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(Gr. oikonomia, "management," "economy"). ( gr. oikonomia , "管理" , "經濟" ) 。 (1.) The method or scheme according to which God carries out his purposes towards men is called a dispensation. There are usually reckoned three dispensations, the Patriarchal, the Mosaic or Jewish, and the Christian. These were so many stages in God's unfolding of his purpose of grace toward men. ( 1件)的方法或計劃,根據該神履行他的目的,對男人是所謂的免除, 因此通常都忽視三個dispensations ,宗法,馬賽克或猶太教和基督教,這些人這麼多階段,在上帝的開展他的目的是恩典,對男人。 The word is not found with this meaning in Scripture.這個詞是沒有找到這個意義經文。 (2.) A commission to preach the gospel (1 Cor. 9:17; Eph. 1:10; 3:2; Col. 1:25). ( 2 )一個委員會來傳福音( 1肺心病。 9時17分;以弗所書1:10 ; 3:2 ;上校25 ) 。 Dispensations of Providence are providential events which affect men either in the way of mercy or of judgement. dispensations的普羅維登斯是天賜的事件,影響官兵無論是在道路的憐憫或判斷的問題。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)

Dispensation, Dispensationalism配藥, dispensationalism

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The Greek words, used about twenty times in the NT, mean "to manage, regulate, administer, and plan the affairs of a household."希臘文中,用了大約20倍,在新界區,是指"來管理,規範網絡,管理網絡,並計劃在國際事務中的一個家庭" 。 This concept of human stewardship is illustrated in Luke 16:1 - 2, where the ideas of responsibility, accountability, and the possibility of change are detailed.這個概念的人的領導體現在路加福音16:1 -2 ,凡思想的責任,問責制,並改變的可能性十分詳盡。 In other occurrences (Eph. 1:10; 3:2, 9; Col. 1:25) the idea of divine stewardship is prominent, ie, an administration or plan being accomplished by God in this world.在其他事件(以弗所書1:10 ; 3:2 , 9歲;上校25 )的思想,神的指導,是突出的,即一個政府,或者計劃正在完成由上帝在這個世界上。

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Building on the idea of God's administration of or plan for the world, dispensationalism describes the unfolding of that program in various dispensations, or stewardship arrangements, throughout the history of the world. The world is seen as a household administered by God in connection with several stages of revelation that mark off the different economies in the outworking of his total program.建設上的上帝觀的行政或計劃,為世界, dispensationalism敘述的展開這一計劃是在各個dispensations ,還是領導的安排,在整個世界歷史中整個世界被看作是一個家庭,由上帝涉嫌與幾階段的啟示馬克小康不同經濟體在outworking他的總綱領。 These economies are the dispensations in dispensationalism. Thus from God's viewpoint a dispensation is an economy; from man's it is a responsibility to the particular revelation given at the time. In relation to progressive revelation, a dispensation is a stage within it. 這些經濟體是dispensations在dispensationalism ,因此從上帝的觀點免除,是一個經濟體系, 從人的,它是一種責任,以特殊的啟示由於在時間,在有關漸進式的啟示,省卻是一個階段內。 Thus a dispensation may be defined as "a distinguishable economy in the outworking of God's program."從而免除可以被界定為"區分經濟在outworking上帝的計劃"的步伐。

Number of Dispensations若干dispensations

At least three dispensations (as commonly understood in dispensationalism) are mentioned by Paul: one preceding the present time (Col. 1:25 - 26), the present arrangement (Eph. 3:2), and a future administration (Eph. 1:10). 至少有三個dispensations (一般理解,在dispensationalism )提到保羅:一前一本時間(上校25 -2 6) ,目前的安排(以弗所書3 :2) ,並為未來的政府(以弗所書一: 10 ) 。 These three require a fourth, one before the law, and a prelaw dispensation would seem to need to be divided into pre - and postfall economies. 這三個需要一個第四,一個在法律面前,一個prelaw省卻似乎需要分為學前教育-p ostfall經濟體。 Thus five administrations seem clearly distinguishable (at least within a premillennial understanding of Scripture). 因此,五個管理部門似乎明確區分(至少在一個premillennial了解經文) 。 The usual sevenfold scheme includes a new economy after the Noahic flood and another with the call of Abraham. 通常的七倍計劃包括一個新的經濟體系後, noahic做好抗洪搶險和另一個與號召,亞伯拉罕。

Relation to Progressive Revelation有關漸進式的啟示

God did not reveal all truth at one time but through various periods and stages of revelation. This principle of progressive revelation is evident in the Scriptures themselves. 上帝沒有透露所有真相,在同一時間,但透過各個時期和各個階段的啟示,這個原則是漸進性的啟示是顯而易見的,在經文本身。 Paul told his audience on Mars Hill that in a former time God overlooked their ignorance, but now commands all men everywhere to repent (Acts 17:30).保羅告訴他的聽眾對火星山說,在一名前的時候上帝忽略了他們的無知,但現在命令所有男人到處悔改(使徒行17:30 ) 。 The majestic opening of the book of Hebrews outlines the various means of progressive revelation (Heb. 1:1 - 2).雄壯日開幕的書希伯來書概述了各種手段的漸進式的啟示(希伯來書1:1 -2 ) 。 One of the most striking verses that show different ways of God's dealing with mankind is John 1:17.其中最引人注目的小詩表明,以不同的方式對上帝的處理人類約翰1時17分。

The concept of progressive revelation does not negate the unity of the Bible but recognizes the diversity of God's unfolding revelation as essential to the unity of his completed revelation. 觀念的逐漸啟示並不否定統一的聖經,但也承認多樣性,上帝的啟示展現作為必不可少的團結,他完成了啟示。

Essential Characteristics基本特徵

Dispensational theology grows out of a consistent use of the hermeneutical principle of normal, plain, or literal interpretation. dispensational神學出一貫使用的詮釋學的原則,正常的,平原,或字面解釋。 This principle does not exclude the use of figures of speech, but insists that behind every figure is a literal meaning.這一原則並不排除使用修辭格的,但堅持認為,每一個後面的數字是字面上的意思。

Applying this hermeneutical principle leads dispensationalism to distinguish God's program for Israel from his program for the church.運用這一詮釋學的原則,導致dispensationalism分辨上帝的綱領,為以色列從他的節目,為教會。 Thus the church did not begin in the OT but on the day of Pentecost, and the church is not presently fulfilling promises made to Israel in the OT that have not yet been fulfilled.因此,教會並沒有展開,在城市旅遊局,但對五旬節,教會目前還不能履行所作出的承諾,以以色列在城市旅遊局表示,尚未得到履行。


Doubtless the most frequently heard objection to dispensationalism is that it allegedly teaches several ways of salvation. 毫無疑問,最經常聽到的反對dispensationalism是,它據稱教幾個方面的救贖。 This arises from wrongly considering each dispensation as a way of salvation (therefore, there are five, six, or seven ways) instead of inclusive administrative arrangements which included, among many other things, sufficient revelation so that a person could be right with God. 出現這種情況,從誤考慮每免除其作為一種救贖 (因此,有五,六,七或方法) ,而不是包容性的行政措施,其中包括,除其他許多事情,有足夠的啟示,使一個人可以有權與上帝。 It also comes from a misunderstanding of the use of "law" and "grace" as labels for two of the dispensations, as if to imply that these are two ways of salvation. However, dispensationalists have taught and do teach that salvation is always through God's grace.它也來自一個誤解,使用"法律"和"寬限期"的標籤,兩所dispensations ,彷彿暗示這兩種途徑的救贖,但dispensationalists有教做教導說,救恩是一直是通過上帝的恩典。

The basis of salvation in every dispensation is the death of Christ; the requirement for salvation in every age is faith; the object of faith is the true God; but the content of faith changes in the various dispensations. To affirm a sameness in the content of faith would of necessity deny progressiveness in revelation. 根據救國每省卻是死的基督;要求救亡在每個時代,是信仰;對象的信仰是真上帝,但其內容,信仰的變化,在各種dispensations 。申明共同性在內容信仰會的必要性否定先進性的啟示。 Nondispensationalists may sometimes be guilty of reading the NT back into the OT in order to be able to achieve a uniformity in the content of faith. nondispensationalists有時可能是有罪的閱讀新台幣重新納入城市旅遊局為了能夠實現均勻的內容信念。


Often dispensationalism is charged with being recent in origin, and therefore untrue.往往dispensationalism被控正在最近在原產地,因此,與事實不符。 Of course, recency does not mean falsity any more than antiquity guarantees truth.當然,近因並不意味著任何的虛假以上文物擔保的真相。 Unsystematic dispensational-like statements can be found from the writings of the church fathers on, but as a system dispensationalism did not begin to develop until the early part of the eighteenth century in the writings of Pierre Poiret, John Edwards, and Isaac Watts.雜亂dispensational樣報表,可以發現,從著作的教會父親,但作為一個系統dispensationalism並沒有展開,以發展初期以前的一部分, 18世紀在著作皮埃爾poiret ,約翰愛德華茲和Isaac瓦。 Though these men set forth dispensational schemes, it was the ministry and writings of John Nelson Darby in the nineteenth century that systematized the concept. His work was the foundation for later dispensationalists such as James H Brookes, James M Gray, CI Scofield, and LS Chafer.雖然這些男人提出dispensational計劃, 這是財政部和著作的約翰納爾遜那美在十九世紀即系統化的概念,他的工作是基礎,為後來dispensationalists如詹姆斯h布魯克斯,詹姆斯米灰色,詞史高菲,與LS金龜子。

Other Dispensational Schemes其他dispensational計劃

Some covenant theologians (those who view God operating under a single covenant of grace from the fall on) use the concept of different dispensations but as part of the covenant of grace.一些盟約神學家(那些看法上帝的經營下單一公約的寬限期,從跌倒)使用的概念不同dispensations但作為該公約的恩典。 The OT and NT dispensations are readily recognized, though some add dispensations related to the call of Abraham and the giving of the Mosaic law (eg, Charles Hodge).該城市旅遊局及新台幣dispensations隨時公認的,雖然有些人放入dispensations相關的號召,亞伯拉罕和給予的鑲嵌法(例如,查爾斯Hodge的) 。 However, the unifying feature is the covenant of grace and salvation under it, so that any changes from one dispensation to another are in the nature of anticipation in the OT and accomplishment in the NT, rather than distinctive and actual changes in administration.然而,統一的特點是該公約的恩典和救贖下,所以,任何改變,從一個省卻另一種在性質上屬於預期,在城市旅遊局和成績新台幣,而不是獨特的和實際的變化。

Though there are several branches of ultra dispensationalism, they are characterized by teaching the existence of two churches within the book of Acts.雖然有幾支超dispensationalism ,其特點是教學中存在著兩個教會內部預訂行為。 One was the Jewish church which began at Pentecost and ended when the second, the body of Christ church, began with the ministry of the apostle Paul at either Acts 9, 13, or 28).一個是猶太人教堂開始,在聖神降臨和結束時,第二,基督的身體教會,就開始與建設部使徒保羅購買行為9 , 13 ,或28 ) 。 Ultradispensationalists often do not practice water baptism but usually observe the Lord's Supper. ultradispensationalists往往不修煉水的洗禮,但通常遵循主的晚餐。

CC Ryrie消委會ryrie
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
CB Bass, Backgrounds to Dispensationalism; DP Fuller, Gospel and Law; CN Kraus, Dispensationalism in America; CC Ryrie, Dispensationalism Today; E Sauer, From Eternity to Eternity; CI Scofield, ed., The New Scofield Reference Bible. cb低音,背景dispensationalism ;民主黨更充分,福音和法律;架CN克勞斯dispensationalism在美國;消委會ryrie , dispensationalism今天電子商務sauer ,從永恆到永恆;詞史高菲,版,新的史高菲參考聖經。


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Dispensation primarily signifies "the management of a household or of household affairs" (oikos, "a house," nomos, "a law"); then the management or administration of the property of others, and so "a stewardship," Luke 16:2-4; elsewhere only in the epistles of Paul, who applies it省卻主要標誌"管理一個家庭或家庭事務" (詩節" ,一所房子, " nomos "法" ) ,屆時經營或管理他人的財產,因此, "領導" ,路加福音16 :2 - 4 ;別處只在教會中提供確鑿的證據,它適用

Note: A "dispensation" is not a period or epoch (a common, but erroneous, use of the word), but a mode of dealing, an arrangement, or administration of affairs. Cf.附註: "配藥" ,是不是一個時期或時代(一種常見的,但錯誤的,使用的字眼) ,而是一種模式處理,安排,或管理的事務。比照。 oikonomos, "a steward," and oikonomeo, "to be a steward." oikonomos , "管家" , oikonomeo , "是一個管家" 。


Catholic Information 天主教資訊

(Latin dispensatio) (拉丁語dispensatio )

Dispensation is an act whereby in a particular case a lawful superior grants relaxation from an existing law.省卻是一個行為,在某一特定情況下,合法上級補助放寬,從現行法律。 This article will treat:這篇文章將處理:

I. Dispensation in General;一,省卻一般;

II.二。 Matrimonial Dispensations.婚姻dispensations 。

For dispensations from vows see VOWS and RELIGIOUS ORDERS; and from fasting and abstinence, FAST, ABSTINENCE.為dispensations從誓言見誓言和宗教命令,以及由禁食和禁慾,快速,禁慾。


Dispensation differs from abrogation and derogation, inasmuch as these suppress the law totally or in part, whereas a dispensation leaves it still in vigour; and from epikeia, or a favourable interpretation of the purpose of the legislator, which supposes that he did not intend to include a particular case within the scope of his law, whereas by dispensation a superior withdraws from the power of the law a case which otherwise would fall under it.省卻不同於廢除和減損,因為這些壓制法或全部或部分,而一個省卻樹葉,它仍然幹勁,並從epikeia ,還是一個有利的解釋,目的是立法者,這是支撐他不打算包括某一特定案件的範圍,他的律師,而由省卻上級退出權力的法律案件,否則將屬於它。 The raison d'être for dispensation lies in the nature of prudent administration, which often counsels the adapting of general legislation to the needs of a particular case by way of exception.該存在的理由,為省卻在於,在性質上的審慎政府,因為這往往律師的適應一般立法,以滿足某一特定個案的方式例外。 This is peculiarly true of ecclesiastical administration.這是獨有的真實的教會管理。 Owing to the universality of the Church, the adequate observance by all its members of a single code of laws would be very difficult.由於普遍性的教會,充分遵守其所有成員的一個單一的法典將是非常困難的。 Moreover, the Divine purpose of the Church, the welfare of souls, obliges it to reconcile as far as possible the general interests of the community with the spiritual needs or even weaknesses of its individual members.此外,神的目的,教會,福利的心靈,迫使它調和盡量的整體利益,社會與精神需求,甚至弱點,其個別成員。 Hence we find instances of ecclesiastical dispensations from the very earliest centuries; such early instances, however, were meant rather to legitimize accomplished facts than to authorize beforehand the doing of certain things.因此,我們尋找的事例教會dispensations從最初幾百年,這樣的事例早,但意思,而不是為了完成合法化的事實比授權事前該做的一些事情。 Later on antecedent dispensations were frequently granted; as early as the eleventh century Yves of Chartres, among other canonists, outlined the theory on which they were based.後來前因dispensations頻頻被理所當然;早在公元11世紀yves的chartres ,除其他canonists ,勾畫了理論與其所依據的。 With reference to matrimonial dispensations now common, we meet in the sixth and seventh centuries with a few examples of general dispensations granted to legitimize marriages already contracted, or permitting others about to be contracted.參考婚姻dispensations現在常見的,我們舉行了第六屆和第七屆百年同幾個例子,一般dispensations給予合法化的婚姻已經收縮,或允許他人即將簽約。 It is not, however, until the second half of the eleventh century that we come upon papal dispensations affecting individual cases.是不是,但是,直到下半年, 11世紀,我們來當教皇dispensations影響個別案件。 The earliest examples relate to already existing unions; the first certain dispensation for a future marriage dates from the beginning of the thirteenth century.最早的例子都與已經存在的職工;第一某些省卻為日後結婚日期,從一開始的13世紀。 In the sixteenth century the Holy See began to give ampler faculties to bishops and missionaries in distant lands; in the seventeenth century such privileges were granted to other countries.在16世紀,羅馬教廷開始讓位於豐厚醫學院的主教和傳教士在遙遠的國度,在17世紀,這種特權的人獲得到其他國家。 Such was the origin of the ordinary faculties (see FACULTIES, CANONICAL) now granted to bishops.這是原產地的普通院系(見院系,典型) ,現在授予主教。

(1) Kinds of Dispensation ( 1 )種省卻

(a) A dispensation may be explicit, tacit, or implicit, according as it is manifested by a positive act, or by silence under circumstances amounting to acquiescence, or solely by its connexion with another positive act that presupposes the dispensation. (一)免除可以明確的,默契,或隱,據,因為它具體表現就是一個積極的行為,或以沉默的情況下,相當於默許,或者僅由它的連接與另一個積極的行為假定省卻。

(b) It may be granted in foro interno, or in foro externo, according as it affects only the personal conscience, or conscience and the community at large. (二)是否可准予在論壇內部,或在對外貿易論壇,據,因為這將影響只是個人的良心,良知和社會的廣泛讚譽。 Although dispensations in foro interno are used for secret cases, they are also often granted in public cases; hence they must not be identified with dispensations in casu occulto.雖然dispensations在論壇內部是用於秘密的情況下,他們也往往給予公眾的案件,因而決不能等同於dispensations此處occulto 。

(c) A dispensation may be either direct or indirect, according as it affects the law directly, by suspending its operation, or indirectly, by modifying the object of the law in such a way as to withdraw it from the latter's control. (三)免除既可以是直接的還是間接的,根據,因為它影響到法律的直接,中止其運行,或間接,通過修改對象的法律以這樣一種方式把它撤銷,由後者控制的。 For instance, when a dispensation is granted from the matrimonial impediment of a vow, the pope remits the obligation resulting from the promise made to God, consequently also the impediment it raised against marriage.舉例來說,當一個省卻是理所當然的,由婚姻障礙的壯志激情,教宗職權的義務,導致所作出的承諾,以神,因此也阻礙了它提出了反對婚姻。

(d) A dispensation may be in formâ gratiosâ, in formâ commissâ, or in formâ commissâ mixtâ. (四)免除可能在formâ gratiosâ ,在formâ commissâ ,或在formâ commissâ mixtâ 。 Those of the first class need no execution, but contain a dispensation granted ipso facto by the superior in the act of sending it.那些一流的需要,沒有執行能力,但含有免除理所當然的事實本身,由上級法派。 Those of the second class give jurisdiction to the person named as executor of the dispensation, if he should consider it advisable; they are, therefore, favours to be granted.對於第二類給管轄範圍內的人,命名為執行人的豁免,如果他認為這是可取的,他們都是,因此,優待予以批准。 Those of the third class command the executor to deliver the dispensation if he can verify the accuracy of the facts for which such dispensation is asked; they seem, therefore, to contain a favour already granted.對於第三級指揮遺囑執行人提供配藥,如果他可以證明,精確的事實,而這種豁免是問,他們看似龐大,因此,要遏制一種恩惠,已經是理所當然的。 From the respective nature of each of these forms of dispensation result certain important consequences that affect delegation, obreption, and revocation in the matter of dispensations (see DELEGATION; OBREPTION; REVOCATION).從各自的性質,分別為這些形式的免除因某些重要的後果,影響到代表團, obreption ,並撤銷在這件事的dispensations (見代表團; obreption ;撤銷) 。

(2) The Dispensing Power ( 2 )配藥權

It lies in the very notion of dispensation that only the legislator, or his lawful successor, can of his own right grant a dispensation from the law.它是在非常概念省卻只有立委,或他的合法繼任人,可他自己的權利,給予免除法律。 His subordinates can do so only in the measure that he permits.他的下屬可以這樣做不僅是在衡量他的許可證。 If such communication of ecclesiastical authority is made to an inferior by reason of an office he holds, his power, though derived, is known as ordinary.如果此類傳播的教會權威,是一個劣勢,因一個辦事處,他認為,他的權力,雖然所得,是被稱為普通。 If it is only given him by way of commission it is known as delegated power.如果它僅僅是給了他的方式,佣金的,它是被稱為下放權力。 When such delegation takes place through a permanent law, it is known as delegation by right of law.當這種代表團透過一個常設的法律,這是眾所周知的,因為代表團的權利的規定。 It is styled habitual, when, though given by a particular act of the superior, it is granted for a certain period of time or a certain number of cases.這是風格的慣性,時,雖然所給予的某一特定行為的上級,這是理所當然的,為在某一段時間內或某一個案件數目。 Finally, it is called particular if granted only for one case.最後,它被稱為尤其是如果政府只批准為一個案件。 When the power of dispensation is ordinary it may be delegated to another unless this be expressly forbidden.當權力省卻是普通的,它可委託給另一除非這個被明文禁止的。 When it is delegated, as stated above, it may not be subdelegated unless this be expressly permitted; exception is made, however, for delegation ad universitatem causarum ie for all cases of a certain kind, and for delegation by the pope or the Roman Congregations.當它被授予的,正如上文所述,它可能不是subdelegated除非這個明文准許;例外,但是,對於代表團專案universitatem causarum即所有案件某一種,並為代表團由教皇或羅馬教區。 Even these exceptions do not cover delegations made because of some personal fitness of the delegate, nor those in which the latter receives, not actual jurisdiction to grant the dispensation, but an appointment to execute it, eg in the case of dispensations granted in formâ commissâ mixtâ (see above).即使這些例外並不涵蓋代表團發了言,因為我個人的一些健身的代表,也不在其中後者獲得,而不是實際的管轄範圍內給予豁免,但預約來執行它,例如,在案件dispensations授予formâ commissâ mixtâ (見上文) 。

The power of dispensation rests in the following persons:權力省卻在於下列人士:

(A) The Pope (一)教宗

He cannot of his own right dispense from the Divine law (either natural or positive).他不能他自己的權利,免除從神權法(無論是自然人或陽性) 。 When he does dispense, eg from vows, oaths, unconsummated marriages, he does so by derived power communicated to him as Vicar of Christ, and the limits of which he determines by his magisterium, or authoritative teaching power.當他是否免除,例如從誓言,宣誓,未完成的婚姻,他這樣做所產生的力量傳達給他,作為副主教的基督和限制,他決定由他magisterium ,或權威性的教學力量。 There is some diversity of opinion as to the nature of the pope's dispensing power in this respect; it is generally held that it operates by way of indirect dispensation: that is, by virtue of his power over the wills of the faithful the pope, acting in the name of God, remits for them an obligation resulting from their deliberate consent, and therewith the consequences that by natural or positive Divine law flowed from such obligation.也有一些不同的意見,至於性質教宗的配藥在這方面的權力,這是一般認為,它的運作方式間接省卻:那就是憑藉他的權力過遺囑的忠實教宗,代理在真主的名義,職權範圍,為他們義務所造成的,他們故意同意,並定條文的後果,即由自然人或積極的神聖法則流到從這種義務。 The pope, of his own right, has full power to dispense from all ecclesiastical laws, whether universal or particular, even from the disciplinary decrees of œcumenical councils.教宗,他自己的權利,有充分的權力,以免除所有教會的法律,無論是通用或特定,即使從紀律條令的œcumenical議會。 Such authority is consequent on his primacy and the fullness of his immediate jurisdiction.這種權力是因對他的首要地位,以及充滿了他的切身管轄權。 A part of this power, however, he usually communicates to the Roman Congregations.這項工作的一部分權力,不過,他通常會傳達到羅馬帝國的畢業典禮。

(B) The Bishop (二)主教

Of his ordinary right, the bishop can dispense from his own statutes and from those of his predecessors, even when promulgated in a diocesan synod (where he alone is legislator).他的一般權利時,主教可以免除由他自己的章程,並從那些他的前輩,即使在頒布了一個教區主教(他僅是立委) 。 From the other laws of the Church he cannot dispense of his own right.從其他相關法律的教堂他不能免除他自己的權利。 This is evident from the nature of dispensation and of diocesan jurisdiction.這是顯而易見的,從本質省卻及拔萃管轄權。 A principle maintained by some authors, viz, that the bishop can grant all dispensations which the pope has not reserved to himself, cannot be admitted.一個原則,保持一些作者,即表示,主教能給予所有dispensations其中,教宗並沒有保留給自己,不能被接納。 But by derived right (either ordinary or delegated according to the terms of the grant) the bishop can dispense from those laws that expressly permit him to do so or from those for which he has received an indult to that effect.但衍生的權利(無論是普通或下放根據該條款的補助金)的主教,可以免除從這些法律明文不允許他這樣做,或者從那些在這方面,他已收到一份indult即行生效。 Moreover, by ordinary right, based on custom or the tacit consent of the Holy See, he may dispense:此外,由普通正確的,基於習慣或默許同意,教廷,他可免除:

(a) in a case where recourse to the Holy See is difficult and where delay would entail serious danger; (一)在一個情況下,求助於羅馬教廷是困難而延誤將會引起嚴重的危險;

(b) in doubtful cases especially when the doubt affects the necessity of the dispensation or the sufficiency of the motives; ( b )在可疑情況下,尤其是當無疑影響的必要性,豁免或有足夠的動機;

(c) in cases of frequent occurrence but requiring dispensation, also in frequently occurring matters of minor importance; (三)在案件頻繁發生,但要求配藥,也經常發生的事情未成年人的重要性;

(d) in decrees of national and provincial councils, although he may not pronounce a general decree to the contrary; ( d )在法令的國家和省級議會議員,雖然他可能沒有宣判,一般法令正好相反;

(e) in pontifical laws specially passed for his diocese. ( e )在宗座的專門法律,通過他的教區。

It should be always remembered that to fix the exact limit of these various powers legitimate custom and the interpretation of reputable authors must serve as guides.它應該永遠記住定出確切的限制,這種種權力的合法習俗與詮釋聲望的作家,必然充當導遊。 Superiors of exempt religious orders (see EXEMPTION) can grant to their subjects, individually, those dispensations from ecclesiastical laws which the bishop grants by his ordinary power.上級的豁免宗教命令(見豁免) ,可給予其科目,單獨地,那些dispensations從教會的法律,主教贈款,由他的普通電源。 When there is question of the rules of their order they are bound to follow what is laid down in their constitutions.當有問題,該規則的,他們為了他們必然要遵循什麼是訂在其憲法。

(C) The Vicar-General (三)副主教幹事

He enjoys by virtue of his appointment the ordinary dispensing power of the bishop, also the delegated powers of the latter, ie those granted him not personally but as ordinary (according to present discipline, the pontifical faculties known as ordinary); exception is made, however, for those powers which require a special mandate like those of the chapter Liceat, for dealing with irregularities and secret cases.他喜歡以德治國對他的任命,一般配藥權主教,還下放權力後,即授予他個人並不,但作為普通股(按照目前的紀律,宗座院系稱為普通) ;例外,不過,對於權力,而需要一個特殊任務一樣,該章liceat ,處理違規行為和秘密的案件。 The vicar capitular likewise has all the dispensing power which the bishop has of his own right, or which has been delegated to him as ordinary.該副主教capitular同樣已全部配發權,其中有主教他自己的權利,或已授予他作為普通的。

(D) Parish Priest (四)本堂司鐸

By his own ordinary right, founded on custom, he may dispense (but only in particular cases, and for individuals separately, not for a community or congregation) from the observance of fasting, abstinence, and Holy Days.由他自己的一般權利,成立於習俗,他可免除(但只在特殊情況下,對於個人分開,而不是為一個社區或聚集) ,從遵守齋戒,禁慾和神聖的日子。 He can also dispense, within his own territory, from the observance of diocesan statutes when the latter permit him to do so; the terms of these statutes usually declare the extent of such power, also whether it be ordinary or delegated.他也可以免除,他在自己的領土上,從遵守拔萃章程時,後者不允許他這樣做;條款,這些法規通常申報的程度,這種權力,也不論是普通或下放。 Dispensation being an act of jurisdiction, a superior can exercise it only over his own subjects, though as a general rule he can do so in their favour even outside his own territory.省卻作為一個法管轄,上級可以行使它只有他自己的科目,雖然作為一般規則,他可以這樣做,有利於他們的,甚至超出了自己的領土。 The bishop and the parish priest, except in circumstances governed by special enactments, acquire jurisdiction over a member of the faithful by reason of the domicile or quasi-domicile he or she has in a diocese or parish (see DOMICILE).主教和教區牧師,除了在某些情況下由專門的成文法,獲取司法管轄權的成員之一,忠實,因住所或準本籍他或她在一個教區或堂(見住所) 。 Moreover, in their own territory they can use their dispensing power in respect of persons without fixed residence (vagi), probably also in respect of travellers temporarily resident in such territory.此外,在自己的領土上,他們可以利用其權力配藥方面的人沒有固定居所( vagi ) ,大概也是在尊重旅客暫時居住在這樣的領土。 As a general rule he who has power to dispense others from certain obligations can also dispense himself.作為一般規則的人,他有權力,以免除他人的某些義務,也可以免除自己。

(3) Causes for Granting Dispensations ( 3 )導致給予dispensations

A sufficient cause is always required in order that a dispensation may be both valid and licit when an inferior dispenses from a superior's law, but only for the liceity of the act when a superior dispenses from his own law.有足夠的原因,就是始終要求,以免除可能都有效,而且合法的時候,劣勢免除來自上級的規定,但只適用於liceity的行為時,上級分配,由他自己的法律。 Nevertheless, in this latter case a dispensation granted without a motive would not (in se), except for some special reason, eg scandal, constitute a serious fault.然而,在這後一種情況下,免除理所當然的,沒有動機,將不會(在本身) ,除了一些特殊的理由,例如醜聞,構成了嚴重的紕漏。 One may be satisfied with a probably sufficient cause, or with a cause less than one that, of itself and without any dispensation, would excuse from the law.其中一個可能是不滿意很可能有充分的理由,或以事業不到一表示,自己並沒有任何豁免,將藉口,從法律。 It is always understood that a superior intends to grant only a licit dispensation.這是一貫相互理解,認為上級打算撥款只有一種合法的特許。 Therefore a dispensation is null when in the motives set forth for obtaining it a false statement is made which has influenced not only the causa impulsiva, ie the reason inclining the superior more easily to grant it, but also the causa motiva, ie the really determining reason for the grant in question.因此免除是無效的時候,在動機提出了獲取它虛假陳述,是具有影響不僅病因impulsiva ,即原因傾斜優更容易給予它,而且也根本原因motiva ,即真正確定贈款的理由問題。 For this, and in general for the information which should accompany the petition, in order that a dispensation be valid, see below apropos of obreption and subreption in rescripts of dispensation.對於這一點,並在總體上為信息應伴隨著請願書後,為了免除有效期,見下文中肯的obreption和subreption在rescripts的特許。 Consequently a false statement or the fraudulent withholding of information, ie done with positive intention of deceiving the superior, totally annuls the dispensation, unless such statement bear on a point foreign to the matter in hand.因此,虛假陳述或欺詐手段隱瞞信息,即做了積極的意向,欺騙上級,完全annuls豁免,除非這類聲明緊就一個陌生的事情在手。 But if made with no fraudulent intent, a false statement does not affect the grant unless the object of the statement be some circumstance which ought to have been expressed under pain of nullity, or unless it affects directly the motive cause as above described.但如果作出任何欺詐意圖,虛假陳述,並不影響金,除非對象的聲明中有一些情況應已表示,根據疼痛無效,或除非它直接影響動因如上描述。 Even then false statements do not always nullify the grant; for;即使如此,虛假陳述並不總是廢止補助金; ;

(a) when the dispensation is composed of several distinct and separable parts, that part or element alone is nullified on which falls the obreption or subreption, as the case may be; (一)當省卻組成幾個不同的可分離部分,該部分或要素僅是無效就屬於該obreption或subreption ,視情況而定;

(b) when several adequately distinguished motive causes are set forth, the dispensation is null and void only when the obreption or subreption in question affects them all. (二)當幾個充分尊敬的動機原因闡述,省卻是無效的,只有當obreption或subreption在問題影響到他們的一切。

It is enough, moreover, that the accuracy of the facts be verified at the moment when the dispensation is granted.這是不夠的,此外,其精確度的事實加以核實的時候省卻是理所當然的。 Therefore, in the case of dispensations ex gratiâ (or in formâ gratiosâ), ie granting favours, the facts must be true when the dispensation is expedited; on the other hand, in the case of dispensations in formâ commissâ (and according to the more general opinion, in those in formâ commissâ mixtâ), the causes alleged must be verified only when the dispensation is actually executed.因此,在案件dispensations特惠gratiâ (或在formâ gratiosâ ) ,即在給予恩惠,事實必須真實,當省卻是加快;另一方面,在案件dispensations在formâ commissâ (據越一般認為,在那些在formâ commissâ mixtâ ) ,其原因據稱必須查證時,才免除實際上是執行槍決。

(4) Form and Interpretation ( 4 )表格和解釋

It is proper, generally speaking, that dispensations be asked for and granted in writing.這是正確的,從總體上講,那dispensations詢問,並給予書面答复。 Moreover, the Roman Congregations are forbidden, as a rule, to receive petitions for dispensations or to answer them by telegram.此外,羅馬教會是禁止的,作為一項規則,以接收請願信,為dispensations或回答他們的電報。 The execution of a dispensation made on receipt of telegraphic information that such dispensation had been granted would be null, unless such means of communication had been officially used by special authorization from the pope.執行免除取得收據的電報資料,這種省卻已獲批將無效,除非這種通信手段,已被正式使用的特別批准,由教宗。 Except when the interest of a third party is at stake, or the superior has expressed himself to the contrary, the general dispensing power, whether ordinary or delegated, ought to be broadly interpreted, since its object is the common good.除了當利益第三人,是生死攸關的時刻,或上級表達了自己相反的,一般配藥的權力,無論是普通或授予的,應是廣義的解釋,因為它的目的是共同富裕。 But the actual dispensation (and the same holds true of dispensing power given for a particular case) ought to be strictly interpreted unless it is a question of a dispensation authorized by the common law, or one granted motu proprio (by the superior spontaneously) to a whole community, or with a view to the public good.但實際免除(及同樣適用於配藥賦予的權力為某一特定案件)應予以嚴格解釋,除非它是一個問題的免除授權由普通法,或一個理所當然的頒布(由上級自發)整個社會,或者以期公益。 Again, that interpretation is lawful without which the dispensation would prove hurtful or useless to the beneficiary, also that which extends the benefits of the dispensation to whatever is juridically connected with it.再次,這種解釋是合法的,沒有這些省卻將被證明是傷害或沒用的受益人,還延伸的好處,這項新的服務省卻什麼法理上與它。

(5) Cessation of Dispensations ( 5 )停止dispensations

(a) A dispensation ceases when it is renounced by the person in whose favour it was granted. (一)免除停止時,才放棄的人的贊成,這是理所當然的。 However, when the object of the dispensation is an obligation exclusively resulting from one's own will, eg a vow, such renunciation is not valid until accepted by the competent superior.但是,當物體的豁免是一種義務完全所造成的人們的意志,例如一個發誓,這種放棄是不是有效,直至接受由主管上司。 Moreover, neither the non-use of a dispensation nor the fact of having obtained another dispensation incompatible with the former is, in itself, equivalent to a renunciation.此外,無論是不使用的免除,也不是事實,在獲得另一個省卻不符合前,本身就是等於放棄。 Thus, if a girl had received a dispensation to marry Peter and another to marry Paul, she would remain free to marry either of them.因此,如果一個女孩收到了免除嫁給彼得和另一個嫁給保羅,她會保持自由結婚,要么他們。

(b) A dispensation ceases when it is revoked after due notice to the recipient. (二)免除不再當它被撤銷後,因通知給收件人。 The legislator can validly revoke a dispensation, even without cause, though in the latter case it would be illicit to do so; but without a cause an inferior cannot revoke a dispensation, even validly.立法者能有效撤銷豁免,即使沒有事業,但在後一種情況下,將非法這樣做,但沒有一個原因是卑微的,不能撤銷豁免,即使是有效的。 With a just cause, however, he can do so if he has dispensed by virtue of his general powers (ordinary or delegated); not so, however, when his authority extended merely to one particular case, since thereby his authority was exhausted.與正義的事業,不過,他是可以這樣做的,如果他有配憑藉他的一般權力(普通或下放) ;並非如此,但是,當他的權力延伸僅僅是一個特殊的情況下,自從而他的權力被耗盡。

(c) A dispensation ceases by the death of the superior when, the dispensation having been granted in formâ commissâ, the executor had not yet begun to execute it. (三)免除不再受到死亡的上司時,免除被授予formâ commissâ ,遺囑執行人尚未開始執行。 But the grant holds good if given ex gratiâ (as a favour) and even, more probably, if granted in formâ commissâ mixtâ.但金持有好,如果給前gratiâ (作為一個忙) ,甚至更多的可能,如果被授予在formâ commissâ mixtâ 。 In any case, the new pope is wont to revalidate all favours granted in the immediately previous year by his predecessor and not yet availed of.在任何情況下,新教宗是won't的屆滿時,所有主張給予在緊接前一年,他的前任和尚未利用的。

(d) A conditional dispensation ceases on verification of the condition that renders it void, eg the death of the superior when the dispensation was granted with the clause ad beneplacitum nostrum (at our good pleasure). (四)有條件的豁免停止對核查的條件,使其無效,如死刑的優越時,省卻獲得與第專案beneplacitum我們的(在我們高興的,好) 。

(e) A dispensation ceases by the adequate and total cessation of its motive causes, the dispensation thereupon ceasing to be legitimate. (五)免除不再受到足夠和徹底停止其動機的原因,省卻就此止步不合法的。 But the cessation of the influencing causes, or of a part of the motive causes, does not affect the dispensation.但停止該影響的原因,或某一部分的動機原因,並不會影響到國內。 However, when the motive cause, though complex, is substantially one, it is rightly held to cease with the disappearance of one of its essential elements.但是,當動機的原因,雖然複雜,是大大的,這是十分正確的舉行,以停止與消失它的一個基本的要素。

II MATRIMONIAL DISPENSATIONS ii matrimonial dispensations

A matrimonial dispensation is the relaxation in a particular case of an impediment prohibiting or annulling a marriage.婚姻省卻是放寬在特定案件中的一個障礙,禁止或廢止婚姻。 It may be granted:它可准予:

(a) in favour of a contemplated marriage or to legitimize one already contracted; (一)贊成一項合同或婚姻合法化,其中一個已經簽約;

(b) in secret cases, or in public cases, or in both (see IMPEDIMENTS OF MATRIMONY); ( b )在秘密的情況下,或在公共情況下,或在這兩個(見障礙的婚姻) ;

(c) in foro interno only, or in foro externo (the latter includes also the former). ( c )在論壇內部只,或在對外貿易論壇(後者還包括前) 。 Power of dispensing in foro interno is not always restricted to secret cases (casus occulti).權力配藥,在論壇內部並不總是局限於秘密的案件(案例奧庫爾蒂) 。

These expressions, as stated above, are by no means identical.這些表現形式,正如以上所述,是絕不相同的。 We shall classify the most important considerations in this very complex matter, under four heads:我們將進行分類,最重要的考慮因素,在這個非常複雜的問題,根據四個國家元首:

(1) general powers of dispensation; ( 1 )一般權力省卻;

(2) particular indults of dispensation; ( 2 )特別indults的豁免;

(3) causes for dispensations; ( 3 )原因dispensations ;

(4) costs of dispensations. ( 4 )成本dispensations 。

(1) General Powers of Dispensation ( 1 )一般權力豁免

(A) The Pope (一)教宗

The pope cannot dispense from impediments founded on Divine law-except, as above described, in the case of vows, espousals, and non-consummated marriages, or valid and consummated marriage of neophytes before baptism (see NEOPHYTES).教宗不能免除障礙,從基礎上的神聖法則-除外,因為以上所述,在案件誓言, espousals ,以及非婚委託開發,或有效委託開發和婚姻的neophytes之前的洗禮(見neophytes ) 。 In doubtful cases, however, he may decide authoritatively as to the objective value of the doubt.在可疑情況下,不過,他可以決定,權威,以客觀的價值的懷疑。 In respect of impediments arising from ecclesiastical law the pope has full dispensing power.方面的障礙所引起的教會法,教宗已全部配發權。 Every such dispensation granted by him is valid, and when he acts from a sufficient motive it is also licit.每一個這樣的服務省卻給予他的將是有效的,而當他的行為,從一個足夠的動機,它也是合法的。 He is not wont, however, out of consideration for the public welfare, to exercise this power personally, unless in very exceptional cases, where certain specific impediments are in question.他不是won't的,但出於考慮,為社會公益事業,行使這項權力,我個人來說,除非在非常特殊的情況下,如果某些特定的障礙,各地政府都在質詢。 Such cases are error, violence, Holy orders, disparity of worship, public conjugicide, consanguinity in the direct line or in the first degree (equal) of the collateral Line, and the first degree of affinity (from lawful intercourse) in the direct line.這種情況下不存在錯誤,暴力,神聖的命令,懸殊的崇拜,公共conjugicide ,血緣在直接線或在第一學位(等於)的抵押品線,並首次程度的親和力(從合法的性交)在直接線。 As a rule the pope exercises his power of dispensation through the Roman Congregations and Tribunals.作為一項規則,教宗行使他的權力,省卻通過羅馬教會和法庭。

Up to recent times the Dataria was the most important channel for matrimonial dispensations when the impediment was public or about to become public within a short time.直至最近時期dataria是最重要的渠道,讓婚姻dispensations時的障礙是公眾或即將成為公眾在很短的時間。 The Holy Office, however, bad exclusive control in foro externo over all impediments connected with or juridically bearing on matters of faith, eg disparity of worship, mixta religio, Holy orders, etc. The dispensing power in foro interno lay with the Penitentiaria, and in the case of pauperes or quasi-pauperes this same Congregation had dispensing power over public impediments in foro externo.神聖的辦公室,不過,壞的獨家控制在對外貿易論壇的所有障礙,與法律上或事關事宜的信仰,如貧富懸殊的崇拜, mixta religio ,聖令等配藥權在論壇內部裁員與penitentiaria ,在案件pauperes或準pauperes這同樣聚集了配藥權阻礙公眾論壇在對外貿易。 The Penitentiaria held as pauperes for all countries outside of Italy those whose united capital, productive of a fixed revenue, did not exceed 5370 lire (about 1050 dollars); and as quasi-pauperes, those whose capital did not exceed 9396 lire (about 1850 dollars).該penitentiaria舉行pauperes所有國家以外的意大利那些美國的資本,生產的一個固定的收入,不超過5370萬里拉(約1050美元) ;準pauperes ,那些資本不超過9396萬里拉(約1850年美元) 。 It likewise had the power of promulgating general indults affecting public impediments, as for instance the indult of 15 Nov., 1907.同樣,它有權力頒布一般indults影響公眾的障礙,作為舉例indult的1907年11月15日。 Propaganda was charged with all dispensations, both in foro inferno and in foro externo, for countries under its jurisdiction, as was the Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs for all countries depending on it, eg Russia, Latin America, and certain vicariates and prefectures Apostolic.宣傳已被落案控告各dispensations ,無論是在磨地獄,並在對外貿易論壇,為各國在其管轄下的,正如眾有著非同尋常的教會事務,所有國家視它,例如俄羅斯,拉丁美洲,以及某些vicariates和省直部門使徒。

On 3 November, 1908, the duties of these various Congregations received important modifications in consequence of the Constitution "Sapienti", in which Pope Pius X reorganized the Roman Curia.於1908年11月3日,該職務,這種種的畢業典禮收到了重要的修改,後果是憲法的" sapienti " ,其中,教宗比約x改組羅馬教廷。 Dispensing power from public impediments in the case of pauperes or quasi-pauperes was transferred from the Dataria and the Penitentiaria to a newly established Congregation known as the Congregatio de Disciplinâ Sacramentorum.配藥的權力來自公眾的障礙,在案件pauperes或準pauperes被調離該dataria和penitentiaria到一個新成立的眾稱之為congregatio德disciplinâ sacramentorum 。 The Penitentiaria retains dispensing power over occult impediments in foro interno only.該penitentiaria保留配藥權隱匿性障礙,在論壇內部只。 The Holy Office retains its faculties, but restricted expressly under three heads:聖辦公室保持其特長,但明文限制下,三國元首:

(1) disparity of worship; ( 1 )懸殊的崇拜;

(2) mixta religio; ( 2 ) mixta religio ;

(3) the Pauline Privilege [see DIVORCE (IN MORAL THEOLOGY)]. ( 3 )華特權[見離婚(在道德神學) ] 。

Propaganda remains the channel for securing dispensations for all countries under its jurisdiction, but as it is required for the sake of executive unity, to defer, in all matters concerning matrimony, to the various Congregations competent to act thereon, its function is henceforth that of intermediary.宣傳仍然渠道爭取dispensations所有國家在其管轄下的,但因為它是為行政機關的團結,推遲到,在一切事務上涉及婚姻關係,以各教區勝任就此採取行動,其功能是從今以後,即中介。 It is to be remembered that in America, the United States, Canada and Newfoundland, and in Europe, the British Isles are now withdrawn from Propaganda, and placed under the common law of countries with a hierarchy.這是必須記住,在美洲,美國,加拿大和紐芬蘭,並在歐洲,英倫三島,現在退出宣傳,並置於根據普通法的國家等級。 The Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs loses all its powers; consequently the countries hitherto subject to it must address themselves either to the Holy Office or to the Congregatio de Disciplinâ Sacramentorum according to the nature of the impediment.眾有著非同尋常的教會事務失去了其所有的權力;因此該國迄今受它必須解決本身都是以神聖的辦公室或向congregatio德disciplinâ sacramentorum據性質的障礙。

It should be noted that the powers of a Congregation are suspended during the vacancy of the Holy See, except those of the Penitentiaria in foro interno, which, during that time, are even increased.應該指出的是,權力的聚集是總懸浮顆粒物,在出缺的教廷,除了那些對penitentiaria在論壇內部,而在這段時間裡,更是增加了。 Though suspended, the powers of a Congregation may be used in cases of urgent necessity.雖然暫停職務,權力的聚集,可用於案件的迫切必要性。

(B) The Diocesan Bishops (二)教區主教

We shall treat first of their fixed perpetual faculties, whether ordinary or delegated, afterwards of their habitual and temporary faculties.我們應先處理自己的固定永久的院系,無論是普通或授權,事後其慣常和臨時院系。 By virtue of their ordinary power (see JURISDICTION) bishops can dispense from those prohibent impediments of ecclesiastical law which are not reserved to the pope.憑藉其普通電源(見管轄權)主教,可以免除這些prohibent障礙的教會法,這是不是保留給教宗。 The reserved impediments of this kind are espousals, the vow of perpetual chastity, and vows taken in diocesan religious institutes (see RELIGIOUS CONGREGATIONS), mixta religio, public display and solemn blessing at marriages within forbidden times, the vetitum, or interdict laid on a marriage by the pope, or by the metropolitan in a case of appeal.預留的障礙,這一類espousals ,發誓永遠貞潔,並誓言採取拔萃宗教院校(見宗教團體) , mixta religio ,公開展示,並鄭重祝福,在婚姻內嚴禁倍, vetitum ,或停職奠定一個婚姻是由教宗,或由國際大都會,一宗上訴。 The bishop may also dispense from diriment impediments after the following manner: -主教,也可免除由diriment障礙後,按以下方式進行: -

(a) By tacit consent of the Holy See he can dispense in foro interno from secret impediments from which the pope is wont to exercise his power of dispensing, in the three following cases: (一)由默示同意的教廷他可以免除在論壇內部從秘密障礙,而教宗是won't的行使他的權力配藥,在三個有下列情形:

(1) in marriages already contracted and consummated, when urgent necessity arises (ie when the interested parties cannot be separated without scandal or endangering their souls, and there is no time to have recourse to the Holy See or to its delegate) - it is, however, necessary that such marriage shall have taken place in lawful form before the Church, and that one of the contracting parties at least shall have been ignorant of the impediment; ( 1 )在婚姻已經承包和委託開發時,迫切需要產生的(即當有興趣的各方不能分割,沒有醜聞或危及他們的靈魂,有沒有時間去求助於羅馬教廷或其代表) -它是不過,必須指出,這種婚姻應採取合法的形式,才教會,而且其中一,締約各方至少應被無知的障礙;

(2) in marriages about to be contracted and which are called embarrassing (perplexi) cases, ie where everything being ready a delay would be defamatory or would cause scandal; ( 2 )在婚姻即將簽約,這是所謂的尷尬( perplexi )的情況下,即在一切準備就緒延誤,將誹謗或會導致醜聞;

(3) when there is a serious doubt of fact as to the existence of an impediment; in this case the dispensation seems to hold good, even though in course of time the impediment becomes certain, and even public. ( 3 )當有一個很大的疑問,事實上,以存在的一個障礙,在這種情況下,免除似乎持良好,即使在過程中的時間障礙,成為一定的,甚至是公眾。 In cases where the law is doubtful no dispensation is necessary; but the bishop may, if he thinks proper, declare authentically the existence and sufficiency of such doubt.的情況下,法律是沒有任何疑問的是省卻必要的,但這位主教可能,如果他認為適當的,申報真實的存在和充足的這種疑慮。

(b) By virtue of a decree of the Congregation of the Inquisition or Holy Office (20 February, 1888) diocesan bishops and other ordinaries (especially vicars Apostolic, administrators Apostolic, and prefects Apostolic, having jurisdiction over an allocated territory, also vicars-general in spiritualibus, and vicars capitular) may dispense in very urgent (gravissimum) danger of death from all diriment impediments (secret or public) of ecclesiastical law, except priesthood and affinity (from lawful intercourse) in the direct line. (二)以德治國的一項法令,對會眾的宗教裁判所或聖辦事處( 1888年2月20日)教區主教和其他普通股(尤其是vicars使徒,管理員使徒,省長使徒,擁有管轄權的一個分配領土,也vicars -一般在spiritualibus , vicars capitular ) ,可免除在非常緊迫( gravissimum )的危險,從死亡的所有diriment障礙(秘密或公開)的教會法,除了神職人員和親和力(從合法的性交)在直接路線。

However, they can use this privilege only in favour of persons actually living in real concubinage or united by a merely civil marriage, and only when there is no time for recourse to the Holy See.不過,他們可以利用這個特權,只有贊成的人其實生活在現實和妾或團結在一個純粹的民事婚姻,而只有當我們有沒有時間訴諸羅馬教廷。 They may also legitimize the children of such unions, except those born of adultery or sacrilege.它們也可能合法化的子女,如工會,除出生的通姦罪或褻瀆。 In the decree of 1888 is also included the impediment of clandestinity.在該法令的1888年也已列入障礙的秘密活動。 This decree permits therefore (at least until the Holy See shall have issued other instructions) to dispense, in the case of concubinage or civil marriage, with the presence of the priest and of the two witnesses required by the Decree "Ne temere" in urgent cases of marriage in extremis.這項法令許可,因此(至少直到羅馬教廷應發出其他指令) ,免除,在案件妾或公證結婚,與在場的牧師和兩個證人必須根據法令, "氦氖temere "在緊急案件婚姻在極端情況。 Canonists do not agree as to whether bishops hold these faculties by virtue of their ordinary power or by general delegation of the law. canonists不同意,以決定是否主教持有這些院系憑藉其普通的權力,或通過一般代表團的法律。

It seems to us more probable that those just described under;在我們看來,更可能是那些剛下所述;

(a) belong to them as ordinaries, while those under (一)屬於他們作為普通股,而根據

(b) are delegated. (二)授予的。

They are, therefore, empowered to delegate the former; in order to subdelegate the latter they must be guided by the limits fixed by the decree of 1888 and its interpretation dated 9 June, 1889.因此,它們有權代表前;為了subdelegate後者,他們必須遵循的界限,由固定的法令, 1888年及其解釋日期1889年6月9日。 That is, if it is a question of habitual delegation parish priests only should receive it, and only for cases where there is no time for recourse to the bishop.也就是說,如果這是一個問題,慣性代表團教區神父,不僅要接受它,只為的情況下,是沒有時間訴諸主教。

Besides the fixed perpetual faculties, bishops also receive from the Holy See habitual temporary indults for a certain period of time or for a limited number of cases.除了固定的永久學院,主教們還收到來自羅馬教廷慣常臨時indults為某一段時間或數量有限的情況下。 These faculties are granted by fixed "formulæ", in which the Holy See from time to time, or as occasion requires it, makes some slight modifications.這些學院是由固定的" formulæ " ,在這種教廷從時間,以時間,或作為場合的需要,使一些稍作修改。 (See FACULTIES, CANONICAL.) These faculties call for a broad interpretation. (見院系,典型) ,這些院系呼籲建立一個廣泛的解釋。 Nevertheless it is well to bear in mind, when interpreting them, the actual legislation of the Congregation whence they issue, so as not to extend their use beyond the places, persons, number of cases, and impediments laid down in a given indult.不過這是極緊記,當解讀他們,但實際立法會眾何時,他們的問題,以便不延長其使用超出了地點,人員,很多情況下,和障礙所訂下的一個特定indult 。 Faculties thus delegated to a bishop do not in any way restrict his ordinary faculties; nor (in se) do the faculties issued by one Congregation affect those granted by another.院系從而下放給主教,不以任何方式限制他的普通院系,也沒有(硒)做院系所發出的一個教區的影響那些授予另一個。 When several specifically different impediments occur in one and the same case, and one of them exceeds the bishop's powers, he may not dispense from any of them.當幾個具體不同的障礙,發生在一個和相同的情況下,其中一人,超過新輔理主教的權力,他可能不免除從他們任何人。 Even when the bishop has faculties for each impediment taken separately he cannot (unless he possesses the faculty known as de cumulo) use his various faculties simultaneously in a case where, all the impediments being public, one of them exceeds his ordinary faculties, it is not necessary for a bishop to delegate his faculties to his vicars-general; since 1897 they are always granted to the bishop as ordinary, therefore to the vicar-general also.甚至當主教已院系每個障礙分開,他不能(除非他擁有學院被稱為德cumulo )運用自己的各種院系,同時在一個案件中,所有的障礙,正在市民,其中一人,超過了他的普通學院,它是沒有必要為樞機主教,以授其院系他vicars幹事;以來, 1897年,他們永遠是批給主教作為普通的事情,所以向副主教幹事還。 With regard to other priests a decree of the holy Office (14 Dec., 1898) declares that for the future temporary faculties may be always subdelegated unless the indult expressly states the contrary.至於其他神職人員一項法令的神聖辦公室( 1898年12月14日)宣布,為將來臨時院系,可總是subdelegated除非indult明確國家正好相反。 These faculties are valid from the date when they were granted in the Roman Curia.這些院系,有效期自公佈之日起的時候,他們分別獲准在羅馬教廷。 In actual practice they do not expire, as a rule, at the death of the pope nor of the bishop to whom they were given, but pass on to those who take his place (the vicar capitular, the administrator, or succeeding bishop).而在實際執行上,他們不會過期,作為一項規則,在死亡的教宗,也沒有香港教區向誰給他們,但通過對那些採取了自己的位置(副主教capitular ,署長,或接任主教) 。 Faculties granted for a fixed period of time, or a limited number of cases, cease when the period or number has been reached; but while awaiting their renewal the bishop, unless culpably negligent, may continue to use them provisionally.院系給予一個固定的時間內,或者數量有限的情況下,何時終止期限或數量已經達到,但同時等待其續期主教,除非culpably疏忽,可繼續使用他們暫時的。 A bishop can use his habitual faculties only in favour of his own subjects.一名主教,可以使用其慣用的院系不僅有利於自己的科目。 The matrimonial discipline of the Decree "Ne temere" (2 Aug., 1907) contemplates as such all persons having a true canonical domicile, or continuously resident for one month within his territory, also vagi, or persons who have no domicile anywhere and can claim no continuous stay of one month.婚姻紀律的法令"氦氖temere " ( 1907年8月2日)考慮作出這樣所有的人有一個真實的典型住所,或連續居住1個月,在他的領土,也vagi ,或者有沒有戶籍,並隨時隨地可以索賠就不能繼續逗留一個月。 When a matrimonial impediment is common to both parties the bishop, in dispensing his own subject, dispenses also the other.當一個婚姻障礙是共同的,雙方主教,在配藥他自己的課題,分配,也為另一方。

(C) Vicars Capitular and Vicars-General (三) vicars capitular和vicars幹事

A vicar capitular, or in his place a lawful administrator, enjoys all the dispensing powers possessed by the bishop in virtue of his ordinary jurisdiction or of delegation of the law; according to the actual discipline he enjoys even the habitual powers which had been granted the deceased bishop for a fixed period of time or for a limited number of cases, even if the indult should have been made out in the name of the Bishop of N. Considering the actual praxis of the Holy See, the same is true of particular indults (see below).一副主教capitular ,或在他的地方,一個合法的管理員,擁有所有權力配藥所擁有的主教,在憑藉其普通管轄或代表團團長的,依法按照實際紀律,他喜歡,甚至習慣性的權力,而被授予已故主教為一個固定的時間內,或為數量有限的情況下,即使indult應該已經取得了列的名字主教12月31日考慮到實際實踐的教廷,也同樣如此,尤其是indults (見下文) 。 The vicar-general has by virtue of his appointment all the ordinary powers of the bishop over prohibent impediments, but requires a special mandate to give him common-law faculties for diriment impediments.該副主教幹事已經憑藉他的任命所有普通的權力主教超過prohibent障礙,但需要有特殊的任務給他的共同法律學院diriment障礙。 As for habitual temporary faculties, since they are now addressed to the ordinary, they belong also ipso facto to the vicar-general while he holds that office.至於習慣性臨時院系的,因為他們現在給普通的,他們屬於也依事實向副主教幹事,而他認為,辦公室。 He can also use particular indults when they are addressed to the ordinary, and when they are not so addressed the bishop can always subdelegate him, unless the contrary be expressly stated in the indult.他還可以用特別indults時,他們給普通的事情,當他們沒有這麼處理的主教能夠始終subdelegate他,除非相反予以明文規定,在indult 。

(D) Parish Priests and Other Ecclesiastics (四)本堂神父和其他ecclesiastics

A parish priest by common law can dispense only from an interdict laid on a marriage by him or by his predecessor.堂區神父由普通法,可以免除只能從停職乃婚姻由他或他的前任。 Some canonists of note accord him authority to dispense from secret impediments in what are called embarrassing (perplexi) cases, ie when there is no time for recourse to the bishop, but with the obligation of subsequent recourse ad cautelam, ie for greater security; a similar authority is attributed by them to confessors.一些canonists值得注意的協議,他有權免除從秘密障礙是什麼所謂的尷尬( perplexi )的情況下,即當我們有沒有時間訴諸主教的問題,而是一個與義務隨後追索專案cautelam ,即有更大的安全;類似的法令,是因為它們為confessors 。 This opinion seems yet gravely probable, though the Penitentiaria continues to grant among its habitual faculties a special authority for such cases and restricts somewhat its use.這種看法似乎是,但嚴重的可能,雖然penitentiaria繼續給予其慣性院系一項特別權力處理這類案件,並限制有點其所用。

(2) Particular Indults of Dispensation ( 2 )特別indults的豁免

When there is occasion to procure a dispensation that exceeds the powers of the ordinary, or when there are special reasons for direct recourse to the Holy See, procedure is by way of supplica (petition) and private rescript.當我們有機會採購免除超越權力的普通,或者當有特殊理由可以直接求助於羅馬教廷,程序是透過supplica (請願)和私人rescript 。 The supplica need not necessarily be drawn up by the petitioner, nor even at his instance; it does not, however, become valid until he accepts it.該supplica可不必制定了由信訪人,甚至也不在他的舉例來說,它不過,這並不代表,成為有效,直至他接受它。 Although, since the Constitution "Sapienti", all the faithful may have direct recourse to the Congregations, the supplica is usually forwarded through the ordinary (of the person's birthplace, or domicile, or, since the Decree "Ne temere", residence of one of the petitioners), who transmits it to the proper Congregation either by letter or through his accredited agent; but if there is question of sacramental secrecy, it is sent directly to the Penitentiaria, or handed to the bishop's agent under a sealed cover for transmission to the Penitentiaria.雖然,因為憲法" sapienti " ,所有信徒,可直接向教友, supplica通常轉交透過普通股(該人的出生地,或住所,或自該法令的"氦氖temere " ,居住地之一對請願者) ,他傳遞給正確的聚集,無論是寫信或通過其認可的代理人,但如果有問題,聖事保密,它是直接向penitentiaria ,或交給新輔理主教的代理下一個密封的掩護傳輸向penitentiaria 。 The supplica ought to give the names (family and Christian) of the petitioners (except in secret cases forwarded to the Penitentiaria), the name of the Ordinary forwarding it, or the name of the priest to whom, in secret cases, the rescript must be sent; the age of the parties, especially in dispensations affecting consanguinity and affinity; their religion, at 1east when one of them is not a Catholic; the nature, degree, and number of all impediments (if recourse is had to the Congregatio de Disciplinâ Sacramentorum or to the Holy Office in a public impediment, and to the Penitentiaria at the same time in a secret one, it is necessary that the latter should know of the public impediment and that recourse has been had to the competent Congregation).該supplica應該給的名字(家庭及基督教)的請願者(除在秘密的案件提交給penitentiaria ) ,其名稱的普通它轉發或名稱神父的人,在秘密的情況下,必須rescript發送;年齡有關各方,特別是在dispensations影響血緣和姻親,他們的宗教,在1east時,其中一人是不是天主教徒;性質,程度和數量的所有障礙(如追索權,是到了該congregatio德disciplinâ sacramentorum或聖地辦公室在公眾的障礙,並能penitentiaria在同一時間,在一個秘密之一,它是必要的,認為後者應該知道的公眾障礙,並追索一直有向主管聖堂) 。 The supplica must, moreover, contain the causes set forth for granting the dispensation and other circumstances specified in the Propaganda Instruction of 9 May, 1877 (it is no longer necessary, either for the validity or liceity of the dispensation, to observe the paragraph relating to incest intercourse, even when probably this very thing had been alleged as the only reason for granting the dispensation).該supplica此外,必須把遏制的原因,提出了給予豁免和其他指明的情況下,在宣傳的指示, 1877年5月9日(它不再是必要的,無論是有效性或liceity的豁免,必須遵守有關段亂倫性交時,即使可能,這件事非常已被指稱的唯一理由給予豁免) 。 When there is question of consanguinity in the second degree bordering on the first, the supplica ought to be written by the bishop's own hand.當有問題的血緣,在第二度接壤第一, supplica應以書面,由輔理主教的自己手上。 He ought also to sign the declaration of poverty made by the petitioners when the dispensation is sought from the Penitentiaria in formâ pauperum; when he is in any way hindered from so doing he is bound to commission a priest to sign it in his name.他也應簽署聲明書的貧困所作出的請願時,省卻是設法從penitentiaria在formâ pauperum ;時,他是在以任何方式阻礙沒有這樣做,他是受委託一名神父簽署在他的名字。 A false declaration of poverty henceforth does not invalidate a dispensation in any case; but the authors of the false statement are bound in conscience to reimburse any amount unduly withheld (regulation for the Roman Curia, 12 June, 1908).虛假聲明貧窮從此不作廢免除在任何情況下,但作者的虛假陳述,必將在良心報銷任何數額過分扣壓(規管為羅馬教廷, 1908年6月12日) 。 For further information on the many points already briefly described the reader is referred to the special canonical works, wherein are found all necessary directions as to what must be expressed so as to avoid nullity.為進一步資料,對許多共同點,已經簡要介紹了讀者參閱,以特殊的典型工程,其中發現有一切必要的指示,至於要如何表達等,以避免無效。 When a supplica is affected (in a material point) by obreption or subreption it becomes necessary to ask for a so-called "reformatory decree" in case the favour asked has not yet been granted by the Curia, or for the letters known as "Perinde ac valere" if the favour has already been granted.當一個supplica是受影響(在一個物質點) obreption或subreption成為必要請一個所謂的"感化令"的情況下,反對者要求至今仍未獲准,由教廷,或為英文字母被稱為" perinde交流valere "如果贊成,已是理所當然的。 If, after all this, a further material error is discovered, letters known as "Perinde ac valere super perinde ac valere" must be applied for.如果經過所有這一切,進一步重大錯誤是發現,信件被稱為" perinde交流valere超級perinde交流valere " ,都必須提出申請。 See Gasparri, "Tractatus de matrimonio" (2nd ed., Rome, 1892), I, no.見加斯帕里, " tractatus德matrimonio " (第二版,羅馬, 1892年) ,我,沒有。 362. 362 。

Dispensation rescripts are generally drawn up in formâ commissâ mixtâ, ie they are entrusted to an executor who is thereby obliged to proceed to their execution, if he finds that the reasons are as alleged (si vera sint exposita).省卻rescripts普遍制定了在formâ commissâ mixtâ的,即它們都是委託給執行人,他們因而不得不著手及其執行,如果他認為原因有指稱(思渾sint exposita ) 。 Canonists are divided as to whether rescripts in formâ commissâ mixtâ contain a favour granted from the moment of their being sent off, or to be granted when the execution actually takes place. canonists劃分,以決定是否rescripts在formâ commissâ mixtâ含有一種恩惠,理所當然由時刻,他們被送往小康,或者給予當處決,其實需要的地方。 Gasparri holds it as received practice that it suffices if the reasons alleged be actually true at the moment when the petition is presented.加斯帕里舉行,它收到的實踐證明,這就夠了,如果被指控的原因,實際上真正在的時候,呈請。 It is certain, however, that the executor required by Penitentiaria rescripts may safely fulfil his mission even if the pope should die before he had begun to execute it.這是肯定的,不過,遺囑執行人所需要penitentiaria rescripts可以安全地履行自己的使命,即使教宗應死之前他已開始執行。 The executor named for public impediments is usually the ordinary who forwards the supplica and for secret impediments an approved confessor chosen by the petitioner.遺囑執行人命名為公共障礙,通常是普通的人轉發supplica和秘密障礙核准懺悔選擇信訪。 Except when specially authorized the person delegated cannot validly execute a dispensation before he has seen the original of the rescript.除非特別授權轉授的人,不能有效地執行免除之前,他已經看到了原來的rescript 。 Therein it is usually prescribed that the reasons given by the petitioners must be verified.所以,它通常是明所提出的理由請願必須得到核實。 This verification, usually no longer a condition for valid execution, can be made, in the case of public impediments, extra-judicially or by subdelegation.這一核查,通常不再是一個條件,為有效執行,可取得,在案件公開障礙,課外司法或subdelegation 。 In foro interno it can be made by the confessor in the very act of hearing the confessions of the parties.在論壇內部,它可以由懺悔在極法聽證會的供詞當事人。 Should the inquiry disclose no substantial error, the executor proclaims the dispensation, ie he makes known, usually in writing, especially if he acts in foro externo, the decree which dispenses the petitioners; if the rescript authorizes him, he also legitimizes the children.應調查披露,沒有實質性的錯誤,遺囑執行人宣布豁免,即他眾所周知的,通常是在寫作,特別是如果他的行為,在對外貿易論壇,法令免除請願;若rescript授權他時,他也合法化兒童。 Although the executor may subdelegate the preparatory acts, he may not, unless the rescript expressly says so, subdelegate the actual execution of the decree, unless he subdelegates to another ordinary.雖然遺囑執行人可以subdelegate預備行為,他可能不會,除非rescript明確地這樣說, subdelegate實際執行這項法令,除非他subdelegates到另一個不同尋常。 When the impediment is common to, and known to, both parties, execution ought to be made for both; wherefore, in a case in foro interno, the confessor of one of the parties hands over the rescript, after he has executed it, to the confessor of the other.當障礙是常見的,眾所周知的,雙方,執行應該作兩人哪,在一宗案件中,在論壇內部,懺悔的一方當事人手中,在rescript後,他已被處決,以該懺悔的另一方。 The executor ought to observe with care the clauses enumerated in the decree, as some of them constitute conditions sine quâ non for the validity of the dispensation.遺囑執行人應觀察與護理條文列舉的法令,因為他們中的一些人構成條件正弦quâ非為的有效性豁免。 As a rule, these clauses affecting validity may be recognized by the conditional conjunction or adverb of exclusion with which they begin (eg dummodo, "provided that"; et non aliter, "not otherwise"), or by an ablative absolute.作為一項規則,這些條款的有效期影響可能確認的,由有條件的結合或副詞的排斥與它們一開始(如被提供, "規定" ;等非aliter " ,而不是其他原因" ) ,或由一個燒蝕絕對的。 When, however, a clause only prescribes a thing already of obligation by law it has merely the force of a reminder.但是,當一個條款,只規定一個東西已經義務的,由法律,它已不僅僅是力量,是一個提醒。 In this matter also it is well to pay attention to the stylus curiœ, ie the legal diction of the Roman Congregations and Tribunals, and to consult authors of repute.在這件事也十分重視,以筆curiœ ,即法律文辭的羅馬教會和法庭,並徵詢作者享負盛名。

(3) Causes for Granting Dispensations ( 3 )導致給予dispensations

Following the principles laid down for dispensations in general, a matrimonial dispensation granted without sufficient cause, even by the pope himself, would be illicit; the more difficult and numerous the impediments the more serious must be the motives for removing them.以下所訂下的原則,為dispensations一般而言,婚姻省卻理所當然,沒有充分的理由,甚至由教宗本人,將非法;更加困難和無數的障礙,更嚴重的,必須動機予以拆除。 An unjustified dispensation, even if granted by the pope, is null and void, in a case affecting the Divine law; and if granted by other bishops or superiors in cases affecting ordinary ecclesiastical law.一項不合理的豁免,即使是理所當然的是由教宗,是無效的,在一宗案件中,影響神聖法則;如果由其他主教或上級的情況下,影響普通的教會法。 Moreover, as it is not supposable that the pope wishes to act illicitly, it follows that if he has been moved by false allegations to grant a dispensation, even in a matter of ordinary ecclesiastical law, such dispensation is invalid.此外,由於它是不是supposable說,教宗希望這樣做是非法,因此,若他已提出不實指控給予豁免,即使在短短普通的教會法,這種豁免是無效的。 Hence the necessity of distinguishing in dispensations between motive or determining causes (causœ motivœ) and impulsive or merely influencing causes (causœ impulsivœ).因此有必要區分在dispensations動機或決定的原因( causœ motivœ )和衝動,或僅是影響原因( causœ impulsivœ ) 。 Except when the information given is false, still more when he acts spontaneously (motu proprio)and "with certain knowledge", the presumption always is that a superior is acting from just motives.除時所提供的資料是虛假的,更是當他的行為,自發地(頒布) , "與某些知識" ,推定始終是一個優越的是代理從正義動機。 It may be remarked that if the pope refuses to grant a dispensation on a certain ground, an inferior prelate, properly authorized to dispense, may grant the dispensation in the same case on other grounds which in his judgment are sufficient.它可表示,如果教宗拒絕給予免除對某地面,劣勢主教,適當授權,以配發,可給予豁免,在同一案件的其他理由,在他的判斷是不夠的。 Canonists do not agree as to whether he can grant it on the identical ground by reason of his divergent appreciation of the latter's force. canonists不同意,以他是否可以給予它放在相同的地面上的原因,他的發散讚賞後者的力量。 Among the sufficient causes for matrimonial dispensations we may distinguish canonical causes, ie classified and held as sufficient by the common law and canonical jurisprudence, and reasonable causes.其中足以導致婚姻dispensations我們可區分典型的原因,即分類和舉行時間足夠,由普通法及典型判例,而合理的原因。 ie not provided for nominally in the law, but deserving of equitable consideration in view of circumstances or particular cases.即沒有規定在名義上,在法律上,但值得注意的公平考慮,在瀏覽的情況下,或特定的情況下。 An Instruction issued by Propaganda (9 May, 1877) enumerates sixteen canonical causes.一項指示,發出宣傳( 1877年5月9日) ,列舉了16個典型的原因。 The "Formulary of the Dataria" (Rome, 1901) gives twenty-eight, which suffice, either alone or concurrently with others, and act as a norm for all sufficient causes. "處方的dataria " (羅馬, 1901年)為28 ,這就夠了,無論是單獨或與其他人,並作為一種規範,為所有有足夠的原因。 They are: smallness of place or places; smallness of place coupled with the fact that outside it a sufficient dowry cannot be had; lack of dowry; insufficiency of dowry for the bride; a larger dowry; an increase of dowry by one-third; cessation of family feuds; preservation of peace; conclusion of peace between princes or states; avoidance of lawsuits over an inheritance, a dowry, or some important business transaction; the fact that a fiancée is an orphan; or has the care of a family; the age of the fiancée over twenty-four; the difficulty of finding another partner, owing to the fewness of male acquaintance, or the difficulty the latter experience in coming to her home; the hope of safeguarding the faith of a Catholic relation; the danger of a mixed marriage; the hope of converting a non-Catholic party; the keeping of property in a family; the preservation of an illustrious or honourable family; the excellence and merits of the parties; defamation to be avoided, or scandal prevented; intercourse already having taken place between the petitioners, or rape; the danger of a civil marriage; of marriage before a Protestant minister revalidation of a marriage that was null and void; finally, all reasonable causes judged such in the opinion of the pope (eg the public good), or special reasonable causes actuating the petitioners and made known to the pope, ie motives which, owing to the social status of the petitioners, it is opportune should remain unexplained out of respect for their reputation.他們分別是:細小的地方或場所;細小的地方,再加上這一事實外,它有足夠的嫁妝,不能有;缺乏嫁妝;不全的嫁妝,為新娘;較大的嫁妝;增加的嫁妝,由其中三分之一;停止家族世仇;維護和平;締結和平與王儲或國家;避免法律訴訟遺產,嫁妝,或者一些重要的商業交易;這樣一個事實:未婚妻是一個孤兒,或有照顧一個家庭;歲的未婚妻超過04年;很難找到另一個合夥人,由於該fewness男性熟人,或有困難,後者的經驗來她家,希望能為維護信仰天主教的關係;危險一個混合婚姻的希望轉換一個非天主教的黨;保管的財產在一個家庭中;保存一個顯赫或各位家庭;卓越和優點的當事人;誹謗,以避免或醜聞杜絕性交已經之間發生請願,或強姦;危險的民事婚姻結婚前,一名新教牧師重新確認的婚姻是無效的;最後,所有合理的原因來判斷,如在民意的教宗(如公益事業) ,或特別合理的原因動請願,並取得了眾所周知的教宗,即動機,由於社會地位的請願人,現在應該是我們應保持不明原因出於尊重自己的名譽。 These various causes have been stated in their briefest terms.這些不同的原因,已在其briefest條款。 To reach their exact force, some acquaintance is necessary with the stylus curiœ and the pertinent works of reputable authors, always avoiding anything like exaggerated formalism.以達到其確切的力量,一些熟人,是必要的與針式curiœ及相關工程,信譽卓著的作家,始終避免類似誇大形式主義。 This list of causes is by no means exhaustive; the Holy See, in granting a dispensation, will consider any weighty circumstances that render the dispensation really justifiable.這一名單的原因是完整無缺;教廷,在給予免除,會考慮任何有份量的環境,以使這項新的服務省卻真正合理的。

(4) Costs of Dispensations ( 4 )成本dispensations

The Council of Trent (Sess. XXIV, cap. v, De ref. matrim.) decreed that dispensations should be free of all charges.安理會的遄達( sess. 24條,第五,德參。 matrim )命令dispensations應免除一切費用。 Diocesan chanceries are bound to conform to this law (many pontifical documents, and at times clauses in indults, remind them of it) and neither to exact nor accept anything but the modest contribution to the chancery expenses sanctioned by an Instruction approved by Innocent XI (8 Oct., 1678), and known as the Innocentian Tax (Taxa Innocentiana).拔萃chanceries必將順應這一法律(許多宗座文件,並在時代條款indults ,提醒他們IT )和既不準確,也不接受任何一件事情,但微薄的貢獻,向chancery開支受到指示,批准無辜第十一章( 1678年10月8日) ,並命名為innocentian稅(類群innocentiana ) 。 Rosset holds that it is also lawful, when the diocese is poor, to demand payment of the expenses it incurs for dispensations.花環認為,它也是合法的,當教區是窮人,要求支付費用,它招致為dispensations 。 Sometimes the Holy See grants ampler freedom in this matter, but nearly always with the monition that all revenues from this source shall be employed for some good work, and not go to the diocesan curia as such.有時教廷助學金豐厚的自由,在這個問題上,但幾乎總是與monition所有收入來自這一來源的人不得被聘用為一些好的工作,不要去教區教廷這種看法。 Henceforth every rescript requiring execution will state the sum which the diocesan curia is authorized to collect for its execution.從此,每rescript規定執行,將國家的總和,其中包括拔教廷授權,以收集其處決。

In the Roman Curia the expenses incurred by petitioners fall under four heads:在羅馬教廷的開支,請願者屬於四個國家元首:

(a) expenses (expensœ) of carriage (postage, etc.), also a fee to the accredited agent, when one has been employed. (一)支出( expensœ )運輸(郵資等) ,也是費派駐代理人,當一個人已就業。 This fee is fixed by the Congregation in question;這項費用是固定的,由聚集在質詢;

(b) a tax (taxa) to be used in defraying the expenses incurred by the Holy See in the organized administration of dispensations; (二)稅收(類群) ,將用於支付費用,由羅馬教廷在有組織的管理dispensations ;

(c) the componendum, or eleemosynary fine to be paid to the Congregation and applied by it to pious uses; (三) componendum ,或eleemosynary分期繳付罰款,以眾為研究和應用,對它虔誠的用途;

(d) an alms imposed on the petitioners and to be distributed by themselves in good works. ( d )一個施捨強加給請願,並派發由自己的優秀作品。

The moneys paid under the first two heads do not affect, strictly speaking, the gratuity of the dispensation.款項支付根據第一,兩國元首,不影響,嚴格來說,酬金的豁免。 They constitute a just compensation for the expenses the petitioners occasion the Curia.它們構成了公正的賠償費用請願之際教廷。 As for the alms and the componendum, besides the fact that they do not profit the pope nor the members of the Curia personally, but are employed in pious uses, they are justifiable, either as a fine for the faults which, as a rule, give occasion for the dispensation, or as a check to restrain a too great frequency of petitions often based on frivolous grounds.至於施捨和componendum ,除了事實,即他們不盈利,教宗也不成員組成的教廷,而是指受僱在虔誠的用途,但它們是合理的,無論是作為一種優良的為斷層,其中,作為一項規則,給予之際,為免除,或作為查核,以限制過大,頻率請願活動往往基於無聊的理由。 And if the Tridentine prohibition be still urged, it may be truly said that the pope has the right to abrogate the decrees of councils, and is the best judge of the reasons that legitimize such abrogation.如果德律但丁禁令仍然呼籲,它可能真正表示,教宗也有權廢除法令,議會,是最好的評判的原因合法化,如廢止。 We may add that the custom of tax and componendum is neither uniform nor universal in the Roman Curia.我們可以補充一點,就是習俗稅和componendum既不統一,也不普遍,在羅馬教廷。

Publication information Written by Jules Besson.出版信息撰稿朱貝松。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯j.波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.奉獻給聖心耶穌基督天主教百科全書,體積訴公佈1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. nihil obstat , 1909年5月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約


I. Dispensations in General: SUAREZ, De legibus (Naples, 1882), Bk.一, dispensations一般:蘇亞雷斯,德legibus (那不勒斯, 1882 ) ,交通銀行。 VI, x sqq., and Opera Omnia (Paris, 1856), VI; PYRRHUS CORRADIUS, Praxis dispensationum apostolicarum (Venice, 1699); KONINGS-PUTZER, Commentarium in facultates apostolicas (New York, 1898), pt.六,第十sqq ,和歌劇OMNIA公司(巴黎, 1856年) ,第六章; pyrrhus corradius ,實踐dispensationum apostolicarum (威尼斯, 1699年) ;科寧斯- putzer , commentarium在facultates apostolicas (紐約, 1898 ) ,鉑。 I; the commentators on the Decretals, especially SCHMALZGRUEBER, Jus ecclesiasticum universale (Rome, 1843), Bk.一;評論家對decretals ,尤其是schmalzgrueber ,強制ecclesiasticum universale (羅馬, 1843年) ,交通銀行。 I. tit.一,山雀。 ii; WERNZ, Jus decretalium (Rome, 1905), I, tit.二; wernz ,強制decretalium (羅馬, 1905年) ,我,鐵。 iv, 138; VON SCHERER, Handbuch des Kirchenrechts (Graz, 1898), I, 172; HINSCHIUS.四, 138 ;馮scherer , handbuch萬kirchenrechts (格拉茨, 1898 ) ,我和172 ;欣希烏斯。 System d.系統四 kath. kath 。 Kirchenr. kirchenr 。 (Berlin, 1869), I. 744, 789; the moral theologies, under the treatise De legibus, particularly ST. (柏林, 1869年) ,一, 744個, 789人;道德神學,根據治德legibus ,尤其是聖。 ALPHONSUS LIGUORI, Theologia Moralis (Rome, 1905), I, iv, Dub.阿方liguori , theologia莫拉利斯(羅馬, 1905年) ,我,四,配音。 4; D'ANNIBALE, Summula Theologiœ Moralis (Rome, 1908), I, tr. 4 ; -a nnibale, s ummulat heologiœ莫拉利斯(羅馬, 1 908年) ,因此我的T R。 iii, 220; BALLERINI, Opus Morale (Prato, 1889), I, 363; OJETTI, Synopsis rerum moralium et juris pontificii (Rome, 1904), sv Dispensatio; THOMASSIN, Ancienne et nouvelle discipline de l'Eglise touchant les bénéfices (Paris, 1725), II, p.三, 220名;巴勒里尼,工作士氣( Prato的, 1889年) ,我,有363人;奧耶蒂,故事大綱rerum moralium等法律pontificii (羅馬, 1904年) , sv dispensatio ; thomassin , ancienne等nouvelle紀律,德l' eglise touchant就業輔導組bénéfices (巴黎, 17時25分) ,第二,第 II, 1, 3, xxiv-xxix; STIEGLER, Dispensation, Dispensationwesen, und Dispensationsrecht in his Kirchenrecht (Mainz, 1901).二,一,三, 24 -二十九;施蒂格勒,配藥, dispensationwesen , und dispensationsrecht在他的kirchenrecht (美因茨, 1901年) 。 I, and in Archiv f. I ,並archiv樓 kath. kath 。 Kirchenr., LXXVII, 3; FIEBAG, De indole ac virtute dispensationum secundum principia jur. kirchenr , lxxvii , 3 ;菲巴格,德吲哚交流virtute dispensationum對Secundum原理法學。 canonici (Breslau, 1867). canonici (布雷斯勞, 1867 ) 。

II.二。 Matrimonial Dispensations: PYRRHUS CORRADIUS, op.婚姻dispensations : pyrrhus corradius ,作品。 cit.; DE JUSTIS, De dispens.引文;德justis ,德dispens 。 matrim. matrim 。 (Venice, 1769); GIOVINE, De dispens. (威尼斯, 1769年) ; giovine ,德dispens 。 matrim. matrim 。 (Naples, 1863); PLANCHARD, Dispenses matrim. (那不勒斯, 1863年) ;普朗沙爾,免除matrim 。 (Angoulème, 1882); FEIJE, De imped. ( angoulème , 1882年) ; feije ,德imped 。 et dispens.等dispens 。 matrim. matrim 。 (Louvain, 1885); ZITELLI, De dispens. (魯汶, 1885年) ;齊泰利,德dispens 。 matrim. matrim 。 (Rome, 1887); VAN DE BURGT, De dispens. (羅馬, 1887年) ;範德burgt ,德dispens 。 matrim. matrim 。 (Bois-le-Duc, 1865); POMPEN, De dispens. (木材日誌-樂德, 1865 ) ; pompen ,德dispens 。 et revalidatione matrim.等revalidatione matrim 。 (Amsterdam, 1897); ROUSSET, De sacramento matrimonii (Saint-Jean de Maurienne, 1895), IV, 231; KONINGS-PUTZER, Op. (阿姆斯特丹, 1897年) ; rousset ,德薩克拉門托matrimonii (聖-讓德maurienne , 1895年) ,第四章, 231條;科寧斯- putzer ,作品。 cit., 174 sqq., 376 sqq.; SANCHEZ, De s.引文中, 174 sqq , 376 sqq 。 ;桑切斯,下環 matrimonii sacramento (Viterbo, 1739), Bk. matrimonii薩克拉門托(維泰博, 1739 ) ,交通銀行。 VIII; GASPARRI, Tract.第八節;加斯帕里,呼吸道。 canonicus de matrimonio (Paris, 1892), I, iv, 186; MANSELLA, De imped.典型德matrimonio (巴黎, 1892年) ,第一,四, 186名;曼塞拉,德imped 。 matrim. matrim 。 (Rome, 1881), 162; LEITNER, Lehrb. (羅馬, 1881年) ,共有162個; Leitner的, lehrb 。 des kath.萬kath 。 Eherechts (Paderborn, 1902), 401; SCHNITZER, Kath. eherechts (帕德博恩, 1902 ) , 401 ; schnitzer , kath 。 Eherecht (Freiburg, 1898), 496; SANTILEITNER, Prœlectiones juris canonici (Ratisbon, 1899), IV, appendix I; WERNZ, Jus Decretalium (Rome, 1908), IV, tit. eherecht (弗賴堡, 1898 ) , 496個; santileitner , prœlectiones法學canonici (拉蒂斯邦, 1899 ) ,第四章,附錄一; wernz ,強制decretalium (羅馬, 1908年) ,四,山雀。 xxix FREISEN Geschichte des kanon.第29屆freisen歷史館萬kanon 。 Eherechts bis zum Verfall der Glossenlitteratur (Tübingen, 1888), and in Archiv für kath. eherechts之二zum verfall明鏡glossenlitteratur (蒂賓根, 1888 ) ,並在archiv f黵kath 。 Kirchenr., LXXVII, 3 sqq., and LXXVIII, 91; ESMEIN, Le mariage en droit canonique (Paris, 1891), II, 315; ZHISMAN, Das Eherecht der orient. kirchenr , lxxvii , 3 sqq ,並lxxviii中,有91個; esmein ,樂mariage國際法canonique (巴黎, 1891年) ,二, 315個; zhisman之eherecht明鏡東方。 Kirche (Vienna, 1864), 190, 712. kirche (維也納, 1864 ) , 190 , 712 。

Also, see:此外,見:
Ultradispensationalism ultradispensationalism
Covenant 盟約
Progressive Dispensationalism 漸進dispensationalism
Second Coming of Christ 耶穌第二次來
Eschatology 末世
Views of the Millennium 意見千年
Last Judgement 最後審判
Rapture, Tribulation 破裂,磨難
Tribulation, Great Tribulation 磨難,偉大的磨難

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