Theodoret theodoret公司

Catholic Information 天主教信息

Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457.居魯士主教和神學家,出生於敘利亞的安提約393死亡約457。

He says himself that his birth was an answer to the prayers of the monk Macedonius ("Hist. rel.", IX; Epist. lxxi).他說他自己,他的出生是一個答案祈禱的僧人馬其頓紐斯(Macedonius)(“歷史。”,IX; Epist。LXXI)。 On account of a vow made by his mother he was dedicated from birth to the service of God and was brought up and educated by the monks Macedonius and Peter.由他的母親的誓言,他是專門從出生到上帝的服務和教育的僧侶馬其頓紐斯(Macedonius)和彼得·。 At a very early age he was ordained lector.在非常早的年齡,他被任命為講師。 In theology he studied chiefly the writings of Diodorus of Tarsus, St. John Chrysostom, and Theodore of Mopsuestia.在他的神學著作主要研究狄奧多羅斯的塔爾蘇斯,聖約翰金口,和西奧多的Mopsuestia。 Theodoret was also well trained in philosophy and literature. theodoret被訓練有素的哲學和文學。 He understood Syriac as well as Greek, but was not acquainted with either Hebrew or Latin.據他了解敘利亞文和希臘文,但不熟悉的希伯來文或拉丁文。 When he was twenty-three years old and both parents were dead, he divided his fortune among the poor (Epist. cxiii; PG, LXXXIII, 1316) and became a monk in the monastery of Nicerte not far from Apamea, when he lived for seven years, devoting himself to prayer and study.當他是老23年,雙方父母都死了,他將他的財富中的窮人(Epist. CXIII PG,LXXXIII,1316),出家為僧的不遠處從阿帕米亞的修道院的Nicerte,當他住7年來,致力於祈禱和研究。 Much against his will about 423 he was made Bishop of Cyrus.許多反對他的意志約423他是主教居魯士。 His diocese included nearly 800 parishes and was suffragan of Hierapolis.他的教區,包括近800個教區,是輔佐希拉波利斯。 A large number of monasteries and hermitages also belonged to it, yet, notwithstanding all this, there were many heathen and heretics within its borders.大量的寺廟和修砌的,也屬於它,然而,儘管這一切,有許多異教徒和異端在其邊界內。 Theodoret brought many of these into the Church, among others more than a thousand Marcionites. theodoret公司帶來了不少這些目標變為教會,其中包括一千多Marcionites。 He also destroyed not less than two hundred copies of the "Diatessaron" of Tatian, which were in use in that district ("Hæret. fab.", I, xix; PG, LXXXIII, 372).他還摧毀不得少於200份的“Diatessaron人們”塔蒂安,這是在該地區使用(“Hæret。工廠。”我,十九; PG,LXXXIII,372)。 He often ran great risks in his apostolic journeys and labours; more than once he suffered ill-usage from the heathen and was even in danger of losing his life.他經常跑在他的使徒行程和勞動力的很大的風險,他不止一次遭受虐待的使用從異教徒,甚至失去他的生命處於危險之中。 His fame as a preacher was widespread and his services as a speaker were much sought for outside of his diocese; he went to Antioch twenty-six times.他的名氣作為一個佈道者是普遍的和他的揚聲器尋求他的教區外的服務;他去安提阿的26倍。

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Theodoret also exerted himself for the material welfare of the inhabitants of his diocese. theodoret公司也極力為他的教區居民的物質福利。 Without accepting donations (Epist. lxxxi) he was able to build many churches, bridges, porticos, aqueducts, etc. (Epist. lxxxi, lxxviii, cxxxviii).不接受捐款(Epist.捌拾壹)他是能夠建立許多教堂,橋樑,門廊,渡槽等(Epist.捌拾壹,LXXVIII,cxxxviii)。

Towards the end of 430 Theodoret became involved in the Nestorian controversy.在接近年底的430 theodoret公司參與景教爭議。 In conjunction with John of Antioch he begged Nestorius not to reject the expression Theotókos as heretical (Mansi, IV, 1067).在與約翰安提他懇求聶斯脫裡不要拒絕表達東正為異端邪說(曼西,IV,1067)。 Yet he held firmly with the other Antiochenes to Nestorius and to the last refused to recognize that Nestorius taught the doctrine of two persons in Christ.然而,他牢牢聶斯脫裡,到最後拒絕承認兩個人在基督裡,聶斯脫利教的教義與其他Antiochenes的。 Until the Council of Chalcedon in 451 he was the literary champion of the Antiochene party.直到安理會的chalcedon在451他是文學冠軍的安提阿人。 In 436 he published his 'Anatropé (Confutation) of the Anathemas of Cyril to which the latter replied with an Apology (PG, LXXVI, 392 sqq.).在436,他出版了他的的“Anatropé(Confutation),後者回答道歉(PG,LXXVI,392 SQQ)。anathemas的西里爾。 At the Council of Ephesus (431) Theodoret sided with John of Antioch and Nestorius, and pronounced with them the deposition of Cyril and the anathema against him.在安理會的以弗所(431)theodoret公司的支持與約翰·安提和聶斯脫裡,並與他們沉積西里爾和詛咒對他的宣判。 He was also a member of the delegation of "Orientals", which was to lay the cause of Nestorius before the emperor but was not admitted to the imperial presence a second time (Hefele-Leclerq, "Hist. des Conc.", II, i, 362 sqq.).他也是一個“東方人”,這是奠定事業的聶斯脫裡在皇帝面前代表團的成員,但不承認第二次(黑弗勒Leclerq“的歷史。DES濃度帝國的存在。”,II,我,362 SQQ)。 The same year he attended the synods of Tarsus and Antioch, at both of which Cyril was again deposed and anathematized.同年,他出席主教會議的跗關節和安提阿,在這兩個西里爾再次被廢黜和詛咒。 Theodoret after his return to Cyrus continued to oppose Cyril by speech and writing. Theodoret他回國後居魯士繼續反對西里爾通過演講和寫作。 The symbol (Creed) that formed the basis of the reconciliation (c. 433) of John of Antioch and others with Cyril was apparently drawn up by Theodoret (PG, LXXXIV, 209 sqq.), who, however, did not enter into the agreement himself because he was not willing to condemn Nestorius as Cyril demanded.的符號(信條)的基礎上形成的和解(公元前433)的約翰安提和其他與西里爾顯然是theodoret公司(PG,LXXXIV,209 SQQ)。,但是,並沒有進入協議自己,因為他不是願意譴責nestorius作為西里爾要求的。 It was not until about 435 that Theodoret seems to have become reconciled with John of Antioch, without, however, being obliged to agree to the condemnation of Nestorius (Synod. cxlvii and cli; Epist. clxxvi).但直到約435 theodoret公司似乎已經成為和解與約翰安提,沒有,但是,不得不同意譴責聶斯脫裡(Synod. cxlvii和CLI; Epist的。clxxvi)。 The dispute with Cyril broke out again when in 437 the latter called Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia the real originators of the Nestorian heresy.爭議與西里爾再次爆發時,在437後者稱為狄奧多羅斯的跗關節和西奧多的Mopsuestia真正原創的景教異端。 Theodore entered the lists in their defence.西奧多進入名單,他們的防守。 The bitterness with which these polemics were carried on is shown both by the letter and the speech of Theodoret when he learned of the death in 444 of the Patriarch of Alexandria (Epist. clxxx).的辛酸與這些論戰進行的是由信和講話的theodoret當他得知444的祖師的亞歷山大(Epist. clxxx)的死亡。

The episcopate of Dioscurus, the successor of Cyril, was a period of much trouble for Theodoret.主教團的西里爾的繼任者,Dioscurus,是一段比較麻煩theodoret公司。 Dioscurus, by the mediation of Eutyches and the influential Chrysaphius, obtained an imperial edict which forbade Theodoret to leave his diocese (Epist. lxxix-lxxxii). Dioscurus,歐迪奇和影響力的chrysaphius的調解下,獲得了聖旨,禁止theodoret公司離開他的教區(Epist. LXXIX LXXXII)的。 In addition Theodoret was accused of Nestorianism (Epist. lxxxiii-lxxxvi); in answer to this attack he wrote his most important polemical work, called "Eranistes".此外,theodoret被指控的景教(Epist. LXXXIII捌拾);在回答這種攻擊中,他寫了他的最重要的的論戰工作,稱為“Eranistes”的。 Theodoret was also considered the prime mover of the condemnation of Eutyches by the Patriarch Flavian. theodoret被譴責歐迪奇由族長弗拉維安的主要推動者。 In return Dioscurus obtained an imperial decree in 449 whereby Theodoret was forbidden to take any part in the synod of Ephesus (Robber Council of Ephesus).在獲得回報dioscurus聖旨449 theodoret被禁止採取任何參加主教會議的以弗所安理會的以弗所(劫匪)。 At the third session of this synod Theodoret was deposed by the efforts of Dioscurus and ordered by the emperor to re-enter his former monastery near Apamea.在第三次會議,這一會議Theodoret被廢黜,由的努力Dioscurus,由皇帝下令重新輸入他的前寺附近阿帕米亞。 Better times, however, came before long.美好的日子,然而,不久。 Theodoret appealed to Pope Leo who declared his deposition invalid, and, as the Emperor Theodosius II died the following year (450), he was allowed to re-enter his diocese. theodoret公司呼籲教皇利奧宣布他的證言無效,而且,作為皇帝狄奧多西二世去世,次年(450),他被允許重新進入他的教區。 In the next year, notwithstanding the violent opposition of the Alexandrine party, Theodoret was admitted as a regular member to the sessions of the Council of Chalcedon, but refrained from voting.在未來的一年裡,儘管暴力反對的亞歷山大黨,theodoret被接納為一名普通成員Chalcedon委員會的會議,但沒有投票。 At the eighth session (26 Oct., 451), he was admitted to full membership after he had agreed to the anathema against Nestorius; probably he meant this agreement only in the sense: in case Nestorius had really taught the heresy imputed to him (Mansi, VII, 190).在第八次會議(10月26日,451),他被接納為正式成員後,他已經同意對聶斯脫裡的詛咒,也許他只有在這個意義上是指本協議的情況下涅斯真的教了指控他的異端(曼西,第七章,190頁)。 It is not certain whether Theodoret spent the last years of his life in the city of Cyrus, or in the monastery where he had formerly lived.這是不能肯定是否theodoret公司花了近十年,他的生活在這個城市​​的居魯士,或在寺院他以前住的地方。 There still exists a letter written by Pope Leo in the period after the Council of Chalcedon in which he encourages Theodoret to co- operate without wavering in the victory of Chalcedon (PG, LXXXIII, 1319 sqq.).仍然存在著由羅馬教皇利奧在此期間寫的信後,安理會的卡爾西中,他鼓勵Theodoret合作經營不動搖的勝利,卡爾西(PG,LXXXIII,1319 SQQ)。 The writings of Theodoret against Cyril of Alexandria were anathematized during the troubles that arose in connexion with the war of the Three Chapters.對西里爾的亞歷山德里亞的theodoret的著作過程中出現的麻煩,在與戰爭的三個章節有關的詛咒。


A. Exegetical A.訓詁

Theodoret wrote brief treatises in the form of questions and answers on special passages of the Octateuch, four Books of Kings, and two Books of Paralipomenon (PG, LXXX, 75-858). theodoret公司在專用通道的Octateuch,四本書的國王,圖書的Paralipomenon“(PG LXXX,75-858)的問題和答案的形式寫了簡短的論文。 He wrote commentaries covering the whole books on: The Psalms (PG, LXXX, 857-1998, and LXXXIV, 19-32), written before 436 (Epist. lxxxi); Canticles (PG, LXXXI, 27-214); the Greater Prophets, Daniel and Ezechiel before 436, Isaias and Jeremias before 448, of which the commentary on Isaias has been lost, excepting some fragments preserved in the "Catenæ"; the Minor Prophets before 436 (PG, LXXXI, 495-1988); and the Epistles of St. Paul, written before 448 (PG, LXXXII, 35-878).他寫的評論覆蓋整個書籍:的詩篇(pg,LXXX,857-1998,LXXXIV 19-32),之前寫的436(Epist. LXXXI);的Canticles“(PG LXXXI,27-214);先知,丹尼爾和ezechiel前436名,伊薩亞斯羅和jeremias前448,其中評伊薩亞斯已經遺失,除一些片段,保存在“Catenæ”前436名未成年人的先知(PG,LXXXI,495-1988);聖保羅的書信,寫前448“(PG LXXXII,35-878)。

B. Apologetic B.致歉

"Græcarum affectionum curatio" (Remedy for the diseases of the Greeks), twelve books, written before 437, "the last and probably also the most complete of the numerous apologies which Greek antiquity has produced" (Bardenhewer, "Patrologie", 3rd ed., 1910, p. 327). “Græcarumaffectionum curatio”(補救措施的希臘人的疾病),12本書,寫的前437名“,最後,可能也是最完整的古希臘產生了眾多的道歉”(巴登黑韋爾,的“Patrologie”,第3版1910年,第327頁)。 "De divina Providentia", ten sermons, probably his best work, in which he proves the administration of Divine Providence from the physical, moral, and social systems of the world. “神曲Providentia”,10講道,可能是他最好的作品,他在其中證明是神聖的,從物理世界,道德和社會制度的管理。

C. Dogmatico-Polemical C. Dogmatico論爭

"Refutatio duodecim Anathematum", against St. Cyril; it has been preserved in Cyril's answer (PG, LXXVI, 392 sqq.; Latin by Marius Mercator, PL, XLVIII, 972 sqq.). “Refutatio duodecim Anathematum”,對圣西里爾,它一直保存在西里爾的答案(PG,LXXVI,392 SQQ,拉丁美洲由Marius墨卡托,PL,48,972 SQQ)。 "De Sancta et vivifica Trinitate" (PG, LXXV, 1147-90), and "De Incarnatione Domini" (ib., 1419-78); these two last mentioned treatises have been proved by A. Ehrhard to have been written by Theodoret (see bibliography). “Sancta等vivifica Trinitate”“(PG LXXV,1147年至1190年),”德Incarnatione多米尼“(同上,1419年至1478年),這兩個最後提到論文已被證明A. Ehrhard已寫theodoret公司的(見參考書目)。 "Eranistes seu Plymorphos" (PG, LXXXIII, 27-l336), written in 448 in the form of three dialogues between an Orthodox (Theodoret) and a beggar (Eutyches); these dialogues sought to prove that the Divinity of Christ is (a) unchangeable, (b) unmixed with humanity, (c) incapable of suffering. “寫在448 Eranistes SEU Plymorphos”(PG,LXXXIII,27 L336),東正教(theodoret公司)和乞丐(歐迪奇)的形式之間的對話,這些對話旨在證明基督的神(一)不變,(B)混合有人類,(C)不能患。 In the fourth book the first three are briefly summed up in syllogisms.在第四本書的前三個進行了簡要總結了三段論。 "Hæreticarum fabularum compendium" in five books (ib., 336-556); the first four contain a brief summary of heresies up to the time of Theodoret, and the last book contrasts them with Catholic faith and morals.在五本書的“Hæreticarumfabularum簡編”(同上,336-556),前四個含有一個簡要介紹異端邪說的theodoret的時間,和他們與天主教的信仰和道德的最後一本書的對比。

D. Historical D.歷史

"Historia Ecclesiastica" (PG, LXXXII, 881-1280) treats in five books the period from Arius up to 429. “史記Ecclesiastica”“(PG LXXXII,881-1280)處理五本書期間阿里烏斯高達429。 In this work Theodoret used Eusebius, Rufinus, Socrates, Sozomenus, Philostorgius, as well as documents long since lost.在這項工作中Theodoret尤西比烏斯,Rufinus,蘇格拉底,Sozomenus,Philostorgius,以及早已失去的文件。 As an ecclesiastical historian, however, he is inferior to his predecessors.作為一個教會歷史學家,然而,他不如他的前任。 "Historia religiosa" (ib., 1283-1522) contains the biographies of thirty celebrated ascetics or hermits; the treatise "De divina charitate" forms the close of the work. “史記religiosa”(同上,1283年至1522年)中的30個著名的修道者或隱士的傳記的“神曲charitate”論文形成的密切的工作。

E. Letters E.快報

Theodoret's lettters are of much value, both for his personal history and for that of his era. theodoret公司的lettters太大的價值,無論是對他個人的歷史和他的時代。 Cf.比照。 PG, LXXXIII, 1173-1494, and Sakkelion, "Forty-eight Letters of Theodoret of Cyrus" (Athens, 1885). PG,LXXXIII,1173年至1494年,Sakkelion,“45個字母的theodoret居魯士”(雅典,1885年)。

F. Lost Writings F.遺札

"Opus mysticum", in twelve books; "Responsiones ad quæstiones magorum persarum" (Epist. lxxxii and cxiii), five "Sermones in laudem S. Johannis Chrysostomi", of which the fragments are to be found in Photius, "Bibl.", 273; and other "Sermones". “作品mysticum”,在12本書“Responsionesquæstionesmagorum persarum”(Epist.捌拾和CXIII),5個是“sermones在laudem S. Johannis Chrysostomi”,其中的碎片被發現在photius,老人家“Bibl。” ,273;其他“Sermones”。 Von Harnack ("Texte und Untersuchungen", NF 6, IV, 1901) assigned the "Responsiones ad quæstiones" to Diodorus of Tarsus, but a manuscript of the tenth century, edited by Papadopulos Kerameus (St. Petersburg, 1895), ascribes the work to Theodoret (see A. Erhard in "Byzantinische Zeitschrift", VII, 1898, 609 sqq.).馮·哈納克(“文本和Untersuchungen”,NF 6,IV,1901年),歸因分配“Responsiones廣告quæstiones”狄奧多羅斯的塔爾蘇斯,但在第十個世紀的手稿,編輯Papadopulos Kerameus(聖彼得堡,1895年)工作theodoret公司(見A.艾哈德在“Byzantinische(雜誌)”,第七章,1898年,609 SQQ)。


In hermeneutics Theodoret followed the principles of the Antiochene school, but avoided the bias of Theodore of Mopsuestia.在詮釋學theodoret公司遵循了的原則的安提阿學校,但避免了偏見的西奧多的Mopsuestia。 In his Christology also he followed the terminology of Diodorus and Theodore, and saw in the teaching of Cyril a revival of Apollinarianism.在他的基督,他也跟著狄奧多羅斯和西奧多的術語,並看到了在教學中的西里爾的亞波里拿留主義的復興。 He would never acknowledge that the teaching of Nestorius presupposed the acceptance of two persons in Christ or, as Cyril believed, necessarily led to it.他決不會承認的聶斯脫裡,教學的先決條件是兩個人在基督裡,或接受西里爾認為,必然導致它。

Publication information Written by Chrysostom Baur.出版信息寫金口鮑爾。 Transcribed by WGKofron.轉錄的WGKofron。 In memory of Fr.在神父內存。 John Hilkert, Akron, Ohio -- Fidelis servus et prudens, quem constituit Dominus super familiam suam The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.約翰Hilkert,阿克倫,俄亥俄 - 菲德利斯SERVUS等prudens,quem constituit Dominus超級familiam蘇阿姆天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat 7月1日,1912。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography 參考書目
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