Anglican Communion英國聖公會

General Information 一般資料

The Anglican Communion is a worldwide fellowship of independent churches derived from the Church of England.英國聖公會是一個世界性的獎學金獨立教會源自於英國教會。 The communion has 70 provinces, located on every continent, with some 430 dioceses, and approximately 27 million members.共融有70個省,坐落於每一個大陸,與一些430教區,以及大約27萬成員。 Although independent, the member churches acknowledge a common heritage including the Book of Common Prayer, the Thirty Nine Articles, and the threefold ministry of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons. The bishops meet every ten years, at the invitation of the archbishop of Canterbury, in the Lambeth Conference.雖然獨立後,教會成員承認一個共同的遺產,包括這本書的共同祈禱, 39條,以及三倍部主教,司鐸和執事。主教滿足每一個十年的邀請,於坎特伯雷大主教在琳寶大會。 Cooperation between the member churches is facilitated by the Anglican Consultative Council, with its secretary general and with the archbishop of Canterbury as president.成員國之間的合作教會了便利聖公會諮詢會,其秘書長,並與坎特伯雷大主教為總統。 Regional councils link provinces within specific geographical regions.區議會的聯繫省份特定的地理區域。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
The Anglican Communion is committed to the reunion of all Christian churches.英國聖公會致力於向留尼汪所有的基督教教堂。 In 1888 the Lambeth Conference adopted as its basis for reunion a Quadrilateral, by which it defined those things essential to any church:在1888年的琳寶會議通過,其依據是團聚的四邊形,通過它來定義這些東西,必須有教會:
  1. "The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, as 'containing all things necessary to salvation,' and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith"; "聖經中的舊約及新約,因為'包含了所有的東西,要救國, '和為法治和終極標準的信念" ;
  2. "The Apostles' Creed, as the Baptismal Symbol; and the Nicene Creed, as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith"; "使徒們的信條,作為洗禮的象徵;尼西亞,為充分陳述基督教信仰" ;
  3. "The two Sacraments ordained by Christ Himself - Baptism and the Supper of the Lord - ministered with unfailing use of Christ's words of Institution, and of the elements ordained by Him"; " ,這兩個聖禮受戒由基督本人-的洗禮和晚飯的主- mi nistered與鼎力使用基督的話,機構和要素受戒他" ;
  4. "The Historic Episcopate, locally adapted in the methods of its administration to the varying needs of the nations and peoples called of God into the Unity of His Church." "歷史性的主教,適應當地條件,在方法及其政府的不同需要各國和各國人民的所謂上帝納入統一的,他的教會" 。

John E Booty約翰e戰利品

Bibliography 參考書目
M Marshall, The Anglican Church Today and Tomorrow (1984); S Neill, Anglicanism (1977).米馬歇爾,聖公會今天和明天( 1984年) ; s尼爾anglicanism ( 1977 ) 。

Anglican Communion英國聖公會

General Information 一般資料

The Anglican Communion is a worldwide fellowship of national and regional churches in communion with the Church of England and the archbishop of Canterbury.英國聖公會是一個世界性的獎學金國家和地區的教會共融與英國教會和坎特伯雷大主教。 With about 385 dioceses throughout the world, the total membership of the churches, including the Episcopal church in the United States, is approximately 73 million.約385教區在世界各地,會員總數教會,其中包括聖公會,在美國,大約有7300萬戶。 Intended to promote mutual understanding and cooperation in common tasks, the Communion unites churches that share a common heritage and subscribe to the Lambeth Quadrilateral of 1884.旨在促進相互了解和合作,在共同的任務,團結共融的教堂都有一個共同的遺產,並訂閱了琳寶四邊形的1884年。 The Quadrilateral, a statement of the doctrines considered essential from the Anglican standpoint, upholds the catholic and apostolic faith and order of the Christian church as found in Scripture, the sacraments of baptism and the Eucharist, the Apostles' Creed and Nicene Creed, and episcopal government (see Bishop).四邊形,聲明該學說認為,必須從聖公會的立場,堅持天主教和使徒信念和秩序的基督教教堂,因為發現經文,聖禮的洗禮和聖體聖事,使徒們的信條和尼西亞,並推崇政府(見主教) 。 All the churches use the Book of Common Prayer, reformed and adapted to the needs of the times and of particular locales.所有教會使用這本書的共同祈禱,經過改革和調整,以適應時代的需要和特定的地區。

Although the Anglican Communion has existed since the 16th and 17th centuries, when the Church of England established foreign missions, its effective function as a communion of independent churches began in 1867.雖然英國聖公會已經存在,自十六,十七世紀時,英國教會設立的外國使團,它的有效功能,作為一個共融的獨立教會開始於1867年。 In that year, the first Lambeth Conference, an assembly of the bishops of the whole Anglican Communion under the presidency of the archbishop of Canterbury, was held at Lambeth Palace, London.在這一年裡,首先琳寶會議,集會的主教是整個英國聖公會的主持下,坎特伯雷大主教,舉行琳寶宮,倫敦。 A conference has met there about every ten years since then to deal with doctrinal, disciplinary, and ecumenical matters, as well as missionary responsibilities.一次會議已召開,有大約每隔10年,自那時以來,以處理教義,紀律,並合一的事項,以及傳教的責任。 Much of the agenda has concerned the unity of the church.有不少議程也是十分關注的統一教會。 In 1948, the Lambeth Conference heralded the birth of the Church of South India, which united certain Anglican dioceses with non-Anglican churches in that area. 1948年,琳寶會議宣告誕生教堂的南印度,美國某些聖公會教區與非英國國教教會在這方面的工作。 The Lambeth Conference of 1968 established the Anglican Consultative Council under the presidency of the archbishop of Canterbury.該琳寶大會, 1968年確立了英國聖公會諮商委員會的主持下,坎特伯雷大主教。 The council, composed of 60 representatives from every part of the Anglican Communion who meet every two to three years, is intended to supply guidance on policy matters of importance to the Communion, to forward ecumenical relations, and to provide cooperation in missionary work.理事會,由60人組成的代表從各個部分的英國聖公會符合每兩至三年,是為了供給引導政策,重大事項向交流,以推動合一關係,並提供合作,在其傳教工作。 Regional councils are also active in South America, East Asia, the South Pacific, and North America, with more to be established.區域市政局也很活躍,在南美,東南亞,南太平洋,北美洲,更待建立。 These councils were created to promote better communication among the churches of a given area and to advance cooperative planning efforts.這些評議會創造,以促進加強他們之間的溝通,教會的某一特定領域,並推動合作規劃努力。

John Everitt Booty約翰everitt戰利品

Anglican Communion英國聖公會

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Anglican Communion is a worldwide fellowship of churches in communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury (England) and whose bishops are invited each decade (except during wartime) to the Lambeth Conference held in London since 1867.英國聖公會是一個世界性的團契教會的共融與坎特伯雷大主教(英格蘭) ,他們的主教是應邀每個十年(除戰時)向琳寶會議在倫敦舉行,自1867年。 Anglicans hold that theirs is the church of NT times and the early church, reformed in the sixteenth century and waiting for the reunion of all Christians.教徒認為,他們是教會的新台幣時代和早期教會,改革後,在16世紀,等待著團圓的所有基督徒。

Bishops are the chief officers of Anglican churches, with arch - bishops or presiding bishops functioning as "first among equals" with national or provincial responsibilities and administrative authority.主教是行政人員的聖公會教堂,與拱-主教或主教主持運作的"第一個平等者之間的"與國家或省的職責和行政權力。 Only bishops may ordain clergy and consecrate other bishops.只有主教可能阿拉維的神職人員和consecrate等主教。 Some dioceses have assistant bishops called coadjutor or suffragan bishops.一些教區已經助理主教呼籲教區助理或suffragan主教。 The latter does not automatically succeed the diocesan bishop, whereas the coadjutor does.後者並不自動接替教區主教,而教區助理是否。

The basic unit in the church is the parish with its congregation and rector.基本單位,在教會教區與聖堂,並任校長。 A mission may be a congregation dependent upon a parish (or diocese).任務可能是一個眾取決於教區(或教區) 。 The diocese is that group of parishes and missions under a bishop whose representatives meet each year for a diocesan convention (or council).教區是該集團的教區和使命下一位主教,其代表每年舉行一次,今年為拔萃公約(或理事會) 。 Each parish and mission is represented by laity as well as clergy, and laity are represented on all the significant governing committees.各教區和使命,是代表俗人以及神職人員,並俗人派出代表參與所有重要的管治委員會。 Bishops are elected at these conventions or councils in most Anglican churches, but some bishops are still appointed, as in the case of the Church of England and many mission dioceses.主教團選出,在這些公約或議會,在大多數英國聖公會教堂,但有些主教仍獲委任,情況正如英國教會和許多團教區。

The Book of Common Prayer, in one of its many derived forms, is used by all Anglican churches. 這本書的共同祈禱,在其許多衍生形式,是用所有的聖公會教堂。 It is regarded as the distinctive embodiment of Anglican doctrine following the principle of "the rule of prayer is the rule of belief" (lex orandi, lex credendi).它被視為是鮮明的體現聖公會教義以下"的原則,法治的祈禱是法治的信仰" (法orandi ,法credendi ) 。 The section of the Prayer Book called the Ordinal, by which clergy are ordained following their vows, is especially crucial for doctrinal standards.該科的祈禱書中所謂有序,其中神職人員都是受戒後,他們的誓言,尤其是至關重要的理論標準。 The Holy Scripture is declared to be the Word of God and to contain all that is necessary to salvation.聖經是被宣布為上帝的話和遏制一切必要救贖。 The Nicene and Apostles' Creeds are accepted as confessing the faith of Scripture and classical Christianity.該nicene和使徒們信條已被接受為供認信仰的經文和古典基督教。

The Thirty nine Articles, dating from the Elizabethan settlement in the sixteenth century, are not required for explicit assent in most of the communion, but they are generally bound with the Prayer Book and regarded as an important historical statement and document. 該39條,可追溯到伊麗莎白解決在十六世紀,則不須明確的,在大部分的共融的,但他們一般都必然與祈禱書,並視為一個重要的歷史陳述和文件。 These articles explicitly reject the doctrine of transubstantiation and affirm the doctrines of justification by faith, the Trinity, and the person of Christ as "very God and very Man."這些條款明確拒絕中庸陷於變體說,肯定教義的因信稱義,三位一體,和該人的基督"非常上帝和非常人" 。

The worship in Anglican churches varies widely but is characterized by an attempt to follow the liturgical year; that is, to read the prescribed lessons designed to emphasize that portion of revelation from advent and the nativity (Christmas) through the manifestation of Christ to the Gentiles (Epiphany), Lent, Easter, and Pentecost.這個禮拜在英國聖公會教堂大相徑庭,但特點是企圖跟隨禮儀一年,即是看明教訓,旨在強調這部分啟示的來臨和nativity (聖誕節)通過,體現了基督的外邦人(頓悟) ,出借,復活節,五旬。 Worship is decisively biblical in that readings from both testaments are required at all normal services.崇拜的是果斷聖經中說,讀,從雙方的見證,都需要在所有正常服務。 The Prayer Book is saturated with Scripture in the phrases of the prayers, the versicles and responses, the canticles, and the Psalter (book of Psalms).禱告書是飽和的經文,在句子的祈禱, versicles及反應, canticles和psalter (書中的詩篇) 。

The Lord's Supper, or Holy Eucharist, is generally regarded as the central service, and gradually over the last century has come to be held with increasing frequency. 主的晚餐,或者聖體聖事,是通常被視為中央服務,並逐步在過去的世紀已經到來將頻繁舉行。 The norm for the public worship is to stand to sing, sit to listen, and kneel to pray.規範,為市民的崇拜,是站在唱歌,靜坐,虛心聽取意見,並下跪祈禱。 In recent revisions the Prayer Book has seen its most substantial changes from the sixteenth century work of Thomas Cranmer.在最近修改的祈禱書中看到了其最大幅度的變化,從16世紀的工作,托馬斯克蘭默。 The chief characteristics of the new books are flexibility, with options ranging from forms virtually identical to the traditional books to others which are exceedingly informal, replacing "thou" with "you" in addressing God, and giving modern synonyms for more obscure terms.行政特徵的新的書籍是靈活性,與期權,從形式幾乎相同,以傳統的書籍給他人,這是非常具有非正式的,代替"你"與"你"在處理上帝,並讓現代同義詞更加模糊不清的條款。 In addition, the new revisions attempt to include more lay and congregational participation than was possible in the sixteenth century, when a literate congregation could not be assumed.此外,新修改的嘗試,以包括更多裁員和堂會參與,較有可能在16世紀,當一個有文化的會眾不能假設。 The revisions have, however, met with considerable resistance on the part of many who feel the language to be inferior to Cranmer's and that some of the changes have unfortunate doctrinal implications.修改的,不過,遇到了相當大的阻力對一部分有不少人覺得語言不亞於克蘭默的那部分的變化,不幸教義的影響。

The overall practical effect of this growing diversity among the Prayer Books will likely lead to more emphasis on Anglican identity being drawn from the pan Anglican communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury than on the use of a common Prayer Book as has been the case in the past.總體的實際效果這一日益嚴重的多樣性之間的祈禱書中,將有可能導致更多的側重於聖公會身分取自潘聖公會與坎特伯雷大主教比對使用一個共同祈禱書已經過去的情況。

The basic intention of Anglican worship is expressed in the Prayer Book: "to render thanks for the great benefits that we have received at his hands, to set forth his most worthy praise, to hear his most holy word, and to ask those things which are requisite and necessary, as well as for the body as the soul."基本意向英國國教的崇拜主要體現在祈禱書中說: "使感謝你們的巨大好處,我們已經收到,在他的手中,以闡述他最值得讚美,聽到他最神聖的字眼,並要求這些東西是必要的和必要的,也是對人體具有靈魂" 。 This is sought to be done with all the majesty, solemnity, and aesthetic quality possible, while at the same time making the mystery and awe as accessible and relevant as can be done to any and all conditions.這是試圖做的一切,女王陛下的嚴肅性,審美素質,而在同一時間,使神秘與敬畏,因為方便,並切合實際,可以做任何及所有條件。

The wide diversity within Anglicanism is reflected by the astonishing growth and evangelical character of the church in East Africa, the highly sacramental and Anglo Catholic tradition of the Province of South Africa, the liberal spirit and discomfort with classical expressions of orthodoxy on the part of the authors of The Myth of God Incarnate, and the conservative evangelicals who retain an unyielding loyalty to Scripture and the Thirty nine Articles.廣泛多樣性anglicanism是反映了驚人的增長和福音性質的教會在東非,高聖事和Anglo天主教的傳統,該省的南非,自由的精神和不舒服,與古典的表達正統論部分的作者的神話,上帝的化身,和保守的福音派人士保留了不屈不撓的忠誠經文和39條。

CF Allison比照艾里遜
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
PC Hughes, The Anglican Reformers; S Neill, Anglicanism; More and Cross, Anglicanism; W Temple, Doctrine in the Church of England.電腦休斯,英國聖公會的改革者; s尼爾anglicanism ;更多和交叉, anglicanism ;瓦特廟,學說,在英國教會。

Anglicanism anglicanism

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

A term used to denote the religious belief and position of members of the established Church of England, and of the communicating churches in the British possessions, the United States (see EPISCOPAL CHURCH), and elsewhere.使用的一個術語,用來指宗教信仰和議員的立場所建立的英國教會,該教會溝通,在英國的財產,美國(見聖公會) ,以及其他地方。 It includes those who have accepted the work of the English Reformation as embodied in the Church of England or in the offshoot Churches which in other countries have adhered, at least substantially, to its doctrines, its organization, and its liturgy.它包括那些已經接受工作的英語改革體現在英國教會的,或者在分支教會,這在其他國家都堅持的,至少大大,其學說,它的組織,它的禮拜儀式。 Apart from minor or missionary settlements, the area in which Anglicanism is to be found corresponds roughly with those portions of the globe which are, or were formally, under the British flag.除了輕微或傳教士定居點,在這方面anglicanism是要找到對應大致與這些部分在全球都是,或者被正式下,英國國旗。


To form a general idea of Anglicanism as a religious system, it will be convenient to sketch it in rough outline as it exists in the Established Church of England, bearing in mind that there are differences in detail, mainly in liturgy and church-government, to be found in other portions of the Anglican communion.形成一個大略的構想anglicanism為一個宗教系統,可以方便,以素描,它在粗略大綱,因為它存在於既定的英國教會,銘記有差異細節,主要是在禮拜儀式和教會政府,被發現在其他部分聖公會共融。

The members of the Church of England are professed Christians, and claim to be baptized members of the Church of Christ.該教會的成員的英格蘭自稱基督徒,並聲稱自己是受洗的教會的成員的喊聲。

They accept the Scriptures as contained in the Authorized Version, as the Word of God.他們接受聖經所載授權的版本,因為上帝的話。

They hold the Scriptures to be the sole and supreme rule of faith, in the sense that the Scriptures contain all things necessary to salvation and that nothing can be required of anyone as an article of faith which is not contained therein, and cannot be proved thereby.他們舉行誦經,以成為唯一和最高的法治信仰,在這個意義上說,經文包含一切必要的救贖,並沒有任何東西可以得到所需的任何人,作為一個信條,而不是內容,並不能證明,從而。

They accept the Book of Common Prayer as the practical rule of their belief and worship, and in it they use as standards of doctrine the three Creeds &151; the Apostles', the Nicene, and the Athanasian.他們接受這本書的共同祈禱,因為實際統治他們的信仰和崇拜,而在它使用標準的學說三個信條&151;使徒們, nicene ,以及亞他那修信經。

They believe in two sacraments of the Gospel &151; Baptism and the Lord's Supper -as generally necessary to salvation.他們相信,在兩個聖禮的福音&151;洗禮和主的晚餐-作為一般都需要救贖。

They claim to have Apostolic succession and a validly ordained ministry, and only persons whom they believe to be thus ordained are allowed to minister in their churches.他們聲稱已經使徒繼承和具有法律效力的受戒部,而且只有其中的人,他們相信是因此受戒讓部長在他們的教堂。

They believe that the Church of England is a true and reformed part, or branch, or pair of provinces of the Catholic Church of Christ.他們認為,英國教會是一個真正的和改革的一部分,或科,或對各省的天主教教會的真理。

They maintain that the Church of England is free from all foreign jurisdiction.他們認為,英國教會是不受任何外國司法管轄區。

They recognize the King as Supreme Governor of the Church and acknowledge that to him "appertains the government of all estates whether civil or ecclesiastical, in all causes."他們承認,國王作為最高總督的教會,並承認他的" appertains政府的所有屋無論是民事或教會,在一切事業" 。

The clergy, before being appointed to a benefice or licensed to preach, subscribe and declare that they "assent to the Thirty-nine Articles, and to the Book of Common Prayer, and of Ordering of Bishops, priests, and deacons, and believe the doctrine of the Church of England as therein set forth to be agreeable to the Word of God".神職人員,然後被任命為一個benefice或領有牌照,以說教,認購,並宣布自己是"贊同向39條,並以這本書的共同祈禱,並下令實施的主教,司鐸和執事們,並相信學說的英國教會,因為那裡的提出必須同意上帝的話" 。

One of the Articles (XXV) thus subscribed approves the First and Second Book of Homilies as containing "a godly and wholesome doctrine necessary for these times", and adjudges them to be read in churches "diligently and distinctly".其中的文章( 25 ) ,因此認購核准的第一和第二本書的頌歌含有"的神聖和有益健康的學說有必要為這些時報" ,並adjudges他們閱讀教堂"勤奮和鮮明的" 。

To these general characteristics we may add by way of corrective that while the Bible is accepted much latitude is allowed as to the nature and extent of its inspiration; that the Eucharistic teaching of the Prayer Book is subject to various and opposed interpretations; that Apostolic succession is claimed by many to be beneficial, but not essential, to the nature of the Church; that the Apostles' Creed is the only one to which assent can be required from the laity, and that Articles of Religion are held to be binding only on the licensed and beneficed clergy.這些一般特徵,我們可以補充的方式糾正說,雖然聖經是接受得多緯度是允許令的性質和程度,其靈感;表示,聖體聖事的教學中的祈禱書是受到種種反對的詮釋;宗徒繼承據稱,被許多人是有好處的,但不是必需的,以性質的教會;使徒們的信條是唯一一名,其中核可,可以要求從俗人,而且文章的宗教都是以具有約束力只領有牌照和beneficed神職人員。


Inside these outlines, which are necessarily vague, the constitution of the Church of England has been largely determined by the events which attended its settlement under the Tudors.這些內綱要,其中必然是模糊的,憲法的英國教會,已大致確定所發生的事件,其中參加其定居下,都鐸王朝。

Original Loyalty to Rome原來效忠羅馬

Before the breach with Rome under Henry VIII there was absolutely no doctrinal difference between the faith of Englishmen and the rest of Catholic Christendom, and "Anglicanism", as connoting a separate or independent religious system, was unknown.前違反與羅馬下,亨利八世是根本沒有理論的差異信仰的英國人和其餘天主教基督教,而" anglicanism " ,因為connoting一個單獨的或獨立的宗教體系,是未知之數。

The name Ecclesia Anglicana, or English Church, was of course employed, but always in the Catholic and Papal use of the term as signifying that part or region of the one Catholic Church under the jurisdiction of the Pope which was situated in England, and precisely in the same way as the Church in Scotland was called the Ecclesia Scotticana, the Church in France, the Ecclesia Gallicana, and the Church in Spain the Ecclesia Hispanica.名稱Ecclesia的anglicana ,或英語教堂,是的,當然有工作,但總是在天主教和教皇一詞的使用,因為這意味著部分或地區的一個天主教教會的管轄之下,教宗這是坐落在英格蘭,而且精確在以同樣的方式作為教會在蘇格蘭被稱為scotticana教會,教會在法國,教會gallicana ,以及教會在西班牙教會了梧桐。 That such national or regional appellations were a part of the style in the Roman Curia itself, and that they in no sense could have implied any indication of independence from Rome, is sufficiently well known to all who are familiar with pre-Reformation records.這些國家或地區的稱謂是一個部分的作風,在羅馬教廷本身,而且不論在任何意義上可以有隱含任何跡象獨立,從羅馬,目前已有足夠的都知道,他們所熟悉的學前教育改革的紀錄。

Pope Honorius III, in 1218, in his Bull to King Alexander speaks of the Scottish Church (Ecclesia Scotticana) as "being immediately subject to the Apostolic See" (Papal Letters I, 60).教宗honorius三,在1218 ,他在公牛國王亞歷山大談到蘇格蘭教會( Ecclesia的scotticana )為"立刻受到使徒見" (教皇信,我60 ) 。

The abbots and priors of England in their letter to Innocent IV, in 1246, declared that the English Church (Ecclesia Anglicana) is "a special member of the Most Holy Church of Rome" [Matthew Paris (Rolls Series), IV, 531].該方丈都很和先驗的英格蘭在信中向無辜四,在1246 ,宣稱這次英語堂( Ecclesia的anglicana ) ,是"一個特別的成員之一,最神聖羅馬教會" [馬太巴黎(卷系列) ,第四, 531 ] 。

In 1413 Archbishop Arundel, with the assent of Convocation, affirmed against the Lollards the faith of the English Church in a number of test articles, including the Divine institution of the Papacy and the duty of all Christians to render obedience to it (Wilkins, Concilia, III, 355).在第1413大主教arundel ,與贊同的評議,肯定了對lollards信仰的英語教堂,在一些試驗物品,包括神學院的教宗和值勤的所有基督徒,使服從它(威爾金斯, concilia ,三, 355頁) 。

In 1521, only thirteen years before the breach, John Clerk, the English Ambassador at Rome, was able to assure the Pope in full consistory that England was second to no country in Christendom, "not even to Rome itself", in the "service of God: and of the Christian Faith, and in the obedience due to the Most Holy Roman Church" (Clerks' oration, ed. Jerome Emser).在1521年,只有13年前,違反有關規定,約翰秘書,英語大使在羅馬,則可以保證,教宗充分一致性表示,英國是第二次來,沒有一個國家在基督教的" ,甚至沒有到羅馬本身" ,在"服務上帝:和基督教信仰,並在服從,因為最神聖羅馬教會" (辦事員'咨訊,教育署。杰羅姆emser ) 。

After the Act of Royal Supremacy (1534)法案實施後,皇家至上( 1534 )

The first point of severance was clearly one of Erastianism.第一點遣散顯然是一個erastianism 。 When news of the papal decision against the divorce reached England, Henry VIII gave his assent to four anti-papal statutes passed in Parliament in the spring of 1534, and in November the statute of the Royal Supremacy declared the King to be Supreme Head of the English Church (without the limiting clause of 1532), and an oath was prescribed, affirming the Pope to have no jurisdiction in the realm of England.當新聞的教皇決定對離婚達成英格蘭,亨利八世,他贊同以四反教皇章程議會通過的在春季的1534 ,並於11月規約皇家至高無上宣布國王被最高元首的英語堂(無限的條文第1532 ) ,並宣誓效忠於明,肯定教宗有沒有管轄權的境界英格蘭。 The actual ministry of preaching and of the sacraments was left to the clergy, but all the powers of ecclesiastical jurisdiction were claimed by the sovereign.實際商務部的說教和聖禮,是留給神職人員,但所有權力的教會管轄範圍內,則聲稱主權。

The Act of Supremacy required that the King, as Supreme Head of the Church, "shall have full power and authority from time to time to visit, repress, redress, reform, order, correct, restrain, and amend all such errors, heresies, abuses, offences, contempt, enormities whatsoever they be which by any manner, spiritual authority or jurisdiction ought or may be lawfully reformed" (26 Henry VIII, i).該法的優勢,要求國王,為最高人民法院教會的頭, "應當有充分的權力和權威,從時間,以時間來訪問,鎮壓,糾正,改革,秩序,正確的,克制,並修改所有此類錯誤,異端邪說,濫用的情況,犯罪,蔑視, enormities不管他們其中任何方式,精神權威或管轄範圍內應該還是可以合法地改革" ( 26亨利八世,我) 。

The bishops were made to sue out their faculties from the King, and, that the meaning of this humiliation should be unmistakable, the very form of the license granted them affirmed the plain Erastian principle that the Crown was the source of their jurisdiction, "seeing that all authority of jurisdiction, and indeed jurisdiction of all kinds, both that which is called ecclesiastical and that which is secular, is originally derived from the royal power, as from the Supreme Head and foundation, and source of magistracy within our Kingdom" (Wilkins, Concilia, III, 799),主教們分別發了言,控告他們的院系,由國王,並說,意思這屈辱應該無誤,很形式的許可給予他們肯定平原伊拉斯特派原則,即在樹冠之源,在其管轄範圍內, "百聞不如一見所有權威的管轄權問題,並確實管轄權的種種,都認為這是所謂的教會,並表示,這是世俗的,本來就是來自於皇家權力,由最高元首和基礎,源泉裁判法院提堂我們的王國" (威爾金斯, concilia ,三, 799 ) ,

The bishops and clergy in convocation were forbidden to make canons except when the King, by his "Letters of Business", gave them permission to do so, and even then the canons so made were to have effect only when approved by the King.主教和神職人員在召開被禁止,使大砲時,除了國王,由他的"信用證業務" ,讓他們允許這樣做,而即使在那時,大砲,所以都是十分具有效力,只有經國王。

Another statute secured to the Crown the absolute control in the appointment of bishops.另一條擔保,以官方的絕對控制權在任命主教。 The chapters were bound under penalties of Proemunire to elect the person named by the King and no other, and the Archbishop was bound under the same shameful penalties to consecrate the person so named within twenty days after receipt of the King's writ (Significavit) commanding him to do so.該章節被約束下的罰款proemunire選出指名的人,由國王,沒有其他,大主教被捆綁,根據同一可恥的刑罰,以consecrate人,所以命名為內部二十天後,在收到國王的令狀( significavit )指揮他這樣做的。 This enactment, which an Anglican bishop in recent times has aptly described as "the Magna Charta of tyranny" remains in force to the present day.這個立法,其中聖公會主教最近一個時期恰當地描述為"大憲章的暴政"仍然生效,以目前一天。 Within the last few years the Law Courts have ruled that no opposition to the episcopal confirmation of a person nominated by the Crown can be allowed.在過去幾年裡,法院已經作出裁決,並沒有反對主教確認提名的人,由檢察官,可以容許的。

Thus the chief note of Henrician settlement is the fact that Anglicanism was founded in the acceptance of the Royal, and the rejection of the Papal Supremacy, and was placed upon a decidedly Erastian basis.因此,行政注意到henrician沉降是一個事實,即anglicanism成立,在接受皇家,並拒絕教皇至高無上的,並放在了一個斷然伊拉斯特派基礎。

When the Act of Royal Supremacy, which had been repealed by Queen Mary, was revived by Elizabeth, it suffered a modification in the sense that the Sovereign was styled "Supreme Governor" instead of "Supreme Head".當行為皇家至高無上的,這已被廢除,由瑪麗,是復甦,黃錢其濂,它遭到了改造,在意義上說,主權被冠之"最高總督" ,而不是"最高元首" 。 In a subsequent "Admonition", Elizabeth issued an interpretation of the Royal Supremacy, to the effect that she laid claim "to no power of ministry of divine offices in the Church".在隨後的"說教" ,伊麗莎白發出的詮釋皇家至高無上的,其大意是,她還聲稱"沒有權力的財政部神聖辦事處,在教會" 。 At the same time she reasserted in the full the claim made by Henry VIII as to the Authority of the Crown in matters ecclesiastical, and the great religious changes made after her accession were carried out and enforced in a royal visitation commissioned by the royal authority.在同一時間,她重新樹立在充分索賠所作出的亨利八世,以權威的官方事宜教會,偉大的宗教變動後,她加入進行,並強迫在一個皇家探視委託由皇家權威。

In 1628, Charles I, in a Royal Declaration prefixed to the Articles, stated that it belonged to the kingly office "to conserve and maintain the Church committed to our charge, in unity of religion and the bond of peace", and decreed that differences arising as to the external policy of the Church were to be settled in Convocation, but its ordinances were to be submitted to the Crown for approval, which would be given to them if they were not contrary to the laws of the land.在1628年,查爾斯,我在一個皇家宣言後綴的文章,指出,它屬於王道辦公室" ,以保存和維護教會致力於我們負責,在統一的宗教和債券的和平" ,並發布命令分歧所產生的,以外部政策的教會得到解決,在召集,但其上述條例將提交給官方批准,這將給予他們,如果他們不違背土地法。

Archbishop Laud, in 1640, had a series of canons drawn up in Convocation and duly published, but this attempt at spiritual independence was speedily suppressed.大主教讚揚,在1640 ,進行了一系列的門炮,制定了在召開,並正式公佈,但這種嘗試的精神獨立是迅速鎮壓。 The indignation of Parliament was so great that he himself begged leave to withdraw them, and the House of Commons passed a resolution unanimously declaring that "the Clergy in Convocation assembled has no power to make any canons or constitutions whatsoever in matters of doctrine, discipline or otherwise to bind the Clergy and laity of the land without the common consent in Parliament" (Resolution, 16 December, 1640).憤慨的議會是如此巨大,他自己乞求離開撤回他們和眾議院共同通過了一項決議,一致宣稱"神職人員在召開組裝沒有權力作出任何大砲或憲法,在什麼問題上的原則,紀律處分或否則約束教士和俗人的土地,未經同意共同在議會中" (決議, 1640年12月16日) 。

The Effect of Royal Supremacy效力皇家至上

The effect of the legislation under Henry VIII, revived by Elizabeth, and confirmed in subsequent reigns, has been, as Lord Campbell pointed out in his famous Gorham judgment, in April, 1850, to locate in the Crown all that decisive jurisdiction which before the Reformation had been exercised by the Pope.法律的效用下,亨利八世,恢復了由伊麗莎白,並確認了在以後的統治,一直作為主坎貝爾指出,在他著名的gorham判斷,今年4月, 1850年,設在皇冠都必須採取果斷的司法管轄權,其中前改革已行使的教宗。 Until the year 1833, the Crown exercised this supreme jurisdiction through a special body called the Court of Delegates.直到今年1833年,官地行使這個最高司法管轄權,通過一個專門機構,稱為法院的代表。 Its members were appointed under the great Seal, and consisted of lay judges, with whom might be associated a number of bishops or clergymen.其成員被任命為下大印章,並構成非專業法官,和誰在一起,可能相關的一些主教或神職人員。 In 1833 this Court was abolished, and its powers were transferred to the King in Council.在1833年這個法庭被撤銷,其權力被移交給國王議政會。 Hence matters which come under its purview are now decided by the King upon the advice of that part of the Privy Council which is known as the Judicial Committee.因此事項,其中屬於其職權範圍內的,現在決定由國王的意見後,這部分的樞密院,這是被稱為司法委員會。 The statute (2 and 3 William IV, xcii) expressly states that its decisions are final, and are not subject to any commission of review.規約(第2和第3威廉四, xcii )明確規定,其決定是最終決定,並沒有受到任何委員會的審查。

It must be observed that this tribunal does not profess theoretically to decide articles of faith, or to pronounce upon the abstract orthodoxy or heterodoxy of opinions.必須指出,這個法庭沒有自稱從理論上來決定物品的信仰,或闡明什麼抽象的正統或異端的意見。 "Its duty extends only to the consideration of that which is by law established to be the doctrine of the Church of England, upon the due and legal construction of there Articles and formularies" (Gorham decision, March 1850). " ,其職責範圍只審議認為這是依法成立的,以被中庸的英國教會,後因與法制建設的,有文章和處方" ( gorham決定, 1850年3月) 。 But upon this ground the Crown decided that the views of Mr. Gorham, whose notorious rejection of the doctrine of baptismal regeneration had shocked his bishop and scandalized the Tractarians, were "not contrary or repugnant to the declared doctrine of the Church of England as by law established".但經此地面官方決定的意見先生gorham ,其惡名昭彰的拒絕了這一學說的洗禮再生震驚了他的主教和scandalized該tractarians ,分別為"不違背或令人厭惡的,以申報學說的英國教會所依法成立的" 。 Numerous protests and appeals were made by high Churchmen, but all attempts to reverse the decision were unavailing, and Mr. Gorham duly received institution to the benefice which his bishop had refused him.多次抗議,並呼籲發了言高牧師,但所有企圖扭轉決定均如石沉大海,和先生gorham及時收到機構向benefice ,他的主教拒絕了他。 In like manner in 1849, when vehement opposition was made to the appointment of Dr. Hampden to the See of Hereford, the Prime Minister of the day insisted on the right of the Crown, and the Vicar-General of the Archbishop ruled that no exception could be suffered against one whom the Crown had duly nominated, and the Court of Queen's Bench sustained his ruling.同樣地在1849 ,當強烈反對,有人向任命博士漢普頓向看到的赫里福德,首相的當天,堅持正確的皇冠,和副主教總主教裁定也不例外可能遭受的打擊之一,其中官方已正式提名,和法院的御用替補持續他的裁決。

Thus, whatever views or aspirations have been held theoretically by Anglican divines on the spiritual authority of the Anglican Church, the Royal Supremacy remains an effective reality, and the Crown, supported by Parliament and the Law Courts, both as to the doctrines which may be taught, and the persons who shall be put in office to teach them, has possession of the practical and substantial control.因此,無論意見或訴求,已舉行了理論上由聖公會divines對精神權威的英國聖公會教堂,皇家優勢仍然是一個有效的現實,以及官方的支持下,議會和法院,都以該學說可能教導,以及哪些人將被放在辦公室,去教導他們,有藏的實際和實質性控制。 It is characteristic of the Anglican Reformation that the supreme and far reaching regulative jurisdiction which was exercised by the Holy See was, after the severance from Rome, taken over, to all intents and purposes, by the Crown, and was never effectively entrusted to the Anglican Spirituality, either to the Primate, or to the Episcopate, or even to Convocation.它的特點是英國聖公會的改造表示,最高人民法院和深遠的調控管轄權是行使教廷後,遣散來自羅馬,接管了,所有意圖和目的,由皇冠,並沒有有效地委託給聖公會靈性,無論對靈長類動物,或主教,甚至召開。 As a result, there is to this day the lack of a living Church Spiritual Authority which has been to the Anglican Church a constant source of weakness, humiliation, and disorder.作為一個結果,就是要在這一天缺少一個生活教會精神管理局已經向聖公會的不斷源泉軟弱,屈辱,和無序。

In 1904 a royal commission was appointed to investigate the complaints against ecclesiastical discipline, and in July 1906, it issued its report, in which it points out that at no time in the past have the laws of public worship been uniformly observed, and recommends the formation of a Court which while exercising the Royal Jurisdiction, would be bound to accept the episcopate on questions of doctrine or ritual. 1904年,一個皇家委員會被任命為調查投訴教會紀律,並在1906年7月,它發布了報告,其中指出,在任何時候,在過去有規律的公共崇拜被一致遵守,並建議組建一個法院行使,而皇家管轄權,而且注定會接受主教的問題上的理論或例行公事。 This, if granted, would be the first step towards the partial emancipation of the Spirituality from the thraldom of the civil power, in which it has been held for more than three centuries.因此,如果獲准,將是第一步局部解放的靈性從奴役的民事權力,其中已舉辦了3個多世紀。 It will be observed that Anglicanism as a religious system is separable from the doctrine of Royal Supremacy, which is an outcome of its union with the State, and of the circumstances of the English Reformation.這將看到anglicanism作為宗教制度也離不開理論的皇家至高無上的,這是一個結果,它與聯盟國家,以及在什麼情況的英語改革。 In countries outside of England the Wales Anglican Churches exist, and, it is said, all the more prosperously from being untrammelled by the State connection.在國家外,英國威爾斯聖公會教堂存在,而且,它是說,所有人都更加蓬勃,從不受約束,由國家連接。 But even in those countries the decisive voice in the government of the Anglican Church is not entrusted to the Episcopate alone, and in some of them the lay power in the synods has made itself felt, and has shown that it can be as really a master as any Tudor sovereign invested with royal supremacy.但即使是在這些國家具有決定性的聲音,在政府的聖公會是不能委託給主教單,並在他們中的一些業外人士權力的時候,在主教會議作出了自己的感覺,並表現出它可以被視為真正的大師任何主權都鐸投資與Royal佔據上風。 The supremacy of the Spirituality in the domain of doctrine, as the sole guarantee of true religious liberty, is still lacking in the Anglican system, and the problem of supplying it remains unsolved, if not insoluble.至高無上的靈性在該域的學說,作為唯一的保證,真正的宗教信仰自由,仍然缺乏聖公會系統,並解決了供應,它仍然沒有解決,如果不溶性。


The doctrinal position of the Anglican Church, in like manner, can only be adequately studied in its history, which divides itself into a number of stages or periods.該學說上的立場,聖公會,在喜歡的方式,只能是充分研究,在其歷史上,劃分成若干階段或時期。 The first, or Henrician, period (1534-47) includes the breach with Rome, the setting up of an independent national church, and the transfer of the supreme Church authority from the Papacy to the Crown.第一,或henrician ,期間( 1534年至1547年)包括違反與羅馬,成立一個獨立的國家教會,以及轉讓最高人民法院教會權力由教宗向皇冠。 The Edwardian (1547-53) and the Elizabethan (1558-1603) periods carried the work of separation much further.在愛德華七世時代( 1547年至1553年)和伊麗莎白( 1558年至1603年)期間進行的工作,分離得多。 Both accepted the Henrician basis of rejection of the Papacy and erection of the Royal Supremacy, but built upon it the admission of the doctrinal and liturgical changes which make up mainly the Anglican Reformation, and brought the nation within the great Protestant movement of the sixteenth century.都接受了henrician的基礎上拒絕教宗與架設皇家至高無上的,但建成後,它收的教義和禮儀的變化,彌補主要聖公會改造,並把民族內部的偉大新教運動的16世紀。

First Period: Henry VIII (1534-1547)第一期:亨利八世( 1534年至1547年)

Although the policy of Henry VIII, after the breach with Rome, was ostensibly conservative, and his ideal seemed to be the maintenance of a Catholic Church in England, minus the Pope, it is incontestable that in other ways his action was in fatal contradiction to his professions.雖然政策的亨利八世後,違反與羅馬,是表面上的保守,和他的理想似乎要維持一個天主教教會在英格蘭,再減去教宗,這是無可爭議的,在其他的方式,他的行動是致命矛盾他的專業。

Influence of English Protestant Sympathizers.影響英語新教同情者。 - By raising to power, and by maintaining in positions of unique influence, his three great agents, Thomas Cromwell, Thomas Cranmer, and Edward Seymour, all of whom were always, and as openly as they dared, in sympathy with the Reformation, Henry VIII, whether by intention or the by the indifference of his latter days, undoubtedly prepared the way and opened the gates to the Protestantism which came in under Edward and Elizabeth. -提高電力,並維持在陣地獨特的影響力,他的三個偉大的代理商,托馬斯克倫威爾,托馬斯克蘭默,和愛德華西摩,所有的人,始終,並作為公開,因為他們不敢,在同情與改造,亨利八,無論是有意還是由冷漠,他的後期,無疑是準備了道路,打開了閘門,向基督新教被排在根據愛德華和伊麗莎白。

Influence of German Protestants.影響力的德國新教徒。 - In 1535 Henry sent agents to negotiate an agreement with the Reformers in Germany, and in 1537 he was led by Cromwell, in connivance with Cranmer, into further negotiations with the Protestant princes assembled at Smalkald. -在第1 535亨利發出代理商談判達成一項協議,與改革者在德國, 1 537年,他率領的克倫威爾,在縱容克蘭默,到進一步的談判與新教王子集結在s malkald。 He wrote to Melanchthon to congratulate him on the work which he had done for religion, and invited him to England.他寫信給梅蘭希頓祝賀他從事何種工作,他的所作所為,為宗教,並邀請他到英格蘭。 Melanchthon was unable to come, but in 1538 three German divines, Burkhardt, Boyneburg, and Myconius, were sent to London, where they remained some months, and held conferences with the Anglican bishops and clergy.梅蘭希頓未能前來,但在1538年3德語divines , burkhardt , boyneburg , myconius ,被送往倫敦,在那裡仍然有些個月,並召開會議,與英國聖公會主教和神職人員。 The Germans presented as a basis of agreement a number of Articles based on the Lutheran Confession of Augsburg.德國作為一個基礎的協議若干條款的基礎上,路德會招供的奧格斯堡。 On the doctrinal part of these Articles, the first thirteen, both parties came to an agreement (Letter of Myconius to Cromwell, 8 September, 1538).對教義的一部分,這些條款中,第一十三,雙方來到一項協議(意向書myconius以克倫威爾, 1538年9月8日) 。 On the second part, the "Abuses" (viz., private Masses, celibacy of the Clergy, invocation of Saints) the King would not give way, and finally dissolved the conference.對第二部分中, "濫用" (即,私營群眾,獨身的神職人員,援引聖人) ,國王將不會退讓,並最終解散了會議。 Although the negotiations thus formally came to an end, the Thirteen Articles on which agreement with the Germans had been made were kept by Archbishop Cranmer, and afterwards by Archbishop Parker, and were used as test articles to which the preachers whom they licensed were required to subscribe.雖然談判,從而正式落下帷幕, 13個條款的協議,其中與德國隊已經取得了被保存大主教克蘭默,後來改由大主教帕克,並以此作為檢驗物品,其中佈道者他們持牌人須訂閱。 Eventually they became the nucleus of the Articles of Religion which were authorized under Edward VI and Elizabeth.他們最終成為核心條款的宗教,其中授權下,何承天六及黃錢其濂。 Hence the almost verbal correspondence between these Articles and the Lutheran Confession of Augsburg, from which they were originally taken.因此,幾乎口頭書信來往,這些文章和路德招供的奧格斯堡,從他們原先所採取的。

Second Period: Edward VI (1547-1553)第二個時期:愛德華六( 1547年至1553年)

By the death of Henry VIII (27 January, 1547) the main obstacle to the reforming influence was removed.由死亡的亨利八世( 1547年1月27日)的主要障礙,以改革的影響已被取消。 With the accession of Edward VI, who had been brought up in the reformed faith, with Seymour, also a Protestant, omnipotent in the Council, and Cranmer, now able to show his hand and work his will, the party of the Reformation became possessed of all the resources of national power, and during the five years of the reign (1547-53) remained triumphantly in the ascendant.隨著加入的愛德華六世曾有人提出,在改革的信念,與西摩,也是一個新教,無所不能,在安理會中,並克蘭默,現在能夠證明他的手和他的工作會,黨的改造,成為具有所有資源的綜合國力,並在5年的統治( 1547至1553年)仍洋洋得意,在方興未艾。 This period witnessed the introduction of the great doctrinal and liturgical changes.這期間目睹了引進的偉大學說和禮儀的變化。

Denial of the Sacrifice of the Mass. - One of the cardinal principles of the Reformation which the German delegates had brought over in 1538 was that "the Mass is nothing but a Communion or synaxis" (Tunstall's Summary, MS Cleop. EV, 209).拒絕犧牲了馬薩諸塞州之一-樞機主教的原則,改革,其中德國代表們帶來了超過在1 538年的說法是: "群眾是只不過是一個共融或s ynaxis" ( t unstall的總結,她c leop。電動汽車, 2 09) 。 Cranmer vehemently upheld this conception of the Eucharist.克蘭默強烈支持這一構想的聖體聖事。 One of the first Acts under Edward VI was the introduction of a new English Communion Service, which was to be inserted at the end of the Mass, and which required Communion to be given under both kinds.首先採取的行動之一,根據愛德華六是引進了一種新的英語交流服務,那就是插在年底群眾,並要求共融,以獲得下兩種。 This was soon after followed by a Book of Common Prayer, with a Communion Service entirely taking the place of the Latin Mass. Cranmer was the chief author of this book.這是不久後,一本書的共同祈禱,與共融的服務,完全以地方的拉美麻省克蘭默是行政作者的這本書。 Whether it ever received the assent of Convocation has been questioned, but it was approved by Parliament in 1549.無論任何時候都得到了贊同的召開,已經受到質疑,但它是由議會批准,在1549年。 Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, in opposing Cranmer's denial of the Real Presence and of the Sacrifice of the mass, argued that even certain passages in the new Prayer Book implied the acceptance of these doctrines; whereupon Cranmer and his fellow-reformers drew up a new Prayer Book, still more Protestant in tone and character.加德納,主教的溫切斯特,在反對克蘭默的否認了真正的存在和犧牲群眾爭辯說,即使某些段落,在新的祈禱書中暗示接受這些教條;車內克蘭默和他的老鄉改革者,制定了一個新的祈禱書,更是新教在語氣和性格。 In it the order of the parts of the Communion Service was considerably altered, and the passages used by Gardiner as apparently favouring the Catholic doctrine were studiously eliminated, or so changed as to preclude in future any such interpretation, and all allusion to Altar or Sacrifice was carefully omitted (Gasquet and Bishop, Edward VI and the Book of Common Prayer, 289).在它的命令零件的共融服務是相當變造,以及機票,用加德納看來偏袒天主教教義studiously被淘汰,或改變,以排除將來任何這類詮釋,而所有的典故,以祭壇上犧牲精心省略(賽和主教,愛德華六及一書的共同祈禱, 289 ) 。 In 1552, this, the second Prayer Book of Edward VI, was authorized by Parliament.在1552年,這個,第二次的祈禱書中的愛德華六世被授權的議會。 A new Ordinal or Order for making bishops, priests, and deacons was compiled, from which in like manner all mention of the sacrificial office of the priesthood was rigorously excluded.一種新的有序或命令作出的主教,司鐸和執事彙編成,其中以同樣方式全部提的祭祀廳神職人員被嚴格排除在外。 It was approved by Parliament in 1552.它是由議會批准,在1552年。 In 1551, quite in harmony with this liturgical reform, an Order in Council issued to Bishop Ridley required the altars to be torn down, and movable tables substituted, while a statement of reasons was to be made to the people explanatory of the change, namely, "that the form of a table may more move and turn the simple from the old superstition of the Mass and to the right use of the Lord's Supper".在1551年,有不少在和諧與此禮儀改革,以便在安理會發表,以利禮賢主教要求神壇被拆除,並動產表取代,而聲明的原因是為了向人們說明這個變化,即: " ,以表格的形式可能更動議,並把簡單的從舊迷信的群眾,並有權使用主的晚餐" 。

Suppression of Catholic practices.鎮壓天主教的做法。 - By Royal Proclamations and episcopal visitations, a multitude of Catholic practices and sacramentals, such as lights, incense, holy water, and palms, were suppressed. -由皇家佈告和主教v isitations,千頭萬緒天主教做法和s acramentals,如燈,香,聖水,棕櫚,受到打壓。 These reforms, proceeding tentatively but rapidly, were initiated and carried out mainly by Cranmer and his set, and the reflected his beliefs and that of this fellow-reformers.這些改革出發,暫定,但迅速被啟動,並進行了主要由克蘭默和他的一套,並反映了他的信仰和說,這個老鄉改革者。 The 42 Articles. 42個條款。 - In 1553, a royal decree was issued requiring the bishops and clergy to subscribe forty-two Articles of Religion which embodied in great part what had been contained in the Thirteen Articles agreed upon with the Germans. -在1 553年,一個皇家法令發出要求主教和神職人員訂閱4 2條宗教體現在大部份已被包含在1 3條商定的,與德國人。 The article on the Eucharist had been significantly changed to agree, as Hooper attests, with the teachings of the Swiss reformer, Bullinger.文章對聖體聖事已經大大改變了贊同,而作為胡柏證明,與教義的瑞士改革者,布凌格。

Third Period: Elizabeth I (1558-1603)第三期:伊麗莎白一世( 1558年至1603年)

In November, 1558, Queen Elizabeth succeeded Queen Mary, and immediately proceeded to restore the work of Henry VIII and Edward VI.在11月, 1558年,女王伊麗莎白二世成功瑪麗,並立即著手恢復工作,亨利八世和愛德華六。

Based on Prayer Book of 1552.基於祈禱書中的第1552 。 - The new settlement of religion was based, not on the First Prayer Book of 1549, but on the more Protestant one of 1552. -新定居點的宗教依據,而不是靠祈禱第一本書的1 549年,但對更多的新教之一,第1 552。 The latter was adopted with a few slight modifications, and it remains for the most part substantially unchanged to the present day.後者是通過與數略有改動,它仍然在大多數情況大為改變,以目前一天。 The statement that Pius IV offered to approve the Prayer Book is devoid of all historical foundation.聲明中表示,比約四,提供批准祈禱書是空洞的,所有的歷史基礎。 It has not a vestige of contemporary evidence to support it.它已經不是一個遺跡當代證據,以支持它。 Camden, the earliest Anglican historian who mentions it, says: "I never could find it in any writing, and I do not believe any writing of it to exist. To gossip with the mop is unworthy of any historian" (History, 59).坎登,最早的英國聖公會的一位歷史學家提到它,說: "我從來沒有能夠找到這些信息在任何書面的,我不相信任何書面的,它存在了。閒話,以符合澳門幣,是不值得任何歷史學家" (歷史, 59 ) 。 Fuller, another Anglican historian, describes it as the mere conjecture "of those who love to feign what they cannot find".更充分,又聖公會歷史學家,把它描述為純粹猜想"的那些愛假裝什麼,他們無法找到" 。

The 39 Articles. 39個條款。 - In 1563 the Edwardian Articles were revised in Convocation under Archbishop Parker. -在1 563年的愛德華七世條款作了修訂,在召集下大主教帕克。 Some were added, others altered or dropped, and the number was reduced to Thirty-eight.有些人補充說,其他人篡改或下降,以及有多少個減少到38 。 In 1571, the XXIXth Article, despite the opposition of Bishop Guest, was inserted, to the effect that the wicked do not eat the Body of Christ. 1571年, xxixth文章,儘管反對派的主教客戶,插入,其大意是惡人不要吃基督的身體。 The Articles, thus increased to Thirty-nine, were ratified by the Queen, and the bishops and clergy were required to assent and subscribe thereto.該條款,從而增加至39 ,分別批准了由女王,以及主教和神職人員必須贊同及訂閱情況。

Calvinistic Influence. calvinistic影響力。 - During the whole of Elizabeth's long reign, the prevailing tone of Anglican teaching and literature was decidedly Genevan and Calvinistic (Dr. Prothero, English Hist. Rev., October, 1886). -在整個的伊麗莎白二世的長期統治,當時的語氣聖公會教學和文學斷然g enevan和c alvinistic(博士普羅特勞,英語2 50件, 1 0月, 1 886年) 。 In 1662 a reaction set in against Puritanism, and the Prayer Book, which had been suppressed during the Commonwealth, was brought back and subjected to revision in Convocation and Parliament.在1662年的反應定在對清教徒,並祈禱書,其中已被壓制在英聯邦,被帶返,並遭受改版後召開國會。 The amendments made were numerous, but those of doctrinal significance were comparatively few, and of a kind to emphasize the Episcopal character of Anglicanism as against Presbyterianism.所作的修正,被眾多的,但這些理論意義相對較少,一類以強調主教性格anglicanism對presbyterianism 。 The most notable were the reinsertion, with altered wording, of the Black Rubric (omitted by Elizabeth) and the introduction in the form of the words, "for the office of a Bishop" and "for the office of a Priest", in the Service of Ordination.最顯著的人安插,變造的字眼,黑色標題(略由黃錢其濂)和介紹,在形成的,換言之, "該辦事處的一位主教" , "辦公室的一名神職人員" ,在服務的統籌。

Anglican Formularies.聖公會處方。 -

The historic meaning and doctrinal significance of the Anglican formularies can only be determined by the candid and competent examination of the evidence as a whole,歷史意義和理論意義的聖公會處方只能由坦率和主管考試的證據作為一個整體,

first, by the study of the plain meaning of the text;首先,通過學習明確含義的文本;

secondly, by the study of the historical setting and the circumstances in which they were framed and authorized;其次,這項研究的歷史背景和在何種情況下,他們被誣陷,並授權;

thirdly, by the known beliefs of their chief authors and of those by whom they were accepted;第三,由已知的信念,他們的首席作者和那些誰被接受;

fourthly, by comparison with the Catholic pre-Reformation formularies which they supplanted;第四,經過比較與天主教會前改造處方,他們supplanted ;

fifthly, by the study of their sources and the exact value of their doctrinal terminology as found in the controversies of the time;第五,通過研究其來源和確切的價值,他們的教義術語,因為發現在爭議過程中的時間;

sixthly-if the examination is not to be hopelessly narrow-by the study of general Reformation in Europe, of which the English Reformation, albeit with local and national characteristics, was both a part and a result.第六,如果考試不被絕望的狹隘所研究的一般性改造,在歐洲,其中以英語改革,儘管與地方和民族特色,既是一個部分,也是其結果。

Here it is only possible to state the conclusions arising from such an inquiry in briefest outline.在這裡,它是唯一可能的陳述而得出的結論,這項調查在briefest大綱。


There can be no doubt that the English Reformation is substantially a part of the great Protestant Reformation upheaval of the sixteenth century, and that its doctrine, liturgy, and chief promoters were to a very considerable extent derived from, and influenced by, the Lutheran and Calvinistic movements on the Continent.因此,可以毫無疑問,這英語改革是大大的一部份偉大的新教改革動盪的16世紀,它的教義,禮儀中,行政推動者都是一個相當大程度上源於,並影響,路德和calvinistic變動對非洲大陸。

First Bond: Personal債券第一:個人

There was first of all the living or personal connection.有第一次的全部生活或個人聯繫。 The great English Reformers who took the leading part in the work of Reformation in England &151; Cranmer, Barlow, Hooper, Parker, Grindal, Scory, May, Cox, Coverdale, and many others-were men who lived and laboured amongst the Protestants of the Continent, and remained in constant and cordial touch and communication with them.偉大的英語改革者,他們在同行中率先參與這項工作的改革,在英格蘭&151;克蘭默,巴盧,胡柏,帕克,格林德爾, scory , 5月,考克斯, coverdale ,以及許多其他分別為男子,他們勞動,生活和當中的新教徒非洲大陸,並保持在恆定和親切的接觸,並與他們的溝通。 (See Original Letters of the Reformation.) Reciprocally, continental reformers, like Peter Martyr and Martin Bucer, were welcomed to England and made professors of Divinity at the universities. (見原信的改革) 。相對地,大陸的改革者,如彼得烈士和馬丁塞珥,歡迎英格蘭和教授所作的神性,在大學。 Others, like John a Lasco, and Paul Fagius, become the friends and guests of Cranmer.其他人,如約翰一lasco ,和保羅fagius ,成為朋友和客人的克蘭默。

Second Bond: Doctrinal第二個鍵:理論

A second bond was the adoption of the same essential doctrines.第二個鍵是採用了相同的基本教義。 The great principles and tenets set forth in the works of Luther, Melanchthon, and Calvin, or Zwingli, are reproduced with or without modifications, but substantially, and often almost verbatim in the literature of the English Reformation.大原則和原理,提出了在工程的路德,梅蘭希頓,美女,或zwingli ,轉載或修改,但實質上,而且往往幾乎是逐字在文獻中的英語改革。 The chief doctrines which are essentially and specifically characteristic of the Protestant Reformation as a whole are the following nine:行政學說本質上屬於和具體特點,新教改革作為一個整體是以下九項:

rejection of the Papacy,拒絕教宗,

denial of the Church Infallibility;否認教會infallibility ;

Justification by Faith only;因信稱義只;

supremacy and sufficiency of Scripture as Rule of Faith;霸權和充足的經文作為法治的信念;

the triple Eucharistic tenet [viz.三重聖體聖事的特尼特[落成。 (a) that the Eucharist is a Communion or Sacrament, and not a Mass or Sacrifice, save in the sense of praise or commemoration; (b) the denial of Transubstantiation and worship of the Host; (c) the denial of the sacrificial office of the priesthood and the propitiatory character of the Mass]; (一)表示,聖體聖事是共融或聖餐,而不是一個集體或犧牲,拯救在意義上的表揚或紀念; (二)拒絕陷於變體說和崇拜的東道國; (三)拒絕祭祀辦公室對神職人員和propitiatory性質的地下〕 ;

the non-necessity of auricular Confession;非必要性的耳廓自白;

the rejection of the invocation of the Blessed Virgin and the Saints;拒絕援引小聖和聖人;

the rejection of Purgatory and omission of prayers for the dead;拒絕煉獄與遺漏的祈禱,為死難者;

the rejection of the doctrine of Indulgences.拒絕中庸indulgences 。

To these may be added three disciplinary characteristics which are founded on doctrine:這可能增加了三項紀律的特點,是建基於學說:

the giving of Communion in both kinds;讓共融在兩種;

the substitution of tables for altars; and替換表神壇;

the abolition of monastic vows and the celibacy of the clergy.取消寺院的誓言和獨身的神父。

These twelve doctrines and practices of the continental Reformation have undoubtedly, though not always in the same measure, entered into the fibre of the English Reformation, and have all found expression, more or less emphatic, in the Anglican formularies.十二學說和做法,對大陸的改革已經毫無疑問,但並不總是在同一措施,進入纖維的英語改革,並已全部找到表達的,更多或更少強調,在英國聖公會處方。 Hence, while the name "Protestant" is not found in the Prayer Book, it is used in the Coronation Service when the King promises to maintain "the Protestant religion as by law established".因此,雖然將名稱改為"新教" ,是沒有找到在祈禱書,它是用在加冕服務時,國王承諾,維持"新教宗教作為依法成立的" 。 It was from the beginning popularly applied to the Anglican beliefs and services.這是從一開始普遍應用到聖公會信仰和服務。 In the Act of Union the Churches of England and Ireland are styled "the Protestant Episcopal Church", a name still retained by the Anglican Church in America.在該法中的工會,教會的英格蘭和愛爾蘭稱為"新教聖公會" ,這個名字仍然保留了由聖公會在美國。

Third Bond: Liturgical第三債券:禮儀

A third bond between the Reformation on the continent and that which took place in England is to be found in the actual composition of the formularies.第三債券之間的改革對大陸和說,發生在英國的則是被發現在實際組成的處方。 The Anglican Articles owe much, through the Thirteen Articles, to the Confession of Augsburg, and also to the Confession of Wurtemberg.聖公會文章太長,通過13條,以供認的奧格斯堡,同時也供認的wurtemberg 。 Notable portions of the baptismal, marriage, and confirmation services are derived from the "Simplex et Pia Deliberatio" which was compiled by the Lutheran Hermann von Wied, with the aid of Bucer and Melanchthon.顯著部分的洗禮,婚姻,並確認服務,都源自於"簡單等軟腦膜deliberatio " ,這是由香港信義赫爾曼馮wied ,借助塞珥和梅蘭希頓。 That a considerable part of the Anglican ordinal (without the distinctive form for each Order) is found in Bucer's "Scripta Anglica", has been pointed out by the late Canon Travers Smith.即相當一部分聖公會序(無鮮明的表格,供各階) ,是發現在布策爾的" scripta英語" ,有議員指出,由已故的佳能Travers的史密斯。


In this triple bond-personal, doctrinal, and liturgical &151; the continental and Anglican Reformations are, amid many and notable differences, substantially and inseparably interwoven as parts of one and the same great religious movement.在這三鍵的個人,教義,禮儀&151;大陸和英國聖公會變革是,在許多顯著的差別,而另一方面密不可分地交織部分是同一個偉大的宗教運動。


The comparison of the Anglican Prayer Book and Ordinal with the Pre-Reformation formularies which they replaced leads to a second conclusion which in harmony with the above.比較聖公會祈禱書序和與學前教育改革的處方,他們取代導致了第二個結論,在和諧與上述。 On making an analysis of what has been removed, and what has been retained, and what has been altered, it becomes unmistakably apparent that the main motive which determined and guided the construction of the new liturgy was the same as that which inspired the whole Reformation movement, namely: the determination to have the Lord's Supper regarded only as a Sacrament or Communion, and not as a Sacrifice, and to remove whatever indicated the sacrificial character of the Eucharist, or the Real, Objective Presence, in the Catholic sense, in which Christ is worshipped in the Host.對決策分析的是什麼已被移除,並已保留,並已經改變了,它變成明白無誤地看出,主要動機決心和引導建設新的禮儀中是一樣的,因為它激發了整個改造運動,即:有決心有主的晚餐只能看作是從樓上掉了,或共融,而不是作為犧牲,以清除任何表示祭祀性質的聖體聖事的,還是真實的,客觀的存在,在天主教意義上說,在這是基督的崇拜在東道國。

The Catholic liturgical forms, missal, breviary, pontifical, were in possession and had been in actual use for centuries.天主教禮儀形式, missal , breviary ,宗座,分別擁有,並已在實際使用數百年。 In making a liturgical reform, it was by the necessity of the case impossible that the changes made should not have reference to them, standing as they did, in the relation of terminus a quo to a terminus ad quem of reformation.在作出禮儀的改革,都應該是由必要性的情況不可能發生的變化,取得了不應該提到它們,常委,因為他們確實,在關係總站一現狀的一個總站終止的改革。 If the Sarum Missal, Breviary, and Pontifical are placed side by side with the Anglican Prayer Book and Ordinal, and a comparison made of the corresponding parts, the motive, drift, and intention of the framers are clearly revealed.如果sarum missal , breviary ,宗座放在並排同英國國教祈禱書序,並比較了相應零件,動機,漂移,並意圖的制定者顯然是表露無遺。

In the Catholic Pontifical, in the Ordination services there are twenty-four passages which express with clearness the Catholic Sacerdotium, or sacrificial character of the office and work of the priesthood.在天主教羅馬教皇,在協調服務,有24通道表達與晴空天主教sacerdotium ,或祭祀性質的辦事處和工作的神職人員。 Of these not one was allowed to remain in the Anglican Ordinal.這不是一個被允許繼續留在英國聖公會序。

In the Ordinary of the Mass alone there are some twenty-five points in which the sacrificial nature of the Eucharist and the Real Presence of Christ as a Victim are expressed or implied.在普通的群眾就有一些25分,其中祭祀性質的聖體聖事和真實存在的基督作為受害者是明示或暗示。 All these have been suppressed and eliminated in the Anglican Communion Service, and passages of a Reformational or non-committal character substituted.所有這些,都受到壓制和淘汰,在英國聖公會服務,以及機票,一改造或非初級品格取代。

Thus, with regard to no less than forty-nine places, the new formularies bear the mark of deliberate exclusion and of anti-sacrificial and anti-sacerdotal significance.因此,對於以不低於49的地方,新的處方承擔該商標的刻意排斥和殺傷祭祀和反sacerdotal意義。 (See The Tablet, London, 12 June, 1897.) (見片,倫敦, 1897年6月12日) 。


Although the Anglican Articles and liturgy have been practically unchanged since 1662, it was inevitable that the life and thought of a religious body like the Church of England should present the note of development, and that such development should eventually out grow, or at least strain, the historic interpretation of the formularies, and the more so because there has been no living authority to adapt or readjust them to the newer needs or aspirations.雖然英國國教文章和禮儀中已幾乎不變, 1662年以來,這是無法避免的表示,生活和思想的一個宗教機構,像英國教會應出席說明的發展,而且這種發展應該最終走出成長,或至少應變,歷史解釋的處方,而且越是如此,因為一直存在,並沒有居住的權力,以適應或調整他們新的需求或期望。

The development may be said to have been guided by three main influences.發展可說是一直遵循三個主要因素影響。

There has been the deep-seated attachment to the principles of the Reformation in which the Anglican settlement was founded, and the determination to preserve the standards of belief and worship then established.已經根深蒂固依戀的原則,改革,其中聖公會沉降成立後,並決心維護該標準的信仰和崇拜,然後確定。 This loyalty to the Protestant character of the Anglican Church has produced the Low Church, or Evangelical, school of Anglicanism.這種忠誠,以新教性質聖公會已製作低教會或福音事工促進會,學校的anglicanism 。

A second influence is that of rationalism, which, both in England and in Germany, has acted as a solvent of Protestantism, especially in the form of destructive biblical criticism, and which, often in the effort to sublimate religion, has induced an aversion to all that is dogmatic, supernatural, or miraculous.第二個影響,就是理性主義,其中,無論是在英國和德國,充當了一個溶劑的新教,特別是在形式的破壞性聖經批評,其中,而且往往是在努力昇華宗教,引起了反感所有這些都是教條化,超自然的,或者堪稱奇蹟。 Its exponents, who are numerous, learned, and influential, are generally classed as the Broad Church, or the Latitudinarian, school of Anglican religious thought.它的指數,他們是多不勝數,據悉,和有影響力的,通常被歸類為廣大教會,或latitudinarian ,學校的英國國教宗教思想。

A third influence which made itself felt upon Anglicanism, and one more vital and more penetrating and progressive than the other two, has been that of Catholicism, whether as reflected in Catholic antiquity or as beheld in the actual Catholic and Roman Church.三分之一的影響力,使自己感覺後, anglicanism ,和一個更有活力和更透徹和進步比其他兩個,一直是天主教,無論是作為反映在天主教文物或看到在實際的天主教會和羅馬教會。 The effect of this influence may be traced in what has been called the historic High Church party.此舉的效果的影響,最早可追溯到在被稱為歷史性的高教堂。 A number of Anglican bishops and divines in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, while bitterly opposed to Rome, and loyally Protestant, stood above the prevailing low level of churchmanship, and put forward higher and philocatholic views, in the matters of Church authority, belief, and worship.一些英國聖公會主教和divines在十七世紀和十八世紀,而堅決反對羅馬,並忠實地新教,站在上面普遍存在低水平的churchmanship ,並提出了更高philocatholic意見,在事情的教會權威,信仰,和崇拜。 Although comparatively few in number, and vehemently assailed by their fellow churchmen, they were destined to serve as a point d'appui for a subsequent development.雖然相對數量少,並強烈抨擊其同胞牧師,他們注定要服務為出發點和落腳點-和支持,為隨後的發展。 Such writers as Bishop Andrews (d. 1626), Bishop Overall (d. 1644), Bishop Montague (d. 1641), Archbishop Laud (d. 1644), Archbishop Bramhall (d. 1663), Dr. Thorndike (d. 1672), Bishop Ken (d. 1711), Dr Waterland (d. 1740), may be regarded as representative of this section.這樣的作家,作為主教安德魯斯(四1626年) ,總主教(四1644 ) ,主教蒙太(四1641 ) ,大主教讚揚(四1644 ) ,大主教bramhall (四1663 ) ,博士桑代克(四1672 ) ,主教肯(四1711 ) ,博士waterland (四17時40 ) ,可被視為代表本節規定。


(See also OXFORD MOVEMENT.) (亦見牛津運動) 。

In 1833 a strong current of popular opinion directed against the Anglican Church aroused in its defense the zeal of a small band of Oxford students and writers, who gradually gathered under the informal leadership of John Henry Newman.在1833年一個強大電流的民意,針對聖公會引起其防禦熱情的一個小樂隊的牛津學生和作家,他們逐漸聚集領導人非正式的紐曼。 Among these were John Keble, C. Marriott, Hurrell Froude, Isaac Williams, Dr. Pusey, and WG Ward.在這些人約翰keble ,長萬豪, hurrell弗勞德,艾薩克威廉斯博士pusey ,及工作小組病房。 Their object was to make good for the Anglican Church its claim to the note of Catholicity.其目的是要好好為聖公會其索賠說明中的共通性。 Their task led them to look both behind and outside the sphere of the Reformation.他們的任務,帶領他們共同期待都拋在後面,範圍之外的改革。

By forming a catena of Anglican High Church divines of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries on one side, and a catena of certain Fathers on the other, it was hoped that a quasi-continuous chain of Catholic tradition could be made to connect the Anglican Church of their day with Catholic antiquity.通過形成一個catena的聖公會高教會divines的十七世紀和十八世紀一方,並catena某些父親就其他問題,希望一個準連續鏈的天主教會傳統的,可以作出連接聖公會他們每天與天主教文物。 Translations of the Fathers, works on liturgy, the festivals of the "Christian Year", and above all a memorable series of "Tracts for the Times", conveyed with telling force the newer and broader conceptions of churchmanship which entered into the spirit of the defenders.翻譯的父親,工程禮儀中,節日的"基督教" ,而且首先是一個難忘的一系列"大片為時代" ,轉達了同告訴力量較新的和更廣泛的概念churchmanship其中進入精神上來,把維護者。

In "Tract 90" an attempt was made, somewhat on the lines of Sancta Clara, to show that the Anglican Articles might in certain aspects be reconciled to the teaching of the Council of Trent.在"道90 "有人企圖,就有點線條sancta克拉拉,這表明了英國聖公會的文章,可能在某些方面加以調和,以教學安理會的遄達。 The result was a doctrinal and devotional crisis such as England had not witnessed since the Reformation, and the Oxford or Tractarian movement, during the twelve years from Keble's sermon on "National Apostasy", in 1833, to Newman's conversion in 1845, formed a historic epoch in the annals of Anglicanism.結果,是一個理論性和靈修的危機,如英格蘭沒有親眼目睹,自宗教改革和牛津或tractarian運動,在十二年從keble的說教,對"國家叛教" ,在1833年,紐曼的轉換,在1845年,成立了一個歷史性的在劃時代的史冊anglicanism 。 The fact that the work of the movement was informally a study de Ecclesiâ brought both the writers and their readers more directly face to face with the claims of the Church of Rome.事實,那就是工作,該運動是非正式的一項研究德ecclesiâ帶來的無論是作家與讀者更直接,面對面地與索賠的羅馬教會。

A large number of those who took part in the movement, and notably its great leader, became Catholics, while others, in remaining Anglicans, gave a new and pro-Catholic direction and impulse to Anglican thought and worship.大批那些參加運動,尤其是它的偉大領袖,成為天主教徒,而其他國家,在其餘教教徒,作出了新的和親天主教的方向和衝動聖公會思想和崇拜。 It may be said that in the case of Newman, Oakley, Wilberforce, Ward, and a host of others, the research of the nature of Catholicity and the rule of faith brought them to realize the need of the living voice of a Divine magisterium (the regula proxima fidei), and failing to find it in the Anglican episcopate, they sought it where alone it could be found.可以說,在案件紐曼,廠商Oakley ,威爾伯福斯,病房,以及許多其他人,研究性質的共通性和法治的信念,使他們認識到有必要對生活的聲音神magisterium (該規範寶施馬信) ,並沒有找到它在英國聖公會主教,他們尋求它那裡就有可能被找到。

Others, like Pusey, Marriott, Keble, sought what they called the voice of the "Church" in the inanimate formularies (or regula remota) which, after all, was merely adding the Fathers, the liturgies, and conciliar definitions to the Scripture as the area over which they still used, after the manner of true Protestants, their private judgement.另一些國家如pusey ,萬豪, keble ,尋求他們所謂的聲音, "教會" ,在無生命的處方藥(或規範remota ) ,其中,畢竟,僅僅是加入了父親, liturgies , conciliar定義,以聖經作為面積超過它們仍在使用,以後的方式真實新教徒,他們的私人判斷。 The same principle is always more or less at work and goes as far now as then to sift those who come from those who stay.同樣的原則始終是較多或較少,在工作和竟把太遠了,因為然後篩選那些來自那些留下來的人。 [If we bear in mind that by "Church" was thus meant the silent self-interpreted formularies (or regula remota), and by "Bishops" the living magisterium (or regula proxima) sought in Anglicanism, we shall feel that there is a great truth contained in Pusey's well-known saying, three years after the secession of Newman: "I am not disturbed, because I never attached any weight to bishops. It was perhaps the difference between Newman and me. He threw himself upon the bishops and they failed him. I threw myself on the English Church and the Fathers, as under God, her support" (Letter to C. Marriott, 2 January, 1848)]. [如果我們緊記,由"教會" ,因此意味著沉默的自我解釋處方(或規範remota ) ,以及由"主教團"的生活magisterium (或規範寶施馬)要求在anglicanism ,我們會覺得這是一個偉大的真理載pusey知名的話說,三年後,分裂國家的紐曼說: "我並不感到不安,因為我從來不附加任何重量,以主教,這或許是區別紐曼和我的,他全身心地後,主教和他們沒有讓我義無返顧地對自己的英語教堂和父親,因為根據上帝,她的支持" (信長萬豪, 1848年1月2日) ] 。


Although the Oxford movement is regarded as having come to a close at the conversion of Dr. Newman in 1845, a large section of the Anglican public had been much too profoundly stirred by its ideals ever to return to the narrowness of the religious horizons which were bounded by the Reformation.雖然牛津運動視為即告結束,在轉換的博士紐曼在1845年,一個大型的一段聖公會公眾一直太深刻激起其理想以往任何時候都回歸到狹隘的宗教視野,其中位於改革。 Its influence has survived in the unceasing flow of converts to the Catholic Faith, and is shown in the Anglican Church itself by the notable change of belief, temperament, and practice which is known as the Anglican Revival.它的影響力已經成活,在不斷流的轉換,以天主教信仰,是表現在英國國教教會本身所錄得顯著變化的信仰,氣質好,實踐好,這是眾所周知的,因為英國聖公會的復興。 The last fifty years (1860-1910) have witnessed the development of an influential and growing school of religious thought which, amid the inconsistencies of its position, has steadily laboured to Catholicize the Church of England.在過去50年( 1860至1910年)曾目擊發展的一個有影響力和成長學校的宗教思想,其中,中不一致的,其位置,穩步辛勞,以catholicize英國教會。 It has set up the claim, hopelessly untenable in the face of historical evidence, that the Anglican Church is one and continuous with the Ancient Catholic Church of the country, and is an integral portion of the Catholic Church of today.它已成立了索賠時,絕望地站不住腳,在面對歷史證據,即聖公會是一個不斷與古代天主教的國家,而且是一個不可分割的部分天主教教會的今天。 It professes to be able to give to Anglicans all that the Catholic Church gives to her members, save communion with the Holy See.它自稱可以給教教徒都認為,天主教會,讓她的成員,保存與聖座共融。 Through possessing neither the learning nor the logic of the Tractarians, it exercises a wider and more practical influence, and has won the favour of a large body of the Anglican public by importing into the Anglican services something of the beauty and power which it has borrowed from Catholic teaching and ritual.通過藏既不學習,也不是邏輯的tractarians ,實行更廣泛和更實際的影響力,贏得了贊成的,一大片的聖公會公眾通過進口到英國聖公會服務的東西的美與力量,它借用了由天主教教學和禮儀。 At the same time it has in many centers earned the respect and attachment of the masses by the example of zeal and self-sacrifice given by its clergy.在同一時間,它已在許多中心贏得了尊重和依戀,對群眾所舉例的熱情和自我犧牲精神,賦予其神職人員。

It was natural that this advance section of the Anglican Church should seek to ratify its position, and to escape from its fatal isolation, by desiring some scheme of corporate reunion and especially by endeavouring to obtain some recognition of the validity of its orders.這很自然,這條前進的聖公會應尋求批准其地位,並擺脫其致命的分離,由渴望一些計劃的公司團聚,特別是通過努力取得了一些識別的有效性,它的命令。 With the truest charity, which consists in the candour of truth, Pope Leo XIII in his Encyclical on Unity, pointed out that there can be no reunion expect on the solid basis of dogmatic unity and submission to the divinely instituted authority of the Apostolic See.與真實的慈善活動,其中包括在坦率的真理,教宗利奧十三世在他的通諭中對他們的團結,指出,目前不可能有任何期待團聚就奠定了堅實的基礎的教條式的統一和提交給神建立權威的使徒見。 In September, 1896, after a full and exhaustive inquiry, he issued a Bull declaring Anglican Orders to be "utterly null and void", and in a subsequent Brief addressed to the Archbishop of Paris, he required all Catholics to accept this judgment as "fixed, settled, and irrevocable" (firmum, ratum et irrevocabile).今年9月, 1896年,經過充分和詳盡的調查,他發表了牛市宣告聖公會命令,以"絕對無效" ,並在隨後的簡短講話,以大主教的巴黎,他要求所有天主教徒接受這項判決為"固定下來,不得撤回" ( firmum , ratum等irrevocabile ) 。

The Anglican Revival continues to reiterate its claim and to appropriate to itself, where practical, whatever in Catholic doctrine, liturgy, and practice, church vestments or church furniture, it finds helpful to its purpose.聖公會復興繼續重申其要求,並以適當的本身,而實際的,無論在天主教教義,禮拜儀式和實踐結合起來,教會總有一套或教會家具,它認為有助於為自己的宗旨。 By the Lambeth judgment of 1891 it acquired a public sanction for many of its innovations.由琳寶的判斷1891年,它獲得了公眾的制裁措施,它的許多創新。 Since then it has gone further, and holds that no authority in the Church of England can override things which are authorized by "Catholic consent".從那時以來,它已向前邁進一步,並認為,沒有權威,在英國教會也可以忽略的東西,這是授權的"天主教同意" 。 It stands thus in the illogical and unhistorical position of a system which is philocatholic in its views and aspirations, but hopelessly committed to heresy and to heretical communication, and built upon an essentially Protestant foundation.它站在因此,在不合邏輯和保位置的一個制度是philocatholic在其意見和願望,但絕望地致力於異端邪教的溝通,並建立在一個基本上是新教的基礎。 Although to Catholics its very claim is an impious usurpation of what belongs of right to the Catholic Church alone, it fulfils an informal mission of influencing English public opinion, and of familiarizing the English people with Catholic doctrines and ideals.雖然以天主教徒非常索賠是一個impious侵財哪些屬於權利天主教單,它履行了一個非正式的使命是影響英語民意,並熟悉了英語的人,與天主教的教義和理想。

Like the Oxford movement, it educates more pupils than it can retain, and works upon premises which cannot but carry it in the long run farther than it is willing to go.像牛津運動,它培養更多學生比,它可以保留,並經工程處所,這不能不隨身攜帶,在長遠而言,遠超過它願意去。 A branch theory which is repudiated by the principal branches, or a province theory which is unknown to the rest of the provinces, and a continuity theory of which more than twelve thousand documents in the Record Office and the Vatican Library are the overwhelming refutation, cannot form a standing ground which is other than temporary and transitional.的一個分支理論,是推翻由校長分行,或一個省的理論是不知道的,其餘的省份,並延續理論,其中超過12000文件中的記錄辦公室與梵蒂岡圖書館是壓倒一駁,不能組成一個常設的地面是比其他臨時和過渡性的。 In the meantime, its work amongst the masses is often a species of catechumenate for Catholicism, and in all cases it is an active solvent and a steady undoing of the English Reformation.在此期間,其工作之一,人民群眾往往是一個物種的慕道為天主教,並在所有情況下,這是一個積極的溶劑和穩健打倒的英語改革。


The number of Catholics in the world (1910) is said to exceed 230,000,000 (estimates by M. Fournier de Flaix, see The American Statistical Association Quarterly for March 1892).有多少天主教徒,在世界上( 1910 ) ,是說,超過2.3億(估計米的Fournier德flaix ,看到美國統計協會每季度為1892年3月) 。 The number belonging to the Greek and Eastern Churches is about 100,000,000.有多少屬於希臘和東歐教會大約是1.0億。 The number of Anglicans in all countries is something less than 25,000,000.有多少教徒在所有國家是少於25000000 。 Thus the relative proportion of those three Christian bodies which are sometimes grouped as being Episcopalian in constitution may be fairly stated by the three figures 23, 10, 2.5.因此,相對比例的三個基督教團體,有時為聖公會在憲法可能是公允的,由3個數字, 23年, 10年, 2.5 。 The growth of Anglicanism has followed mainly upon the expansion of the Anglo-Saxon race.生長anglicanism遵循主要是擴大了盎格魯-撒克遜種族。 Its area may be said to include, besides the three nucleal countries (England, Ireland, Scotland), six others, namely: the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and India.它的面積可以說是包括,除了三個nucleal國家(英國,愛爾蘭,蘇格蘭) ,其他6個,分別是:美國,加拿大,澳大利亞,新西蘭,南非和印度。 But the bulk of its membership, in fact more than two-thirds, is to be found in England.但是,其大部分成員,實際上三分之二以上的,是要發現在英格蘭。 In all the other countries of its areas it is in a minority of the Christian population.在所有其他國家的其職權範圍內,它是在一個少數的基督徒人口。 In five of them-Ireland, Scotland, the United States, Canada, and India &151; its numbers are considerably exceeded by those of the Catholic Church.在五人-愛爾蘭,蘇格蘭,美國,加拿大,印度等&151;其人數大大超出這些的天主教教會。 Its foreign missions are very generously supported, and have extended their activity far into the heathen countries.它的外國使團都非常慷慨支持,並擴大其活動遠遠納入異教徒國家。 The following table is compiled from comparatively recent statistics.下表是彙編了從較近期的統計數據。 The numbers given are of members, except when it is stated to be of communicants.該號碼是成員,除了當它向具有者。 The ratio of communicants to members may be anything between 1 in 3 and 1 in 8.比例communicants向各位議員可能會有所之間1 3和1 8例。

England32,526,075Between 13 and 17 millions or 2,223,207 communicants
Scotland4,472,103134,155 (Epis. Ch of Scotland &151; Year Book, 1906)
United States76,303,387823,066 communicants
New Zealand 772,719315,263
South Africa1,135,735Under 300,000 or 48,487 communicants

The foregoing statistics concerning the Christian population of England and her dependencies are, with the exception of Australia and New Zealand, taken from the Census, 1901 (British Empire Official Year Book, which is also to be consulted for the Anglican population of Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, and India).前述統計關於基督教人口的英格蘭和她相依是,除澳大利亞和新西蘭,從人口普查, 1901年(大英帝國的官方郵票年冊,也就是要廣泛徵詢公眾意見,為英國聖公會人口的愛爾蘭,加拿大,新西蘭和印度) 。 The figures for the Christian populations of Australia, in 1901, and New Zealand are given respectively in "Whitaker's Almanac", 1906, which includes 6,851 aborigines, and the "New Zealand year Book", 1904, which excludes the Maoris.數字基督教人口的澳大利亞,在1901年,新西蘭等分別給出了"惠特克的年曆" , 1906年,其中包括6851年原住民, "新西蘭一年書" , 1904年,其中不包括毛利人。 The Christian population of the United States is based on the Abstract of the twelfth Census, and that of South Africa on the European population, 1904, as contained in "Whitaker's Almanac", 1906.基督教美國人口總數的是摘要的基礎上的第十二次人口普查結果,並表示,南非對歐洲人口, 1904年,載於"惠特克的年曆" , 1906年。 For several decades there has been no return of religious denominations in the British Government Census.幾十年來一直存在,並沒有返回的宗教教派在英國政府的人口普查。 The Church of England is popularly estimated to include about 17,000,000.英國教會普遍估計包括約17000000 。 Its official "Year Book" (1906), which is also the authority for the number of communicants in the United States and South Africa, gives the number of communicants in England, as 2,223,207.其官方的"年鑑" ( 1906 ) ,也就是權力的人數communicants在美國和南非,讓多少communicants在英格蘭,為2223207 。 This multiplied by 6 would give a membership of 13,339,242.本乘以6將給予會員13339242 。 The same authority give the number of baptisms as 615,621.同一當局給予多少受洗為615621 。 This, upon the usual multiple of 22.5, would give a membership of 13,860,000.為此,經慣常的倍數為22.5 ,讓會員有1386.0萬。 The number belonging to the Church of England would thus seem to be between thirteen and seventeen millions.有多少屬於英國教會,因此,似乎介於13和17億。 For the number of Anglicans in Australia in 1901, refer again to "Whitaker's Almanac", 1906.該號碼的教徒,在澳大利亞在1901年,再次提及"惠特克的年曆" , 1906年。

Publication information Written by J. Moyes.出版信息寫了J.莫耶斯。 Transcribed by Nicolette Ormsbee.轉錄由nicolette ormsbee 。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.天主教百科全書第一卷出版, 1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. nihil obstat , 1907年3月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


Wilkins, Concilia (London, 1737); Calendar of State Papers: Henry VII (London, 1862 sqq.); Edward VI (1856 sqq.); Elizabeth (ibid., 1863 sqq.); Prothero, Sclect Statutes; Cardwell, Documentary Annals (Oxford, 1844); Cranmer, Works; Gairdner, History of the Church of England in the XVIth Century; Dixon, Hist.威爾金斯, concilia (倫敦, 1737年) ;日曆的國家文件:亨利七世(倫敦, 1862年sqq ) ;愛德華六( 1856年sqq ) ;伊麗莎白(同上, 1863年sqq ) ;普羅特勞, sclect章程; Cardwell承認,紀錄片縣志(牛津, 1844年) ;克蘭默,工程; gairdner ,歷史的英國教會在第十六屆世紀;迪克森,歷史。 of Church of England (London, 1878-1902); Wakeman, Introduct.對英國教會(倫敦, 1878年至1902年) ;魏斐德,企業簡介。 to Hist.至250 。 of Church of England (London 1897); Cardwell, History of Conferences (London, 1849); Gibson, the Thirty-nine Articles; Browne, Hist.對英國教會(倫敦1897年) ; Cardwell承認,歷史上的各種會議(倫敦, 1849年) ;吉布森, 39條;布朗, 250 。 of the Thirty-nine Articles; Keeling, Liturgiae Britannicae; Gasquet and Bishop, Edward VI and the Book of Common Prayer (London, 1891); Dowden, The Workmanship of the Prayer Book; Bulley, Variations of the Communion and Baptismal Offices; Brooke, Privy Council Judgements; Seckendorff, History of Lutheranism; Janssen, History of the German People, V, VI; Original Letters of the Reformation (Parker Series); Zurich Letters (Cambridge, 1842-43); Benson, Archbishop Laud (London, 1887); Church, The Oxford Movement (London and New York, 1891); Newman, Apologia; Liddon, Life of Pusey (London and New York, 1893-94), III; Benson, Life of Archbishop Benson對39條;基林, liturgiae britannicae ;賽和主教,愛德華六及一書的共同祈禱(倫敦, 1891年) ; dowden ,手藝的祈禱書; bulley ,不同版本的共融與洗禮辦事處;布魯克,英國樞密院判決; seckendorff ,歷史的路德教; janssen ,歷史上的德國人,第五,第六;原始信件的改革(派克系列) ;蘇黎世字母(劍橋大學, 1842年至1843年) ;班森,大主教讚揚(倫敦, 1887年) ;教會,牛津運動(倫敦及紐約, 1891年) ;紐曼,縱容;利登,生活pusey (倫敦及紐約, 1893年至1894年) ,三;班森,生命的大主教班森

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