Theocracy “神權政治”

Catholic Information 天主教信息

A form of civil government in which God himself is recognized as the head.公務員,政府在其中的一種形式,神是公認的頭。 The laws of the commonwealth are the commandments of God, and they are promulgated and expounded by the accredited representatives of the invisible Deity, real or supposed-generally a priesthood.聯邦法律是神的誡命,他們頒布,並闡述了無形的神,真實的或假想的,一般的聖職的委任代表。 Thus in a theocracy civic duties and functions form a part of religion, implying the absorption of the State by the Church or at least the supremacy of the latter over the State.因此,在公民的職責和職能,形成一個政教合一的宗教的一部分,這意味著國家的教會,或至少後者在國家至上的吸收。

The earliest recorded use of the term "theocracy" is found in Josephus, who apparently coins it in explaining to Gentile readers the organization of the Jewish commonwealth of his time. “政教合一”的最早記載使用被發現在約瑟夫誰顯然是硬幣,在外邦讀者解釋他的猶太英聯邦的組織。 Contrasting this with other forms of government-monarchies, oligarchies, and republics-he adds: "Our legislator [Moses] had no regard to any of these forms, but he ordained our government to be what by a strained expression, may be termed a theocracy [theokratian], by ascribing the power and authority to God, and by persuading all the people to have a regard to him as the author of all good things" (Against Apion, book II, 16).對比與其他形式的政府的君主制,寡頭,和共和國,他補充說:“我們的立法者[摩西]沒有以任何形式,但他規定我們的政府是什麼緊張的表達,可能被稱為一個神權政治[theokratian,所指稱對上帝的權力和權威,並說服所有的人,有一個關於他的一切美好的事物“(反對阿皮翁,第二冊,16)的作者。 In this connection Josephus enters into a long and rather rambling discussion of the topic, but the entire passage is instructive.在這方面約瑟夫進入一個漫長而散漫的,而討論的話題,但整個文章是有益的。

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The extent to which the ideals of the Mosaic theocracy were realized in the history of the Chosen People is a matter of controversy.在何種程度上實現了摩西的神權政治的理想在歷史上所選擇的人是一個有爭議的問題。 Many eminent scholars are inclined to restrict its sway almost exclusively to the post-exilic period, when unquestionably the hierocratic rule and the ordinances of the Priestly Code were more fully carried into effect than in any of the preceding epochs.許多著名的學者幾乎完全傾向於限制其擺動的後放逐期間,當毫無疑問的hierocratic的規則和條例的祭司碼更充分的生效進行比前任何時代的。 Be that as it may, and waiving critical discussion of the Old Testament writings with which the solution of the question is intimately connected, attention may be called to the fact that a belief in the theocratic rulership of nations and tribes is, in form more or less crude, characteristic of the common fund of Semitic religious ideas. ,因為它可能會,並放棄批判性的討論解決的問題是密切相連的舊約著作,注意可能被稱為一個事實,即在神權統治的國家和部落是一個信念的形式或原油,共同基金的猶太人的宗教思想的特點。 The various deities were considered as having a territorial jurisdiction, fighting for their respective peoples and defending the lands in which they dwelled.各種神靈被認為是有屬地管轄權,各自人民爭取和捍衛的土地,在那裡住。 This is amply proved by the extant historic and religious records of the Assyrians and Babylonians, and the same idea finds occasional expression in the Old Testament itself (see, for instance, Judges 11:23 sq.; 1 Samuel 26:19; Ruth 1:15-16, etc.).現存的歷史和宗教的亞述人和巴比倫人記錄,這充分證明了同樣的想法得到了偶爾的表達,在舊約本身(見,例如,法官11:23平方米;撒母耳記上26:19;露絲:15-16,等)。 In a passage of the Book of Judges, Gideon is represented as refusing to accept the kingship offered to him by the people after his victory over the Madianites, in terms implying that the establishment of a permanent monarchy would involve disloyalty to the rule of Yahweh.在通過這本書的法官,基甸表示拒絕接受提供給他的王位後,他的戰勝的Madianites的人,這意味著建立一個永久性的君主立憲制,將涉及不忠耶和華的規則條款。 "I will not rule over you, neither shall my son rule over you, but the Lord shall rule over you" (Judges 8:23). “我不會統治你,也不得你,我的兒子,但耶和華的,必管轄你”(士8:23)。 More explicit and stronger expression is given to the same view in the First Book of Kings in connection with the appeal of the people to the aged prophet Samuel to constitute a king over them after the manner of the other nations.更明確地表達是考慮到上訴的人到中年的先知撒母耳的方式,其他國家構成了他們的王,後的第一本書的國王在同一個視圖中。 The request is displeasing to Samuel and to the Lord Himself, who commands the prophet to accede to the wishes of the people that they may be punished for their rejection of His kingship.該請求不喜悅到薩穆埃爾和主自己,誰指揮先知的人的意願,他們可能會懲罰他們拒絕接受他的王權加入。 "And the Lord said to Samuel: Hearken to the voice of the people in all that they say to thee. For they have not rejected thee, but me, that I should not reign over them" (1 Samuel 8:7). “耶和華對撒母耳說:要聽人民的聲音,他們對你說,因為他們不是厭棄你,但我,我不應該在他們的王”(撒母耳記上8:7)。 Again in chap.同樣是在第一章。 xii Samuel, in his final discourse to the people, reproaches them in similar words: "you said to me: Nay, but a king shall reign over us: whereas the Lord your God was your king".十二薩穆埃爾,在他最後的話語的人,指責他們在類似的話:“你對我說:不,但王統治我們,而主你的神是你們的王”。 And at the call of the prophet the Lord sends thunder and rain as a sign of His displeasure, "and you shall know and see that you yourselves have done a great evil in the sight of the Lord, in desiring a king over you".在調用的先知主發送雷聲大,雨點的標誌,他的不滿,“你要知道,看看你們做了大惡在上主面前,希望王了”。

The bearing of these passages on the historic institution of the theocracy varies in the estimation of different scholars according to the date assigned by them to the sources to which the passages belong.軸承,這些通道上的神權政治制度的歷史變化,不同學者的估計,根據他們的來源通道屬於指定的日期。 Wellhausen and his school, chiefly on a priori grounds, consider them a retouches of the post-exilic period, but it is far more probable that they form a part of a much older tradition, and indicate that a belief in the Lord's kingship over the Chosen People existed prior to the establishment of the earthly monarchy.威爾和他的學校,主要是對一個先驗的理由,認為他們一個潤飾後放逐期間,但它是遠更可能是他們形成一個更舊的傳統的一部分,並表示,一個信念在上帝的王權在選擇的人存在之前建立地上的君主。 At the same time, there is no sufficient warrant for assuming on the authority of these texts that the theocratic rule in Israel came to an end with the inauguration of the monarchy, as is plain from the narration of the Lord's covenant with King David and his descendants (2 Samuel 7:1-17).與此同時,有是沒有足夠的認股權證,假設這些文本的權威​​,在政教合一的統治在以色列來結束君主制的就職典禮,因為是純的敘述上帝的盟約與大衛王和他的後代(撒母耳記下7:1-17)。 According to the terms of this covenant the earthly monarch remains under the control of the heavenly King, and is constituted His vicegerent and representative.根據本公約的條款地上的君王仍然控制下的天王,是構成他的vicegerent的和有代表性的。 And this direct dependence of the king on the Lord for wisdom and guidance is assumed throughout the historical records of the Hebrew monarchy.這直接依賴上主的智慧和指導的王假定整個的希伯來君主制的歷史記錄。 The supreme test of the worthiness of any king to occupy his exalted position is his fidelity to the Lord and His revealed law.老有所為王佔據了他崇高的地位,是他的忠誠的主​​,他所啟示的法律的終極考驗。 The historical books, and still more the writings of the prophets, voice the constant belief that God exercised a special and efficient rule over Israel by blessings, punishments, and deliverances.在歷史的書籍,還有更多的先知的著作,聲音不變的信仰,上帝行使一種特殊的,有效的統治以色列的祝福,懲罰和拯救。 In the post-exilic period the hierocratic rule became the dominant feature of the Jewish theocracy, and, in spite of its limitations and perversions, it prepared, according to the designs of a wise Providence, the way for the New Dispensation-the Kingdom of Heaven so often mentioned in the Gospels.在的後放逐期間,hierocratic規則成為猶太人的神權政治的主要特徵,儘管它的局限性和變態,準備,根據一個聰明的普羅維登斯的設計,新的豁免王國的方式天堂中經常提到的“福音書”。

Publication information Written by James F. Driscoll.出版信息的書面由James F.德里斯科爾。 Transcribed by Herman F. Holbrook.轉錄由赫爾曼樓霍爾布魯克。 Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV. Iesus Nazarenus雷克斯Iudaeorum天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat 7月1日,1912。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography 參考書目
VIGOUROUX, Dictionnaire de la Bible, sv VIGOUROUX,Dictionnaire德拉聖經,SV

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