Saint Thomas Aquinas聖托馬斯阿奎那

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St. Thomas Aquinas was a Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church (Angelicus Doctor), patron of Catholic universities, colleges, and schools.聖托馬斯阿奎那是一個哲學家,神學家,醫生的教會(安傑利卡斯醫生),靠山的天主教大學,學院,和學校。 Born at Rocca Secca in the Kingdom of Naples, 1225 or 1227; died at Fossa Nuova, 7 March, 1274.生於在羅卡secca在那不勒斯王國,1225年或1227年;窩Nuova的,1274年3月7日死亡。


The great outlines and all the important events of his life are known, but biographers differ as to some details and dates.偉大的輪廓和所有重要的事件,他的生活是眾所周知的,但傳記作者不同的一些細節和日期。 Death prevented Henry Denifle from executing his project of writing a critical life of the saint.死亡阻止亨利德尼夫勒從執行他的計劃,寫一個關鍵的生命的聖。 Denifle's friend and pupil, Dominic Prümmer, OP, professor of theology in the University of Fribourg, Switzerland, took up the work and published the "Fontes Vitae S. Thomae Aquinatis, notis historicis et criticis illustrati"; and the first fascicle (Toulouse, 1911) has appeared, giving the life of St. Thomas by Peter Calo (1300) now published for the first time.的工作德尼夫勒​​的朋友和學生,多米尼克Prümmer,OP,在瑞士弗里堡大學的神學教授,並發表“豐特斯簡歷S. Thomae Aquinatis,NOTIS historicis批評觀念illustrati”;第一分冊(圖盧茲, 1911年)已經出現,給第一次發表的聖·托馬斯由彼得·卡洛(1300)現在的生活。 From Tolomeo of Lucca .從Tolomeo的盧卡。 . . we learn that at the time of the saint's death there was a doubt about his exact age (Prümmer, op. cit., 45).我們了解到,在聖人的死亡的時候,有一個疑問,他的確切年齡(前引書。prümmer,前引書,第38頁,45頁)。 The end of 1225 is usually assigned as the time of his birth.年底,1225通常指派他出生時。 Father Prümmer, on the authority of Calo, thinks 1227 is the more probable date (op. cit., 28).父親prümmer,前引書,第38頁上權威的卡洛認為,1227年是更可能的日期(同上,28)。 All agree that he died in 1274.大家都同意,他在1274年去世。

Landulph, his father, was Count of Aquino; Theodora, his mother, Countess of Teano. Landulph,他的父親,是計數的阿基諾西奧多拉,他的母親,伯爵夫人的Teano。 His family was related to the Emperors Henry VI and Frederick II, and to the Kings of Aragon, Castile, and France.他的家庭的皇帝亨利六世和腓特烈二世,阿拉貢,卡斯蒂利亞和法國的國王。 Calo relates that a holy hermit foretold his career, saying to Theodora before his birth: "He will enter the Order of Friars Preachers, and so great will be his learning and sanctity that in his day no one will be found to equal him" (Prümmer, op. cit., 18).卡洛涉及一個神聖的隱士預言他的職業生涯,他說在他出生前到西奧多拉:“他將進入訂單的方濟各會士傳教士,如此之大,將自己的學習和神聖性,在他那個時代沒有人會發現,和他一樣”( prümmer,前引書,第38頁同前。,18)。 At the age of five, according to the custom of the times, he was sent to receive his first training from the Benedictine monks of Monte Cassino.在五歲時,根據自定義的時代,他被送往接受他的第一次訓練,從蒙特卡西諾的本篤會修士。 Diligent in study, he was thus early noted as being meditative and devoted to prayer, and his preceptor was surprised at hearing the child ask frequently: "What is God?"勤奮學習,他這樣早注意到冥想和專門用於祈禱,和他的導師很驚訝聽到孩子經常問:“什麼是上帝嗎?” About the year 1236 he was sent to the University of Naples.關於1236年,他被派往那不勒斯大學的。 Calo says that the change was made at the instance of the Abbot of Monte Cassino, who wrote to Thomas's father that a boy of such talents should not be left in obscurity (Prümmcr, op. cit., 20).卡洛說,這項改變是在蒙特卡西諾的住持,托馬斯的父親是誰寫的,一個男孩,這樣的人才不應該被留在朦朧(前引書。prümmcr,前引書,20,20)的實例。 At Naples his preceptors were Pietro Martini and Petrus Hibernus.在那不勒斯,他的指導老師分別是,彼得Martini和佩特魯斯Hibernus。 The chronicler says that he soon surpassed Martini at grammar, and he was then given over to Peter of Ireland, who trained him in logic and the natural sciences.編年史說,他很快超過了馬提尼在語法,而他當時給了彼得的愛爾蘭,誰訓練他的邏輯和自然科學。 The customs of the times divided the liberal arts into two courses: the Trivium, embracing grammar, logic, and rhetoric; the Quadrivium, comprising music, mathematics, geometry, and astronomy .海關的時代劃分,擁抱了trivium語法,邏輯,修辭,“四,包括音樂,數學,幾何,和天文學兩個課程:文科。 . . . Thomas could repeat the lessons with more depth and lucidity than his masters displayed. ,托馬斯可重複的教訓,更深入和清晰的顯示比他的主人。 The youth's heart had remained pure amidst the corruption with which he was surrounded, and he resolved to embrace the religious life.青年的心依然純淨的腐敗,使他被包圍之中,他決心樹立的宗教生活。

Some time between 1240 and August, 1243, he received the habit of the Order of St. Dominic, being attracted and directed by John of St. Julian, a noted preacher of the convent of Naples. 1240年,1243年8月之​​間的一段時間,他接到的命令聖星,吸引和導演約翰那不勒斯修道院的聖朱利安,一位著名的傳道人的習慣。 The city wondered that such a noble young man should don the garb of poor friar.城市納悶,這樣一個崇高的年輕人應該穿上外衣差修士。 His mother, with mingled feelings of joy and sorrow, hastened to Naples to see her son.趕緊到那不勒斯,還羼雜​​著喜悅和悲傷的感情,他的母親看到她的兒子。 The Dominicans, fearing she would take him away, sent him to Rome, his ultimate destination being Paris or Cologne.多米尼加,擔心她會帶他走,送他到羅馬,他的最終目的地是巴黎和科隆。 At the instance of Theodora, Thomas's brothers, who were soldiers under the Emperor Frederick, captured the novice near the town of Aquapendente and confined him in the fortress of San Giovanni at Rocca Secca.在的實例theodora,托馬斯的兄弟,誰是士兵在帝國皇帝腓特烈,抓獲新手鎮附近的Aquapendente,限制了他在要塞的San Giovanni羅卡secca。 Here he was detained nearly two years, his parents, brothers, and sisters endeavouring by various means to destroy his vocation.在這裡,他被拘留了將近兩年,他的父母,兄弟,姐妹,努力以各種手段摧毀了他的職業。 The brothers even laid snares for his virtue, but the pure-minded novice drove the temptress from his room with a brand which he snatched from the fire.兄弟甚至奠定了圈套,為他的美德,但純粹的志同道合的的新手開temptress從他的房間,一個品牌,他從火中抽出來。 Towards the end of his life, St. Thomas confided to his faithful friend and companion, Reginald of Piperno, the secret of a remarkable favour received at this time.聖托馬斯快要結束他的生命,對他忠實的朋友和夥伴,Reginald的piperno,一個了不起的人贊成在這個時候收到的秘密。 When the temptress had been driven from his chamber, he knelt and most earnestly implored God to grant him integrity of mind and body.當妖婦被趕出了他的房間,他跪下,最認真懇求上帝給他的心靈和身體的完整性。 He fell into a gentle sleep, and, as he slept, two angels appeared to assure him that his prayer had been heard.他掉進了溫柔的睡眠,因為他睡覺的時候,兩個天使出現,以確保他已聽到他的祈禱。 They then girded him about with a white girdle, saying: "We gird thee with the girdle of perpetual virginity."然後,他們束腰他約一個白色腰帶,他說:“我們網格你的腰帶,永久的童貞。” And from that day forward he never experienced the slightest motions of concupiscence.從那天起,他從來沒有經歷過絲毫的運動色欲。

The time spent in captivity was not lost.所花費的時間在人工飼養不會丟失。 His mother relented somewhat, after the first burst of anger and grief; the Dominicans were allowed to provide him with new habits, and through the kind offices of his sister he procured some books - the Holy Scriptures, Aristotle's Metaphysics, and the "Sentences" of Peter Lombard.他的母親心軟了幾分,之後的第一一陣的憤怒和悲痛,多米尼加共和國被允許的,以提供他新的習慣,和通過的一種辦公室,他的妹妹,他採購了一些書籍 - 聖經,亞里士多德的形而上學,和“刑期”的彼得隆巴德。 After eighteen months or two years spent in prison, either because his mother saw that the hermit's prophecy would eventually be fulfilled or because his brothers feared the threats of Innocent IV and Frederick II, he was set at liberty, being lowered in a basket into the arms of the Dominicans, who were delighted to find that during his captivity "he had made as much progress as if he had been in a studium generale" (Calo, op. cit., 24).經過十八個個月的或2年花費在監獄裡,要么因為他的母親看到了隱士的預言最終達成,或因為他的兄弟們擔心的無辜IV和腓特烈二世的威脅,他被設定在自由,被降低一籃子到武器的多米尼加人,誰是欣喜地發現,他的囚禁期間,他做了很大的進展,如果他一直在studium興業銀行“(卡洛,同上,24)。

Thomas immediately pronounced his vows, and his superiors sent him to Rome.托馬斯立即宣告他的誓言,他的上司送他到羅馬。 Innocent IV examined closely into his motives in joining the Friars Preachers, dismissed him with a blessing, and forbade any further interference with his vocation.英諾森四世仔細檢查他的動機加入方濟各會士傳教士,把他撤了,帶著祝福,並禁止任何進一步干擾了他的職業。 John the Teutonic, fourth master general of the order, took the young student to Paris and, according to the majority of the saint's biographers, to Cologne, where he arrived in 1244 or 1245, and was placed under Albertus Magnus, the most renowned professor of the order.約翰的條頓騎士團,第四主一般的順序,採取的青年學生到巴黎,並根據大多數聖人的傳記作者,德國科隆,在那裡他到達1244或1245,和被放置的Albertus馬格努斯,在最負盛名的教授下的順序。 In the schools Thomas's humility and taciturnity were misinterpreted as signs of dullness, but when Albert had heard his brilliant defence of a difficult thesis, he exclaimed: "We call this young man a dumb ox, but his bellowing in doctrine will one day resound throughout the world."在學校托馬斯的謙卑和沉默寡言的曲解為標誌的,沉悶,但是當阿爾伯特曾聽到他的輝煌防禦的一個困難的論斷,他感嘆道:“我們呼籲這個年輕男子啞巴牛,但他的吼叫,在理論將一天resound全國這個世界。“

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In 1245 Albert was sent to Paris, and Thomas accompanied him as a student.於1245年,阿爾伯特送往巴黎,托馬斯陪同他作為一名學生。 In 1248 both returned to Cologne.在1248年回到科隆。 Albert had been appointed regent of the new studium generale, erected that year by the general chapter of the order, and Thomas was to teach under him as Bachelor.何俊仁已被任命為攝政王的新studium興業銀行,立說,今年的總章的順序,和托馬斯的教導下,他作為本科。 (On the system of graduation in the thirteenth century see ORDER OF PREACHERS -- II, A, 1, d). (在該系統的畢業典禮在13世紀看到的命令傳教士 - II,A,1,D)。 During his stay in Cologne, probably in 1250, he was raised to the priesthood by Conrad of Hochstaden, archbishop of that city.期間,他在科隆,可能是在1250,他提出對教士由大主教康拉德的hochstaden,那個城市。 Throughout his busy life, he frequently preached the Word of God, in Germany, France, and Italy.在他忙碌的生活中,他經常傳講神的話語,在德國,法國和意大利。 His sermons were forceful, redolent of piety, full of solid instruction, abounding in apt citations from the Scriptures.他的講道人,有力,散發出濃烈的虔誠,充滿著堅實的指示,並有豐盛的容易引用“聖經”。

In the year 1251 or 1252 the master general of the order, by the advice of Albertus Magnus and Hugo a S. Charo (Hugh of St. Cher), sent Thomas to fill the office of Bachelor (sub-regent) in the Dominican studium at Paris.在1251或1252年掌握一般的順序,Albertus馬格納斯和雨果一S.沙羅(休聖雪兒)的意見,托馬斯在多米尼加studium填寫的辦公室學士(子攝政王)在巴黎。 This appointment may be regarded as the beginning of his public career, for his teaching soon attracted the attention both of the professors and of the students.這一任命可能會被視為他的公眾生涯的開始,很快就吸引了他的教學的教授,學生和關注。 His duties consisted principally in explaining the "Sentences" of Peter Lombard, and his commentaries on that text-book of theology furnished the materials and, in great part, the plan for his chief work, the "Summa theologica".他的職責主要包括解釋的“刑期”的彼得倫巴,他的評論的神學提供的材料,課本和中很大一部分,他的主要工作,“神學大全”的計劃。

In due time he was ordered to prepare himself to obtain the degree of Doctor in Theology from the University of Paris, but the conferring of the degree was postponed, owing to a dispute between the university and the friars.在適當的時候,他奉命準備自己獲得博士學位,在巴黎大學的神學,但授予的學位被推遲,由於大學和修士之間的糾紛。 The conflict, originally a dispute between the university and the civic authorities, arose from the slaying of one of the students and the wounding of three others by the city guard.的衝突,最初的大學和公民之間的糾紛,源於殺害的學生和傷人的其他3個城市的後衛之一。 The university, jealous of its autonomy, demanded satisfaction, which was refused.大學的自治權,嫉妒,要求滿意,但遭拒絕。 The doctors closed their schools, solemnly swore that they would not reopen them until their demands were granted, and decreed that in future no one should be admitted to the degree of Doctor unless he would take an oath to follow the same line of conduct under similar circumstances.醫生關閉了學校,莊嚴地宣誓,他們不會重開,直到他們的要求被授出,並在未來頒布法令,任何人都不應被承認的博士學位,除非他將宣誓遵循同樣的路線進行類似的情況。 The Dominicans and Franciscans, who had continued to teach in their schools, refused to take the prescribed oath, and from this there arose a bitter conflict which was at its height when St. Thomas and St. Bonaventure were ready to be presented for their degrees.道明會和方濟會,繼續任教的學校,拒絕採取明宣誓,並從這個有出現激烈的衝突,這是在它的高度時,聖托馬斯和聖文德準備提交學位。 William of St-Amour extended the dispute beyond the original question, violently attacked the friars, of whom he was evidently jealous, and denied their right to occupy chairs in the university.超越了原來的問題,猛烈地攻擊的修士,他顯然是嫉妒,並否認自己的權力佔用椅子,在大學聖愛慕的威廉延長爭端。 Against his book, "De periculis novissimorum temporum" (The Perils of the Last Times), St. Thomas wrote a treatise "Contra impugnantes religionem", an apology for the religious orders (Touron, op. cit., II, cc. vii sqq.).反對他的書,“德periculis novissimorum temporum”(最後時報“的危險),聖·托馬斯寫了一篇論文”的矛盾impugnantes religionem“,道歉的宗教訂單(Touron,前引書,II,CC七SQQ)。 The book of William of St-Amour was condemned by Alexander IV at Anagni, 5 October, 1256, and the pope gave orders that the mendicant friars should be admitted to the doctorate.書聖 - 愛慕的威廉譴責亞歷山大四世在anagni,1256年10月5日,教皇下令,托缽修士應該承認的博士學位。

About this time St. Thomas also combated a dangerous book, "The Eternal Gospel" (Touron, op. cit., II, cxii).大約在這個時候,聖托馬斯也打擊了一個危險的書,“永遠的福音”(Touron,同上,二,一一二)。 The university authorities did not obey immediately; the influence of St. Louis IX and eleven papal Briefs were required before peace was firmly established, and St. Thomas was admitted to the degree of Doctor in Theology.大學當局沒有立即服從;和平前,必須牢固樹立的影響聖路易斯九和十羅馬教皇的內褲,被送往聖托馬斯的神學博士學位。 The date of his promotion, as given by many biographers, was 23 October, 1257.許多傳記作者,他的推動下,給出的日期是1257年10月23日。 His theme was "The Majesty of Christ".他的主題是“國王陛下的基督”。 His text, "Thou waterest the hills from thy upper rooms: the earth shall be filled with the fruit of thy works" (Psalm 103:13), said to have been suggested by a heavenly visitor, seems to have been prophetic of his career.他的文字,“你澆透山上,從你的上層房間要充滿遍地的果實,你的作品”(詩103:13)說,已建議由一個天朝訪客,似乎已經預言,他的職業生涯。 A tradition says that St. Bonaventure and St. Thomas received the doctorate on the same day, and that there was a contest of humility between the two friends as to which should be promoted first.傳統說,聖文德和聖托馬斯獲得博士學位,在同一天,有一個競賽的謙卑與兩名友人,首先應促進。

From this time St. Thomas's life may be summed up in a few words: praying, preaching, teaching, writing, journeying.從這個時間可能會總結出聖托馬斯的生活中的幾句話:祈禱,講經,教學,寫作,痴痴。 Men were more anxious to hear him than they had been to hear Albert, whom St. Thomas surpassed in accuracy, lucidity, brevity, and power of exposition, if not in universality of knowledge.男性更渴望聽到他比他們已經聽到畢,聖托馬斯超過準確,清晰,簡潔,電源的論述,如果沒有普遍性的知識。 Paris claimed him as her own; the popes wished to have him near them; the studia of the order were eager to enjoy the benefit of his teaching; hence we find him successively at Anagni, Rome, Bologna, Orvieto, Viterbo, Perugia, in Paris again, and finally in Naples, always teaching and writing, living on earth with one passion, an ardent zeal for the explanation and defence of Christian truth.巴黎稱他為自己的教皇希望讓他接近他們的studia的順序是渴望享受的利益,他的教學,因此,我們發現他先後在阿納尼,羅馬,博洛尼亞,奧維多,維泰博,佩魯賈,巴黎一遍,最後在那不勒斯,總是教學和寫作,生活在地球上的一個夢想,一個熱心的解釋和捍衛基督教的真理的熱情。 So devoted was he to his sacred task that with tears he begged to be excused from accepting the Archbishopric of Naples, to which he was appointed by Clement IV in 1265.所以,用的是他自己的神聖任務,眼含熱淚,他乞求被原諒的接受那不勒斯大主教,他被任命克萊門特四,在1265年。 Had this appointment been accepted, most probably the "Summa theologica" would not have been written.如果這一任命被接受,最有可能的“總結theologica”將不會被寫入。

Yielding to the requests of his brethren, he on several occasions took part in the deliberations of the general chapters of the order.屈服於要求他的弟兄,他曾多次參加審議的一般章節的順序。 One of these chapters was held in London in 1263.這些章節之一是在1263年在倫敦舉行的。 In another held at Valenciennes (1259) he collaborated with Albertus Magnus and Peter of Tarentasia (afterwards Pope Innocent V) in formulating a system of studies which is substantially preserved to this day in the studia generalia of the Dominican Order (cf. Douais, op. cit.).在另一個被認為在瓦朗謝訥(1259),他Albertus馬格納斯和彼得的tarentasia的(後來的教皇英諾森V)合作,制定一個系統的研究,這是基本保留到今天在studia generalia多米尼加令“(參見Douais,運。前)。

It is not surprising to read in the biographies of St. Thomas that he was frequently abstracted and in ecstasy.這並不奇怪,讀的傳記中,他經常抽象的聖托馬斯和在狂喜中。 Towards the end of his life the ecstasies became more frequent.他的生命快要結束的狂喜變得更加頻繁。 On one occasion, at Naples in 1273, after he had completed his treatise on the Eucharist, three of the brethren saw him lifted in ecstasy, and they heard a voice proceeding from the crucifix on the altar, saying "Thou hast written well of me, Thomas; what reward wilt thou have?"有一次,在那不勒斯在1273年,他完成了他的論文後對聖體聖事,三弟兄們看到他在狂喜中取消,並繼續從十字架的祭壇上,他們聽到一個聲音,說:“你所寫的我,托馬斯,有什麼賞賜枯萎,你有嗎?“ Thomas replied, "None other than Thyself, Lord" (Prümmer, op. cit., p. 38).托馬斯回答說:“不是別人,你自己,沒有別的上帝”(prümmer,前引書,第38頁前引書,頁38)。 Similar declarations are said to have been made at Orvieto and at Paris.類似的聲明,稱已在奧維多和巴黎。

On 6 December, 1273, he laid aside his pen and would write no more. 1273年12月6日,他放下他的筆,會寫,沒有更多。 That day he experienced an unusually long ecstasy during Mass; what was revealed to him we can only surmise from his reply to Father Reginald, who urged him to continue his writings: "I can do no more. Such secrets have been revealed to me that all I have written now appears to be of little value" (modica, Prümmer, op. cit., p. 43).那一天,他經歷了一個不尋常的長期忘我期間群眾向他透露什麼,我們只能猜測他的回答父親雷金納德,誰勸他繼續他的著作:“我可以做到的。這些秘密已經透露給我,我已經寫了,現在看來是沒有什麼價值“(莫迪卡prümmer,前引書,第38頁前引書,頁43)。 The "Summa theologica" had been completed only as far as the ninetieth question of the third part (De partibus poenitentiae). “神學大全”已經完成,只就問題的第三部分(德partibus poenitentiae)的90。

Thomas began his immediate preparation for death.托馬斯立即準備開始了他的死亡。 Gregory X, having convoked a general council, to open at Lyons on 1 May, 1274, invited St. Thomas and St. Bonaventure to take part in the deliberations, commanding the former to bring to the council his treatise "Contra errores Graecorum" (Against the Errors of the Greeks).格雷戈里X,召集總理事會,在里昂1 5月,1274年,聖托馬斯和聖文德邀請參加審議,指揮帶來理事會他的論文的“魂斗羅errores Graecorum”的(反對錯誤的希臘人)。 He tried to obey, setting out on foot in January, 1274, but strength failed him; he fell to the ground near Terracina, whence he was conducted to the Castle of Maienza, the home of his niece the Countess Francesca Ceccano.他試圖服從,腳,1274年1月,但強度沒有他,他倒在附近的地面泰拉奇納,從哪裡來,他是馬延扎,住所,他的侄女家的伯爵夫人弗朗西斯Ceccano的城堡。 The Cistercian monks of Fossa Nuova pressed him to accept their hospitality, and he was conveyed to their monastery, on entering which he whispered to his companion: "This is my rest for ever and ever: here will I dwell, for I have chosen it" (Psalm 131:14).該修道院的僧侶窩Nuova的追問他接受他們的熱情好客,而且他轉達了自己的修道院,在進入他低聲對他的同伴:“這是我的休息,直到永永遠遠:在這裡,我住,我選擇了它“(詩131:14)。 When Father Reginald urged him to remain at the castle, the saint replied: "If the Lord wishes to take me away, it is better that I be found in a religious house than in the dwelling of a lay person."當父親Reginald勸他留在城堡,聖回答說:“如果上帝願意帶我離開,這是更好的,我被發現在一個宗教房子比一個非專業人士的住宅。” The Cistercians were so kind and attentive that Thomas's humility was alarmed.在熙熱情周到,托馬斯的謙卑感到震驚。 "Whence comes this honour", he exclaimed, "that servants of God should carry wood for my fire!" “從何而來這一榮譽”,他大聲說,“神的僕人應該進行木材為我火!” At the urgent request of the monks he dictated a brief commentary on the Canticle of Canticles.頌歌的Canticles的迫切要求的僧人,他決定一個簡短的評論。

The end was near; extreme unction was administered.到底是接近臨終管理。 When the Sacred Viaticum was brought into the room he pronounced the following act of faith:當神聖的Viaticum帶進房間內,他的突出以下行為的信仰:

If in this world there be any knowledge of this sacrament stronger than that of faith, I wish now to use it in affirming that I firmly believe and know as certain that Jesus Christ, True God and True Man, Son of God and Son of the Virgin Mary, is in this Sacrament .如果在這個世界上有任何知識,這聖餐強的信心,我現在想使用它的肯定,我堅定地相信和知道某些的真神耶穌基督,和真正的男人,上帝的兒子和兒子的聖母瑪利亞,是在這聖事。 . . I receive Thee, the price of my redemption, for Whose love I have watched, studied, and laboured.我接受你的,我的救贖,為他們的愛情,我都看過,研究,勞動的價格。 Thee have I preached; Thee have I taught.你有我講,你有我教了。 Never have I said anything against Thee: if anything was not well said, that is to be attributed to my ignorance.我從來沒有說過任何對祢:如果有什麼是不能說得好,就是要歸功於我的無知。 Neither do I wish to be obstinate in my opinions, but if I have written anything erroneous concerning this sacrament or other matters, I submit all to the judgment and correction of the Holy Roman Church, in whose obedience I now pass from this life.我也不希望被固執的在我的意見,但如果我寫了任何錯誤的有關聖餐或其他事項,我提交的神聖羅馬教會的判斷和修正,在其服從我現在通過從這個生活。

He died on 7 March, 1274.他於1274年3月7日去世。 Numerous miracles attested his sanctity, and he was canonized by John XXII, 18 July, 1323.無數的奇蹟證明了他的尊嚴,他被冊封約翰二十二,1323年7月18日。 The monks of Fossa Nuova were anxious to keep his sacred remains, but by order of Urban V the body was given to his Dominican brethren, and was solemnly translated to the Dominican church at Toulouse, 28 January, 1369.僧侶窩Nuova的渴望保住自己的神聖的遺骸,但順序市區五的屍體被交給他的多米尼加弟兄們,並鄭重地轉換為多米尼加教堂在圖盧茲,1369年1月28日。 A magnificent shrine erected in 1628 was destroyed during the French Revolution, and the body was removed to the Church of St. Sernin, where it now reposes in a sarcophagus of gold and silver, which was solemnly blessed by Cardinal Desprez on 24 July, 1878.一個宏偉的神殿建於1628年,在法國大革命期間被摧毀,身體被刪除Sernin旅遊街,它現在寄託在一個石棺的黃金和白銀,1878年,由樞機主教Desprez 7月24日隆重祝福的教會。 The chief bone of his left arm is preserved in the cathedral of Naples.他的左胳膊被保存在那不勒斯大教堂的長骨。 The right arm, bestowed on the University of Paris, and originally kept in the St. Thomas's Chapel of the Dominican church, is now preserved in the Dominican Church of S. Maria Sopra Minerva in Rome, whither it was transferred during the French Revolution.右手臂,賦予巴黎大學,原本保存在聖托馬斯教堂的多米尼加教堂,現在被保存在多米尼加教堂的S.瑪麗亞Sopra的密涅瓦在羅馬,往那裡去。在法國大革命期間被轉移。 A description of the saint as he appeared in life is given by Calo (Prümmer, op. cit., p. 401), who says that his features corresponded with the greatness of his soul.卡洛(prümmer,前引書,第38頁前引書,頁401)是聖人,因為他的描述出現在生活中,他說,他的特徵相符,與偉大的,他的靈魂。 He was of lofty stature and of heavy build, but straight and well proportioned.他的崇高的地位和重磅打造,但直勻稱。 His complexion was "like the colour of new wheat": his head was large and well shaped, and he was slightly bald.他的臉色是“喜歡什麼顏色的小麥新品種”:他的頭又大又漂亮的形狀,和他微禿的。 All portraits represent him as noble, meditative, gentle yet strong.所有畫像代表他的高貴,冥想,溫和而強大的。 St. Pius V proclaimed St. Thomas a Doctor of the Universal Church in the year 1567.聖庇護五世宣布聖托馬斯普世教會在今年1567博士學位。 In the Encyclical "Aeterni Patris", of 4 August, 1879, on the restoration of Christian philosophy, Leo XIII declared him "the prince and master of all Scholastic doctors". 1879年8月在通諭“aeterni祖國報”,4日,恢復的基督教哲學,利奧十三世宣布他為“王子和碩士的所有學業醫生”。 The same illustrious pontiff, by a Brief dated 4 August, 1880, designated him patron of all Catholic universities, academies, colleges, and schools throughout the world.同樣傑出的教宗,簡要月4日的8月,1880年,指定他的贊助人所有天主教大學,學院,大學,和世界各地的學校。


Although St. Thomas lived less than fifty years, he composed more than sixty works, some of them brief, some very lengthy.雖然聖托馬斯住了不到50年,他創作了60多件作品,其中有些人簡單地說,一些非常漫長的。 This does not necessarily mean that every word in the authentic works was written by his hand; he was assisted by secretaries, and biographers assure us that he could dictate to several scribes at the same time.這並不意味著每一個字的真跡是由他的手,他是協助書記,和傳記作者向我們保證,他可以支配的幾個文士在相同的時間。 Other works, some of which were composed by his disciples, have been falsely attributed to him.其他作品,其中有些是由他的弟子,被錯誤地歸因於他。

In the "Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum" (Paris, 1719) Fr.在的“Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum”(巴黎,1719)神父。 Echard devotes eighty-six folio pages to St. Thomas's works, the different editions and translations (I, pp. 282-348).埃沙爾投入86對開頁聖托馬斯的作品,不同的版本和翻譯(I,頁282​​-348)。 Touron (op. cit., pp. 69 sqq.) says that manuscript copies were found in nearly all the libraries of Europe, and that, after the invention of printing, copies were multiplied rapidly in Germany, Italy, and France, portions of the "Summa theologica" being one of the first important works printed. Touron(同上,第69頁SQQ。)說,手抄本中發現,幾乎所有歐洲的圖書館,及後,印刷術的發明,副本分別乘以迅速在德國,意大利,法國,部分“神學大全”是印刷的第一個重要的作品之一。 Peter Schöffer, a printer of Mainz, published the "Secunda Secundae" in 1467.彼得Schöffer,美因茨的打印機,於1467年出版的“塞康達Secundae”。 This is the first known printed copy of any work of St. Thomas.這是第一個已知的印刷複製任何工作的聖托馬斯。 The first complete edition of the "Summa" was printed at Basle, in 1485.印在巴塞爾,在1485年的第一個完整版的“總結”。 Many other editions of this and of other works were published in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, especially at Venice and at Lyons.許多其他版本的,這和其他的作品被刊登在十六,十七世紀,特別是在威尼斯,並在里昂。 The principal editions of all the work (Opera Omnia) were published as follows: Rome, 1570; Venice, 1594, 1612, 1745; Antwerp, 1612; Paris, 1660, 1871-80 (Vives); Parma, 1852-73; Rome, 1882 (the Leonine).公佈如下:羅馬,1570年,威尼斯,1594年,1612年,1745安特衛普,1612;巴黎,1660年,1871至1880年(比韋斯);帕爾馬,1852年至1873年,羅馬的主要版本的所有工作(歌劇的Omnia) ,1882年(在leonine)。 The Roman edition of 1570, called "the Piana", because edited by order of St. Pius V, was the standard for many years.羅馬出版的1570年,被稱為“Piana”,,因為聖庇護五世的命令編輯多年,是標準的。 Besides a carefully revised text it contained the commentaries of Cardinal Cajetan and the valuable "Tabula Aurea" of Peter of Bergamo.除了精心修改的文本,它包含樞機cajetan和有價值的的“白板金葉”彼得的貝加莫的評論。 The Venetian edition of 1612 was highly prized because the text was accompanied by the Cajetan-Porrecta commentaries .威尼斯版1612如獲至寶,因為該文本是伴隨著的聖卡傑坦Porrecta評論。 . . . The Leonine edition, begun under the patronage of Leo XIII, now continued under the master general of the Dominicans, undoubtedly will be the most perfect of all. leonine版,現在的利奧十三世的贊助下,開始繼續下掌握一般的多米尼加,無疑將是最完美的。 Critical dissertations on each work will be given, the text will be carefully revised, and all references will be verified.關鍵論文,每個工作會,將仔細修改文本,將驗證所有引用。 By direction of Leo XIII (Motu Proprio, 18 Jan., 1880) the "Summa contra gentiles" will be published with the commentaries of Sylvester Ferrariensis, whilst the commentaries of Cajetan go with the "Summa theologica".方向利奧十三世(的莫圖PROPRIO,1880年1月18日),“總結禁忌異教徒”將出版與西爾維斯特Ferrariensis的評注,而在的評論,聖卡傑坦去的“神學大全”。

The latter has been published, being volumes IV-XII of the edition (last in 1906).後者已經公佈,卷IV-12的版本(最後一次在1906年)。 St. Thomas's works may be classified as philosophical, theological, scriptural, and apologetic, or controversial.聖托馬斯的作品可分為哲學,神學,聖經,和歉意,或有爭議的。 The division, however, cannot always be rigidly maintained. ,然而,該部門不能總是牢固地保持下去。 The "Summa theologica", eg, contains much that is philosophical, whilst the "Summa contra gentiles" is principally, but not exclusively, philosophical and apologetic. “神學大全”,例如,包含了許多哲學,而“總結禁忌外邦人”是主要的,但不完全是,哲學和歉意。 His philosophical works are chiefly commentaries on Aristotle, and his first important theological writings were commentaries on Peter Lombard's four books of "Sentences"; but he does not slavishly follow either the Philosopher or the Master of the Sentences (on opinions of the Lombard rejected by theologians, see Migne, 1841, edition of the "Summa" I, p. 451).他的哲學著作主要是評論,亞里士多德,他的第一個重要的神學著作評論彼得·倫巴第的4書籍的“刑期”,但他並沒有盲目跟隨任一的哲學家或在主的句子(上意見的倫巴第拒絕通過神學家,見:米涅1841年版的“總結”I,第451頁)。


Amongst the works wherein St. Thomas's own mind and method are shown, the following deserve special mention:當中的作品,其中聖托馬斯自己的態度和方法,以下特別值得一提:

(1) "Quaestiones disputatae" (Disputed Questions) -- These were more complete treatises on subjects that had not been fully elucidated in the lecture halls, or concerning which the professor's opinion had been sought. (1)的“Quaestiones disputatae”(有爭議的問題) - 這是更完整的論文的主題演講廳尚未完全闡明,或有關教授的意見已要求。 They are very valuable, because in them the author, free from limitations as to time or space, freely expresses his mind and gives all arguments for or against the opinions adopted.他們是非常有價值的,因為在他們的作者,從時間或空間的限制,自由地表達了他的想法,給所有贊成或反對的意見採納。 These treatises, containing the questions "De potentia", "De malo", "De spirit. creaturis", "De anima", "De unione Verbi Incarnati", "De virt. in communi", "De caritate", "De corr. fraterna", "De spe", "De virt. cardinal.", "De veritate", were often reprinted, eg recently by the Association of St. Paul (2 vols., Paris and Fribourg, Switzerland, 1883).這些論文,其中包含的問題,“潛在”,“德聯絡辦公室”,“精神。creaturis”,“阿妮瑪”,“德中左翼聯盟Verbi Incarnati”,“德VIRT。通訊”,“德caritate”,“德修正fraterna“,”SPE“,”VIRT。大是大非“,”veritate“,經常被重印,例如最近由協會聖保羅(2卷,巴黎和弗里堡,瑞士,1883年)。

(2) "Quodlibeta" (may be rendered "Various Subjects", or "Free Discussions") -- They present questions or arguments proposed and answers given in or outside the lecture halls, chiefly in the more formal Scholastic exercises, termed circuli, conclusiones, or determinationes, which were held once or twice a year. (2)“Quodlibeta”(可呈現各種主題“,或”自由討論“) - 他們目前的問題或提出的論點,給出的答案或區外演講廳,主要是在較正式的學術練習稱為circuli的, CONCLUSIONES,或determinationes,這是一年舉行一次或兩次。

(3) "De unitate intellectus contra Averroistas" -- This opusculum refuted a very dangerous and widespread error, viz., that there was but one soul for all men, a theory which did away with individual liberty and responsibility. (3)的“德unitate智洋禁忌Averroistas” - 這小品駁斥了非常危險的,普遍的錯誤,即,,有,但一個靈魂,為所有的人,一個理論,擺脫個人自由和責任。 (See AVERROES) (見AVERROES)

(4) "Commentaria in Libros Sententiarum" (mentioned above) -- This with the following work are the immediate forerunners of the "Summa theologica". (4)“Commentaria”在LIBROS Sententiarum(上面提到的) - 這與下面的工作是“神學大全”的直接先驅。

(5) "Summa de veritate catholicae fidei contra gentiles" (Treatise on the Truth of the Catholic Faith, against Unbelievers) -- This work, written at Rome, 1261-64, was composed at the request of St. Raymond of Pennafort, who desired to have a philosophical exposition and defence of the Christian Faith, to be used against the Jews and Moors in Spain. (5)“總結veritate catholicae信禁忌外邦人”(傷寒論信仰天主教的真理,對非信徒) - 這項工作,寫在羅馬,1 261年至1 264年,由在彭納福特聖雷蒙德的要求,他們希望有一個哲學的論述和防禦的基督教信仰,被用來對付猶太人和摩爾人在西班牙。 It is a perfect model of patient and sound apologetics, showing that no demonstrated truth (science) is opposed to revealed truth (faith).這是一個完美的模型的病人和聲音的辯護,沒有證明是真理(科學)反對揭示的真理(信仰)。 The best recent editions are those of Rome, 1878 (by Uccelli), of Paris and Fribourg, Switzerland, 1882, and of Rome, 1894.最新版本的羅馬,1878年(烏切利),巴黎​​和瑞士弗里堡,1882年,羅馬,1894年。 It has been translated into many languages.它已被翻譯成多國語言。 It is divided into four books: I. Of God as He is in Himself; II.它分為四本書:一上帝,因為他是在自己的II。 Of God the Origin of Creatures; III.上帝的起源,生物的; III。 Of God the End of Creatures; IV.神生物的結束。 Of God in His Revelation.神在他的啟示。 It is worthy of remark that the Fathers of the Vatican Council, treating the necessity of revelation (Constitution "Dei Filius", c. 2), employed almost the very words used by St. Thomas in treating that subject in this work (I, cc. iv, V), and in the "Summa theologica" (I:1:1).它是值得的言論,父親的梵蒂岡理事會,治療的必要性的啟示(憲法“台達電子Filius”。2),就業幾乎是在對待這一問題,在這項工作中非常用字,由聖托馬斯(I,立方厘米。四,V),並在“總結theologica”(I:1:1)。

(6) Three works written by order of Urban IV -- (6)三個工程的書面順序市區四 -

The "Opusculum contra errores Graecorum" refuted the errors of the Greeks on doctrines in dispute between them and the Roman Church, viz., the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father and the Son, the primacy of the Roman pontiff, the Holy Eucharist, and purgatory. “小品潮水errores Graecorum”的批駁錯誤的希臘人教義的爭議和它們之間的羅馬教會,即,遊行的聖靈從父和子,羅馬教皇的首要地位,聖體聖事和煉獄。 It was used against the Greeks with telling effect in the Council of Lyons (1274) and in the Council of Florence (1493).它被用來反對希臘人告訴效果理事會萊昂斯(1274)和安理會的佛羅倫薩(1493)。 In the range of human reasonings on deep subjects there can be found nothing to surpass the sublimity and depth of the argument adduced by St. Thomas to prove that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son (cf. Summa I:36:2); but it must be borne in mind that our Faith is not based on that argument alone.在人類推理深科目的範圍內,可以找到沒有聖托馬斯援引的論據,證明超越的崇高和深度,聖靈的收益來自父親和兒子(參見總結我:36:2 ),但它必須牢記的是,我們的信仰不是基於這樣的說法孤獨。

"Officium de festo Corporis Christi". “Officium費斯托股癬基督”。 Mandonnet (Ecrits, p. 127) declares that it is now established beyond doubt that St. Thomas is the author of the beautiful Office of Corpus Christi, in which solid doctrine, tender piety, and enlightening Scriptural citations are combined, and expressed in language remarkably accurate, beautiful, chaste, and poetic.芒多(Ecrits,第127頁)宣布,它現在毫無疑問,聖·托馬斯是作者的美麗辦公室的科珀斯克里斯蒂,在堅實的理論,招標虔誠和啟發聖經引文相結合,建立和語言表達非常準確,美麗,純潔,富有詩意。 Here we find the well-known hymns, "Sacris Solemniis", "Pange Lingua" (concluding in the "Tantum Ergo"), "Verbum Supernum" (concluding with the "O Salutaris Hostia") and, in the Mass, the beautiful sequence "Lauda Sion".在這裡,我們找到了著名的讚美詩,“Sacris Solemniis”,“胖哥Lingua的”(結束“Tantum ERGO”),“拉丁文字語言Supernum”(結論與的“O Salutaris Hostia”),在大眾,美麗的序列“勞達錫安”。 In the responses of the office, St. Thomas places side by side words of the New Testament affirming the real presence of Christ in the Blessed Sacrament and texts from the Old Testament referring to the types and figures of the Eucharist.在辦公室的反應,聖托馬斯側側新約聖經的話,肯定真實存在的基督聖體聖事和文本,從舊約聖經提到的類型和數字的聖體聖事的。 Santeuil, a poet of the seventeenth century, said he would give all the verses he had written for the one stanza of the "Verbum Supernum": "Se nascens dedit socium, convescens in edulium: Se moriens in pretium, Se regnans dat in praemium" -- "In birth, man's fellow-man was He, His meat, while sitting at the Board: He died his Ransomer to be, He reigns to be his Great Reward" (tr. by Marquis of Bute). Santeuil,在十七世紀詩人說,他將給所有的小詩,他曾寫了一節的“拉丁文字語言Supernum”:“硒nascens D編輯socium,convescens在edulium:硒moriens的Pretium,硒regnans的數據在praemium “ - ”出生,人的同胞的人是他,他的肉,而坐在董事會,他死於他的ansomer來,他到處被他的偉大的獎賞“(編輯部由侯爵的弼)。 Perhaps the gem of the whole office is the antiphon "O Sacrum Convivium" (cf. Conway, "St. Thomas Aquinas", London and New York, 1911, p. 61).也許創業板的整個辦公室的對唱“O骶骨Convivium的”(參見康威,“聖托馬斯阿奎那”,倫敦和紐約,1911年,頁61)。

The "Catena Aurea", though not as original as his other writings, furnishes a striking proof of St. Thomas's prodigious memory and manifests an intimate acquaintance with the Fathers of the Church. “卡泰納金葉”,雖然不及原來作為他的其他著作,提供了一條驚人的證據的聖托馬斯的驚人記憶,體現了一個親切的熟人與父親的教會。 The work contains a series of passages selected from the writings of the various Fathers, arranged in such order that the texts cited form a running commentary on the Gospels.這項工作包含了一系列的通道選擇的各種教父的著作,安排在該命令的文本引用,形成一個評論的福音。 The commentary on St. Matthew was dedicated to Urban IV.專門到市區四聖馬太的評注。 An English translation of the "Catena Aurea" was edited by John Henry Newman (4 vols., Oxford, 1841-1845; see Vaughan, op. cit., vol. II,) pp. 529 sqq..的英文翻譯“卡泰納金葉”編輯約翰·亨利·紐曼(4卷,牛津大學,1841-1845;沃恩,同上引書,第II)第529 SQQ ..

(7) The "Summa theologica"-- This work immortalized St. Thomas. (7)“神學大全” - 聖托馬斯這項工作永生。 The author himself modestly considered it simply a manual of Christian doctrine for the use of students.筆者本人謙虛地認為它只是一本手冊基督教教義的學生使用。 In reality it is a complete scientifically arranged exposition of theology and at the same time a summary of Christian philosophy (see SUMMÆ).在現實中,它是一個完整的科學安排闡述的神學和基督教哲學(見SUMMÆ)的一個概要的同時。 In the brief prologue St. Thomas first calls attention to the difficulties experienced by students of sacred doctrine in his day, the causes assigned being: the multiplication of useless questions, articles, and arguments; the lack of scientific order; frequent repetitions, "which beget disgust and confusion in the minds of learners".在簡短的開場白聖托馬斯首先提請注意的神聖教義,在他那個時代的學生所遇到的困難,其原因正在分派:無用的問題,和參數;缺乏科學有序,頻繁重複的乘法“招致反感和學習者的頭腦中的混亂“。 Then he adds: "Wishing to avoid these and similar drawbacks, we shall endeavour, confiding in the Divine assistance, to treat of these things that pertain to sacred doctrine with brevity and clearness, in so far as the subject to he treated will permit."然後,他補充說:“為了避免這些和其他類似的缺點,我們應努力在神聖的援助,傾訴,處理這些事情,涉及到神聖的學說與簡潔清晰,至今此事向他處理將允許。 “

In the introductory question, "On Sacred Doctrine", he proves that, besides the knowledge which reason affords, Revelation also is necessary for salvation first, because without it men could not know the supenatural end to which they must tend by their voluntary acts; secondly, because, without Revelation, even the truths concerning God which could be proved by reason would be known "only by a few, after a long time, and with the admixture of many errors".在介紹性的問題,“神聖教義”,他證明了,除了其中的原因給予的知識,救恩第一“啟示錄”又是必要的,因為如果沒有它人不能知道的supenatural結束,他們往往要由他們自願的行為;其次,因為沒有啟示,關於上帝的真理可以證明的原因,被稱為“只由少數幾個,很長一段時間後,與外加劑的許多錯誤”。 When revealed truths have been accepted, the mind of man proceeds to explain them and to draw conclusions from them.揭示真理已被接受,解釋心中的人的收益,並從中得出結論。 Hence results theology, which is a science, because it proceeds from principles that are certain (Answer 2).因此,導致神學,它是一門科學,因為它從一定的原則是(答案2)。 The object, or subject, of this science is God; other things are treated in it only in so far as they relate to God (Answer 7).這門科學的對象,或課題,是神;其他事情處理,它只是在這麼遠,因為它們與神(答案)。 Reason is used in theology not to prove the truths of faith, which are accepted on the authority of God, but to defend, explain, and develop the doctrines revealed (Answer 8).原因是用在神學,不是為了證明真理的信仰,接受神的權柄,而是要捍衛,解釋,並發展理論揭示了(答案)。 He thus announces the division of the "Summa": "Since the chief aim of this sacred science is to give the knowledge of God, not only as He is in Himself, but also as He is the Beginning of all things, and the End of all, especially of rational creatures, we shall treat first of God; secondly, of the rational creature's advance towards God (de motu creaturae rationalis in Deum); thirdly, of Christ, Who, as Man, is the way by which we tend to God."因此,他宣布該部門的“總結”:“既然這個神聖的科學的主要目的是給神的知識,不僅是因為他是自己的,但也因為他是一切事物的開始,結束,尤其是理性的動物,我們對待神的第一,第二,的理性生物的提前對神的(DE MOTU creaturae rationalis在讚美頌);第三,基督,誰,作為人,是的方式,其中我們往往神。“ God in Himself, and as He is the Creator; God as the End of all things, especially of man; God as the Redeemer -- these are the leading ideas, the great headings, under which all that pertains to theology is contained.在自己的神,他是造物主,上帝作為結束所有的東西,尤其是男子,上帝為救贖 - 這些都是領導的想法,大標題下,所有涉及到神學中包含。

(a) Sub-divisions (一)分處

The First Part is divided into three tracts:第一部分是分為三個域:

On those things which pertain to the Essence of God;在那些事情,涉及到上帝的本質;

On the distinction of Persons in God (the mystery of the Trinity);人在上帝的區別(神秘的三位一體);

On the production of creatures by God and on the creatures produced.在神所生產的生物和生產的生物。

The Second Part, On God as He is in the End of man, is sometimes called the Moral Theology of St. Thomas, ie, his treatise on the end of man and on human acts.第二部分,關於上帝,因為他是在去年底的男子,有時也被稱為道德神學的聖托馬斯,即人的目的和對人的行為,他的論文。 It is subdivided into two parts, known as the First Section of the Second (I-II, or 1a 2ae) and the Second of the Second (II-II, or 2a 2ae).它分為兩部分,被稱為第一部第二次(I-II,或1a 2AE)和第二屆第二次(II-II,或2a 2AE)。

The First of the Second.第一,第二。 The first five questions are devoted to proving that man's last end, his beatitude, consists in the possession of God.前五個問題,現致力於證明該男子去年年底,他樂的,在神藏。 Man attains to that end or deviates from it by human acts, ie by free, deliberate acts.男子能達到這一目的,或偏離了它的人的行為,即免費的,蓄意行為。 Of human acts he treats, first, in general (in all but the first five questions of the I-II), secondly, in particular (in the whole of the II-II).第一,人的行為,他將一般(但在所有的I-II的前五個問題),其次,在特定的(在整個的II-II)。 The treatise on human acts in general is divided into two parts: the first, on human acts in themselves; the other, on the principles or causes, extrinsic or intrinsic, of those acts.該論文對人的行為一般分為兩部分:第一,對人的行為本身,其他的,外在或內在的原則和原因,這些行為。 In these tracts and in the Second of the Second, St. Thomas, following Aristotle, gives a perfect description and a wonderfully keen analysis of the movements of man's mind and heart.在這些傳單,並在第二次的二,聖托馬斯,繼亞里士多德,給出了一個完美的人的頭腦和心臟的運動描述和奇妙的敏銳分析。

The Second of the Second considers human acts, ie, the virtues and vices, in particular.第二屆第二次認為人的行為,即優點和缺點,尤其如此。 In it St. Thomas treats, first, of those things that pertain to all men, no matter what may be their station in life, and, secondly, of those things that pertain to some men only.在聖托馬斯待人,首先,這些事情,涉及到所有的人,不管是什麼可能是他們在生活中站,並且,其次,這些事情涉及到一些男性只。 Things that pertain to all men are reduced to seven headings: Faith, Hope, and Charity; Prudence, Justice, Fortitude, and Temperance.事情涉及到所有的人都減少了七個標題:信仰,希望和慈善事業;謹慎,正義,堅韌,節制。 Under each title, in order to avoid repetitions, St. Thomas treats not only of the virtue itself, but also of the vices opposed to it, of the commandment to practise it, and of the gift of the Holy Ghost which corresponds to it.在每個標題下,為了避免重複,聖托馬斯待人不僅本身的美德,但也反對它的惡習,誡執業,並聖靈的恩賜,其對應的。 Things pertaining to some men only are reduced to three headings: the graces freely given (gratia gratis datae) to certain individuals for the good of the Church, such as the gifts of tongues, of prophecy, of miracles; the active and the contemplative life; the particular states of life, and duties of those who are in different states, especially bishops and religious.有些男人的事只減少到三個項目:青睞自由給定(特惠無償datae)的某些個人,良好的教會,如禮品的舌頭,預言,奇蹟,主動和沉思的生活特定國家的生活,和那些誰是在不同的國家,特別是主教和宗教的職責。

The Third Part treats of Christ and of the benefits which He has conferred upon man, hence three tracts: On the Incarnation, and on what the Saviour did and suffered; On the Sacraments, which were instituted by Christ, and have their efficacy from His merits and sufferings; On Eternal Life, ie, on the end of the world, the resurrection of bodies, judgment, the punishment of the wicked, the happiness of the just who, through Christ, attain to eternal life in heaven.第三部分,待人基督和好處,而他賦予人,因此,三個域:在化身,和以什麼救世主,並沒有遭受的聖禮,這宗是由基督,也有其功效,從他的優點和痛苦;永生,即,在年底的世界,身體的復活,審判,懲罰惡人,幸福的究竟是誰,通過基督,達到永遠生活在天堂。

Eight years were given to the composition of this work, which was begun at Rome, where the First Part and the First of the Second were written (1265-69). 8年這項工作,開始了在羅馬,在那裡寫的第一部分和第一,第二(1265年至1269年)的組成。 The Second of the Second, begun in Rome, was completed in Paris (1271).二二,開始在羅馬,在巴黎(1271年)完成。 In 1272 St. Thomas went to Naples, where the Third Part was written, down to the ninetieth question of the tract On Penance (see Leonine edition, I, p. xlii).在1272年,聖托馬斯去那不勒斯,第三部分是,下至九十的問題的對懺悔道(看,我leonine版,頁四十二)。 The work has been completed by the addition of a supplement, drawn from other writings of St. Thomas, attributed by some to Peter of Auvergne, by others to Henry of Gorkum.已經完成的工作的一個補充,通過添加來自其他著作的聖托馬斯,,彼得的奧弗涅(Auvergne),歸因於一些別人亨利Gorkum。 These attributions are rejected by the editors of the Leonine edition (XI, pp. viii, xiv, xviii).這些歸因被拒絕的leonine版的編輯(XI-八,十四,十八)。 Mandonnet (op. cit., 153) inclines to the very probable opinion that it was compiled by Father Reginald de Piperno, the saint's faithful companion and secretary.芒多(同上,153)傾向很可能認為它在編譯時由父親Reginald德Piperno,聖人的忠實伴侶和秘書。

The entire "Summa" contains 38 Treatises, 612 Questions, subdivided into 3120 articles, in which about 10,000 objections are proposed and answered.整個“大全”包含38個論​​文,612個問題,細分為3120條,其中約10000提出異議,並回答了。 So admirably is the promised order preserved that, by reference to the beginning of the Tracts and Questions, one can see at a glance what place it occupies in the general plan, which embraces all that can be known through theology of God, of man, and of their mutual relations .令人欽佩的是所承諾的順序保存,參考的開始的大港和問題的,一看便知什麼地方,它佔據總體規劃,其中包括所有可以通過對上帝的男人,以及它們之間的相互關係。 . . "The whole Summa is arranged on a uniform plan. Every subject is introduced as a question, and divided into articles. . . . Each article has also a uniform disposition of parts. The topic is introduced as an inquiry for discussion, under the term Utrum, whether -- eg Utrum Deus sit? The objections against the proposed thesis are then stated. These are generally three or four in number, but sometimes extend to seven or more. The conclusion adopted is then introduced by the words, Respondeo dicendum. At the end of the thesis expounded the objections are answered, under the forms, ad primum, ad secundum, etc." “整個總結,是一個統一的計劃安排,每一個主題,介紹了作為一個問題,並分為文章......每一篇文章也有一個統一的處置部分的主題介紹,作為討論的詢盤,下學期Utrum,是否 - 例如Utrum殺出坐嗎?建議論文的反對,然後說,這是一般三個或四個數字,但有時延長到7個或更多的話,Respondeo dicendum。採用的結論,然後介紹。在年底的論文闡述了反對意見的形式,原發孔,繼發孔型,等下回答,“ . . . . The "Summa" is Christian doctrine in scientific form; it is human reason rendering its highest service in defence and explanation of the truths of the Christian religion. “大全”是基督教的教義在科學的形式呈現其最高服務於國防和解釋的真理,基督教,它是人類理性。 It is the answer of the matured and saintly doctor to the question of his youth: What is God?它的成熟和聖潔的醫生,他的青年問題的答案是:上帝是什麼? Revelation, made known in the Scriptures and by tradition; reason and its best results; soundness and fulness of doctrine, order, conciseness and clearness of expression, effacement of self, the love of truth alone, hence a remarkable fairness towards adversaries and calmness in combating their errors; soberness and soundness of judgment, together with a charmingly tender and enlightened piety -- these are all found in this "Summa" more than in his other writings, more than in the writings of his contemporaries, for "among the Scholastic doctors, the chief and master of all, towers Thomas Aquinas, who, as Cajetan observes (In 2am 2ae, Q. 148, a. 4) 'because he most venerated the ancient doctors of the Church in a certain way seems to have inherited the intellect of all'" (Encyclical, "Aeterni Patris", of Leo XIII).啟示,知道在經典和傳統的原因和其最好的結果;學說的合理性和豐滿度,秩序,簡潔和清晰的表達,自我抹殺的,對真理的熱愛孤獨,因此顯著,對對手的公平性和冷靜,在打擊他們的錯誤;清醒和穩健的​​判斷,連同一個特色,招標和開明的觀念 - 這些都是發現,在這個“總結”,更比他的其他著作,更比他的同時代人的著作中,“其中學業醫生,行政和主塔,托馬斯·阿奎那,誰接cajetan觀察(在凌晨2時2AE,4,問:148)“,因為他最崇敬的古代醫生的教會以某種方式似乎已經繼承智力的一切'“(通諭”,Aeterni祖國報“,利奧十三世)。

(b) Editions and Translations (二)版本和譯本。

It is impossible to mention the various editions of the "Summa", which has been in constant use for more than seven hundred years.這是不可能的,提各種版本的“總結”,這一直是在不斷的使用超過七百多年。 Very few books have been so often republished.書籍很少,所以經常發布。 The first complete edition, printed at Basle in 1485, was soon followed by others, eg, at Venice in 1505, 1509, 1588, 1594; at Lyons in 1520, 1541, 1547, 1548, 1581, 1588, 1624,1655; at Antwerp in 1575.很快就被隨後的第一個完整版,印在巴塞爾在1485年,在威尼斯的人,例如,在1505年,1509年,1588年,1594年,在里昂於1520年,1541年,1547年,1548年,1581年,1588年,1624,1655;安特衛普在1575年。 These are enumerated by Touron (op. cit., p. 692), who says that about the same time other editions were published at Rome, Antwerp, Rouen, Paris, Douai, Cologne, Amsterdam, Bologna, etc. The editors of the Leonine edition deem worthy of mention those published at Paris in 1617, 1638, and 1648, at Lyons in 1663, 1677, and 1686, and a Roman edition of 1773 (IV, pp. xi, xii).這些都是列舉的Touron(同上,頁692),他說,大約在同一時間,其他版本在羅馬,安特衛普,魯昂,巴黎,杜埃,科隆,阿姆斯特丹,博洛尼亞等的編輯出版leonine版認為值得提到在巴黎發表的1617年,1638年和1648年,在里昂,在1663年,1677年和1686和1773年的羅馬版(IV-XI,XII)。 Of all old editions they consider the most accurate two published at Padua, one in 1698, the other in 1712, and the Venice edition of 1755.所有舊版本,他們認為最準確的兩次刊登在帕多瓦,於1698年,在1712年和1755年威尼斯出版。 Of recent editions the best are the following: the Leonine; the Migne editions (Paris, 1841, 1877); the first volume of the 1841 edition containing the "Libri quatuor sententiarum" of Peter Lombard; the very practical Faucher edition (5 vols. small quarto, Paris, 1887), dedicated to Cardinal Pecci, enriched with valuable notes; a Roman edition of 1894.最近的版本,最好的是:在Leonine米涅版本(巴黎,1841年,1877年),第一冊1841版包含的的“利布里QUATUOR sententiarum”彼得倫巴,非常實用faucher的版本(5卷。小四開,巴黎,1887年),致力於以樞機主教Pecci,豐富了寶貴的票據;。羅馬出版的1894年。 The "Summa" has been translated into many modern languages as well. “大全”已被翻譯成許多現代語言。


It is not possible to characterize the method of St. Thomas by one word, unless it can be called eclectic.這是不可能的表徵方法的​​聖托馬斯一個字,除非它可以被稱為折衷的。 It is Aristotelean, Platonic, and Socratic; it is inductive and deductive; it is analytic and synthetic.這是亞里士多德,柏拉圖,蘇格拉底,這是歸納法和演繹,它是分析和綜合。 He chose the best that could he found in those who preceded him, carefully sifting the chaff from the wheat, approving what was true, rejecting the false.他選擇了最好的,他發現在他前面的人,去蕪存菁仔細篩選的小麥,批准什麼是真實,拒絕虛假。 His powers of synthesis were extraordinary.他的力量的合成尋常的。 No writer surpassed him in the faculty of expressing in a few well-chosen words the truth gathered from a multitude of varying and conflicting opinions; and in almost every instance the student sees the truth and is perfectly satisfied with St. Thomas's summary and statement.沒有作家超越了他的老師表達真​​相聚集在幾個精心挑選的話從許多不同的和相互衝突的意見,幾乎在每一個實例的學生認為真理是完全滿意聖托馬斯的總結和陳述。 Not that he would have students swear by the words of a master.不,他不會有學生發誓主的話。 In philosophy, he says, arguments from authority are of secondary importance; philosophy does not consist in knowing what men have said, but in knowing the truth (In I lib. de Coelo, lect. xxii; II Sent., D. xiv, a. 2, ad 1um).在哲學上,他說,爭論從權威是次要的;哲學並不知道什麼男人說,但在知道真相(在I庫。Coelo,LECT。二十二,二派,D.十四, 。2,廣告1微米)。 He assigns its proper place to reason used in theology (see below: Influence of St. Thomas), but he keeps it within its own sphere.他委派了適當的地方,講道理用在神學(見下文:聖托馬斯的影響),但他一直在自己的領域內。 Against the Traditionalists the Holy See has declared that the method used by St. Thomas and St. Bonaventure does not lead to Rationalism (Denzinger-Bannwart, n. 1652).針對傳統的教廷宣布,聖托馬斯和聖文德所使​​用的方法不會導致理性主義(登青格bannwart,12月31日1652 N。1652)。 Not so bold or original in investigating nature as were Albertus Magnus and Roger Bacon, he was, nevertheless, abreast of his time in science, and many of his opinions are of scientific value in the twentieth century.並非如此大膽還是原來的人:Albertus Magnus和羅傑·培根在調查的性質,他是,不過,他在科學的了解,和他的許多意見是,在20世紀的科學價值。 Take, for instance, the following: "In the same plant there is the two-fold virtue, active and passive, though sometimes the active is found in one and the passive in another, so that one plant is said to be masculine and the other feminine" (3 Sent., D. III, Q. ii, a 1). ,例如,下面的:“在同一個廠有兩方面的美德,主動和被動,雖然有時會主動和被動在另一個發現,使一個工廠被說成是男性和其他女性“(3派,D.二,三,問:為1)。

The style of St. Thomas is a medium between the rough expressiveness of some Scholastics and the fastidious elegance of John of Salisbury; it is remarkable for accuracy, brevity, and completeness.聖托馬斯的風格是一個中等之間的粗糙表現的一些scholastics和挑剔的優雅約翰梳士巴利的準確性,簡潔性和完整性,它是顯著的。 Pope Innocent VI (quoted in the Encyclical, "Aeterni Patris", of Leo XIII) declared that, with the exception of the canonical writings, the works of St. Thomas surpass all others in "accuracy of expression and truth of statement" (habet proprietatem verborum, modum dicendorum, veritatem sententiarum).教皇英諾森VI報價在通諭,“Aeterni祖國報”,利奧十三世宣布,與異常的典型著作,聖托馬斯的作品超越所有其他在“準確的表達和陳述事實的”(管轄權proprietatem verborum,modum dicendorum,veritatem sententiarum)。 Great orators, such as Bossuet, Lacordaire, Monsabré, have studied his style, and have been influenced by it, but they could not reproduce it.波舒哀,拉科代爾,Monsabré,如偉大的演說家,他的風格研究,並已受到它的影響,但他們無法重現。 The same is true of theological writers.同樣是真正的神學作家。 Cajetan knew St. Thomas's style better than any of his disciples, but Cajetan is beneath his great master in clearness and accuracy of expression, in soberness and solidity of judgment.聖卡傑坦知道聖托馬斯的風格比他的弟子,,但聖卡傑坦是在他的大師清晰和準確的表達,在清醒和堅固的判斷。 St. Thomas did not attain to this perfection without an effort.聖托馬斯沒有達到這種完美,沒有努力。 He was a singularly blessed genius, but he was also an indefatigable worker, and by continued application he reached that stage of perfection in the art of writing where the art disappears.他是一個奇有福的天才,但他同時也是一個不知疲倦的工作者,並繼續適用於他到達這個階段的完美的藝術,寫作藝術消失。 "The author's manuscript of the Summa Contra Gentiles is still in great part extant. It is now in the Vatican Library. The manuscript consists of strips of parchment, of various shades of colour, contained in an old parchment cover to which they were originally stitched. The writing is in double column, and difficult to decipher, abounding in abbreviations, often passing into a kind of shorthand. Throughout many passages a line is drawn in sign of erasure" (Rickaby, Op. cit., preface: see Ucelli ed., "Sum. cont. gent.", Rome, 1878). “作者的手稿的總結魂斗羅外邦人中很大的一部分現存的,這是現在在梵蒂岡圖書館。該手稿由帶的羊皮紙,各種色調的,一個老羊皮紙蓋到其中,他們被原來縫合中。寫作,是在雙列,難以破譯,並有豐盛的縮寫,往往是進入了一種速記。各地的許多段落畫一條線在簽署的擦除“(RICKABY,前引書,前言:看到於切爾利版,“和連續。紳士。”,羅馬,1878年)。


How was this great genius formed?這個偉大的天才是如何形成的呢? The causes that exerted an influence on St. Thomas were of two kinds, natural and supernatural.施加影響力在聖托馬斯的原因有兩種,自然和超自然的。

A. Natural Causes A.自然原因引起的

(1) As a foundation, he "was a witty child, and had received a good soul" (Wisdom 8:19). (1)為基礎,他是一個機智的孩子,並收到了良好的靈魂“(智8:19)。 From the beginning he manifested precocious and extraordinary talent and thoughtfulness beyond his years.從一開始,他表現出早熟和非凡的才華和體貼超越他的年。

(2) His education was such that great things might have been expected of him. (2)他的教育是偉大的事情可能已對他的期望。 His training at Monte Cassino, at Naples, Paris, and Cologne was the best that the thirteenth century could give, and that century was the golden age of education.他在蒙特卡西諾,在那不勒斯,巴黎和科隆的培訓是最好的,13世紀給那個世紀是教育的黃金時期。 That it afforded excellent opportunities for forming great philosophers and theologians is evident from the character of St. Thomas's contemporaries.這得到了極好的機會,形成偉大的哲學家和神學家,是從聖托馬斯同時代的性格可見一斑。 Alexander of Hales, Albertus Magnus, St. Bonaventure, St. Raymond of Pennafort, Roger Bacon, Hugo a S. Charo, Vincent of Beauvais, not to mention scores of others, prove beyond all doubt that those were days of really great scholars.亞歷山大黑爾斯,Albertus思,聖文德,聖雷蒙彭納福特,羅傑·培根,雨果一S.沙羅,博韋文森特的,更何況幾十人,毫無疑問,那些真正偉大的學者,證明。 (See Walsh, "The Thirteenth, Greatest of Centuries", New York, 1907.) The men who trained St. Thomas were his teachers at Monte Cassino and Naples, but above all Albertus Magnus, under whom he studied at Paris and Cologne. (見沃爾什,“第十三屆,最偉大的世紀”,紐約,1907年)。訓練聖托馬斯在蒙特卡西諾和那不勒斯是他的老師,但最重要的是:Albertus思,下,他就讀於巴黎和科隆的男人。

(3) The books that exercised the greatest influence on his mind were the Bible, the Decrees of the councils and of the popes, the works of the Fathers, Greek and Latin, especially of St. Augustine, the "Sentences" of Peter Lombard, the writings of the philosophers, especially of Plato, Aristotle, and Boethius. (3)書,在他的腦海行使影響力最大的是“聖經”,議會和教皇的法令,作品的父親,希臘文和拉丁文,特別是聖奧古斯丁,“句”彼得倫巴哲學家的著作,特別是柏拉圖,亞里士多德,波伊提烏。 If from these authors any were to be selected for special mention, undoubtedly they would be Aristotle, St. Augustine, and Peter Lombard.如果從這些作者的任何選擇特別提到,毫無疑問,他們將聖奧古斯丁,亞里士多德,和彼得倫巴。 In another sense the writings of St. Thomas were influenced by Averroes, the chief opponent whom he had to combat in order to defend and make known the true Aristotle.在另一種意義上的聖托馬斯的著作阿威羅伊,他的主要對手打擊,以維護和使已知的真正的亞里士多德的影響。

(4) It must be borne in mind that St. Thomas was blessed with a retentive memory and great powers of penetration. (4)必須牢記的是,聖托馬斯是幸運的一個非易失性存儲器和大國的滲透。 Father Daniel d'Agusta once pressed him to say what he considered the greatest grace he had ever received, sanctifying grace of course excepted.父親丹尼爾·德阿古斯塔一旦按下他說什麼,他認為是最偉大的恩典,他曾接受過聖潔的恩典,當然例外。 "I think that of having understood whatever I have read", was the reply. “我認為,在了解什麼我已閱讀”的答复。 St. Antoninus declared that "he remembered everything be had read, so that his mind was like a huge library" (cf. Drane, op. cit., p. 427; Vaughan, op. cit., II, p. 567).聖安東尼宣布說:“他回想起一切都讀了,讓他的心,就像一個巨大的圖書館”(參見杜藍,前引書,頁427;沃恩,同上,II,頁567) 。 The bare enumeration of the texts of Scripture cited in the "Summa theologica" fills eighty small-print columns in the Migne edition, and by many it is not unreasonably supposed that he learned the Sacred Books by heart while he was imprisoned in the Castle of San Giovanni.裸露的引用聖經中的“神學大全”的文本填充列舉了80小印列在的米涅版,很多,這是不是不合理地假定,他學會了神聖的書籍,由心臟,而他被囚禁在城堡聖喬凡尼。 Like St. Dominic he had a special love for the Epistles of St. Paul, on which he wrote commentaries (recent edition in 2 vols., Turin, 1891).聖道明一樣,他有一種特殊的愛的聖保羅的書信,他寫評論文章(最新版本在2 vols。,都靈,1891年)。

(5) Deep reverence for the Faith, as made known by tradition, characterizes all his writings. (5)深的信仰,由傳統的崇敬,他的所有著作的特徵。 The consuetudo ecclesiae -- the practice of the Church -- should prevail over the authority of any doctor (Summa II-II:10:12). consuetudo該書的教會 - 實踐 - 戰勝任何醫生的權威(總結II-II:10:12)。 In the "Summa" he quotes from 19 councils, 41 popes, and 52 Fathers of the Church.在“總結”中,他引用了19個委員會,41個教皇,和52的父親教會。 A slight acquaintance with his writings will show that among the Fathers his favourite was St. Augustine (on the Greek Fathers see Vaughan, op. cit., II, cc. iii sqq.).一個不太熟,他的著作,其中的父親,他最喜歡的是聖奧古斯丁(希臘的父親見沃恩,同上。,II,CC三時12 sqq)。

(6) With St. Augustine (II De doctr. Christ., c. xl), St. Thomas held that whatever there was of truth in the writings of pagan philosophers should be taken from them, as from "unjust possessors", and adapted to the teaching of the true religion (Summa I:84:5). (6)聖奧古斯丁(II德doctr。基督,XL C。),聖托馬斯舉行,無論是真理異教徒的哲學家的著作中,應採取從他們身上,從“不公平的擁有者”,和適應教學的真正的宗教(神學I:84:5)。 In the "Summa" alone he quotes from the writings of 46 philosophers and poets, his favourite authors being Aristotle, Plato, and, among Christian writers, Boethius.在“總結”孤軍奮戰,他引用了46哲學家和詩人的著作,他最喜歡的作家是亞里士多德,柏拉圖,和,其中基督教作家,伯蒂烏斯。 From Aristotle he learned that love of order and accuracy of expression which are characteristic of his own works.從亞里士多德,他才知道,戀愛的順序和準確的表達自己的作品的特點。 From Boethius he learned that Aristotle's works could be used without detriment to Christianity.從伯蒂烏斯,他了解到亞里士多德的作品,可以不使用損害了基督教。 He did not follow Boethius in his vain attempt to reconcile Plato and Aristotle.他沒有按照伯蒂烏斯的在他妄圖調和柏拉圖和亞里士多德。 In general the Stagirite was his master, but the elevation and grandeur of St. Thomas's conceptions and the majestic dignity of his methods of treatment speak strongly of the sublime Plato.在一般情況下Stagirite是他的師父,但,發言強烈的崇高柏拉圖的高程及宏偉的聖托馬斯的觀念和雄壯的尊嚴,他的治療方法。

B. Supernatural Causes B.超自然的原因

Even if we do not accept as literally true the declaration of John XXII, that St. Thomas wrought as many miracles as there are articles in the "Summa", we must, nevertheless, go beyond causes merely natural in attempting to explain his extraordinary career and wonderful writings.即使我們不接受,因為從字面上真實約翰二十二,聖托馬斯因為很多奇蹟,因為有篇文章中,“總結”的聲明,我們必須然而,超越的原因僅僅是自然的,試圖解釋他不平凡的職業生涯精彩的著作。

(1) Purity of mind and body contributes in no small degree to clearness of vision (see St. Thomas, "Commentaries on I Cor., c. vii", Lesson v). (1)純度的身體和精神以清晰的視野,有助於在不小的程度(見聖托馬斯,“評我肺心病。,長七”,課v)。 By the gift of purity, miraculously granted at the time of the mystic girdling, God made Thomas's life angelic; the perspicacity and depth of his intellect, Divine grace aiding, made him the "Angelic Doctor".純潔的禮物,奇蹟般地在批的時候,神秘的環剝,上帝創造了托馬斯的生命天使的敏銳度和深度,他的智慧,神的恩典幫助,使他的“天使博士”。

(2) The spirit of prayer, his great piety and devotion, drew down blessings on his studies. (2)禱告的精神,他的偉大的虔誠和獻身精神,提請下跌祝福他的研究工作。 Explaining why he read, every day, portions of the "Conferences" of Cassian, he said: "In such reading I find devotion, whence I readily ascend to contemplation" (Prümmer, op. cit., p. 32).在解釋為什麼他讀,每一天,“會議”的卡西安的部分,他說:“在這樣的閱讀中,我覺得奉獻,何時我非常升入沉思”(prümmer,前引書,第38頁前引書,頁32)。 In the lessons of the Breviary read on his feast day it is explicitly stated that he never began to study without first invoking the assistance of God in prayer; and when he wrestled with obscure passages of the Scriptures, to prayer he added fasting.在課堂上的breviary宣讀對他的節日,它是明確表示,他從來沒有先引用上帝祈禱的協助下,開始研究,以及當他搶奪與模糊通道的聖經,祈禱,他補充說:禁食。

(3) Facts narrated by persons who either knew St. Thomas in life or wrote at about the time of his canonization prove that he received assistance from heaven. (3)敘述事實的人誰知道聖托馬斯在生命或寫信的時間,他的冊封,證明他得到了幫助,從天堂。 To Father Reginald he declared that he had learned more in prayer and contemplation than he had acquired from men or books (Prümmer, op. cit., p. 36).父親雷金納德,他宣稱,他學會了更多的祈禱和沉思,他還獲得了由男性或書籍(prümmer,前引書,第38頁前引書,頁36)。

These same authors tell of mysterious visitors who came to encourage and enlighten him.這些相同的作者告訴神秘訪客來鼓勵和開導他。 The Blessed Virgin appeared, to assure him that his life and his writings were acceptable to God, and that he would persevere in his holy vocation.向聖母瑪利亞出現了,向他保證,他的生活和他的著作是可以接受的上帝,他會堅持在他的神聖使命。 Sts. STS。 Peter and Paul came to aid him in interpreting an obscure passage in Isaias.彼得和保羅來幫助他在詮釋一個晦澀的通道伊薩亞斯。 When humility caused him to consider himself unworthy of the doctorate, a venerable religious of his order (supposed to be St. Dominic) appeared to encourage him and suggested the text for his opening discourse (Prümmer, op. cit., 29, 37; Tocco in "Acta SS.", VII Mar.; Vaughan, op. cit., II, 91).當謙卑,使他認為自己辜負了博士學位,他的命令(應該是聖道)一個古老的宗教的出現,以鼓勵他為他的話語開幕,並建議文本(同前。prümmer,前引書,第38頁,29,37;在“學報”SS。“托科,VII三月沃恩,同上。,II,91)。 His ecstasies have been mentioned.他的狂喜已經提到。 His abstractions in presence of King Louis IX (St. Louis) and of distinguished visitors are related by all biographers.所有的傳記都與他的抽象中存在的國王路易九世(聖路易)和傑出的旅客。 Hence, even if allowance be made for great enthusiasm on the part of his admirers, we must conclude that his extraordinary learning cannot be attributed to merely natural causes.因此,即使津貼的一部分,他的崇拜者極大的熱情,我們必須得出這樣的結論:他不平凡的學習不能僅僅歸因於自然原因造成的。 Of him it may truly be said that he laboured as if all depended on his own efforts and prayed as if all depended on God.它可能是真正的他說,他辛勞,如果全部依靠自己的努力和祈禱,因為如果全部依靠神。


The great Scholastics were holy as well as learned men.偉大的scholastics是神聖的,以及有學問的人。 Alexander of Hales, St. Albertus Magnus, St. Thomas, and St. Bonaventure prove that learning does not necessarily dry up devotion.亞歷山大黑爾斯,聖:Albertus思,聖托馬斯和聖文德證明,學習並不一定乾涸的奉獻。 The angelic Thomas and the seraphic Bonaventure represent the highest types of Christian scholarship, combining eminent learning with heroic sanctity.天使托馬斯和天使般的文德代表了最高的基督教學者,著名的學習相結合的英雄神聖。 Cardinal Bessarion called St. Thomas "the most saintly of learned men and the most learned of saints".主要貝薩利昂稱為聖托馬斯“有學問的人最聖潔的和最有學問的聖人”。 His works breathe the spirit of God, a tender and enlightened piety, built on a solid foundation, viz.他的作品中呼吸著上帝的精神,招標和開明的觀念,建立了堅實的基礎,即。 the knowledge of God, of Christ, of man.知識的上帝,基督的人。 The "Summa theologica" may he made a manual of piety as well as a text-book for the study of theology (Cf. Drane, op. cit., p. 446). “神學大全”可能他做了一個手動的虔誠,以及文本的研究神學的書(參見杜藍,前引書,頁446)。 St. Francis de Sales, St. Philip Neri, St. Charles Borromeo, St. Vincent Ferrer, St. Pius V, St. Antoninus constantly studied St. Thomas.聖弗朗西斯的銷售,聖菲利浦內裡,聖嘉祿,聖文森特費雷爾,聖比約五,聖安東尼不斷研究聖托馬斯。 Nothing could be more inspiring than his treatises on Christ, in His sacred Person, in His life and sufferings.沒有什麼比這更令人振奮的比他的論文在基督,在他的神聖的人,在他的生活和疾苦。 His treatise on the sacraments, especially on penance and the Eucharist, would melt even hardened hearts.他的傷寒論聖禮,特別是對懺悔和聖體聖事,將熔融甚至硬化的心。 He takes pains to explain the various ceremonies of the Mass ("De ritu Eucharistiae" in Summa III:83), and no writer has explained more clearly than St. Thomas the effects produced in the souls of men by this heavenly Bread (Summa III:79).他需要不厭其煩地解釋各種儀式的群眾(“日圖Eucharistiae”在蘇瑪III:83),並沒有筆者更明確地解釋比聖托馬斯產生的影響在人的靈魂,這天朝麵包(總結III :79)。 The principles recently urged, in regard to frequent Communion, by Pius X ("Sacra Trid. Synodus", 1905) are found in St. Thomas (Summa III:79:8, III:80:10), although he is not so explicit on this point as he is on the Communion of children.最近的原則要求,在頻繁的共融方面,庇護十世(薩克拉TRID Synodus“,1905年)在聖托馬斯(總結三:三:79:8,80:10),但他也不是那麼明確在這一點上,因為他是共融的兒童。 In the Decree "Quam Singulari" (1910) the pope cites St. Thomas, who teaches that, when children begin to have some use of reason, so that they can conceive some devotion to the Blessed Sacrament, they may be allowed to communicate (Summa III:80:9).在該法令“華富財經奇異性”(1910年),誰教的教皇瀕危物種貿易公約聖托馬斯,當孩子開始有一些使用的原因,讓他們可以設想一些奉獻給聖體聖事,他們可能被允許進行通信(總結三:80:9)。 The spiritual and devotional aspects of St. Thomas's theology have been pointed out by Father Contenson, OP, in his "Theologia mentis et cordis".聖托馬斯的神學的精神和靈修方面已指出,OP,的父親Contenson的的在他的“神學精神健全等Cordis公司”。 They are more fully explained by Father Vallgornera, OP, in his "Theologia Mystica D. Thomae", wherein the author leads the soul to God through the purgative, illuminative, and unitive ways.他們更充分地說明,OP,的父親Vallgornera的的在他的“神學Mystica的D. Thomae”,其中,通過瀉下,照明,統一的方式,導致作者的靈魂交給上帝。 The Encyclical Letter of Leo XIII on the Holy Spirit is drawn largely from St. Thomas, and those who have studied the "Prima Secundae" and the "Secunda Secundae" know how admirably the saint explains the gifts and fruits of the Holy Ghost, as well as the Beatitudes, and their relations to the different virtues Nearly all good spiritual writers seek in St. Thomas definitions of the virtues which they recommend.諭信的利奧十三世在聖靈的大部分來自聖托馬斯,和研究了的“表面Secundae”和的“塞康達Secundae”那些知道如何令人欽佩聖解釋了禮物和水果的聖靈,真福,他們的關係在不同的美德,幾乎所有的良好的精神作家尋求在聖托馬斯定義的美德,而他們推薦的。


Since the days of Aristotle, probably no one man has exercised such a powerful influence on the thinking world as did St. Thomas.可能沒有一個人自亞里士多德的日子,已行使的思維世界上如此強大的影響力,聖托馬斯。 His authority was very great during his lifetime.在他的一生中,他的權力是很大的。 The popes, the universities, the studia of his order were anxious to profit by his learning and prudence.教皇大學,studia他的命令急於獲利,通過自己的學習和審慎。 Several of his important works were written at the request of others, and his opinion was sought by all classes.他的幾個重要的作品是寫在​​別人的請求,他的意思是要求的所有類。 On several occasions the doctors of Paris referred their disputes to him and gratefully abided by his decision (Vaughan, op. cit., II, 1 p. 544).有好幾次醫生,在巴黎轉介他們的糾紛,他並感激地遵守他的決定(沃恩,同上,II,1個544頁)。 His principles, made known by his writings, have continued to influence men even to this day.他的原則,他的著作,一直持續,影響男性即使到了今天。 This subject cannot be considered in all its aspects, nor is that necessary.這個題目不能被視為在所有方面,也不是必要的。 His influence on matters purely philosophical is fully explained in histories of philosophy.他的影響力純粹的哲學問題上充分地說明了歷史哲學。 (Theologians who followed St. Thomas will be mentioned in THOMISM. See also ORDER OF PREACHERS -- II, A, 2, d) His paramount importance and influence may be explained by considering him as the Christian Aristotle, combining in his person the best that the world has known in philosophy and theology. 2,A,D)(跟隨聖托馬斯的神學家將中提到的托馬斯主義的傳道人也ORDER - II,他的最重要的重要性和影響力可能會考慮他作為基督教亞里士多德解釋,結合他的人最好的已經知道,世界在哲學和神學。 It is in this light that he is proposed as a model by Leo XIII in the famous Encyclical "Aeterni Patris".有鑑於此,他提出了一個模型由利奧十三世在著名的通諭“aeterni祖國報”。 The work of his life may be summed up in two propositions: he established the true relations between faith and reason; he systematized theology.可能是總結了他的生活工作中的兩個命題:他建立了真正的信仰與理性之間的關係;他系統化神學的。

(1) Faith and Reason (1)信仰與理性

The principles of St. Thomas on the relations between faith and reason were solemnly proclaimed in the Vatican Council.原則的聖托馬斯信仰與理性之間的關係,莊嚴宣布,梵蒂岡會。 The second, third, and fourth chapters of the Constitution "Dei Filius" read like pages taken from the works of the Angelic Doctor.第二,第三,第四章的“憲法”,“台達電子Filius”的念想從工程的天使般的醫生的頁面。 First, reason alone is not sufficient to guide men: they need Revelation; we must carefully distinguish the truths known by reason from higher truths (mysteries) known by Revelation.第一,唯一的原因是沒有足夠的引導男人:他們需要啟示,我們必須仔細分辨真理的原因,從更高的真理(奧秘)已知的啟示。 Secondly, reason and Revelation, though distinct, are not opposed to each other.其次,原因和啟示,雖然不同,不反對對方。 Thirdly, faith preserves reason from error; reason should do service in the cause of faith.第三,信仰保留從錯誤的原因,原因應該做的服務事業的信念。 Fourthly, this service is rendered in three ways:第四,這項服務呈現在三個方面:

reason should prepare the minds of men to receive the Faith by proving the truths which faith presupposes (praeambula fidei);原因應該準備的頭腦的男性,接受信仰所證明的真理,信仰的前提(praeambula信);

reason should explain and develop the truths of Faith and should propose them in scientific form;原因應該解釋和發展真理的信念,並應建議他們在科學的形式;

reason should defend the truths revealed by Almighty God.原因應該捍衛真理透露,由全能的上帝。

This is a development of St. Augustine's famous saying (De Trin., XIV, c. i), that the right use of reason is "that by which the most wholesome faith is begotten . . . is nourished, defended, and made strong."這是一個發展的聖奧古斯丁的名言(德草。,十四,I),正確使用的原因是“這其中最有益健康的信念是獨生子是滋養,辯護,並強“。 These principles are proposed by St. Thomas in many places, especially in the following: "In Boethium, da Trin. Proem.", Q. ii, a.聖托馬斯提出的這些原則在許多地方,尤其是在以下:“在Boethium,達草。序文。”,Q.二,一。 1; "Sum. cont. gent.", I, cc. 1“和連續。紳士。”我,CC。 iii-ix; Summa I:1:1, I:1:5, I:1:8, I:32:1, I:84:5. III-IX;總結I:I:1:1,1:5,I:1:8,I:32:1,I:84:5。 St. Thomas's services to the Faith are thus summed up by Leo XIII in the Encyclical "Aeterni Patris": "He won this title of distinction for himself: that singlehanded he victoriously combated the errors of former times, and supplied invincible arms to put to rout those which might in after times spring up. Again, clearly distinguishing, as is fitting, reason and faith, he both preserved and had regard for the rights of each; so much so, indeed, that reason, borne on the wings of Thomas, can scarcely rise higher, while faith could scarcely expect more or stronger aids from reason than those which she has already obtained through Thomas."聖托馬斯的服務信仰,從而總結出的利奧十三世在通諭“aeterni祖國報”說:“他為自己贏得這個稱號的區別:勝利,他獨力打擊從前的錯誤,並提供無敵的武器,把擊潰那些可能在後時代春天。再次,明確區分,是恰當的,理性與信仰,他都保存,並考慮到各自的權利;事實上,正因如此,因此,承擔托馬斯的翅膀,幾乎可以上升,而信仰幾乎無法期待更多或更強艾滋病的原因,她已經獲得通過托馬斯。“

St. Thomas did not combat imaginary foes; he attacked living adversaries.聖托馬斯沒有打擊假想的敵人,他攻擊對手。 The works of Aristotle had been introduced into France in faulty translations and with the misleading commentaries of Jewish and Moorish philosophers.故障的翻譯和誤導性評論的猶太人和摩爾人的哲學家亞里士多德的作品已被引入法國。 This gave rise to a flood of errors which so alarmed the authorities that the reading of Aristotle's Physics and Metaphysics was forbidden by Robert de Courçon in 1210, the decree being moderated by Gregory IX in 1231.這引起了洪水的錯誤,驚動了當局,讀亞里士多德的物理學和形而上學是被禁止的由羅伯特·Courçon在1210,該法令是在1231年由Gregory IX主持。 There crept into the University of Paris an insidious spirit of irreverence and Rationalism, represented especially by Abelard and Raymond Lullus, which claimed that reason could know and prove all things, even the mysteries of Faith.躡手躡腳地進入巴黎大學有一個陰險的精神的不敬和理性,代表特別阿貝拉爾和雷蒙德Lullus,的聲稱,原因可能知道,證明所有的東西,甚至是信仰的奧秘。 Under the authority of Averroes dangerous doctrines were propagated, especially two very pernicious errors: first, that philosophy and religion being in different regions, what is true in religion might be false in philosophy; secondly, that all men have but one soul.根據權威阿威羅伊危險的教義傳播,尤其是兩個非常有害的錯誤:第一,哲學和宗教在不同地區,什麼是真正的宗教可能是虛假的哲學;其次,所有的人都有,但有一個靈魂。 Averroes was commonly styled "The Commentator", but St. Thomas says he was "not so much a Peripatetic as a corruptor of Peripatetic philosophy" (Opusc. de unit. intell.).阿威羅伊普遍風格的“評論員”,但聖托馬斯說,他“沒有這麼多的逍遙學派的哲學作為再戰逍遙”(Opusc.的單位。INTELL。)。 Applying a principle of St. Augustine (see I:84:5), following in the footsteps of Alexander of Hales and Albertus Magnus, St. Thomas resolved to take what was true from the "unjust possessors", in order to press it into the service of revealed religion.聖托馬斯應用聖奧古斯丁(I:84:5)的原則,在亞歷山大的黑爾斯和Albertus馬格納斯的腳步,決心採取什麼是真正的“不公正的擁有者”,以將其按入的啟示宗教的服務。 Objections to Aristotle would cease if the true Aristotle were made known; hence his first care was to obtain a new translation of the works of the great philosopher.反對亞里士多德將停止,如果真正的亞里士多德提出了已知的,因此他的第一個護理是獲得一個新的翻譯作品,偉大的哲學家。 Aristotle was to be purified; false commentators were to be refuted; the most influential of these was Averroes, hence St. Thomas is continually rejecting his false interpretations.亞里士多德是淨化;假評論員予以反駁,最有影響力的阿威羅伊,因此,聖托馬斯不斷拒絕他的錯誤的解釋。

(2) Theology Systematized (2)神學系統化

The next step was to press reason into the service of the Faith, by putting Christian doctrine into scientific form.接下來的步驟是按到服務的信念,科學的形式把基督教的教義的原因。 Scholasticism does not consist, as some persons imagine, in useless discussions and subtleties, but in this, that it expresses sound doctrine in language which is accurate, clear, and concise.不包括經院哲學,正如一些人所想像的,在無用的討論和微妙,但在此,它表示在準確,清晰,簡潔的語言,它是純正的道理。 In the Encyclical "Aeterni Patris" Leo XIII, citing the words of Sixtus V (Bull "Triumphantis", 1588), declares that to the right use of philosophy we are indebted for "those noble endowments which make Scholastic theology so formidable to the enemies of truth", because "that ready coherence of cause and effect, that order and array of a disciplined army in battle, those clear definitions and distinctions, that strength of argument and those keen discussions by which light is distinguished from darkness, the true from the false, expose and lay bare, as it were, the falsehoods of heretics wrapped around by a cloud of subterfuges and fallacies".在通諭“aeterni祖國報”利奧十三世的西斯V(的公牛“Triumphantis”,1588),聲明引用的話,哲學的正確使用,我們要感謝“那些高貴的禀賦,使學術神學如此強大的敵人真理“,因為”準備連貫性的原因和影響,是一個紀律嚴明的軍隊在戰場上的秩序和數組的區別,這些明確的定義和區別,即強度的論證和激烈的討論,其中輕,從黑暗中,真正從假,揭露和道破,因為它是異端者,虛虛實實的花招和謬誤的雲纏“。 When the great Scholastics had written, there was light where there had been darkness, there was order where confusion had prevailed.當偉大的scholastics寫了,有輕有黑暗,有秩序,混亂情況。 The work of St. Anselm and of Peter Lombard was perfected by the Scholastic theologians.完善,在學術上的神學家聖anselm和彼得倫巴的工作。 Since their days no substantial improvements have been made in the plan and system of theology, although the field of apologetics has been widened, and positive theology has become more important.由於他們的日子一直沒有實質性的改善計劃和系統的神學,雖然場的護已擴大,並積極的神學已經變得越來越重要。


Within a short time after his death the writings of St. Thomas were universally esteemed.他去世後,在很短的時間內聖托馬斯的著作普遍尊敬。 The Dominicans naturally took the lead in following St. Thomas.多米尼加自然率先在聖托馬斯。 The general chapter held in Paris in 1279 pronounced severe penalties against all who dared to speak irreverently of him or of his writings.對所有誰也不敢說話不敬,他或他的著作在1279年顯著嚴厲的處罰,一般章在巴黎舉行。 The chapters held in Paris in 1286, at Bordeaux in 1287, and at Lucca in 1288 expressly required the brethren to follow the doctrine of Thomas, who at that time had not been canonized (Const. Ord. Praed., n. 1130).在巴黎舉行的章節,在1286年,1287年在波爾多,和盧卡在1288年明文規定的弟兄們,跟著學說的托馬斯,誰在那個時候還沒有被冊封(“組織法”條例Praed,N 1130)。 The University of Paris, on the occasion of Thomas's death, sent an official letter of condolence to the general chapter of the Dominicans, declaring that, equally with his brethren, the university experienced sorrow at the loss of one who was their own by many titles (see text of letter in Vaughan, op. cit., II, p. 82).巴黎大學,托馬斯的死亡之際,派出一個正式的信,慰問的一般章節的多米尼加,聲明的是,同樣與他的弟兄們,在大學經驗豐富的悲哀的損失之一誰是自己的眾多頭銜(見文的信中沃恩,同上,II,頁82)。 In the Encyclical "Aeterni Patris" Leo XIII mentions the Universities of Paris, Salamanca, Alcalá, Douai, Toulouse, Louvain, Padua, Bologna, Naples, Coimbra as "the homes of human wisdom where Thomas reigned supreme, and the minds of all, of teachers as well as of taught, rested in wonderful harmony under the shield and authority of the Angelic Doctor".在通諭“aeterni祖國報”利奧十三世作為“家園人類智慧的最高統治地位,托馬斯,頭腦中,提到了巴黎,薩拉曼卡,阿爾卡拉,杜埃,圖盧茲,魯汶大學,帕多瓦,博洛尼亞,那不勒斯,科英布拉大學教師的教導,在休息奇妙的和諧下,盾牌和權威的天使般的醫生“。 To the list may be added Lima and Manila, Fribourg and Washington.可以添加到列表中,利馬和馬尼拉,弗里堡和華盛頓。

Seminaries and colleges followed the lead of the universities.神學院和大學馬首是瞻的大學。 The "Summa" gradually supplanted the "Sentences" as the textbook of theology. “總結”逐漸取代了“服刑”的神學教科書。 Minds were formed in accordance with the principles of St. Thomas; he became the great master, exercising a world-wide influence on the opinions of men and on their writings; for even those who did not adopt all of his conclusions were obliged to give due consideration to his opinions.心目當中形成依照聖托馬斯的原則;他成為大師,在行使一個全球性的影響人的意見,並在他們的著作中,即使是那些沒有採取他的結論是必須給由於考慮他的意見。 It has been estimated that 6000 commentaries on St. Thomas's works have been written.據估計,6000評論聖托馬斯的作品已被寫入。 Manuals of theology and of philosophy, composed with the intention of imparting his teaching, translations, and studies, or digests (études), of portions of his works have been published in profusion during the last six hundred years and today his name is in honour all over the world (see THOMISM).叢生手冊的神學和哲學,賦予他的教學,翻譯,研究,或摘要(練習曲),他的作品的部分組成的意圖已公佈在過去六百年,今天,他的名字是為了紀念在世界各地(見托馬斯主義)。

In every one of the general councils held since his death St. Thomas has been singularly honoured.在每一個議會舉行,因為他的死亡聖托馬斯奇榮幸。 At the Council of Lyons his book "Contra errores Graecorum" was used with telling effect against the Greeks.在安理會的里昂,他的著作“魂斗羅errores Graecorum”告訴對希臘的影響。 In later disputes, before and during the Council of Florence, John of Montenegro, the champion of Latin orthodoxy, found St. Thomas's works a source of irrefragable arguments.在以後的糾紛,之前和期間,約翰安理會的佛羅倫薩的黑山,拉丁正統的冠軍,聖托馬斯的作品不可辯駁的論據的來源。 The "Decretum pro Armenis" (Instruction for the Armenians), issued by the authority of that council, is taken almost verbatim from his treatise, "De fidei articulis et septem sacramentis" (see Denzinger-Bannwart, n. 695). “Decretum親Armenis”(指令為亞美尼亞),該委員會由權威發行,採取的是幾乎逐字從他的論文中,“德信articulis等年九月份sacramentis”(見登青格bannwart,12月31日1652 N。695)。 "In the Councils of Lyons, Vienne, Florence, and the Vatican", writes Leo XIII (Encyclical "Aeterni Patris"), "one might almost say that Thomas took part in and presided over the deliberations and decrees of the Fathers contending against the errors of the Greeks, of heretics, and Rationalists, with invincible force and with the happiest results." “在議會,維埃納省里昂,佛羅倫薩,梵蒂岡”,寫利奧十三世(通諭“aeterni祖國報”),“一個幾乎可以說,托馬斯參加和主持的討論和法令的父親抗爭錯誤的希臘人,異端,和理性,不可戰勝的力量和最幸福的結果。“

But the chief and special glory of Thomas, one which he has shared with none of the Catholic doctors, is that the Fathers of Trent made it part of the order of the conclave to lay upon the altar, together with the code of Sacred Scripture and the decrees of the Supreme Pontiffs, the Summa of Thomas Aquinas, whence to seek counsel, reason, and inspiration.但主要的和特殊的榮耀,他分享,沒有天主教醫生托馬斯是父親的遄達秘密會議的順序鋪設在壇上,一起神聖的經文的代碼,法令的最高教宗,托馬斯·阿奎那的總結,何處尋求律師認為,究其原因,和靈感。 Greater influence than this no man could have.沒有人比這更大的影響力。

Before this section is closed mention should be made of two books widely known and highly esteemed, which were inspired by and drawn from the writings of St. Thomas.在此之前,部分封閉值得一提的兩本書廣為人知,倍受尊敬的,這是啟發和來自聖托馬斯的著作。 The Catechism of the Council of Trent, composed by disciples of the Angelic Doctor, is in reality a compendium of his theology, in convenient form for the use of parish priests.問答安理會的遄達,天使般的醫生的弟子組成,是在現實中他的神學彙編,方便的形式使用本堂司​​鐸。 Dante's "Divina Commedia" has been called "the Summa of St. Thomas in verse", and commentators trace the great Florentine poet's divisions and descriptions of the virtues and vices to the "Secunda Secundae".但丁的“神曲”被稱為“總結的聖托馬斯”的詩句,和評論員跟踪偉大的佛羅倫薩詩人的部門和描述的優點和缺點“塞康達Secundae”。


(1) In the Church (1)在教會

The esteem in which he was held during his life has not been diminished, but rather increased, in the course of the six centuries that have elapsed since his death.不畏艱苦,在他被關押期間,他的生活並沒有被削弱,反而增加,在使用過程中的6個世紀已經過去了,因為他的死亡。 The position which he occupies in the Church is well explained by that great scholar Leo XIII, in the Encyclical "Aeterni Patris", recommending the study of Scholastic philosophy: "It is known that nearly all the founders and framers of laws of religious orders commanded their societies to study and religiously adhere to the teachings of St. Thomas. . . To say nothing of the family of St. Dominic, which rightly claims this great teacher for its own glory, the statutes of the Benedictines, the Carmelites, the Augustinians, the Society of Jesus, and many others, all testify that they are bound by this law."他在教會中佔據的位置,很好地解釋了這個偉大的學者利奧十三世在通諭“aeterni祖國報”,經院哲學的研究提出建議:“據了解,幾乎所有的奠基者和制定者,法律,宗教命令指揮研究他們的社會和宗教堅持到聖托馬斯的教導......沒什麼好說的聖道明的家庭,正確地聲稱這個偉大的老師為自己的榮耀,本篤會的章程,加爾默羅,奧古斯丁,耶穌,和許多其他的社會,這一切都證明,他們通過這個法律的約束。“ Amongst the "many others" the Servites, the Passionists, the Barnabites, and the Sulpicians have been devoted in an especial manner to the study of St. Thomas. “許多人當中的”Servites,Passionists,的Barnabites,和的Sulpicians的已傾注在一個特殊的方式聖托馬斯的研究。 The principal ancient universities where St. Thomas ruled as the great master have been enumerated above.已上面列舉的主要古代大學聖托馬斯裁定為大師。 The Paris doctors called him the morning star, the luminous sun, the light of the whole Church.巴黎醫生稱他早晨之星,明亮的陽光下,整個教會的光。 Stephen, Bishop of Paris, repressing those who dared to attack the doctrine of "that most excellent Doctor, the blessed Thomas", calls him "the great luminary of the Catholic Church, the precious stone of the priesthood, the flower of doctors, and the bright mirror of the University of Paris" (Drane, op. cit., p. 431).斯蒂芬主教,巴黎,鎮壓那些誰也不敢攻擊,最優秀的醫生,托馬斯的祝福“中庸”,稱他為“偉大的傑出人物的天主教教會的寶石的神職人員,醫生的花,和光明的一面鏡子,在巴黎大學“(杜藍,前引書,第431頁)。 In the old Louvain University the doctors were required to uncover and bow their heads when they pronounced the name of Thomas (Goudin, op. cit., p. 21).在老魯汶大學的醫生們發現,低頭時,他們突出的名稱托馬斯(古丹,前引書,頁21)。

"The ecumenical councils, where blossoms the flower of all earthly wisdom, have always been careful to hold Thomas Aquinas in singular honour" (Leo XIII in "Aeterni Patris"). “基督教議會,盛開的花朵世間的一切智慧,一直謹慎地保持托馬斯·阿奎那奇異的榮譽”(利奧十三“Aeterni祖國報”)。 This subject has been sufficiently treated above.本課題得到充分的治療。 The "Bullarium Ordinis Praedicatorum", published in 1729-39, gives thirty-eight Bulls in which eighteen sovereign pontiffs praised and recommended the doctrine of St. Thomas (see also Vaughan, op. cit., II, c. ii; Berthier, op. cit., pp. 7 sqq.). “Bullarium Ordinis Praedicatorum”,發表在1729年至1739年,讓38多頭,其中18個主權教宗讚揚和建​​議學說的聖托馬斯(見沃恩,前引書,II,第二。貝蒂埃,前引書,第7 SQQ)。 These approbations are recalled and renewed by Leo XIII, who lays special stress on "the crowning testimony of Innocent VI: `His teaching above that of others, the canons alone excepted, enjoys such an elegance of phraseology, a method of statement, a truth of proposition, that those who hold it are never found swerving from the path of truth, and he who dare assail it will always be suspected of error (ibid.).'" Leo XIII surpassed his predecessors in admiration of St. Thomas, in whose works he declared a remedy can be found for many evils that afflict society (see Berthier, op. cit., introd.).這些被召回,並再次由利奧十三世,誰規定特別強調“無辜的VI至高無上的證詞:'大砲單獨例外,他的教學高於他人,喜歡這樣一個優雅的用語,聲明的方法,一個道理approbations的主張,即那些誰持有它永遠不會突然轉向,從真理的道路,和他誰也不敢攻擊它總是會被人懷疑是錯誤的(同上)。“利奧十三世超越了他的前輩,在欽佩的聖托馬斯,他的作品,他宣布了補救措施,可以找到許多邪惡折磨協會(貝蒂埃,前引書,請選確認。)。 The notable Encyclical Letters with which the name of that illustrious pontiff will always be associated show how he had studied the works of the Angelic Doctor.值得注意的與該名稱相關的,傑出的教宗的通諭信件顯示了他是如何研究的作品天使般的醫生。 This is very noticeable in the letters on Christian marriage, the Christian constitution of states, the condition of the working classes, and the study of Holy Scripture.這是很明顯的在基督教婚姻上的字母,基督教憲法的國家,工人階級的狀況,和聖經的研究。 Pope Pius X, in several letters, eg in the "Pascendi Dominici Gregis" (September, 1907), has insisted on the observance of the recommendations of Leo XIII concerning the study of St. Thomas.教皇Pius X,幾個字母,例如在的“Pascendi DOMINICI收聽廣播節目和收看”(1907年9月),一直堅持遵守利奧十三世的建議,關於研究聖托馬斯。 An attempt to give names of Catholic writers who have expressed their appreciation of St. Thomas and of his influence would be an impossible undertaking; for the list would include nearly all who have written on philosophy or theology since the thirteenth century, as well as hundreds of writers on other subjects. ,試圖給表示讚賞聖托馬斯天主教作家的名字和他的影響力,將是一個不可能完成的任務的列表將包括幾乎所有的人都寫在哲學或神學,自十三世紀以來,以及數以百計的其他科目作家。 Commendations and eulogies are found in the introductory chapters of all good commentaries.表揚和頌詞被發現在介紹章節都好評論。 An incomplete list of authors who have collected these testimonies is given by Father Berthier (op. cit., p. 22).作者收集的這些證詞不完整的列表的父親毛磊(同上,頁22)。 . . .

(2) Outside the Church (2)教會之外

(a) Anti-Scholastics -- Some persons have been and are still opposed to everything that comes under the name of Scholasticism, which they hold to be synonymous with subtleties and useless discussions. (a)反經院哲學家 - 有些人已經和仍然反對一切士林的名義下,他們持有的代名詞微妙和無用的討論。 From the prologue to the "Summa" it is clear that St. Thomas was opposed to all that was superfluous and confusing in Scholastic studies.從序幕“總結”很顯然,聖托馬斯反對是多餘的,混亂的學術研究。 When people understand what true Scholasticism means, their objections will cease.當人們明白什麼是真正的經院哲學的意義,他們反對將停止。

(b) Heretics and Schismatics -- "A last triumph was reserved for this incomparable man -- namely, to compel the homage, praise, and admiration of even the very enemies of the Catholic name" (Leo XIII, ibid.). (二)異端和Schismatics - “最後的勝利是保留這無比的人 - 即,強迫的敬意,讚美,欽佩,即使是非常敵人的天主教名稱”(利奧十三世,同上)。 St. Thomas's orthodoxy drew upon him the hatred of all Greeks who were opposed to union with Rome.聖托馬斯的正統借鑒了他所有的希臘人反對工會與羅馬的仇恨。 The united Greeks, however, admire St. Thomas and study his works (see above Translations of the "Summa").然而,希臘人,佩服聖托馬斯和研究他的作品(見上文翻譯的“總結”)。 The leaders of the sixteenth-century revolt honoured St. Thomas by attacking him, Luther being particularly violent in his coarse invectives against the great doctor.十六世紀的反抗領導人榮幸聖托馬斯攻擊他,路德是特別激烈,在偉大的醫生對他的粗暴的謾罵。 Citing Bucer's wild boast, "Take away Thomas and I will destroy the Church", Leo XIII (ibid.) remarks, "The hope was vain, but the testimony has its value".援引布策爾的天花亂墜,“帶走托馬斯,我會摧毀教會”,利奧十三世(同上)的言論,“希望是徒勞的,但的證詞有它的價值,”。

Calo, Tocco, and other biographers relate that St. Thomas, travelling from Rome to Naples, converted two celebrated Jewish rabbis, whom he met at the country house of Cardinal Richard (Prümmer, op. cit., p. 33; Vaughan, op. cit., I, p. 795).卡洛托科,和其他傳記與聖托馬斯,從羅馬到那不勒斯,將兩個著名的猶太拉比,他遇見樞機主教理查德的鄉間別墅(prümmer,前引書,第38頁前引書,頁33;沃恩,同上前。,I,頁795)。 Rabbi Paul of Burgos, in the fifteenth century, was converted by reading the works of St. Thomas.拉比保羅的布爾戈斯,在15世紀,改建通過閱讀作品的聖托馬斯。 Theobald Thamer, a disciple of Melancthon, abjured his heresy after he had read the "Summa", which he intended to refute.西奧博爾德Thamer,弟子的蔑蘭赫東,發誓放棄他的異端邪說後,他讀了“總結”,他打算反駁。 The Calvinist Duperron was converted in the same way, subsequently becoming Archbishop of Sens and a cardinal (see Conway, OP, op. cit., p. 96).的的加爾文主義杜伯龍以同樣的方式轉換,後來成為主教的靈敏度和大是大非(見康威,OP,前引書。,第96頁)。

After the bitterness of the first period of Protestantism had passed away, Protestants saw the necessity of retaining many parts of Catholic philosophy and theology, and those who came to know St. Thomas were compelled to admire him.新教的第一期已經去世的痛苦後,新教徒保留天主教哲學和神學的許多地方看到的必要性,才知道聖托馬斯不得不佩服他。 Überweg says "He brought the Scholastic philosophy to its highest stage of development, by effecting the most perfect accommodation that was possible of the Aristotelian philosophy to ecclesiastical orthodoxy" (op. cit., p. 440). Überweg說:“他帶來的經院哲學,其發展的最高階段,影響最完美的住宿,這是有可能的亞里士多德的哲學正統教會”(同上,頁440)。 R. Seeberg in the "New Schaff-Herzog Religious Encyclopedia" (New York, 1911) devotes ten columns to St. Thomas, and says that "at all points he succeeded in upholding the church doctrine as credible and reasonable" (XI, p. 427). R.西貝爾格在“新沙夫 - 赫爾佐格宗教百科全書”(紐約,1911年)投入了10列聖托馬斯,並說:“在所有點上,他成功地維護教會的教義是可信的,合理的”(XI,P 。427)。

For many years, especially since the days of Pusey and Newman, St. Thomas has been in high repute at Oxford.對於多年以來,特別是普西和紐曼的日子,聖托馬斯一直在高聲望的牛津大學。 Recently the "Summa contra gentiles" was placed on the list of subjects which a candidate may offer in the final honour schools of Litterae Humaniores at that university (cf. Walsh, op. cit., c. xvii).最近,“總結禁忌外邦人”被擺在名單上的科目,考生可提供最後的榮譽litterae在人文學科的學校,大學(參見沃爾什,前引書。十七)。 For several years Father De Groot, OP, has been the professor of Scholastic philosophy in the University of Amsterdam, and courses in Scholastic philosophy have been established in some of the leading non-Catholic universities of the United States.父親德格魯特,OP,幾年來一直是的士林哲學教授,阿姆斯特丹大學的,和已經建立了一些領先的非美國天主教大學的課程,在士林哲學。 Anglicans have a deep admiration for St. Thomas.的聖公會有一個深深折服,為聖托馬斯。 Alfred Mortimer, in the chapter "The Study of Theology" of his work entitled "Catholic Faith and Practice" (2 vols., New York, 1909), regretting that "the English priest has ordinarily no scientific acquaintance with the Queen of Sciences", and proposing a remedy, says, "The simplest and most perfect sketch of universal theology is to be found in the Summa of St. Thomas" (vol. II, pp. 454, 465).阿爾弗雷德·莫蒂默一章中的“神學”,他的工作的研究,題為“天主教信仰與實踐”(2卷,紐約,1909年),遺憾地說:“英語牧師通常沒有科學的認識與女王的科學” ,並提出補救措施,說:“最簡單,最完美的草圖普及神學是被發現的聖托馬斯在總結”(第二卷,第454頁,465)。


In the Syllabus of 1864 Pius IX condemned a proposition in which it was stated that the method and principles of the ancient Scholastic doctors were not suited to the needs of our times and the progress of science (Denzinger-Bannwart, n. 1713).在1864年的教學大綱的庇護九世譴責的命題中,有人說,古老的學業醫生的方法和原則,不適合我們這個時代的需要和科學的進步(登青格bannwart,12月31日1652 N。1713)。

In the Encyclical "Aeterni Patris" Leo XIII points out the benefits to be derived from "a practical reform of philosophy by restoring the renowned teaching of St. Thomas Aquinas".在通諭“aeterni祖國報”利奧十三世指出,“一個實際的改革哲學的聖托馬斯阿奎那”恢復著名的教學所產生的好處。 He exhorts the bishops to "restore the golden wisdom of Thomas and to spread it far and wide for the defence and beauty of the Catholic Faith, for the good of society, and for the advantage of all the sciences".他敦促主教“恢復托馬斯和黃金的智慧和廣泛的傳播,為國防和美麗的天主教信仰,良好的社會,所有的科學”的優勢。 In the pages of the Encyclical immediately preceding these words he explains why the teaching of St. Thomas would produce such most desirable results: St. Thomas is the great master to explain and defend the Faith, for his is "the solid doctrine of the Fathers and the Scholastics, who so clearly and forcibly demonstrate the firm foundations of the Faith, its Divine origin, its certain truth, the arguments that sustain it, the benefits it has conferred on the human race, and its perfect accord with reason, in a manner to satisfy completely minds open to persuasion, however unwilling and repugnant".在頁面的通諭緊接這句話,他解釋了為什麼會產生這樣的教學聖托馬斯最理想的結果:聖托馬斯的的大師解釋和捍衛信仰,他是“固體學說的父親經院哲學家,誰這麼清楚,強行展示的牢固基礎上的信仰,其神聖的起源,它一定的道理,保持它的參數,它賦予人類的好處,其完美的原因,在符合打開方式完全滿足頭腦勸說,但不願意和令人反感的“。 The career of St. Thomas would in itself have justified Leo XIII in assuring men of the nineteenth century that the Catholic Church was not opposed to the right use of reason.聖托馬斯的職業生涯本身合理利奧十三世在保證男人的19世紀,天主教會並不反對理性的正確使用。 The sociological aspects of St. Thomas are also pointed out: "The teachings of Thomas on the true meaning of liberty, which at this time is running into license, on the Divine origin of all authority, on laws and their force, on the paternal and just rule of princes, on obedience to the highest powers, on mutual charity one towards another -- on all of these and kindred subjects, have very great and invincible force to overturn those principles of the new order which are well known to be dangerous to the peaceful order of things and to public safety" (ibid.).社會學方面的聖托馬斯也指出:“托馬斯的教誨,是真正意義上的自由,在這個時候,運行到許可證,神的起源的所有權力,在法律和他們的力量,在父親的只是王子的統治,服從最高權力,對彼此相互慈善 - 所有這些和類似的主題,有非常大的和不可戰勝的力量推翻這些原則的新秩序,這是眾所周知的,是危險的和平秩序的東西,而且對公眾安全“(同上)。

The evils affecting modern society had been pointed out by the pope in the Letter "Inscrutabili" of 21 April, 1878, and in the one on Socialism, Communism, and Nihilism ("The Great Encyclicals of Leo XIII", pp. 9 sqq.; 22 sqq.).影響現代社會的醜惡現象已經指出,由教宗在信“Inscrutabili”4月21日,1878年,在一個對社會主義,共產主義和虛無主義(“通諭利奧十三世”,第9頁SQQ。 22時02分sqq)。 How the principles of the Angelic Doctor will furnish a remedy for these evils is explained here in a general way, more particularly in the Letters on the Christian constitution of states, human liberty, the chief duties of Christians as citizens, and on the conditions of the working classes (ibid., pp. 107, 135, 180, 208).在這裡解釋的原則,天使般的醫生將如何提供這些罪惡的補救措施在一般的方式,特別是在英皇的基督教憲法的國家,人的自由,基督徒作為公民的主要職責,並在條件工作類(同上,第107,135,180,208)。

It is in relation to the sciences that some persons doubt the reliability of St. Thomas's writings; and the doubters are thinking of the physical and experimental sciences, for in metaphysics the Scholastics are admitted to be masters.它是在科學,有些人懷疑的可靠性聖托馬斯的著作和持懷疑態度的所思所想的物理和實驗科學,形而上學的經院哲學家承認是主人。 Leo XIII calls attention to the following truths: (a) The Scholastics were not opposed to investigation.利奧十三世提請注意以下的真理:(一)不反對經院哲學家調查。 Holding as a principle in anthropology "that the human intelligence is only led to the knowledge of things without body and matter by things sensible, they well understood that nothing was of greater use to the philosopher than diligently to search into the mysteries of nature, and to be earnest and constant in the study of physical things" (ibid., p. 55).控股人類學“為原則,人類的智慧是唯一明智的事情的知識,身體和物質的東西沒有,他們很好地理解,沒有什麼是哲學家比努力更多地利用搜索到大自然的奧秘,並要認真,並不斷在研究物理的東西“(同上,第55頁)。 This principle was reduced to practice: St. Thomas, St. Albertus Magnus, Roger Bacon, and others "gave large attention to the knowledge of natural things" (ibid., p. 56).這一原則被減少到實踐:聖托馬斯,聖:Albertus思,培根,和其他人“給予了較大的關注,自然的東西的知識”(同上,第56頁)。 (b) Investigation alone is not sufficient for true science. (b)調查真正的科學是不足夠的。 "When facts have been established, it is necessary to rise and apply ourselves to the study of the nature of corporeal things, to inquire into the laws which govern them and the principles whence their order and varied unity and mutual attraction in diversity arise" (p. 55). “當事實已經建立,這是必要的上升,並運用自己的有形的東西的性質的研究,調查的法律管轄的原則何處出現它們的順序和多樣化的統一和相互吸引的多樣性”(第55頁)。

Will the scientists of today pretend to be better reasoners than St. Thomas, or more powerful in synthesis?今天的科學家們假裝是更好的推理聖托馬斯,或者更強大的合成? It is the method and the principles of St. Thomas that Leo XIII recommends: "If anything is taken up with too great subtlety by the Scholastic doctors, or too carelessly stated; if there be anything that ill agrees with the discoveries of a later age or, in a word, is improbable in any way, it does not enter into our mind to propose that for imitation to our age" (p. 56).它是聖托馬斯的方法和原則,利奧十三世建議:“如果有什麼事情也十分精妙的學業醫生,還是太漫不經心地說,如果有任何虐待同意的發現較晚的年齡,一個字,或以任何方式是不可能的,它不會進入我們的心靈,,建議模仿我們的時代“(第56頁)。 Just as St. Thomas, in his day, saw a movement towards Aristotle and philosophical studies which could not be checked, but could be guided in the right direction and made to serve the cause of truth, so also, Leo XIII, seeing in the world of his time a spirit of study and investigation which might be productive of evil or of good, had no desire to check it, but resolved to propose a moderator and master who could guide it in the paths of truth.正如聖托馬斯,在他的天,看到了一個運動對亞里士多德哲學研究不能檢查,但可以引導正確的方向和真理的事業服務,也是如此,利奧十三世,看到在他的世界的精神研究和調查,這可能是邪惡或良好生產,也沒心思檢查,但解決提出一個主持人和主誰能夠引導它在真理的道路。 No better guide could have been chosen than the clear-minded, analytic, synthetic, and sympathetic Thomas Aquinas.沒有更好的引導可能已經選擇了比清醒,分析,合成和同情托馬斯·阿奎那。 His extraordinary patience and fairness in dealing with erring philosophers, his approbation of all that was true in their writings, his gentleness in condemning what was false, his clear-sightedness in pointing out the direction to true knowledge in all its branches, his aptness and accuracy in expressing the truth -- these qualities mark him as a great master not only for the thirteenth century, but for all times.他以非凡的耐心和在處理犯錯誤的哲學家,他的讚許,這一切是真實的,在他們的著作,他的溫柔,在譴責什麼是虛假的,他的敏銳眼光,真正的知識在其所有分行指明了方向,他的適合性和公平性表達的真理 - 這些特質標誌著他作為一個偉大的主人不僅為十三世紀,但任何時候都精度。 If any persons are inclined to consider him too subtle, it is because they do not know how clear, concise, and simple are his definitions and divisions.如果任何人都傾向於認為他太微妙了,那是因為他們不知道如何清晰,簡潔,簡單是他的定義和部門。 His two summae are masterpieces of pedagogy, and mark him as the greatest of human teachers.他的兩個summae教學的傑作,標誌著他作為人類最偉大的教師。 Moreover, he dealt with errors similar to many which go under the name of philosophy or science in our days.此外,他處理許多在我們這個時代的哲學或科學的名義下,類似的錯誤。 The Rationalism of Abelard and others called forth St. Thomas's luminous and everlasting principles on the true relations of faith and reason.阿貝拉爾和其他人的理性的聖托馬斯的發光和永恆的原則,提出了所謂的真正的信仰與理性的關係。 Ontologism was solidly refuted by St. Thomas nearly six centuries before the days of Malebranche, Gioberti, and Ubaghs (see Summa I:84:5). Ontologism了紮實的反駁聖托馬斯近六百年前幾天馬勒伯朗士,Gioberti酒店,Ubaghs(見總結餘:84:5)。 The true doctrine on first principles and on universals, given by him and by the other great Scholastics, is the best refutation of Kant's criticism of metaphysical ideas (see, eg, "Post. Analyt.", I, lect. xix; "De ente et essentia", c. iv; Summa I:17:3 corp. and ad 2um; I:79:3; I:84:5; I:84:6 corp and ad 1um; I:85:2 ad 2um; I:85:3 ad 1um, ad 4um; Cf. index to "Summa": "Veritas", "Principium", "Universale").的真正教義上的首要原則和對共性,由他和的其他偉大的經院哲學家,是的最好反駁康德的批判形而上學思想(見,例如,“後解析幾何法。”,我,LECT。十九,“德緩和等的本質“,C四,總結我:17:3公司和廣告2UM I:79:3;我:84:5;我:84:6公司和廣告1um的,我:85:2廣告2UM I:1um的85:3廣告,廣告4UM參考指數“總結”:“VERITAS”,“結構原理”,“Universale的”)。 Modern psychological Pantheism does not differ substantially from the theory of one soul for all men asserted by Averroes (see "De unit. intell." and Summa I:76:2; I:79:5).現代心理學泛神論並沒有很大差別,從理論的一個靈魂,為所有的人所宣稱的阿威羅伊(見“單位。INTELL。”,總結我:76:2; I:79:5)。 The Modernistic error, which distinguishes the Christ of faith from the Christ of history, had as its forerunner the Averroistic principle that a thing might be true in philosophy and false in religion.現代主義的錯誤,其中的區別從歷史的基督信仰基督的,作為其前身的Averroistic的原則的事情可能在哲學上是真實的和虛假的宗教。

In the Encyclical "Providentissimus Deus" (18 November, 1893) Leo XIII draws from St. Thomas's writings the principles and wise rules which should govern scientific criticism of the Sacred Books.利奧十三世在通諭“Providentissimus殺出”(1893年11月18日)吸引了來自聖托馬斯的著作的原則和明智的規則治理的科學批評的神聖書籍。 From the same source recent writers have drawn principles which are most helpful in the solution of questions pertaining to Spiritism and Hypnotism.從同一來源的最近作家已制定原則,這是最有幫助的招魂術和催眠有關的問題的解決方案。 Are we to conclude, then, that St. Thomas's works, as he left them, furnish sufficient instruction for scientists, philosophers, and theologians of our times?我們得出結論,聖托馬斯的作品,他就離開他們,然後,提供足夠的指示,為我們這個時代的科學家,哲學家和神學家嗎? By no means. “沒辦法。 Vetera novis augere et perficere -- "To strengthen and complete the old by aid of the new" -- is the motto of the restoration proposed by Leo XIII. Vetera novis augere等perficere - “要加強和完善援助的新” - 老的座右銘利奧十三世提出的恢復。 Were St. Thomas living today he would gladly adopt and use all the facts made known by recent scientific and historical investigations, but he would carefully weigh all evidence offered in favour of the facts.聖托馬斯生活在今天,他會很高興地採納和使用所有的事實,最近的科學和歷史調查,但他會仔細權衡所有贊成的事實提供證據。 Positive theology is more necessary in our days than it was in the thirteenth century.積極的神學是必要的,我們的日子比它在13世紀。 Leo XIII calls attention to its necessity in his Encyclical, and his admonition is renewed by Pius X in his Letter on Modernism.利奧十三世提請注意其必要性在他的通諭,和他的告誡是新的庇護十世在他的信中對現代主義。 But both pontiffs declare that positive theology must not be extolled to the detriment of Scholastic theology.但是,教宗宣布,不能闡揚積極的神學學術神學的損害。 In the Encyclical "Pascendi", prescribing remedies against Modernism, Pius X, following in this his illustrious predecessor, gives the first place to "Scholastic philosophy, especially as it was taught by Thomas Aquinas", St. Thomas is still "The Angel of the Schools".在通諭“Pascendi”,處方補救辦法,制止現代主義,庇護十世,這是他的傑出的前任,給人的第一地方“經院哲學,特別是因為它是由托馬斯·阿奎那教”,聖托馬斯仍然是“天使學校“。

Publication information出版信息
Written by DJ Kennedy.作者:DJ肯尼迪。 Transcribed by Kevin Cawley.轉錄由凱文·考利。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat 7月1日,1912。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

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