDAUER, Die Masorah zum O. (Amsterdam, 1896); BREDERECK, Concordanz zum TO (Giessen, 1906); IDEM, Uber die Art der Ubersetzung im T. Onk. O.(萊比錫,1877年);蘭道爾,模具Masorah ZUM O.(阿姆斯特丹,1896年); BREDERECK,Concordanz ZUM於(吉森1906年),同上,尤伯杯模具藝術DE​​R Ubersetzung IM T. ONK。 in Theol. theol的 Studien u. (研究)U。 Kritiken (Gotha, 1901), 351-77. Kritiken(哥達1901年),351-77。 THE TARGUM OF JONATHAN: PRACTORIUS, Das Targum zu Josua nach Yemenischer Uberlieferung (Berlin, 1899); IDEM, Das Targum zum Buch der Richter nach yemen.的根的喬納森:PRACTORIUS,格根祖Josua回到Yemenischer Uberlieferung(柏林,1899年); IDEM,格根zum布赫得裡氏回到也門。 Uberlieferung (Berlin, 1900); WOLFSOHN, Das Targum zum Propheten Jeremias in yemen. Uberlieferung(柏林,1900年); WOLFSOHN,達斯根的ZUM Propheten赫雷米亞斯在也門。 Uberl. Uberl。 (Halle, 1902), ch. (哈雷,1902年),CH。 i-xii; SILBERMANN, Das Targum zu Ezechiel nach einer sudarabischen Handschrift (Strasburg, 1902), ch. I-XII;西爾伯曼,DAS根祖埃策希爾乙酰膽鹼einer sudarabischen Handschrift(斯特拉斯堡,1902年),CH。 ix; WRIGHT, Targum zu Jonas (London, 1857); ADLER, Targum to Nahum in Jew.九WRIGHT,的根祖喬納斯(倫敦,1857年); ADLER,根那鴻在猶太人。 Quart.夸脫。 Rev., VII (1895), 630 sqq.; BACHER, Kritische Untersuchungen zum Prophetentargum in ZD MG, XXVIII (1874), I sqq.; KLEIN in loc.牧師,VII(1895年),630 SQQ。巴切爾,Kritische Untersuchungen ZUM Prophetentargum ZD MG,二十八(1874年),我SQQ; KLEIN在loc。 cit., XXIX (1875), 157 sqq.; FRANKEL, Zu dem Targum der Propheten (Breslau, 1872).前,第二十九屆(1875年),157 SQQ。弗蘭克爾,祖DEM爾​​得Propheten的(布雷斯勞1872年)。

TARGUM YERUSHALMI I: SELIGSOHN AND TRAUB, Uber den Geist der Ubersetzung des Jonathan ben Usiel zum Pent.根•耶路莎米我“:SELIGSOHN TRAUB,尤伯杯巢穴蓋斯特DER Ubersetzung DES喬納森本Usiel ZUM壓抑。 etc. in Monatschrift fur Gesch.在Monatschrift毛皮Gesch等。 u. U。 Wissenschaft des Judentums (1857), 96 sqq., 138 sqq.; MARMORSTEIN, Studien zum Pseudo-Jonathan Targum (Presburg, 1905). Wissenschaft DES Judentums(1857),96 SQQ,138 SQQ。MARMORSTEIN,(研究)的ZUM偽喬納森根(Presburg,1905年)。

TARGUM YERUSHALMI II: GINSBURGER, Das Fragmententargum (Berlin, 1899); (1) Targum according to Cod.根•耶路莎米II:金斯布格爾,:達斯Fragmententargum(柏林,1899年):(1)根據鱈魚。 110 of the National Library at Paris; (2) variants from Cod. 110在巴黎的國家圖書館(2)從鱈魚的變種。 Vat.增值稅。 440 and Lips. 440和嘴唇。 1; (3) quotations from old writers; matter supplementary to this work is given by MARX in Zeitschrift fur hebr.馬克思在毛皮黑布爾雜誌1(3)報價從老作家對這項工作的補充問題。 Bibliographie (1902), 55-58. Bibliographie(1902),55-58。

TARGUMS YERUSHALMI I & II: BASSFREUND, Das Fragmententargum u.塔古姆譯本耶路莎米I&II:BASSFREUND,,達斯Fragmententargumü。 sein Verhaltnis zu den anderen palast.的盛Verhaltnis祖書房“完美皇宮。 Targumim in Monatschrift fur Gesch. Targumim在Monatschrift毛皮Gesch。 u. U。 Wissenschaft des Judentums, XL (1896), 1 sqq., 49 sqq., 97 sqq., 145 sqq., 241 sqq., 352 sqq., 396 sqq.; GINSBURGER, loc. Wissenschaft DES Judentums,XL(1896年),1 SQQ,49時02分sqq,97 SQQ,145 SQQ,241 SQQ,352 SQQ,396 SQQ。金斯布格爾,LOC。 cit., XLI (1897), 289 sqq., 340 sqq.; preface to Pseudo-Jonathan, ed.前,XLI(1897),289 SQQ,340 SQQ。前言偽喬納森,編輯。 IDEM (Berlin, 1903); NEUMARK, Lexikalische Untersuchungen zur Sprache der jerusalemischen Pentat. IDEM(柏林​​,1903年); NEUMARK,Lexikalische Untersuchungen楚語言DER jerusalemischen Pentat。 Targume (Berlin, 1905). Targume(柏林,1905年)。

TARGUM YERUSHALMI III: LEVY, Das Targums zu Koheleth nach sudarab.根•耶路莎米III:LEVY,DAS塔古姆譯本祖Koheleth回到sudarab。 Handschriften (Berlin, 1905); GOLLANCZ, Targum to the Song of Songs (London, 1908), translation; POSNER, Das Targum Rischon zu d.手捲(柏林,1905年);戈蘭茨,根宋歌(倫敦,1908年),翻譯波斯納,DAS的根Rischon祖ð。 bibl. bibl。 B. Esther (Breslau, 1896); DAVID, Das Targum scheni zum B. Esther (Berlin, 1898); TAYLOR, Targ. B.以斯帖(布雷斯勞,1896年); DAVID,達斯根scheni ZUM B.以斯帖(柏林,1898年); TAYLOR,塔爾格。 prius et posterius in Estheram .普銳斯等posterius在Estheram。 . . in linguam Latinam translatum (London, 1655); GELBHAUS, Das Targum scheni zum B. Esther (Frankfort, 1893).在linguam Latinam translatum(倫敦,1655年); GELBHAUS,DAS的根scheni ZUM B.以斯帖(法蘭克福,1893年)。

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