Western Schism西方分裂

Catholic Information 天主教信息

This schism of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries differs in all points from the Eastern Schism.這點從東部分裂分裂的第十四和第十五世紀的不同之處。 The latter was a real revolt against the supreme authority of the Church, fomented by the ambition of the patriarchs of Constantinople, favoured by the Greek emperors, supported by the Byzantine clergy and people, and lasting nine centuries.後者是一個真正的最高權力機構,教會,君士坦丁堡的始祖,由希臘皇帝的青睞,支持拜占庭式的神職人員和人民,以及持久的九世紀的野心煽動反抗。 The Western Schism was only a temporary misunderstanding, even though it compelled the Church for forty years to seek its true head; it was fed by politics and passions, and was terminated by the assembling of the councils of Pisa and Constance.西方的分裂只是暫時的誤解,即使它迫使教會,為四十年來尋找其真正的頭,它助長了政治和激情,比薩和Constance的議會裝配終止。 This religious division, infinitely less serious than the other, will be examined in its origin, its developments, the means employed to end it, and its ending in 1417 by the election of an undisputed pope.這種宗教分裂,無限地比其他不太嚴重的,將考察它的起源,發展,結束,結束於1417年,由一個不爭的教皇選舉。 From a legal and apologetic standpoint what did the early doctors think of it?從法律和道歉的角度來看,早期的醫生認為什麼呢? What is the reasoned opinion of modern theologians and canonists?什麼是現代神學家和canonists的合理意見嗎? Was the real pope to be found at Avignon or at Rome?是真正的教皇在阿維尼翁或在羅馬?

(1) Pope Gregory XI had left Avignon to return to Italy and had re-established the pontifical see in the Eternal City, where he died on 27 March, 1378. (1)羅馬教皇格雷戈里席已經離開阿維尼翁返回意大利,並重新確立了教皇在永恆之城,在那裡他死於1378年3月27日。 At once attention was directed to the choice of his successor.在一次注意到了他的繼任者的選擇。 The question was most serious.現在的問題是最嚴重的。 Cardinals, priests, nobles, and the Romans in general were interested in it, because on the election to be made by the conclave depended the residence of the future pope at Avignon or at Rome.主教,牧師,貴族,和羅馬人在一般人對它感興趣,因為選舉的秘密會議上取決於未來的教皇在阿維尼翁居住在羅馬。 Since the beginning of the century the pontiffs had fixed their abode beyond the Alps; the Romans, whose interests and claims had been so long slighted, wanted a Roman or at least an Italian pope.自本世紀初以來的教宗固定的居以外的阿爾卑斯山,羅馬人,他們的利益和權利要求書已經過了這麼久輕視,希望意大利的羅馬,或者至少教皇。 The name of Bartolommeo Prignano, Archbishop of Bari, was mentioned from the first. Bartolommeo Prignano的名稱,巴里大主教,從第一提及。 This prelate had been Vice-Chancellor of the Roman Church, and was regarded as the enemy of vice, simony, and display.這主教的羅馬教會的副校長,被視為敵人的缺點,買賣聖職,並顯示。 His morals were exemplary and his integrity rigid.他的道德示範和他的完整性剛性。 He was regarded by all as eligible.他被認為是所有有資格的。 The sixteen cardinals present at Rome met in conclave on 7 April, and on the following day chose Prignano. 16樞機主教在羅馬舉行秘密會議4月7日,並於翌日選擇Prignano。 During the election disturbance reigned in the city.在選舉的干擾統治的城市。 The people of Rome and the vicinity, turbulent and easily roused, had, under the sway of circumstances, loudly declared their preferences and antipathies, and endeavoured to influence the decision of the cardinals.羅馬附近的人,動盪和容易驚醒的支配下的情況下,大聲宣布自己的喜好和厭惡,並努力影響決策的樞機主教。 Were these facts, regrettable in themselves, sufficient to rob the members of the conclave of the necessary freedom of mind and to prevent the election from being valid?這些事實,遺憾的本身並不足以搶劫成員秘密會議必要的自由的心態,以防止選舉有效嗎? This is the question which has been asked since the end of the fourteenth century.這是問題已要求結束以來的14世紀的。 On its solution depends our opinion of the legitimacy of the popes of Rome and Avignon.在它的解決方案取決於我們認為羅馬和阿維尼翁的教皇的合法性。 It seems certain that the cardinals then took every means to obviate all possible doubts.它的樞機主​​教似乎可以肯定,然後把渾身解數,以避免所有可能出現的疑問。 On the evening of the same day thirteen of them proceeded to a new election, and again chose the Archbishop of Bari with the formally expressed intention of selecting a legitimate pope.在同一天晚上,其中13個進行了一次新的選舉,並再次選擇了巴里大主教的正式表示有意選擇一個合法的教皇。 During the following days all the members of the Sacred College offered their respectful homage to the new pope, who had taken the name of Urban VI, and asked of him countless favours.在隨後的日子裡,所有的成員在神聖的大學提供了他們的尊重敬意新的教皇,城市VI的名稱,並問他無數的主張。 They then enthroned him, first at the Vatican Palace, and later at St. John Lateran; finally on 18 April they solemnly crowned him at St. Peter's.然後,他們登基的他,第一次在梵蒂岡宮,後來又在聖若望拉特朗,終於在4月18日,他們鄭重地給他戴上的聖彼得。 On the very next day the Sacred College gave official notification of Urban's accession to the six French cardinals in Avignon; the latter recognized and congratulated the choice of their colleagues.就在第二天,在神聖的大學的城市加入法國樞機主教在阿維尼翁的正式通知,而後者的認可和祝賀的選擇,他們的同事。 The Roman cardinals then wrote to the head of the empire and the other Catholic sovereigns.羅馬樞機主教寫信給帝國的和其他天主教主權國家的頭。 Cardinal Robert of Geneva, the future Clement VII of Avignon, wrote in the same strain to his relative the King of France and to the Count of Flanders.樞機主教羅伯特日內瓦,未來克萊門特七世的阿維尼翁,寫了他的親戚,法國國王和佛蘭德斯伯爵的一脈相承。 Pedro de Luna of Aragon, the future Benedict XIII, likewise wrote to several bishops of Spain.佩德羅 - 德 - 月亮的阿拉貢,未來的本篤十三,同樣也寫信給西班牙的幾位主教。

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Thus far, therefore, there was not a single objection to or dissatisfaction with the selection of Bartolommeo Prignano, not a protest, no hesitation, and no fear manifested for the future.因此,到目前為止,有沒有一個反對或不滿意的選擇的Bartolommeo Prignano,沒有抗議,沒有猶豫,沒有體現為對未來的恐懼。 Unfortunately Pope Urban did not realize the hopes to which his election had given rise.不幸的是,教皇烏爾班沒有實現的希望,他的競選已經引起。 He showed himself whimsical, haughty, suspicious, and sometimes choleric in his relations with the cardinals who had elected him.他表明自己異想天開的,高傲的,可疑的,,有時膽汁中的樞機主教們選舉了他與他的關係。 Too obvious roughness and blameable extravagances seemed to show that his unexpected election had altered his character.太明顯的粗糙度和blameable的的的奢侈似乎表明,他意想不到的選舉已經改變了他的性格。 St. Catherine of Siena, with supernatural courage, did not hesitate to make him some very well-founded remarks in this respect, nor did she hesitate when there was question of blaming the cardinals in their revolt against the pope whom they had previously elected.錫耶納的聖凱瑟琳,與超自然的勇氣,沒有猶豫,讓他非常有根有據的言論在這方面,她也沒有猶豫時有問題歸咎於他們的反抗對他們以前當選的教皇,樞機主教。 Some historians state that Urban openly attacked the failings, real or supposed, of members of the Sacred College, and that he energetically refused to restore the pontifical see to Avignon.一些歷史學家指出,城市公開攻擊的失敗,真實的或假想的,在神聖的大學的成員,並大力拒絕恢復他看到阿維尼翁的教皇。 Hence, they add, the growing opposition.因此,他們補充說,越來越多的人反對。 However that may be, none of these unpleasant dissensions which arose subsequently to the election could logically weaken the validity of the choice made on 8 April.但是,可能這些不愉快的糾紛,隨後在選舉產生的,沒有邏輯的有效性減弱4月8日作出的選擇。 The cardinals elected Prignano, not because they were swayed by fear, though naturally they were somewhat fearful of the mischances that might grow out of delay.樞機主教當選Prignano,不是因為他們被恐懼所左右,雖然他們自然是有些可怕的mischances可能增長的延誤。 Urban was pope before his errors; he was still pope after his errors.城市是教皇在他的錯誤,他仍然是教皇後,他的錯誤。 The passions of King Henry IV or the vices of Louis XV did not prevent these monarchs from being and remaining true descendants of St. Louis and lawful kings of France.激情的亨利四世國王路易十五的惡習並沒有阻止這些君主,從剩餘的真正的聖路易斯和合法的法國國王的後裔。 Unhappily such was not, in 1378, the reasoning of the Roman cardinals.不幸的是,1378年的羅馬主教的推理。 Their dissatisfaction continued to increase.他們的不滿繼續增加。 Under pretext of escaping the unhealthy heat of Rome, they withdrew in May to Anagni, and in July to Fondi, under the protection of Queen Joanna of Naples and two hundred Gascon lances of Bernardon de la Salle.他們在藉口逃避羅馬不健康的熱,5月撤回了在阿納尼,並在7月至豐迪,那不勒斯女王喬安娜和加斯科的槍的Bernardon喇沙200的保護下。 They then began a silent campaign against their choice of April, and prepared men's minds for the news of a second election.然後,他們開始對他們的選擇4月,一種無聲的戰役準備的人的頭腦,二選一的消息。 On 20 September thirteen members of the Sacred College precipitated matters by going into conclave at Fondi and choosing as pope Robert of Geneva, who took the name of Clement VII. 9月20日13個成員的神聖的大學沉澱事項,進入秘密會議在豐迪和選擇的教皇日內瓦,羅伯特·克萊門特七世的名稱。 Some months later the new pontiff, driven from the Kingdom of Naples, took up his residence at Avignon; the schism was complete.幾個月後,新的教皇,從那不勒斯王國的驅動,花了他的住所在阿維尼翁的分裂是完整的。

Clement VII was related to or allied with the principal royal families of Europe; he was influential, intellectual, and skilful in politics.克萊門特七世相關的或有關的主要歐洲王室貴族,他是在政治影響力,智力和嫻熟的。 Christendom was quickly divided into two almost equal parties.基督教很快就被分為兩個幾乎相同的當事人。 Everywhere the faithful faced the anxious problem: where is the true pope?無處不在的忠實面對焦慮的問題:哪裡是真正的教宗? The saints themselves were divided: St Catherine of Siena, St. Catherine of Sweden, Bl.聖徒自己被分為:聖凱瑟琳錫耶納,聖凱瑟琳瑞典,BL。 Peter of Aragon, Bl.彼得的阿拉貢,“基本法”。 Ursulina of Parma, Philippe d'Alencon, and Gerard de Groote were in the camp of Urban; St. Vincent Ferrer, Bl. Ursu​​lina,菲利普·德阿朗松,帕爾馬和杰拉德·格魯特在城市的陣營,聖文森特費雷爾,“基本法”。 Peter of Luxemburg, and St. Colette belonged to the party of Clement.盧森堡,和聖彼得科萊特屬於黨的克萊門特。 The century's most famous doctors of law were consulted and most of them decided for Rome.本世紀最有名的醫生的法律諮詢,其中大部分為羅馬決定。 Theologians were divided.神學家有分歧的。 Germans like Henry of Hesse or Langstein (Epistola concilii pacis) and Conrad of Glenhausen (Ep. brevis; Ep. Concordioe) inclined towards Urban; Pierre d'Ailly, his friend Philippe de Maizieres, his pupils Jean Gerson and Nicholas of Clemanges, and with them the whole School of Paris, defended the interests of Clement.德國像亨利黑森州或Langstein的(書信集concilii PACIS)和康拉德Glenhausen(插曲短EP。Concordioe)向城市傾斜;皮埃爾·德阿伊,他的朋友菲利普的Maizieres,他的學生讓格爾森和尼古拉斯的Clemanges,整個學校的巴黎,與他們的利益,克萊門特辯護。 The conflict of rival passions and the novelty of the situation rendered understanding difficult and unanimity impossible.對手的激情和新奇的情況下衝突的理解很難一致不可能呈現的。 As a general thing scholars adopted the opinion of their country.作為一般的東西學者通過他們的國家的意見。 The powers also took sides.的權力,也偏袒。 The greater number of the Italian and German states, England, and Flanders supported the pope of Rome.意大利和德國的國家,英國,法蘭德斯更大數量的羅馬教皇的支持。 On the other hand France, Spain, Scotland, and all the nations in the orbit of France were for the pope of Avignon.另一方面,法國,西班牙,蘇格蘭,和所有的國家在軌道上,法國的阿維尼翁的教皇。 Nevertheless Charles V had first suggested officially to the cardinals of Anagni the assembling of a general council, but he was not heard.不過,查爾斯五世首先提出正式的阿納尼的總理事會組裝的樞機主教,但他沒有聽說過。 Unfortunately the rival popes launched excommunication against each other; they created numerous cardinals to make up for the defections and sent them throughout Christendom to defend their cause, spread their influence, and win adherents.不幸的是,對手教皇發起絕罰對彼此,他們創造了無數的樞機主教彌補的背叛,打發他們整個基督教捍衛自己的事業,傳播他們的影響力,並贏得追隨者。 While these grave and burning discussions were being spread abroad, Boniface IX had succeeded Urban VI at Rome and Benedict XIII had been elected pope at the death of Clement of Avignon.雖然這些嚴重和燃燒的討論被傳到國外,已成功博尼法斯九城市VI在羅馬和本篤十三世被選為教皇克萊門特的阿維尼翁的死亡。 "There are two masters in the vessel who are fencing with and contradicting each other", said Jean Petit at the Council of Paris (1406). “有兩位大師的容器,擊劍和互相矛盾的,說:”:讓,佩蒂特在安理會巴黎(1406)。 Several ecclesiastical assemblies met in France and elsewhere without definite result.幾個教會集會會見了法國和其它地方沒有明確的結果。 The evil continued without remedy or truce.邪惡的繼續沒有補救或休戰。 The King of France and his uncles began to weary of supporting such a pope as Benedict, who acted only according to his humour and who caused the failure of every plan for union.法國的國王和他的叔叔們開始厭倦支持這樣一個教皇本篤十六世,誰擔任他的幽默和導致失敗的工會的每一個計劃。 Moreover, his exactions and the fiscal severity of his agents weighed heavily on the bishops, abbots, and lesser clergy of France.此外,他的苛捐雜稅和沉重地壓在他的代理人財政的嚴重程度主教,住持,和較少的法國神職人員。 Charles VI released his people from obedience to Benedict (1398), and forbade his subjects, under severe penalties, to submit to this pope.查理六世發布了他的人民,服從本篤十六世(1398),並禁止他的臣民,受到嚴厲處罰,向這位教皇。 Every bull or letter of the pope was to be sent to the king; no account was to be taken of privileges granted by the pope; in future every dispensation was to be asked of the ordinaries.每一個牛市的教宗信被送到了國王的,沒有考慮應採取由教皇授予的特權,在未來的每一個要求豁免的普通股。

This therefore was a schism within a schism, a law of separation.因此,這是在分裂的分裂,分離的法律。 The Chancellor of France, who was already viceroy during the illness of Charles VI, thereby became even vice-pope.法國的校長,已經總督在查理六世的病情,從而成為甚至副羅馬教皇。 Not without the connivance of the public power, Geoffrey Boucicaut, brother of the illustrious marshal, laid siege to Avignon, and a more or less strict blockade deprived the pontiff of all communication with those who remained faithful to him.不是沒有公共權力的縱容下,兄弟的赫赫的元帥,杰弗裡Boucicaut,圍攻阿維尼翁,和一個或多或少嚴格的封鎖剝奪了教皇的所有通信與那些仍然忠於他的。 When restored to liberty in 1403 Benedict had not become more conciliating, less obstinate or stubborn.於1403年恢復自由時,本篤十六世並沒有變得更加調解,固執或頑固。 Another private synod, which assembled in Paris in 1406, met with only partial success.另一個私人主教會議,會議於1406年在巴黎會見了只有部分成功。 Innocent VII had already succeeded Boniface of Rome, and, after a reign of two years, was replaced by Gregory XII.無辜的第七已經成功的博尼法斯的羅馬,統治兩年後,格雷戈里十二所取代。 The latter, although of temperate character, seems not to have realized the hopes which Christendom, immeasurably wearied of these endless divisions, had placed in him.後者,雖然溫和的性格,似乎沒有實現的希望基督教,沒法比的,在他厭倦了這些無休止的部門。 The council which assembled a Pisa added a third claimant to the papal throne instead of two (1409).理事會組建了一個比薩了教皇的寶座,而不是兩個(1409年)增加了第三個索賠人。 After many conferences, projects, discussions (oftentimes violent), interventions of the civil powers, catastrophes of all kinds, the Council of Constance (1414) deposed the suspicious John XXIII, received the abdication of the gentle and timid Gregory XII, and finally dismissed the obstinate Benedict XIII.許多會議,項目,討論(常常是暴力的),民事權力的干預措施後,各種災難,安理會的康斯坦茨(1414)被廢黜約翰二十三世的可疑收到的溫柔膽小的格雷戈里十二退位,並最終駁回頑固本篤十三世。 On 11 November, 1417, the assembly elected Odo Colonna, who took the name of Martin V. Thus ended the great schism of the West.在1417年11月11日,大會選舉,誰的名字馬丁五小戶科隆納就這樣結束了西方偉大的分裂。

(2) From this brief summary it will be readily concluded that this schism did not at all resemble that of the East, that it was something unique, and that it has remained so in history. (2)從這個簡短的總結,它會很容易地得出結論,分裂沒有在所有類似的東東,它是唯一的,而它在歷史上一直如此。 It was not a schism properly so called, being in reality a deplorable misunderstanding concerning a question of fact, an historical complication which lasted forty years.這不是一個分裂的所謂正確,在現實中是一個可悲的誤解有關事實問題,一個歷時40年的歷史並發症。 In the West there was no revolt against papal authority in general, no scorn of the sovereign power of which St. Peter was the representative.在西方,沒有任何反抗羅馬教皇的權威,在一般情況下,沒有宗主國的蔑視,聖彼得是代表。 Faith in the necessary unity never wavered a particle; no one wished voluntarily to separate from the head of the Church.在必要的團結的信念從未動搖過的粒子,沒有人願意自願分離的教會的頭。 Now this intention alone is the characteristic mark of the schismatic spirit (Summa, II-II, Q. xxxix, a. 1).現在這個目的僅僅是分裂的精神,II-II(總結,問:三十九,1)的特徵標記。 On the contrary everyone desired that unity, materially overshadowed and temporarily compromised, should speedily shine forth with new splendour.每個人都希望,團結,重大淹沒,暫時妥協,相反,應迅速與新的光彩照耀。 The theologians, canonists, princes, and faithful of the fourteenth century felt so intensely and maintained so vigorously that this character of unity was essential to the true Church of Jesus Christ, that at Constance solicitude for unity took precedence of that for reform.的14世紀的神學家,聖典,王子,和忠實的感覺如此強烈和維護,大力這個角色的團結是必不可少的真正的教會的耶穌基督,在康斯坦斯慰問團結,改革優先。 The benefit of unity had never been adequately appreciated till it had been lost, till the Church had become bicephalous of tricephalous, and there seemed to be no head precisely because there were too many.統一的好處從來沒有得到充分的讚賞,直到它已經丟失,直到教會已成為兩頭的tricephalous,似乎是無頭的,正是因為有太多的。 Indeed the first mark of the true Church consists above all in unity under one head, the Divinely appointed guardian of the unity of faith and of worship.事實上,真正的教會由上面的第一個標記,團結下一個頭,神監護人的統一的信仰和崇拜。 Now in practice there was then no wilful error regarding the necessity of this character of the true Church, much less was there any culpable revolt against the known head.在實踐中有沒有故意的錯誤,關於這個人物的真教會的必要性,更談不上有任何有罪的反抗已知的頭。 There was simply ignorance, and among the greater number invincible ignorance regarding the person of the true pope, regarding him who was at that time the visible depositary of the promises of the invisible Head.根本就無知,和在更大的無敵無知的人真正的教宗,就他當時的承諾無形的頭可見的保存。 How indeed was this ignorance to be dispelled?的確是無知被驅散? The only witnesses of the facts, the authors of the double election, were the same persons.唯一的證人的事實,雙選的作者,是同一人。 The cardinals of 1378 held successive opinions. 1378樞機主教舉行了連續意見。 They had in turn testified for Urban, the first pope elected, on 8 April, and for Clement of Avignon on 20 September.反過來證明他們的城市,第一任教皇當選後,於4月8日,9月20日和克萊門特的阿維尼翁。 Who were to be believed?誰是可以相信的呢? The members of the Sacred College, choosing and writing in April, or the same cardinals speaking and acting contradictorily in September?成員在神聖的大學,在四月的選擇和寫作,或相同的樞機主教說,在九月矛盾? Fondi was the starting point of the division; there likewise must be sought the serious errors and formidable responsibilities.豐迪為起點的劃分,同樣必須尋求的嚴重錯誤和重大責任。

Bishops, princes, theologians, and canonists were in a state of perplexity from which they could not emerge in consequence of the conflicting, not disinterested, and perhaps insincere testimony of the cardinals.茫然不知所措,他們可能不會出現在結果的相互矛盾的,而不是無私的,也許是言不由衷的證詞的樞機主教,主教,王子,神學家和canonists。 Thenceforth how were the faithful to dispel uncertainty and form a morally sure opinion?從此,如何忠實地消除不確定性,形成了道德上的肯定意見? They relied on their natural leaders, and these, not knowing exactly what to hold, followed their interests or passions and attached themselves to probabilities.他們依靠自己的天生的領導者,而這些,不知道到底該怎麼保持他們的利益或激情和重視自己的概率。 It was a terrible and distressing problem which lasted forty years and tormented two generations of Christians; a schism in the course of which there was no schismatic intention, unless exception perhaps be made of some exalted persons who should have considered the interests of the Church before all else.這是一個可怕的,令人痛心的問題,歷時40年,折磨著兩代人的基督徒,在這一過程中,有一個分裂是沒有分裂的意圖,除非例外也許可以作出一些崇高的人應該考慮誰的利益的教堂前一切。

Exception should also be made of some doctors of the period whose extraordinary opinions show what was the general disorder of minds during the schism (N. Valois, I, 351; IV, 501).期間,其非凡的意見顯示,在分裂(I,351 N. Valois的,IV,501)什麼是一般疾病的頭腦有些醫生也應該異常。 Apart from these exceptions no one had the intention of dividing the seamless robe, no one formally desired schism; those concerned were ignorant or misled, but not culpable.除了這些例外,沒有人有意向劃分的無縫長袍,沒有人正式所需的分裂;有關人員的無知或誤導,但不是有罪的。 In behalf of the great majority of clergy and people must be pleaded the good faith which excludes all errors and the wellnigh impossibility for the simple faithful to reach the truth.在絕大多數的僧侶和人民的代表,必須承認的的誠信不包括所有的錯誤和簡單的忠實的wellnigh是不可能達到真理。 This is the conclusion reached by a study of the facts and contemporary documents.這是一個的事實和當代文獻的研究得出的結論。 This King Charles V, the Count of Flanders, the Duke of Brittany, and Jean Gerson, the great chancellor of the university, vie with one another in declaring.這國王查爾斯五世,富蘭德的計數,布列塔尼公爵,讓格爾森,偉大的大學校長,爭奪彼此的聲明。 D'Ailly, then Bishop of Cambrai, in his diocesan synods echoed the same moderate and conciliatory sentiments. D'阿伊,然後康布雷主教,在他的教區的主教會議呼應了同樣的溫和,溫和的情緒。 In 1409 he said to the Genoese: "I know no schismatics save those who stubbornly refuse to learn the truth, or who after discovering it refuse to submit to it, or who still formally declare that they do not want to follow the movement for union".在1409,他說“熱那亞人說:”我知道,他們頑固地拒絕了解真相,或沒有schismatics後,發現它拒絕接受它,或誰正式宣布,他們不想按照工會運動“。 Schism and heresy as sins and vices, he adds in 1412, can only result from stubborn opposition either to the unity of the Church, or to an article of faith.分裂和異端的罪孽和罪惡,他補充說:1412年,只能導致頑固反對教會合一的,或者一篇文章的信仰。 This is the pure doctrine of the Angelic Doctor (cf. Tshackert, "Peter von Ailli", appendix 32, 33).這是純理論的天使般的醫生(參見Tshackert,“彼得·馮Ailli”的附錄32,33)。

(3) Most modern doctors uphold the same ideas. (3)大多數現代醫生堅持同樣的想法。 It suffices to quote Canon J. Didiot, dean of the faculty of Lille: "If after the election of a pope and before his death or resignation a new election takes place, it is null and schismatic; the one elected is not in the Apostolic Succession. This was seen at the beginning of what is called, somewhat incorrectly, the Great Schism of the West, which was only an apparent schism from a theological standpoint. If two elections take place simultaneously or nearly so, one according to laws previously passed and the other contrary to them, the apostolicity belongs to the pope legally chosen and not to the other, and though there be doubts, discussions, and cruel divisions on this point, as at the time of the so-called Western Schism, it is no less true, no less real that the apostolicity exists objectively in the true pope. What does it matter, in this objective relation, that it is not manifest to all and is not recognized by all till long after? A treasure is bequeathed to me, but I do not know whether it is in the chest A or in the casket B. Am I any less the possessor of this treasure?"這足以佳能J. Didiot,里爾學院院長的話:“如果一個新的選舉後,選舉教宗之前,他的死亡或辭職發生時,它是空的,分裂的當選是不是在使徒繼承。這是看到了什麼叫開始,有些不正確,西方大分裂,這是一個明顯的分裂從神學的角度來看,如果兩個選舉同時或接近,根據法律先前已通過相反,他們和其他的使徒性屬於合法選擇,而不是其他的教皇,雖然有懷疑,討論和殘酷部門在這一點上,在所謂的西方分裂的時間,它是沒有那麼真實,沒有真正的使徒性是客觀存在的,在真正的教宗。是什麼關係,在這一目標的關係,它是不是體現了大家,不承認所有一直到後財富遺留給我,但我不知道這是否是在胸部或在棺材B.我任何養著這個寶藏嗎?“ After the theologian let us hear the canonist.神學家後,讓我們聽到的canonist。 The following are the words of Bouix, so competent in all these questions.以下是的的話Boui​​x,在所有這些問題的能力。 Speaking of the events of this sad period he says: "This dissension was called schism, but incorrectly. No one withdrew from the true Roman pontiff considered as such, but each obeyed the one he regarded as the true pope. They submitted to him, not absolutely, but on condition that he was the true pope. Although there were several obediences, nevertheless there was no schism properly so-called" (De Papa, I, 461).說到這個傷心的事件,他說:“此糾紛被稱為分裂,但不正確。沒有一個真正的羅馬教皇認為這樣退出,但是每一個服從他視為真正的教皇,他們提交給他,不是絕對的,但在情況下,他是真正的教宗。雖然有幾個obediences,然而有所謂的“(德爸爸,我,461),沒有分裂。

(4) To contemporaries this problem was, as has been sufficiently shown, almost insoluble. (4)同時代的這個問題,因為已經充分表明,幾乎不溶。 Are our lights fuller and more brilliant than theirs?我們的燈比他們更全面,更輝煌嗎? After six centuries we are able to judge more disinterestedly and impartially, and apparently the time is at hand for the formation of a decision, if not definitive, at least better informed and more just.六百年之後,我們能夠更加無私和公正的判斷,顯然是在手形成的決定,如果沒有明確的,至少更好地了解和更公正的。 In our opinion the question made rapid strides towards the end of the nineteenth century.在我們看來,這個問題取得了長足的進步,在19世紀接近尾聲。 Cardinal Hergenröther, Bliemetzrieder, Hefele, Hinschius, Kraus, Brück, Funk, and the learned Pastor in Germany, Marion, Chenon, de Beaucourt, and Denifle in France, Kirsch in Switzerland, Palma, long after Rinaldi, in Italy, Albers in Holland (to mention only the most competent or illustrious) have openly declared in favour of the popes of Rome.主要Hergenröther,Bliemetzrieder,黑弗勒,Hinschius,克勞斯,布魯克,恐怖,和在德國學習的牧師,馬里昂,Chenon,Beaucourt的,和在法國德尼夫勒,基爾希在瑞士,帕爾馬,里納爾迪後不久,在意大利,荷蘭阿爾伯斯在(只提最有能力的或傑出的)已公開宣布贊成羅馬教皇。 Noel Valois, who assumes authority on the question, at first considered the rival popes as doubtful, and believed "that the solution of this great problem was beyond the judgment of history" (I,8).諾埃爾·瓦盧瓦,誰承擔權力的問題上,在第一個考慮的對手教皇為可疑,並相信“這個大問題的解決方案是超越歷史的審判”(I,8)。 Six years later he concluded his authoritative study and reviewed the facts related in his four large volumes. 6年後,他結束了他的權威性的研究和審查有關的事實在他的四個大容量。 The following is his last conclusion, much more explicit and decided than his earlier judgment: "A tradition has been established in favour of the popes of Rome which historical investigation tends to confirm".以下是他最後的結論,更加明確,並決定比他先前的判斷:“一個傳統,建立了有利於羅馬教皇的歷史調查會確認”。 Does not this book itself (IV, 503), though the author hesitates to decide, bring to the support of the Roman thesis new arguments, which in the opinion of some critics are quite convincing?這難道不是書本身(IV,503),雖然作者不願來決定,帶來新的論據有些批評者認為,這是相當有說服力的羅馬論文的支持呢? A final and quite recent argument comes from Rome.最後一個相當最近的說法來自羅馬。 In 1904 the "Gerarchia Cattolica", basing its arguments on the date of the Liber Pontificalis, compiled a new and corrected list of sovereign pontiffs. 1904年,“Gerarchia卡托利卡”上的日期的LIBER Pontificalis的基礎參數,編譯一個新的主權教宗和更正後的名單。 Ten names have disappeared from this list of legitimate popes, neither the popes of Avignon nor those of Pisa being ranked in the true lineage of St. Peter. 10的名字已經消失的合法教皇從這個名單,既不的阿維尼翁的教皇也被排在比薩的真正血統的聖彼得大教堂。 If this deliberate omission is not proof positive, it is at least a very strong presumption in favour of the legitimacy of the Roman popes Urban VI, Boniface IX, Innocent VII, and Gregory XII.如果這種故意的不作為並不能證明積極的,它至少是一個非常強大的推定,贊成的合法性羅馬教皇的城市VI,博尼法斯九,無辜的第七和格雷戈里十二。 Moreover, the names of the popes of Avignon, Clement VII and Benedict XIII, were again taken by later popes (in the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries) who were legitimate.此外,教皇克萊門特七世和本篤十三,阿維尼翁,再次名稱後來的教皇(在十六世紀和十八世紀)是合法的。 We have already quoted much, having had to rely on ancient and contemporary testimonies, on those of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries as on those of the nineteenth and even the twentieth, but we shall transcribe two texts borrowed from writers who with regard to the Church are at opposite poles.我們已經引用,不得不依賴於古代和現代的證詞,對那些在第十四和第十五個世紀的19甚至二十,但我們應當當場記錄兩個方面的教會作家借用文本是截然相反。 The first is Gregorovius, whom no one will suspect of exaggerated respect for the papacy.首先是Gregorovius,沒有人會懷疑誇張的尊重羅馬教皇。 Concerning the schismatic divisions of the period he writes: "A temporal kingdom would have succumbed thereto; but the organization of the spiritual kingdom was so wonderful, the ideal of the papacy so indestructible, that this, the most serious of schisms, served only to demonstrate its indivisibility" (Gesch. der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter, VI, 620).關於分裂的分裂期間,他寫道:“,會屈服於其顳王國;但該組織的精神王國是如此美妙,如此堅不可摧的教皇的理想,這一點,最嚴重的分裂,只會使展示其不可分割“(Gesch. DER STADT ROM IM Mittelalter,VI,620)。 From a widely different standpoint de Maistre holds the same view: "This scourge of contemporaries is for us an historical treasure. It serves to prove how immovable is the throne of St. Peter. What human organization would have withstood this trial?"從一個廣泛的不同的立場邁斯特持同樣的觀點:“這種禍害的同時代人,對我們來說是一個歷史寶庫。這足以證明如何不動產是聖彼得寶座。什麼樣的人組織經受住了這次審判嗎?” (Du Pape, IV, conclusion). (杜佩普,四,結論)。

Publication information Written by Louis Salembier.出版信息作者:路易Salembier。 Transcribed by Judy Levandoski.轉錄由Judy Levandoski。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.天主教百科全書,卷十三。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年2月1日。 Remy Lafort, DD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,DD,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

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