General Information 一般資料

Eschatology, a term of Greek derivation meaning literally "discourse about last things," typically refers to the Judeo Christian doctrine of the coming of the kingdom of God and the transformation or transcendence of history.末世,任期希臘語派生字面上的意思"話語約上的東西" , 通常是指以猶太教基督教教義的到來,神的國度和改造還是超越歷史的進程。

The distinction between transformation and transcendence reflects the difference between Old Testament messianism, which looked for the coming of the kingdom of God within a historical framework, and New Testament apocalypticism, which expected the total dissolution of the world at the last judgment.區分轉型與超越體現區別舊約messianism ,尋找未來的神的國度一種歷史框架,以及新約聖經大衛教派,其中,預計總溶解世界上最後的判斷。

The end of history in Western religions, however, is not a cyclical return to a primordial world outside history as it is in the eschatologies of non Western religions, such as Buddhism and Hinduism.歷史的終結,在西方的宗教,但是,是不是一個週期性回歸到原始世界歷史之外,因為它是在eschatologies非西方宗教,如佛教和印度教。 In the Judeo Christian tradition, even the dissolution of history is based in a historical future.在猶太教和基督教的傳統,即使在解散歷史,是基於在一個歷史的未來。 The New Testament concept of Parousia ("coming presence") appears to refer to both the present and the continuing Salvation among believers in Jesus Christ and the literal Second Coming of Christ that will bring an evil world to judgment before salvation.新約聖經的概念,達到圓滿(下稱"未來存在" ) ,似乎是指無論現在和持續救贖之間,信教耶穌基督和字面耶穌第二次來表示,將帶來一個邪惡的世界,以判斷前,救贖。 The latter view is reflected in Millenarianism, which also teaches an Antichrist. 後者的看法是,反映在millenarianism ,其中還教授的一個箴。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
Eschatology has been a revived theme among theologians in the 20th century.末世已恢復主題之間的神學家,在20世紀。 The "consistent eschatology" of Johannes Weiss and Albert Schweitzer, the "realized eschatology" of CH Dodd and Rudolf Otto; the "dialectic eschatology" of Karl Barth and Rudolf Bultmann, and the "death of God" eschatology of Thomas JJ Altizer and other radical theologians may represent the gamut of interpretation of the biblical concept. "一貫末世"的約翰內斯Weiss和史懷哲, "悟末世"的CH多德和魯道夫奧托; "的辯證關係末世"的卡爾巴特和魯道夫布特曼,與"上帝之死"的末世托馬斯的JJ altizer及其他激進的神學家可能也代表了門類齊全的詮釋聖經中的概念。

Bibliography 參考書目
TJJ Altizer, The Descent into Hell (1970); RK Bultmann, The Presence of Eternity: History and Eschatology (1957); RH Charles, Eschatology: The Doctrine of the Future Life in Israel, Judaism and Christianity (1899 - 1963); M Eliade, Cosmos and History (1959); WH Gloer, ed., Eschatology and the New Testament (1988); D Gowan, Eschatology in the Old Testament (1985); PC Phan, Eternity in Time (1988). tjj altizer ,後裔入地獄( 1970年) ;在RK布特曼,在場的永恆:歷史與末世( 1957年) ;銠查爾斯末世:中庸之道,未來生活在以色列,猶太教和基督教( 1899 -1 963) ;米eliade ,宇宙的歷史( 1959年) ;格勒厄起,海關,末世和新約聖經( 1988條) , d gowan ,在末世舊約( 1985年) ;籌委會藩,在永恆的時間( 1988年) 。


General Information 一般資料

Eschatology is literally "discourse about the last things," doctrine concerning life after death and the final stage of the world.末世是字面上的"話語約上的東西, "主義關於死後的生命,並在最後階段對世界的看法。 The origin of this doctrine is almost as old as humanity; archaeological evidence of customs in the Old Stone Age indicates a rudimentary concept of immortality.起源學說,這幾乎是同樣久遠的人類;考古證據的,海關在舊石器時代,標誌著一個起碼的概念不朽。 Even in early stages of religious development, speculation about things to come is not wholly limited to the fate of the individual.即使在早期階段,宗教發展,炒作的東西來,是不是完全限於命運個人。 Such devastating natural phenomena as floods, conflagrations, cyclones, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions have always suggested the possibility of the end of the world.這種毀滅性的自然現象,洪水,火災,龍捲風,地震和火山噴發一直建議的可能性,世界的末了。 Higher forms of eschatological thought are the product of a complex social organism and an increased knowledge of natural science.更高形式的eschatological以為都是該產品的一個複雜的社會有機體,並增加了知識的自然科學。 Often myths of astrological origin, the concept of retribution, or the hope of deliverance from present oppressions provided the material or motive for highly developed eschatologies.常常神話星座起源,概念的報應,還是希望能救我們脫離目前的壓迫提供了物質或動機為高度發達的eschatologies 。 Prolonged observation of planetary and solar movement made possible the conception of a recurrence, at the end of the present cycle, of the events connected with the origin of the world and a renovation of the world after its destruction.長期觀察行星和太陽的運動成為可能的概念再次出現,到了最後,本週期,在該事件與世界的本源和改造世界上僅次於其銷毀。

The development of eschatological speculation, therefore, generally reflects the growth of human intellectual and moral perceptions, the larger social experience of men and women, and their expanding knowledge of nature.發展eschatological投機,因此,普遍反映增長的人類智力和道德觀念,較大的社會經驗的男人和女人,以及他們的擴展知識的性質。 The outward forms of the doctrine of eschatology vary, however, according to the characteristics of the environment and of the peoples.向外形式的學說末世各有不同,但是,根據我的特點,環境和人民。

Ancient Explanations古代的解釋

Belief in a life of the spirit, a substance inhabiting the dead body as long as food and drink are furnished, is typical of primitive eschatology.相信,在一個精神的生活,物質聚居屍體,只要食物和飲料都配,是典型的原始末世。 The concept of the future life grew richer as civilization advanced and cosmic forces became objects of worship associated with departed spirits.的概念,為將來的生活成長富裕文明的先進和宇宙的力量,成為崇拜對象與背離的鬥志。 The belief in judgment after death was introduced when standards of right and wrong were established according to particular tribal customs; the spirits themselves were made subject to the laws of retribution.相信在判決死刑後,被介紹時,標準的正確和錯誤的,建立按特定的部落習俗;神自己作了受到法律的懲罰。 Through this twofold development the future life was thus made spiritual and assumed a moral character, as in the eschatology of ancient Egypt.通過這種雙重的發展,未來的生活,從而取得了精神文明和擺出品德,因為在末世的古埃及。 In Persia and Israel, the old conception of a shadowy existence in the grave, or in some subterranean realm, in general retained its hold.在波斯,以色列,舊觀念的陰影存在嚴重的,或者在一些地下境界,在一般情況保留其擱置。 Escape from such an existence, however, into larger life, with the possibility of moral distinctions among individuals, was provided by the conception of a restoration and reanimation of the old body, thus ensuring personal identity.擺脫這種存在,不過,為較大的生命,並有可能的道德之間的區別個人,是由構想恢復與復甦的舊體,從而保證了個人的身份。 In other cultures, as in India, the spirit was conceived as entering immediately upon death into another body, to live again and die and become reincarnated in new forms.在其他文化中,如在印度,靈魂被設想為進入後,立即死亡成另一種身體,生活再次與模具,並成為轉世在新的形式。 This concept of transmigration, or metempsychosis, made possible the introduction into the future life of subtle moral distinctions, involving not only punishments and rewards for conduct in a previous stage of existence but also the possibility of rising or falling in the scale of being according to present conduct.這個概念的輪迴,或metempsychosis ,使得有可能引進到未來的生活中的微妙道德區別,所涉及的不僅是懲罰和獎勵的行為,在前一階段的存在,但也有可能上升或下降,在規模,正在按照目前進行的。 In spite of the seemingly perfect justice thus administered on every level of being, the never-ending series of births and deaths of the individual may come to appear as an evil; in which case deliverance may be sought from the infinite wheel of existence in Nirvana.儘管看似完美的正義,因此,管理的各個層面上的正,永無休止的一系列的出生和死亡的,個人可以來似乎是一個邪惡的,在這種情況下解脫,可設法從無限的車輪存在涅槃。 The ancient Greeks arrived at their eschatology by considering the functions of the mind as a purely spiritual essence, independent of the body, and having no beginning or end; this abstract concept of immortality led to the anticipation of a more concrete personal life after death.古希臘人抵達其末世考慮功能的頭腦,作為一個純粹的精神實質,獨立的身體,並沒有開始或結束;這個抽象的概念,永生導致預期的更具體的個人生活後死亡。

The ideas held throughout history concerning the future of the world and of humanity are only imperfectly known today.這個想法在整個歷史上的關於世界的未來,以及人類是唯一不完美的知名今天。 The belief in a coming destruction of the world by fire or flood is found among groups in the Pacific islands as well as among American aborigines; this belief probably did not originate in astronomical speculation, but was rather engendered by some terrifying earthly experience of the past.相信在未來的世界將要毀滅的火災或水災,發現各組間在太平洋島嶼之間以及美洲原住民;這種信念可能沒有起源於天文數字的投機活動,而是產生了一些可怕的人間過去的經驗。 The ancient Persians, who adopted the doctrines of their religious teacher Zoroaster, developed the basic idea of the coming destruction of the world by fire into the concept of a great moral ordeal.古代波斯人,他們通過學說他們的宗教教師zoroaster ,發展的基本構想,未來世界將要毀滅的,由火災的概念,一個偉大的道德磨難。 According to this belief, at the end of the world the worshipers of the lord Mazda will be distinguished from all other people by successfully enduring the ordeal of molten metal, and the good will then be rewarded.根據這一信念,在去年底的世界會眾的主馬自達將有別於其他所有的人,成功地承受磨難的熔融金屬,以及良好的,然後得到回報。 This concept is found in the Gathas, the earliest part of the Avesta, the bible of Zoroastrianism.這個概念被發現在該gathas ,最早的一部分,該avesta ,聖經的zoroastrianism 。 It is not certain that the idea of a resurrection from death goes back to the period represent ed by the Gathas.這是不能肯定的想法一復活,從死亡追溯到期間代表署所gathas 。 But the Greek historian Herodotus seems to have heard of such a Persian belief in the 5th century BC, and Theopompus of Chios, the historian of Philip II, king of Macedon, described it as a Mazdayasnian doctrine.但希臘歷史學家希羅多德似乎聽到了這樣一個波斯語的信仰是在公元前5世紀,並theopompus的流行病,歷史學家菲利普二,國王macedon ,形容這是作為一個mazdayasnian教義。

Similarities can be seen between the ancient Greek concepts of heaven and hell and those of Christian doctrine.相似之處,可以看出,與古希臘的概念,天堂與地獄與基督教的教義。 The Homeric poems and those of Hesiod show how the Greek mind conceived of the future of the soul in Elysium or in Hades.在荷馬的詩與那些赫希爾德查看如何希臘語記構思未來的靈魂,在elysium還是在地獄。 Through the Orphic and Eleusinian mysteries this thought was deepened.通過orphic和eleusinian奧秘,這一思想深化。 That the future of nations and the world also played an important role in Greek and Roman thought is evident from the prophecies of the Sibyls.指出,未來的國家和世界上也發揮了重要作用,在希臘羅馬思想是顯而易見的,從預言的sibyls 。 An eschatological philosophy dominated the epoch ushered in by the conquests of Alexander the Great, and Greco-Roman thought became suffused with Oriental ideas in its speculation upon the future of the world.一個eschatological哲學主宰的時代,迎來了所征服的亞歷山大大帝,及希臘羅馬式的思考,成為瀰漫東方理念在其投機後,世界的未來。 In a similar manner the Scandinavian idea of the destruction of the earth by fire and its subsequent renovation under higher heavens-to be peopled by the descendants of the surviving pair, Lif and Lifthrasir (as set forth in the Elder Edda) - reflects an early Nordic interpretation of the idea of hell and heaven.以類似方式斯堪的納維亞的想法毀滅地球的火災及其以後的改造下,更高老天爺-被peopled由後裔尚存一雙, LIF和lifthrasir (所列老edda ) -反映了早期北歐解釋的想法地獄和天堂。

Jewish and Christian Beliefs猶太教和基督教信仰

In early Israel the "Day of Yahweh" was a coming day of battle that would decide the fate of the people.在早期以色列的"天雅威"是一個未來一天的戰鬥將決定人民的命運。 Although the people looked forward to it as a day of victory, prophets such as Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, Micah, Zephaniah, and Jeremiah feared that it would bring near or complete destruction, associating it with the growing military threat from Assyria.雖然人們期待著它作為一天的勝利,是先知,如阿摩司,何西阿,以賽亞書,彌迦, zephaniah ,耶利米擔心,它會帶來接近或徹底的毀滅,而聯想到它與日益增強的軍事威脅,從assyria 。 To Jeremiah, this forecast of judgment was the criterion of true prophethood.以耶利米,這個預測的判斷,是標準的真正prophethood 。 Later, the books containing their pronouncements were interpolated with prophecies of prosperity, which themselves constituted significant signs of the expansion of eschatological hopes.後來,書籍載有他們的言論被插與讖的富裕,這本身構成了顯著的跡象,擴大eschatological希望。 The Book of Daniel voices the hope that the kingdom of the world will be given to the saints of the Most High, the Jewish people.這本書的丹尼爾的聲音,希望這個王國的世界將給予聖徒的最高級,猶太人民。 A celestial representative, probably the archangel Michael, is promised, who, after the destruction of the beast representing the Hellenistic kingdoms of the Middle East, will come with the clouds and receive the empire of the world.開天代表,大概的Archangel Michael ,是答應,誰後,會毀了獸代表希臘王國中東,也將跟雲和接收帝國對世界的看法。 No messiah appears in this apocalypse.沒有救世主,似乎在這方面的啟示。 The first distinct appearance of this deliverer and king is in the Song of Solomon.第一次鮮明這一形勢的出現,投遞和國王是在所羅門之歌。

After the conquest of Palestine by the Roman general Pompey the Great in 63 BC, the Jews longed for a descendant of the line of David, king of Israel and Judah, who would break the Roman yoke, establish the empire of the Jews, and rule as a righteous king over the subject nations.之後,征服巴勒斯坦,由羅馬將軍pompey偉大,在公元前63 ,猶太人渴望能夠有一個後代路線大衛,以色列的國王和猶大,他們將打破羅馬枷鎖,建立帝國的猶太人,而治之作為一個正義的國王超過主題國。 This desire ultimately led to the rebellion in AD 66-70 that brought about the destruction of Jerusalem.這一願望最終導致叛亂專案66-70導致毀滅耶路撒冷。 When Jesus Christ proclaimed the coming of the kingdom of heaven, it was natural, therefore, that despite his disavowal, he should be understood by some to be a claimant to the kingship of the Jews.當耶穌宣布未來的天國,這是自然的事,因此,儘管他disavowal ,他應該明白,有些成為索賠人向王權的猶太人。 His disciples were convinced that he would return as the Messiah upon the clouds of heaven.他的弟子們都確信,他將回報以彌賽亞後,雲彩的天堂。 It is unlikely, however, that the final judgment and the raising of the dead were ever conceived by an adherent of the Jewish faith as functions of the Messiah.這是不可能的,但是,最後的判決和提高死者都是以往所設想的一個堅持信仰猶太教作為職能的彌賽亞。

In Christian doctrine, eschatology has traditionally included the second advent of Christ, or Parousia, the resurrection of the dead, the last judgment, the immortality of the soul, concepts of heaven and hell, and the consummation of the kingdom of God.在基督教的教義,末世歷來列入第二來臨的基督,或圓滿,死人復活,最後審判,靈魂,觀念的天堂與地獄,並圓滿的神的國度。 In the Roman Catholic church, eschatology includes, additionally, the beatific vision, purgatory, and limbo.在羅馬天主教會,包括末世,此外, beatific視野,煉獄,而無所適從。

Although the great creeds of Christendom affirm the belief in a return to the son of God to judge the living and the dead, and in a resurrection of the just and the unjust, Christianity through the centuries has shown wide variation in its interpretation of eschatology.雖然偉大教義的基督教肯定的信念,回到上帝的兒子來判斷活人與死人,而且在復活的公正和不公正,基督教經過數百年已表現出很大的差異在解釋末世。 Conservative belief has usually emphasized a person's destiny after death and the way in which belief in the future life affects one's attitude toward life on earth.保守的信仰通常強調一個人的命運後,死亡和以何種方式信念,在今後的生活中影響一個人的態度,地球上的生命。 Occasionally certain sects have predicted the imminent end of the world.有時某些教派曾預測,即將結束的世界。

Islam adopted from Judaism and Christianity the doctrine of a coming judgment, a resurrection of the dead, and everlasting punishments and rewards.伊斯蘭教通過從猶太教和基督教的教義是一位未來的判斷,從死中復活的,永久的懲罰和獎勵。 Later, contact with Persian thought greatly enriched Islamic eschatology.後來,接觸波斯語思想,極大地豐富了伊斯蘭末世。 Especially important was the belief in the reincarnation of some great prophet from the past.尤其重要的是信念,在輪迴的一些偉大的先知,從過去。 Time and again the world of Islam has been stirred by the expectation of Mahdi, the Muslim messiah, to reveal more fully the truth, or to lead the faithful into better social conditions on earth.一次又一次的伊斯蘭世界已經激起所期望的馬赫迪,穆斯林彌賽亞,以揭示更充分事實,或帶領信徒到更好的社會條件,在地球上。 Iran and Africa have had many such movements.伊朗和非洲曾經有過多次這樣的動作。

Current Attitudes時下的態度

Liberal Christian thought has emphasized the soul and the kingdom of God, more often seeing it as coming on earth in each individual (evidenced by what was believed to be the steady upward progress of humankind) than as an apocalyptic event at the end of time.自由基督教思想強調心靈與神的國度,更經常地看見它作為未來地球上每一個人(證明什麼,相信將出現穩步回升的人類進步) ,比作為世界末日的事件在去年底的時候。 Twentieth-century theological thought has tended to repudiate what many scholars have felt to be an identification of Christian eschatology with the values of Western civilization.在二十世紀的神學思想傾向否定什麼,很多學者都認為可以識別的基督教末世與價值觀的西方文明。 In the second half of the 20th century, eschatology was equated by some theologians with the doctrine of Christian hope, including not only the events of the end of time but also the hope itself and its revolutionizing influence on life in the world.在第二個20世紀下半葉,是末世等同於由一些神學與教義的基督教希望,不僅包括各項活動的結束時間,但也希望自己和革命性的影響,生活在世界上。 The most eloquent exponent of this eschatology is the German theologian Jürgen Moltmann.最有說服力的指數,這是末世德國神學家於爾根莫特曼。

In modern Judaism the return of Israel to its land, the coming of the Messiah, the resurrection of the dead, and everlasting retribution are still expected by the Orthodox, but the more liberal base the religious mission of Israel upon the regeneration of the human race and upon hope for immortal life independent of the resurrection of the body.在現代猶太教返回以色列對其土地,未來的彌賽亞,從死中復活的,永久的報應仍可望由東正教,但更自由基地的宗教使命以色列後,再生的人類經希望不朽的生命獨立的復活的身體。


Advanced Information 先進的信息

Eschatology is traditionally defined as the doctrine of the "last things" (Gr. eschata), in relation either to human individuals (comprising death, resurrection, judgment, and the afterlife) or to the world.末世是傳統上被定義為教義的"最後的事物" ( gr. eschata ) ,在有關要么人類個體(包括死亡,復活,判斷力差,來世) ,或到世界各地。 In this latter respect eschatology is sometimes restricted to the absolute end of the world, to the exclusion of much that commonly falls within the scope of the term.在這方面,後者是末世,有時還受到限制,以絕對世界的末了,而排除許多常見的是屬於一詞的範圍。 This restriction is unwarranted by biblical usage: the Hebrew be'aharit hayyamim (LXX en tais eschatais hemerais, "in the last days") may denote the end of the present order or even, more generally, "hereafter."這項限制是不必要的,由聖經的用法:希伯來語be'aharit hayyamim ( lxx恩tais eschatais hemerais , "在最後的日子" ) ,可能是指年底現行秩序或什至更一般地說, "來世" 。

The biblical concept of time is not cyclical (in which case eschatology could refer only to the completion of a cycle) or purely linear (in which case eschatology could refer only to the terminal point of the line); it envisions rather a recurring pattern in which divine judgment and redemption interact until this pattern attains its definitive manifestation.聖經中的概念,時間是不是週期性的(在這種情況下末世可能只是指完成一個週期) ,也不是單純的線性(在這種情況下,可以末世僅指終點的路線) ,它的設想,而不是一再出現的格局這神聖的判斷和贖回互動,直到這個模式達到,其最終的表現形式。 Eschatology may therefore denote the consummation of God's purpose whether it coincides with the end of the world (or of history) or not, whether the consummation is totally final or marks a stage in the unfolding pattern of his purpose.末世因此可能是指圓滿的上帝的宗旨,是否符合世界的末了(或歷史)與否,是否圓滿,是完全最後還是標誌著一個階段,在開展模式,其目的。

Individual Eschatology in the OT個別末世,在城市旅遊局

A shadowy existence after death is contemplated in much of the OT.神秘的存在後死亡現在大部分的城市旅遊局。 Jesus indeed showed that immortality was implicit in men and women's relation to God: the God of the fathers "is not God of the dead, but of the living; for all live to him" (Luke 20:38).耶穌的確表明不死,是隱含在男人和女人的關係,以上帝:上帝的父親" ,是不是上帝的死,但對生活;所有活到了他" (路加福音20時38分) 。 But this implication was not generally appreciated in OT times.但這種含意沒有得到普遍讚賞,在加時賽倍。 Perhaps in reaction against Canaanite cults of the dead, the OT lays little emphasis on the afterlife.也許在反應對canaanite邪教的死人,職能治療奠定很少注重來世。 Sheol is an underworld where the dead dwell together as shades; their former status and character are of little account there. sheol是一個黑社會性質的地方,死者糾纏在一起,濃淡,其原地位和人格的力量是小帳。 The praises of Yahweh, which engaged so much of a pious Israelite's activity on earth, remained unsung in Sheol, which was popularly thought to be outside Yahweh's jurisdiction (Ps. 88:10 - 12; Isa. 38:18).歌頌雅威,進行了這麼多的是一種虔誠的israelite的活動對地球,依然是默默無聞的在sheol ,這是普遍被認為外界雅威的管轄範圍(詩篇88:10 -1 2歲;伊薩。 3 8:18) 。 Occasionally a more hopeful note is struck.偶爾一個更有希望的注意的是,擊中了。

According to Pss.據PSS的。 73 and 139 one who walks with God in life cannot be deprived of his presence in death: "If I make my bed in Sheol, thou art there!" 73條和第139條之一,社會各界人士與上帝,在生命不能被剝奪了他的存在,死亡的: "如果我讓我的床sheol ,祢有" ! (Ps. 139:8). (詩篇139:8 ) 。 While Job and his friends generally discount the possibility of life after death (Job 14:10 - 12) and do not suppose that the comforts of a future existence can compensate for the sufferings of the present, Job asserts, in a moment of triumphant faith, that if not in this life then after death he will see God rise up to vindicate him (Job 19:25 - 27).而就業和他的朋友們一般折扣的可能性後,生活死亡(求職14:10 -1 2) ,不要假設舒適的未來存在,可以彌補的痛苦,目前,求職斷言,在一剎那間的戰無不勝的信念說,如果不是在這生活,然後死亡後,他所見到的神起來,以證明他(指就業19時25分-2 7) 。

The hope of national resurrection finds earlier expression than that of individual resurrection.民族的希望復活認定較早表達比個別復活。 In Ezekiel's vision of the valley of dry bones, where the divine breath breathes new life into corpses, a national resurrection is in view: "These bones are the whole house of Israel" (Ezek. 37:11).在以西結的遠見山谷幹骨頭,而神聖的氣息呼吸注入新的生命體,一個國家的復活,是在觀點: "這些人骨是整個以色列家" ( ezek. 37:11 ) 。 National resurrection may also be promised in Isa.全國復活也可能答應在伊薩。 26:19: "Thy dead shall live, their bodies shall rise." 26:19 : "你死不得活,他們的身體會上升" 。 Individual resurrection first becomes explicit in Dan.個別復活首次成為明確丹。 12:2. 12:2 。

The persecution of martyrs under Antiochus Epiphanes gave a powerful impetus to the resurrection hope.迫害烈士下安提阿古epiphanes了強大的動力,以復活的希望。 Henceforth belief in the future resurrection of at least the righteous dead became part of orthodox Judaism, except among the Sadducees, who claimed to champion the oldtime religion against Pharisaic innovations.從此相信,在未來的復活,至少正義死成了一部分正統猶太教,除其中撒都該人,他們自稱是冠軍了oldtime宗教反pharisaic創新。 With this new emphasis goes a sharper distinction between the posthumous fortunes of the righteous and the wicked, in Paradise and Gehenna respectively.這一新的工作重點有雲銳利的區別追授命運的正義與邪惡,在天堂和地獄之分別。

World Eschatology in the OT世界末世,在城市旅遊局

The day of Yahweh in early Israel was the day when Yahweh would publicly vindicate himself and his people.當天雅威月初以色列是一天當雅威會公開平反本人和他的人。 It was possibly associated with an autumnal festival which Yahweh's kingship was celebrated.它可能與一個秋季節雅威的王權的慶祝活動。 If the "enthronement psalms" (Pss. 93; 95 - 100) provide evidence for this festival, his kingship was commemorated in his work of creation, his seasonal gifts of fertility and harvest, his dealings of mercy and judgment with Israel and other nations.如果說"即位詩篇" ( pss. 93 95 -1 00) ,提供證據,為這個節日,他的王位,是為紀念在他的作品創作,他的季節性禮物的生育率和收穫,他的交往中的慈悲與判斷,以色列和其他國家。 His sovereignty in these spheres would be fully manifested at his coming to "judge the world in righteousness" (Pss. 96:13; 98:9).他的主權在這些領域,將得到充分的體現,在他來當"裁判員在世界正義" ( pss. 96:13 ; 98:9 ) 。

In the earliest significant mention of this "day of the Lord" (Amos 5:18 - 20) the Israelites are rebuked for desiring it so eagerly because it will bring not light and joy (as they hope) but darkness and mourning.在最早的顯著提這個"主日" (阿莫斯5時18 -2 0)以色列人都斥責為渴望如此急切,因為它會帶來不輕與喜悅(他們希望) ,但黑暗和哀傷。 Since Yahweh is utterly righteous, his intervention to vindicate his cause must involve his judgment on unrighteousness wherever it appears, especially among his own people, who had exceptional opportunities of knowing his will.由於雅威是完全正義的,他的干預,以維護他的事業,必須有他的判斷,對不正的地方,它出現時,尤其是在他自己的人,曾在特殊的機會,不知他的意志。

Psalmists and prophets recognized that, while Yahweh's kingship was exercised in many ways, the reality which they saw fell short of what they knew to be the ideal. psalmists和先知們認識到,雖然雅威的王位是行使在許多方面,現實的,他們看到了低於他們知道自己有哪些必須的理想。 Even in Israel Yahweh's sovereignty was inadequately acknowledged.即使是在以色列雅威的主權是不夠公認的事實。 But one day the tension between ideal and reality would be resolved; on the day of Yahweh his kingship would be universally acknowledged, and the earth would be filled with "the knowledge of the Lord" (Isa. 11:9; Hab. 2:14).但一天的緊張局勢在理想與現實之間將得到解決;公佈之日雅威他的王位,將成為舉世公認的,大地將充滿了"知識的上帝" (以賽亞書11時09分;民政事務局2 : 14 ) 。 His effective recognition as "king over all the earth" is portrayed in terms of a theophany in Zech.他有效地識別為"國王所有地球"是描繪在計算一個theophany在撒加利亞。 14:3 - 9. 14時03 -9 。

The decline of the Davidic monarchy emphasized the contrast between what was and what ought to be.下降的davidic君主立憲強調反差,是什麼和什麼應當做的。 That monarchy represented the divine kingship on earth, but its capacity to do so worthily was impaired by political disruption, social injustice, and foreign oppression.認為君主立憲制為代表的神聖王權地球上的,但它有能力這樣做的抱負是受損的政治混亂,社會不公,以及外來的壓迫。 As the fortunes of David's house sank ever lower, however, there emerged with increasing clarity the figure of a coming Davidic king in whom the promises made to David would be fulfilled and the vanished glories of earlier times would be restored and surpassed (Isa. 9:6 - 7; 11:1 - 10; 32:1 - 8; Mic. 5:2 - 4; Amos 9:11 - 12; Jer. 23:5 - 6; 33:14 - 22).作為財富的大衛的房子沉沒越來越低,不過,湧現出越來越清晰的數字是一位未來davidic國王在其中所作出的承諾,以大衛可以達到這個消失的輝煌時代將恢復並超過(以賽亞九日: 6 -7 ; 1 1時0 1分- 10歲; 3 2 :1-八;麥克風。5時0 2分-四;阿莫斯9時11分- 12歲;哲。2 3時0 5分-六;3 3 :1 4 - 22)。

This hope of a Davidic Messiah, Yahweh's permanent vicegerent, dominates much subsequent Jewish eschatology.這個願望是一個davidic彌賽亞,雅威的永久vicegerent ,主宰得多隨後猶太末世。 In some portrayals of the new age, however, the Davidic ruler is overshadowed by the priesthood, as in Ezekiel's new commonwealth (Ezek. 46:1 - 10) and later in the Dead Sea Scrolls, where the Davidic Messiah is subordinate to the chief priest, who will be head of state in the coming age.在一些描繪的新時代,然而, davidic統治者是蒙上了神職人員,在以西結的新的英聯邦( ezek. 46:1 -1 0)和後來在死海古卷,那裡d avidic彌賽亞是從屬於行政教士,他們將國家元首,在即將到來的時代。

Another form of eschatological hope appears in Daniel.另一種形式的eschatological希望出現在丹尼爾。 No king reigns in Jerusalem, but the Most High still rules the kingdom of men and successive world emperors attain power by his will and hold it so long as he permits.沒有國王籠罩在耶路撒冷,但最高級的規則仍王國的男子和歷屆世界帝王權力達到他的意志和持有它,只要他的許可證。 The epoch of pagan dominion is limited; on its ruins the God of heaven will set up an indestructible kingdom.具有劃時代意義的異教統治是有限的;其廢墟上的神,天國將設立一個堅不可摧的王國。 In Dan.在丹。 7:13 this eternal and universal dominion is given at the end time to "one like a son of man," who is associated, if not identified, with "the saints of the Most High" (Dan. 7:18, 22, 27). 7時13分,這永恆的和普遍的統治,是由於在去年底的時候,以"一個像人子" ,他們是有聯繫的,如果不是確定了以"聖人的最高級" ( dan. 7點18 , 22 , 27 ) 。

NT Eschatology新台幣末世

OT eschatology is forward looking, its dominant notes being hope and promise.職能治療是末世前瞻性,其主導債券正希望和許諾。 These notes are present in the NT, but here the dominant note is fulfillment, fulfillment in Jesus, who by his passion and resurrection has begotten his people anew to a living hope (1 Pet. 1:3), because he has "abolished death and brough life and immortality to light through the gospel" (2 Tim. 1:10).這些說明目前在新台幣,但在這裡佔主導地位值得注意的是,圓滿完成在耶穌,由他的激情和復活了他的遺物的人,以重新生活的希望( 1寵物。 1:3 ) ,因為他已經"廢除死刑和布拉夫生命和不朽,以輕透過福音" ( 2添。 1:10 ) 。

Jesus' Galilean preaching, summarized in Mark 1:15 ("The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent, and believe in the gospel"), declares the fulfillemnt of Daniel's vision: "The time came when the saints received the kingdom" (Dan. 7:22).耶穌'伽利略的說教,總結了在商標1:15 (以下簡稱"時間就是完成後,和神的國度,是在手;思悔改,並相信在福音" ) ,宣告了fulfillemnt丹尼爾的抱負: "時間來到時,聖人收到王國" ( dan. 7時22分) 。 In one sense the kingdom was already present in Jesus' ministry: "If it is by the finger of God that I cast out demons, then the kingdom of God has come upon you" (Luke 11:20; cf. Matt. 12:28).從某種意義來說,王國已經是目前在耶穌'部說: "如果它是由手指的神,讓我投出魔,那神的國度已經來到你" (路加福音11:20 ;比照馬特12 : 28 ) 。 But in another sense it was yet future.不過,從另一個意義上講,它是尚未未來。 Jesus taught his disciples to pray, "Thy kingdom come" (Luke 11:2).耶穌教導他的弟子們祈禱, "你的英國回來" (路加福音11時02分) 。 In this sense it would come "with power" (Mark 9:1), an event variously associated with the resurrection of the Son of man or with his advent "with great power and glory" (Mark 13:26).從這個意義上講,它會來"與權力" (馬克9:1 ) ,一個事件相關的各種與復活的人子,或與他的到來, "以極大的權力和榮耀" (馬克13:26 ) 。

The expression "the Son of man" figures prominently in Jesus' teaching about the kingdom of God, especially after Peter's confession at Caesarea Philippi (Mark 8:29).表達"人子"顯要在耶穌的教學神的國度,尤其是在彼得的供述,在caesarea Philippi撰寫(馬克8時29分) 。 It echoes Daniel's "one like a son of man" (Dan. 7:13).它呼應丹尼爾的"一個像人子" ( dan. 7時13分) 。 In Jesus' teaching he himself is the Son of man.在耶穌的教學,他本人是人子。 But while he speaks occasionally, in Daniel's terms, of the Son of man as "coming with the clouds of heaven" (Mark 14:62), he more often speaks of the Son of man as destined to suffer, in language reminiscent of the servant of Yahweh in Isa.不過,雖然他說話有時,在丹尼爾的用語,是人子"來與雲的天堂" (馬克14:62 ) ,他更常講的人子,作為注定要吃虧,在語言上讓人想起了僕人雅威在伊薩。 52:13 - 53:12. 52:13 -5 3:12。 This protrayal of the Son of man in terms of the servant is quite distinctive, in that Jesus undertook to fulfill personally what was written of both.這protrayal的人子而言僕人,是相當獨特的,在這耶穌承諾履行個人是什麼書面兩種方式。 As Daniel's "one like a son of man" receives dominion from the Ancient of Days, so Jesus receives it from his Father.作為丹尼爾的"一個像人子"收到的Dominion從古代的日子,所以耶穌收到它從他的父親。 As Daniel's "saints of the Most High" receive dominion, so Jesus shares his dominion with his followers, the "little flock" (Luke 12:32; 22:29 - 30).作為丹尼爾的"聖人的最高級"接受統治,所以耶穌分享他的統治與他的追隨者, "小群" (路加福音12時32分; 22時29分-3 0) 。 But its fullness must await the suffering of the Son of man (Luke 17:25).但其豐滿必須等待的痛苦人子(盧克17時25分) 。

Sometimes Jesus uses "life" or "eternal life" (the life of the age to come) as a synonym for "the kingdom of God"; to enter the kingdom is to enter into life.有時耶穌使用的"生命"或"永恆的生命" (生命的年齡來)作為一個別名為"神的國度" ,進入英國是進入生活。 This links the kingdom with the new age, when the righteous are brought back from death to enjoy resurrection life.這是連接英國與新的時代,站在正義是帶回了死刑享有復活的生命。

In the apostolic teaching this eternal life may be enjoyed here and now, although its full flowering awaits a future consummation.在使徒的教誨,這永恆的生命,可享受現在在這裡,雖然其全面開花,有待未來的圓滿。 The death and resurrection of Christ have introduced a new phase of the kingdom, in which those who believe in him share his risen life already, even while they live on earth in mortal body.死亡和復活的基督,出台了新一期的王國,其中那些相信他分享他的人生增加了,儘管他們生活在地球上,在凡人身體。 There is an indeterminate interval between Christ's resurrection and parousia, and during this interval the age to come overlaps the present age.還有一個不確定的間隔基督的復活,並圓滿,並在此區間年齡來重疊當今時代。 Christians live spiritually in "this age" while they live temporally in "this age"; through the indwelling Spirit of God they enjoy the resurrection life of "that age" in anticipation.基督徒活在精神上, "這個年齡" ,而他們居住過暫時性的,在"這個時代" ,通過留置上帝的精神,他們享受生命復活的"時代"的預期。

This outlook has been called "realized eschatology."這面貌發生了被稱為"實現了末世" 。 But the realized eschatology of the NT does not exclude an eschatological consummation to come.但實現的末世新台幣不排除一個eschatological圓滿來。

Realized Eschatology實現末世

If the eschaton, the "last thing" which is the proper object of eschatological hope, came in the ministry, passion, and triumph of Jesus, then it cannot be the absolute end of time, for time has gone on since then.如果eschaton , "上次的事" ,這是正確的對象eschatological希望,排在財政部,熱情和勝利的耶穌,那麼,它並不一定是絕對的結束時間,時間緊迫,已進行了自那時以來。 In the NT the "last thing" is more properly the "last one," the eschatos (cf. Rev. 1:7; 2:8; 22:13).在新界"最後的事" ,是比較恰當的"最後一個, " eschatos (參見牧師1時07分; 2時08分; 22時13分) 。 Jesus is himself his people's hope, the Amen to all God's promises.耶穌是他自己的人民的希望,阿門向所有上帝的承諾。

According to Albert Schweitzer's "consistent eschatology," Jesus, believing himself to be Israel's Messiah, found that the consummation did not come when he expected it (cf. Matt. 10:23) and embraced death in order that his parousia as the Son of man might be forcibly brought to pass.根據史懷哲的"末世一致的, "耶穌,相信他已經成為以色列的彌賽亞,發現該圓滿沒有來時,他預計,它(參見馬特。 [ 10:23 ] )擁抱死亡,令他圓滿,因為兒子名男子可能被強行帶到通過。 Since the wheel of history would not respond to his hand and turn round to complete its last revolution, he threw himself on it and was broken by it, only to dominate history more decisively by his failure than he could have done by attaining his misconceived ambition.由於歷史的車輪不會回應他的手和轉身,以完成其上的革命,他義無返顧地自己的意見,並打破了由它,只有主宰歷史上更果斷,他的失敗,比他本來可以做的,達到他所引用的野心。 His message, Schweitzer held, was thoroughly eschatological in the sense exemplified by the crudest contemporary apocalypticism.他的賀詞中,施魏策爾舉行的,是徹底地eschatological在意義上所體現crudest當代大衛教派。 His ethical teaching was designed for the interim between the beginning of his ministry and his manifestation in glory.他的倫理教學,是專為中期之間開始他的部和他的表現,再創輝煌。 Later, when his death was seen to have destroyed the eschatological conditions instead of bringing them in, the proclamation of the kingdom was replaced by the teaching of the church.後來,當他的去世被認為是破壞了eschatological條件,而不是將它們彼此,宣布王朝所取代,教學的教會。

Schewitzer's interpretation of Jesus's message was largely a reaction against the liberal nineteenth century interpretation, but it was equally one sided and distorted in its selection from the gospel data. schewitzer的詮釋耶穌的訊息,主要是反應對自由,十九世紀的解釋,但同樣一個片面和歪曲其選擇從福音的數據。

Later Rudolf Otto and CH Dodd propounded a form of realized eschatology.後來魯道夫奧托和CH多德提出的一種形式實現了末世。 Dodd interpreted Jesus' parables in terms of the challenge to decision which confronted his hearers in his announcement that the kingdom of God had arrived.多德解釋耶穌' parables而言,面臨的挑戰,以決定面對他的hearers在他宣布神的國度已經到來。 Dodd viewed the kingdom as coming in Jesus' life, death, and resurrection; to proclaim these events in their proper perspective was to proclaim the good news of the kingdom of God.多德認為,王國如來,在耶穌的生命,死亡,與復活;宣布這些事件在他們的正確觀點是宣布好消息的神的國度。 Jesus' future coming did not, at first, come into the picture.耶穌的未來前途沒有,首先接觸到的圖片。 His redeeming work constituted the decisive or eschatological manifestation of the power of God operating for the world's salvation; the later concentration on a further "last thing" in the future betokened a relapse into Jewish apocalypticism, which relegated to a merely "preliminary" role those elements of the gospel which were distinctive of Jesus' message.他的挽救工作構成了決定性或eschatological體現上帝的力量經營,為世界的救贖;後來濃度就進一步"上的事" ,今後betokened復發成猶太大衛教派,它降低到僅僅是"初步"的角色,那些要素的福音,其中獨特的耶穌'信息。

(As time went on, Dodd made more room for a future consummation: what came to earth with Christ's incarnation was finally decisive for the meaning and purpose of human existence, so that, at the ultimate winding up of history, humankind will encounter God in Christ.) (隨著時間的推移,多德取得了更大的空間,為今後的圓滿:什麼來到地球與基督的化身,最後是決定性的意義和目的,人的存在,所以說,在最終清盤的歷史,人類還會遇到上帝基督) 。

Joachim Jeremias, who acknowledges indebtedness to Dodd, found that Jesus' parables express an eschatology "in process of realization"; they proclaim that the hour of fulfillment has struck and compel hearers to make up their minds about Jesus' person and mission.約阿希姆jeremias ,誰承認欠債多德,發現耶穌' parables發表末世"的過程中實現" ,他們宣稱小時圓滿已迫使hearers ,以彌補自己的頭腦,對耶穌的人的使命。

Dodd's pupil, JAT Robinson, interprets Christ's parousia not as a literal event of the future but as a symbolical or mythological presentation of what happens whenever Christ comes in love and power, displaying the signs of his presence and the marks of his cross.多德的瞳孔,李祖澤羅賓遜詮釋基督的圓滿並非如字面意思,一旦未來,但作為一個具有象徵意義的神話或陳述會發生什麼,每當說到基督在愛情與權力,展現了他的存在的跡象和標誌他的十字架。 Judgment day is a dramatic picture of every day.末世論是一個戲劇性的照片每一天。 Robinson denies that Jesus used language implying his return to earth from heaven.羅賓遜否認耶穌用語言暗示他返回地球時,從天堂。 His sayings which have been so understood express the twin themes of vindication and visitation, notably his reply to the high priest's question at his trial (Mark 14:62), where the added phrase "from now on" (Luke 22:69) or "hereafter" (Matt. 26:64) is taken to be an authentic part of the reply.他的語錄,其中有這麼理解,表達兩個主題平反,並探視,尤其是他的答复,以最高祭司的問題,對他的審判(標記14:62 ) ,在那裡,再加上一句: "從現在開始" (路加福音22:69 ) "來世" 。 ( 26:64 ) ,是採取的是一個真實的部份的答复。 The Son of man, condemned by earthly judges, will be vindicated in the divine law court; his consequent visitation of his people in judgment and redemption will take place "from now on" as surely as his vindication.人子,譴責俗世的法官,將被平反,在神聖的法庭,其相應的探視他的人,在判斷和贖回,將採取地方" ,從現在起就"肯定的,因為他爭口氣。

Instead of realized eschatology, Robinson (following Georges Florovsky) speaks of an "inaugurated eschatology", an eschatology inaugurated by Jesus' death and resurrection, which released and initiated a new phase of the kingdom in which "hereafter" God's redeeming purpose would achieve its fulfillment.而不是實現了末世,魯濱遜(以下喬治florovsky )講的是"上台末世" ,末世開幕耶穌的死亡和復活,該公司發行,並引發了一場新的階段王國中, "來世"上帝的救贖目的,將實現其圓滿。 To Jesus' ministry before his passion Robinson applies the term "proleptic eschatology" because in that ministry the signs of the age to come were visible in anticipation.以耶穌的前部,他的激情羅賓遜適用而言, " proleptic末世" ,因為在該部標誌的年齡來清晰可見,在期待。


Jesus' use of OT language was creative and cannot be confined to the meaning which that language had in its original context.耶穌使用的語言,職能治療,是有創造力,不能局限於含義,其中語文曾在其原來的語境。 He probably did point forward to his personal coming to earth, not only to manifest his glory but to share that glory with his people, raised from the dead by his quickening shout.他大概沒有點著他的個人來到地球,這不僅是為了體現他的榮耀,但分享這種光榮與他的人,所提出的從死裡復活,他加快了。 When the consummation to which his people look forward is described as their "hope of glory," it is their participation in Jesus' resurrection glory that is in view; that hope is kept bright within them by his indwelling presence (Col. 1:27) and sealed by the Spirit (Eph. 1:13 - 14, 18 - 21).當圓滿,以他的人期待說成是他們的"希望獲得榮譽, "這是他們參加耶穌復活的榮耀,這就是觀;表示希望保持美好與他們留置他的存在(歌1:27 ) ,並封鎖所體現的精神, (以弗所書1:13 -1 4, 1 8- 21 )。

There is a tension between the "already" and the "not yet" of the Christian hope, but each is essential to the other.有一種緊張關係"已經"和"尚未"的基督徒的希望,但每次必須為另一方。 In the language of the seer of Patmos, the Lamb that was slain has by his death won the decisive victory (Rev. 5:5), but its final outworking, in reward and judgment, lies in the future (Rev. 22:12).在語文的季節能效比patmos ,羊肉,這是已被殺害他的逝世,贏得決定性勝利(啟示錄5:5 ) ,但其最後outworking ,在獎勵和判斷,就在於未來(啟示錄22:12 ) 。 The fact that we now "see Jesus crowned with glory and honor" is guarantee enough that God "has put all things under his feet" (Heb. 2:8 - 9).事實是,我們現在是"見耶穌加冕榮耀尊貴" ,是保證足夠的,神是"把所有的東西在他的腳下" (希伯來書2時08 -9 ) 。 His people already share his risen life, and those who reject him are "condemned already" (John 3:18).他的人就已經分享他的人生上升,而那些拒絕他,是"千夫所指已經" (約翰3點18分) 。 For the Fourth Evangelist, the judgment of the world coincided with the passion of the incarnate Word (John 12:31); yet a future resurrection to judgment is contemplated as well as a resurrection to life (John 5:29).為第四屆傳道,判決的世界正好與激情的化身字(約翰12:31 ) ,但將來的復活,以判斷是爭議以及一個復活的生命(約翰5點29分) 。

Some much canvassed questions, such as the chronological relation of the parousia to the great distress of Mark 13:19, to the manifestation of the man of lawlessness of 2 Thess.一些非常廣泛徵詢的問題,如以時間順序排列的關係,圓滿向偉大遇險的馬克13時19分,以體現該名男子的無法無天2帖。 2:3 - 8, or to the millennial reign of Rev. 20, are marginal to the main course of NT eschatological teaching, belonging rather to the detailed exegesis of the passages concerned. 2:3 -八,或以千年統治牧師2 0,是邊緣至主過程新台幣e schatological教學,歸屬感,而不是為了詳細註釋的通道。 The eschatological outlook of the NT is well summed up in the words: "Christ Jesus our hope" (1 Tim. 1:1).該eschatological展望新台幣很好地總結了在的話: "基督耶穌裡,我們希望" ( 1添。 1:1 ) 。

FF Bruce法郎布魯斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
GR Beasley - Murray, Jesus and the Future and The Coming of God; RH Charles, A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life; O Cullmann, Christ and Time; CH Dodd, The Parables of the Kingdom, The Apostolic Preaching and Its Developments, and The Coming of Christ; JE Fison, The Christian Hope; TF Glasson, The Second Advent; J Jeremias, The Parables of Jesus; WG Kummel, Promise and Fulfilment; GE Ladd, The Presence of the Future; R Otto, The Kingdom of God and the Son of Man; H Ridderbos, The Coming of the Kingdom; JAT Robinson, In the End, God.遺傳資源比斯利-美利,耶穌和前途和未來的上帝;銠查爾斯,一個關鍵的歷史主義的未來生活; o c ullmann,基督和時間;甲烷多德, p arables的王國,宗座傳教及其發展,以及未來的基督是法伊森,基督教希望;的TF格拉森,第二次來臨; j jeremias , parables耶穌;小組庫慕爾,承諾和履行;葛雷德,在場的前途與r奧托,神的國度和人子; h ridderbos ,未來的王國;李祖澤羅賓遜,在年底前,上帝。 . . and Jesus and His Coming; A Schweitzer, The Quest of the Historical Jesus; EF Sutcliffe, The OT and the Future Life; G Vos, The Pauline Eschatology.與耶穌和他的未來;施魏策爾,追求歷史的耶穌;英法sutcliffe ,職能治療及今後的生活中的100你,寶蓮末世。

Realized Eschatology實現末世

Advanced Information 先進的信息

This concept should be contrasted with futurist or thoroughgoing eschatology, in which the teaching of Jesus about the kingdom of God is viewed as significantly influenced by Jewish apocalyptic.這個概念,應該對照未來或深入末世,在基督的教導對神的國度被認為是顯著的影響,猶太人世界末日。 While continental scholarship has focused on the latter, the Anglo-American tradition has often urged that the futurist aspects of the kingdom be reduced to a bare minimum.而大陸獎學金側重於後者,英美的傳統,經常呼籲說,未來方面王國減少到最低限度。 Some have dismissed this apocatyptic note as an early Christian accretion, but many NT scholars have viewed the apocalyptic language as symbolic of a profound theological reality.有些人被解僱,這apocatyptic說明作為早期基督教的堆積,但許多新台幣學者觀看了世界末日的語言作為象徵性的一個深刻的神學思想建設的現實。 Instead, they argue, Jesus viewed his ministry as inaugurating the kingdom: that is, this eschatological reality was realized within Christ's own ministry.相反,他們認為,耶穌看他的部作為開創英國:那就是這個eschatological現實,是實現基督自己的部。

CH Dodd is often identified with realized eschatology because of his epoch-making challenge to the apocalytic interpreters of Jesus.甲烷多德是往往被確定可變現末世因為他的,具有劃時代的挑戰,給apocalytic口譯員的耶穌。 Dodd's chief contribution was published in 1935 (The Parables of the Kingdom), in which he examined various texts that spoke of the kingdom as already present.多德的總貢獻是發表在1935年( parables的王國) ,其中他考察了各種文本談到王國已經存在。 This does not mean that Jesus merely pointed to the sovereignty of God in human history and labeled this the kingdom, but rather that Jesus viewed the kingdom as arriving in an unparalleled, decisive way.這並不意味著耶穌只是指出,該國的主權,上帝在人類歷史上,並標記這個王國,而是耶穌觀看英國抵達一個空前的,果斷的方式。 The eschatological power of God had come into effective operation within his present life and was released through his death.該eschatological上帝的力量已經生效的有效運作,他現在的生活,並通過公佈他的死因。 Hence in Luke 11:20 we learn that Jesus himself is revealing this new power: "If it is by the finger of God that I cast out demons, then the kingdom of God has come upon you."因此,在路加福音11:20我們知道耶穌自己是揭示這種新的動力: "如果它是由手指的神,讓我投出魔,那神的國度已經來到你" 。 Luke 17:20ff.路加福音17:20以後。 is similar in that Jesus seems to deny the observable signs of apocalyptic: "for behold, the kingdom of God is in the midst of you."類似耶穌似乎否認有瞄頭的跡象,世界末日: "看哪,神的國度,是我們在複雜多變的你" 。 Dodd particularly stressed the parables of growth (the weeds among wheat, the mustard seed, the sower; see esp. Matt. 13), which find their meaning in a this-wordly event of decisive importance.多德特別強調parables的增長(雜草,其中小麥,芥菜種子,播種,見電除塵器。馬特13 ) ,其中找到自己的意思,在這- wordly活動具有決定性的意義。

To be sure, this alters the entire scheme of futurist eschatology wherein the kingdom ushers in the end.可以肯定的是,這改變了整項計劃的未來在哪裡末世王國迎來到底。 "The eschaton has moved from the future to the present, from the sphere of expectation into that of realized experience" (Parables of the Kingdom, p. 50). " eschaton已經從未來到現在,從球的期望成為即實現經驗" ( parables的王國,第50頁) 。 For Dodd, this must become a fixed point in interpretation because it is these teachings of Jesus that are explicit and unequivocal.為多德,這要成為一個固定點,在解釋,因為這是這些遺訓耶穌是明確的和毫不含糊的。 "It represents the ministry of Jesus as 'realized eschatology'; as the impact upon this world of the 'powers of the world to come' in a series of events, unprecedented and unrepeatable, now in actual progress" (ibid., p. 51). "它代表了財政部耶穌為'實現末世' ;因為經濟影響後,這個世界上的'世界強國來'在一連串的事件,空前絕後的,現在在實際的進展" (同上,第51 ) 。 Thus when Jesus says, "Blessed are the eyes which see what you see" (Luke 10:23), he is referring to his messianic acts which in themselves are ushering in the eschatological kingdom of God.因此,當耶穌說: "人有福了眼看到你所看到的" (路加福音10時23分) ,他是指他的救世主式的行為,本身就迎來了eschatological神的國度。 "It is no longer imminent; it is here" (ibid., p. 49). "它不再是迫在眉睫的,它是這裡" (同上,第49頁) 。

It must be said at once that realized eschatology has suffered many criticisms.應該說,在一次實現了末世遭受了許多批評。 Scholars have quickly pointed out that Dodd was less than fair in his exegesis of many futurist texts (eg, Mark 9:1; 13:1ff.; 14:25).學者們也很快指出,多德低於公平,在他的訓詁學的許多未來派的文本(例如,馬克9:1 ;十三法郎。 ; 14時25分) 。 Still, in a later response to his critics (The Coming of Christ, 1951) Dodd accepted the futurist sayings but reinterpreted them as predictions of a transcendent age.但是,在後來的回應他的批評者(未來的基督, 1951年)多德在接受了未來主義的說法重新解釋,但他們的預言一個超越年齡。 Norman Perrin for one has successfully shown how Judaism employed no such transcendent concept of the kingdom and that Dodd again has misrepresented the text by applying a foreign Greek category to Jesus' Hebrew teaching.波倫諾曼為一已成功地表現如何猶太教僱用沒有這樣的超越性的概念王國,並多德一再歪曲文本中的一個外國希臘語類,以耶穌的希伯來語教學。

Most interpreters have argued for a synthesis of realized and futurist components in eschatology.最口譯員辯稱為合成的實現和未來的組成部分,在末世。 Dodd convincingly demonstrated that Jesus' appearance brought to bear on history an eschatological crisis in the present; however, we would add that history still awaits its consummation in the future, when the kingdom will come in apocalyptic power.多德令人信服地表明,耶穌的外觀所承受的歷史上一個eschatological危機,在目前的;但是,我們想補充一點,歷史上還有待完善,其在未來的日子,當英國將在世界末日的權力。

GM Burge通用汽車burge
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
GE Ladd, Crucial Questions About the Kingdom of God; WG Kummel, Promise and Fulfillment; G. Lundstrom, The Kingdom of God in the Teaching of Jesus; N. Perrin, The Kingdom of God in the Teaching of Jesus; R. Schnackenburg, God's Rule and Kingdom.葛雷德,關鍵問題,對神的國度;小組庫慕爾,承諾和履行; g. lundstrom ,神的國度在基督的教導;波倫12月31日,英國的上帝在基督的教導;傳譯施諾肯保,上帝的統治和英國。


Catholic Information 天主教資訊

That branch of systematic theology which deals with the doctrines of the last things (ta eschata).該分公司的系統神學,其中涉及與學說上的東西(電訊局長eschata ) 。 The Greek title is of comparatively recent introduction, but in modern usage it has largely supplanted its Latin equivalent De Novissimis.希臘標題屬於較近期推出,但在現代用法,它已在很大程度上supplanted其拉丁語相當於德novissimis 。 As the numerous doctrinal subjects belonging to this section of theology will be treated ex professo under their several proper titles, it is proposed in this article merely to take such a view of the whole field as will serve to indicate the place of eschatology in the general framework of religion, explain its subject-matter and the outlines of its content in the various religions of mankind, and illustrate by comparison the superiority of Christian eschatological teaching.由於許多理論科目屬於本節的神學,將治療前professo下,他們幾個適當的稱呼,建議在這一條僅僅採取這種看法的整個領域,將有助於說明地點在末世一般框架的宗教,解釋其主題以及綱要的內容,在各種宗教的人類,並說明是由比較優勢的基督教eschatological教學。

As a preliminary indication of the subject-matter, a distinction may be made between the eschatology of the individual and that of the race and the universe at large.作為一個初步的跡象顯示主題事項時,可區分之間必須作出末世的個人及整個種族和宇宙在逃。 The former, setting out from the doctrine of personal immortality, or at least of survival in some form after death, seeks to ascertain the fate or condition, temporary or eternal, of individual souls, and how far the issues of the future depend on the present life.前,訂下從教義的個人不死的,或者至少是生存在某種形式死後,其目的是確定的命運或條件下,暫時的或永恆的,個人的心靈,有多遠的問題,未來在很大程度上依賴於現在的生活。 The latter deals with events like the resurrection and the general judgment, in which, according to Christian Revelation, all men will participate, and with the signs and portents in the moral and physical order that are to precede and accompany those events.後者涉及的事件一樣,復活和一般的判斷,而根據基督教的啟示,所有官兵將參加,並與交通標誌和印在道義上和物質秩序是先於和伴隨這些活動。 Both aspects -- the individual and the universal -- belong to the adequate concept of eschatology; but it is only in Christian teaching that both receive due and proportionate recognition.這兩個方面-個人與世界-屬於足夠的概念末世;但是,我們只有在基督教教義都得到應有的和相稱的承認。 Jewish eschatology only attained its completion in the teaching of Christ and the Apostles; while in ethnic religion eschatology seldom rose above the individual view, and even then was often so vague, and so little bound up with any adequate notion of Divine justice and of moral retribu- tion, that it barely deserves to be ranked as religious teaching.猶太末世只達到其完成在教學中的耶穌和使徒,而在民族宗教末世鮮玫瑰上述個人看法,而且即便如此,往往是含糊的,這麼少的約束與任何充分的概念是神聖的正義和道德retribu要害,它幾乎值得將之列為宗教教職。

I. ETHNIC ESCHATOLOGIES一,民族eschatologies

Uncivilized societies不文明社團

Even among uncivilized cultures the universality of religious beliefs, including belief in some kind of existence after death, is very generally admitted by modern anthropologists.即使是不文明的文化普遍性的宗教信仰,包括信仰某種存在亡故後,是非常普遍承認,由現代人類學家。 Some exceptions, it is true, have been claimed to exist; but on closer scrutiny the evidence for this claim has broken down in so many cases that we are justified in presuming against any exception.一些例外情況,這是真的,都自稱以存在的,不過更詳細的證據,這項索賠打破了下來,所以很多情況下,我們有理由假設對任何例外。 Among the uncivilized the truth and purity of eschatological beliefs vary, as a rule, with the purity of the idea of God and of the moral standards that prevail.其中一些不文明的真相和純潔性eschatological信仰不同,作為一項規則,與純潔的上帝觀和道德標準為準。 Some savages seem to limit existence after death to the good (with extinction for the wicked), as the Nicaraguas, or to men of rank, as the Tongas; while the Greenlanders, New Guinea negroes, and others seem to hold the possibility of a second death, in the other world or on the way to it.一些野蠻人似乎極限存在死亡後,以良好(瀕臨絕種的物種,為惡人) ,作為nicaraguas ,或男職級高低,作為tongas而格陵蘭,新幾內亞的黑人,和其他人似乎掌握有可能發生第二次的死,在其他世界的路上還是給它。 The next world itself is variously located -- on the earth, in the skies, in the sun or moon -- but most commonly under the earth; while the life led there is conceived either as a dull and shadowy and more or less impotent existence, or as an active continuation in a higher or idealized form of the pursuits and pleasures of earthly life.未來世界本身就是各種位於-對地球,在天空下,在太陽或月亮-但最常見的下地球的,而生活中,導致有構思要么作為一個沉悶的陰影和更多或更少無能存在或者作為一個積極的延續,在一個更高或理想化形式的追求和享樂的俗世生活。 In most savage religions there is no very high or definite doctrine of moral retribution after death; but it is only in the case of a few of the most degraded cultures, whose condition is admittedly the result of degeneration, that the notion of retribution is claimed to be altogether wanting.在最野蠻的宗教是沒有非常高的或明確的教義的道德報應後死亡,但它只是在案件數的最退化的文化,其條件是無可否認的結果豆狀核變性,這一概念的報應,號稱要完全不想。 Sometimes mere physical prowess, as bravery or skill in the hunt or in war, takes the place of a strictly ethical standard; but, on the other hand, some savage religions contain unexpectedly clear and elevated ideas of many primary moral duties.有時僅僅武藝高強,英勇或技能,在狩獵或戰爭中,以代替一個嚴格的道德標準,但是,在另一方面,一些野蠻的宗教含有出人意料地明確和高架的想法,許多小學的道德義務。

Civilized Cultures文明文化

Coming to the higher or civilized societies, we shall glance briefly at the eschatology of the Babylonian and Assyrian, Egyptian, Indian, Persian, and Greek religions.來越高,或文明社會中,我們將簡要一眼,在末世的巴比倫和亞述,埃及,印度,波斯,希臘宗教。 Confucianism can hardly be said to have an eschatology, except the very indefinite belief involved in the worship of ancestors, whose happiness was held to depend on the conduct of their living descendants.儒學很難說有一個末世中,除極無限期信仰參與崇拜祖先,他們的幸福舉行很大程度上依賴於以進行他們的生活子孫。 Islamic eschatology contains nothing distinctive except the glorification of barbaric sensuality.伊斯蘭末世載有什麼與眾不同的,除了美化野蠻的性感。

(a) Babylonian and Assyrian (一)巴比倫和亞述

In the ancient Babylonian religion (with which the Assyrian is substantially identical) eschatology never attained, in the historical period, any high degree of development.在古巴比倫的宗教(與該亞述是大體相同)末世從未達到,在歷史時期,任何高度的發展。 Retribution is confined almost, if not quite, entirely to the present life, virtue being rewarded by the Divine bestowal of strength, prosperity, long life, numerous offspring, and the like, and wickedness punished by contrary temporal calamities.報應是限於差不多,如果不相當,完全以現在的生活,憑藉正在評獎工作由神的恩賜的力量,繁榮,壽命長,眾多的後代,就如同和邪惡的懲罰,相反態災難。 Yet the existence of an hereafter is believed in. A kind of semi-material ghost, or shade, or double (ekimmu), survives the death of the body, and when the body is buried (or, less commonly, cremated) the ghost descends to the underworld to join the company of the departed.然而,存在著一種來世相信英寸一種半物質鬼,或遮蔭,或雙( ekimmu ) ,生存死亡的屍體,當屍體被埋葬(或者,較少人,火化)的幽靈降,以黑社會加入公司後離去。 In the "Lay of Ishtar" this underworld, to which she descended in search of her deceased lover and of the "waters of life", is described in gloomy colours; and the same is true of the other descriptions we possess.在"外行的ishtar "這個黑社會性質,而她的後裔在搜索她已故的愛人和"水之都" ,是描述在灰暗的色彩;也是一樣,至於其他的描述,我們所擁有的。 It is the "pit", the "land of no return", the "house of darkness", the "place where dust is their bread, and their food is mud"; and it is infested with demons, who, at least in Ishtar's case, are empowered to inflict various chastisements for sins committed in the upper world.明明是"坑" , "土地的不歸路" , "屋內的黑暗" , "地方,灰塵是他們的麵包,其食品是泥" ,以及它是帶有魔,人,至少在ishtar的情況下,均有權對其它各chastisements為罪孽,在世界上。

Though Ishtar's case is held by some to be typical in this respect, there is otherwise no clear indication of a doctrine of moral penalties for the wicked, and no promise of rewards for the good.雖然ishtar的情況下舉行的是由一些被典型,在這方面,有否則,沒有明確說明的是主義道德的懲罰惡人,並沒有承諾的報酬好的方向發展。 Good and bad are involved in a common dismal fate.好的和壞的是參與一個共同的暗淡命運。 The location of the region of the dead is a subject of controversy among Assyriologists, while the suggestion of a brighter hope in the form of a resurrection (or rather of a return to earth) from the dead, which some would infer from the belief in the "waters of life" and from references to Marduk, or Merodach, as "one who brings the dead to life", is an extremely doubtful conjecture.所在地區域內的死者是一個爭論的主題之一assyriologists ,而建議的一個更光明的希望,在形式的復活(或更確切地說一個返回地球)從死裡復活,其中有些人會推斷,從信仰"水域生活" ,從參考馬杜克,或merodach ,為"一人帶出死者生命" ,是一個非常可疑的猜測。 On the whole there is nothing hopeful or satisfying in the eschatology of this ancient religion.就整體而言,有沒有什麼希望,或滿足於末世這個古老的宗教。

(b) Egyptian (二)埃及

On the other hand, in the Egyptian religion, which for antiquity competes with the Babylonian, we meet with a highly developed and comparatively elevated eschatology.在另一方面,在埃及宗教,而為古物競爭對手巴比倫的,我們見面一個高度發達和比較高架末世。 Leaving aside such difficult questions as the relative priority and influence of different, and even conflicting, elements in the Egyptian religion, it will suffice for the present purpose to refer to what is most prominent in Egyptian eschatology taken at its highest and best.姑且不論這種困難的問題,因為相對優先程度和影響力的不同,甚至相互矛盾,分子在埃及宗教,它足以為目前目的是指什麼,是最為突出的埃及採取了末世,在其最高及最佳。 In the first place, then, life in its fullness, unending life with 0siris, the sun-god, who journeys daily through the underworld, even identification with the god, with the right to be called by his name, is what the pious Egyptian looked forward to as the ultimate goal after death.擺在首位,那麼,生活是充實的,永無終結的生命與0siris ,太陽神,他們的旅程每天通過黑社會,甚至鑑定與上帝,並享有被稱為由他的名字,這才是虔誠的埃及期待著為終極目標後死亡。 The departed are habitually called the "living"; the coffin is the "chest of the living", and the tomb the "lord of life".離去是慣常所謂的"生活" ;棺材是"胸部的生活" ,並發表墓"上帝的生命" 。 It is not merely the disembodied spirit, the soul as we understand it, that continues to live, but the soul with certain bodily organs and functions suited to the conditions of the new life.它不僅是disembodied精神,靈魂,我們所理解的,即繼續生活,但靈魂與身體的某些器官和功能適合條件的新生活。 In the elaborate anthropology which underlies Egyptian eschatology, and which we find it hard to understand, several constituents of the human person are distinguished, the most important of which is the Ka, a kind of semi-material double; and to the justified who pass the judgment after death the use of these several constituents, separated by death is restored.在闡釋人類學,其中強調了埃及末世,我們不難明了,幾個選區的人都是傑出的,而其中最重要的是家,一類半雙材料,並合理通過判決死刑後,使用這幾個組別,失散的死刑予以恢復。 This judgment which each undergoes is described in detail in chapter 125 of the Book of the Dead.這個判斷,即每個經歷了詳細的描述,在第125章的這本書的死者。 The examination covers a great variety of personal, social, and religious duties and observances; the deceased must be able to deny his guilt in regard to forty-two great categories of sins, and his heart (the symbol of conscience and morality) must stand the test of being weighed in the balance against the image of Maat, goddess of truth or justice.考試涵蓋豐富,形式多樣的個人,社會及宗教職責和紀念活動;死者必須能夠否認自己有罪,至於42大類罪,和他的心(象徵著良知與道德) ,必須站在考驗正在權衡在平衡對形象瑪阿特,氣派不凡的真理或正義。 But the new life that begins after a favourable judgment is not at first any better or more spiritual than life on earth.但新的生活開始後,一個有利的判斷是不是第一次有更好或更精神比地球上的生命。 The justified is still a wayfarer with a long and difficult journey to accomplish before he reaches bliss and security in the fertile fields of Aalu.正當仍然是一個wayfarer一個漫長而艱難的旅程,以完成前,他到極樂世界與安全方面的沃野的aalu 。 On this journey he is exposed to a variety of disasters, for the avoidance of which he depends on the use of his revivified powers and on the knowledge he has gained in life of the directions and magical charms recorded in the Book of the Dead, and also, and perhaps most of all, on the aids provided by surviving friends on earth.對這一歷程,是他所接觸到的各種災害,為免生他,就看用他的revivified權力和對知識的他獲得了人生的方向,而神奇的魅力記錄在這本書的死難者,另外,也許最重要的是,對艾滋病提供倖存的朋友在地球上。 It is they who secure the preservation of his corpse that he may return and use it, who provide an indestructible tomb as a home or shelter for his Ka, who supply food and drink for his sustenance, offer up prayers and sacrifices for his benefit, and aid his memory by inscribing on the walls of the tomb, or writing on rolls of papyrus enclosed in the wrappings of the mummy, chapters from the Book of the Dead.正是他們的安全保存他的屍體,他可能會回到和使用,誰提供一個堅不可摧的墓為家庭或住所為他的家,他們供應食物和飲料,他的寄託,提供了祈禱和犧牲個人的利益,和援助他的記憶寫就的牆壁墓穴中,或以書面形式對捲紙紙莎草紙密封,在包裝紙的媽咪,章節,從本書的死者。 It does not, indeed, appear that the dead were ever supposed to reach a state in which they were independent of these earthly aids.它沒有,而事實上,似乎認定,死者被以往任何時候都假定,以達到國家,這使得他們獨立於這些俗世的艾滋病。 At any rate they were always considered free to revisit the earthly tomb, and in making the journey to and fro the blessed had the power of transforming themselves at will into various animal-shapes.無論如何,他們一向被認為是自由地重溫俗世的墓,並在作出西遊記駛過該有福了電力改造自己會變成各種動物的形狀。 It was this belief which, at the degenerate stage at which he encountered it, Herodotus mistook for the doctrine of the transmigration of souls.正是這種信念,在墮落在哪個階段,他遇到了它,希羅多德誤認為中庸的輪迴的靈魂。 It should be added that the identification of the blessed with Osiris ("Osiris NN" is a usual form of inscription) did not, at least in the earlier and higher stage of Egyptian religion, imply pantheistic absorption in the deity or the loss of individual personality.應當補充說,確定的祝福與攝( "日簽署的神經網絡"是一個通常形式的題詞)沒有,至少在較早走向更高的埃及宗教,意味著pantheistic吸收,在神或喪失個人個性。 Regarding the fate of those who fail in the judgment after death, or succumb in the second probation, Egyptian eschatology is less definite in its teaching.關於命運的人不能在判決後死亡,或就範,在第二感化,埃及是末世少,在一定的教學。 "Second death" and other expressions applied to them might seem to suggest annihilation; but it is sufficiently clear from the evidence as a whole that continued existence in a condition of darkness and misery was believed to be their portion. "第二次的死"等詞句適用於她們可能似乎暗示湮滅,但它是不夠清楚,從證據作為一個整體,即繼續存在的一個條件的黑暗與苦難,相信在他們身上。 And as there were degrees in the happiness of the blessed, so also in the punishment of the lost (Book of the Dead, tr. Budge, London, 1901).正如有度,在幸福的有福了,所以也應在處罰的損失(賬面的死者,的TR 。讓步,倫敦, 1901年) 。

(c) Indian (三)印度

In the Vedic, the earliest historical form of the Indian religion, eschatological belief is simpler and purer than in the Brahministic and Buddhistic forms that succeeded it.在吠陀,最早的歷史形態的印度宗教, eschatological信念是簡單和純潔,比在brahministic和佛教的形式成功。 Individual immortality is clearly taught.個別不死的,是明確教導。 There is a kingdom of the dead under the rule of Yama, with distinct realms for the good and the wicked.有一個英國的死者的統治下,閻王,具有鮮明的境界,為善,惡人。 The good dwell in a realm of light and share in the feasts of the gods; the wicked are banished to a place of "nethermost darkness".好糾纏在一個境界輕和分享在席間的神靈;惡人都是被流放到一個地方的" nethermost黑暗" 。 Already, however, in the later Vedas, where these beliefs and developed expression, retribution begins to be ruled more by ceremonial observances than by strictly moral tests.已經然而,在後來的vedas ,而這些信念和發達的表達,報應就開始排除,更受到禮儀紀念活動較嚴格的道德考驗。 On the other hand, there is no trace as yet of the dreary doctrine of transmigration, but critics profess to discover the germs of later pantheism.在另一方面,不存在微量仍未的悲涼學說的輪迴,但批評者自稱對發現的細菌後來泛神論。

In Brahminism retribution gains in prominence and severity, but becomes hopelessly involved in transmigration, and is made more and more dependent either on sacrificial observances or on theosophical knowledge.在brahminism報應收益在突出和嚴重程度,但成為絕望參與輪迴,並正使越來越多的依賴要么犧牲紀念活動或theosophical知識。 Though after death there are numerous heavens and hells for the reward and punishment of every degree of merit and demerit, these are not final states, but only so many preludes to further rebirths in higher or lower forms.雖然死亡後,存在著許多天hells為獎勵和處罰的,每度的優點,並給予記過處分,這些都不是最後的國家,但只有這麼多首前奏曲,以進一步rebirths在較高或較低的形式。 Pantheistic absorption in Brahma, the world- soul and only reality, with the consequent extinction of individual personalities - this is the only final solution of the problem of existence, the only salvation to which man may ultimately look forward. pantheistic吸收布拉馬,世界靈魂,只有現實,具有相應滅絕的個別人物-這是唯一的最終解決了生存問題,唯一的救贖,其中男子最終可能向前看。 But it is a salvation which only a few may hope to reach after the present life, the few who have acquired a perfect knowledge of Brahma.但它是一個救贖,其中只有極少數可能會希望達成後,現在的生活,少數人獲得了完美的知識布拉馬。 The bulk of men who cannot rise to this high philosophic wisdom may succeed, by means of sacrificial observances, in gaining a temporary heaven, but they are destined to further births and deaths.大部分的男人不能產生這種高智慧的哲學可能得逞的,即通過祭祀紀念活動,在獲得暫時的天堂,但他們注定要進一步出生和死亡。

Buddhist eschatology still further develops and modifies the philosophical side of the Brahministic doctrine of salvation, and culminates in what is, strictly speaking, the negation of eschatology and of all theology -- a religion without a God, and a lofty moral code without hope of reward or fear of punishment hereafter.佛教末世仍有進一步發展和修改的哲學方面的brahministic學說的救贖,並處處表現出什麼,嚴格來說,是要否定和末世一切神學-一種宗教,沒有一個神和崇高的道德準則是沒有希望的獎勵或害怕懲罰,來世。 Existence itself, or at least individual existence, is the primary evil; and the craving for existence, with the many forms of desire it begets, is the source of all the misery in which life is inextricably involved.存在本身,或者至少是個體存在,是主要的邪惡和渴求的存在,許多形式的慾望,它產生,是從源頭上的一切苦難,在生活中是密不可分的。 Salvation, or the state of Nirvana, is to be attained by the utter extinction of every kind of desire, and this is possible by knowledge -- not the knowledge of God or the soul, as in Brahminism, but the purely philosophical knowledge of the real truth of things.救國國,或極樂世界,是為了達到所完全滅絕,每一種願望,而這是有可能的是由知識-而不是知識的上帝或靈魂,因為在b rahminism,但純粹的哲學知識含量真理教的東西。 For all who do not reach this state of philosophic enlightenment or who fail to live up to its requirements -- that is to say for the vast bulk of mankind -- there is nothing in prospect save a dreary cycle of deaths and rebirths with intercalated heavens and hells; and in Buddhism this doctrine takes on a still more dread and inexorable character than pre-Buddhistic Brahminism.所有那些沒有達到這一狀態的哲學啟示或誰辜負了自己的要求-這就是說,為大量的人類-有什麼展望節省悲涼週期的死亡和r e births與插老天爺和hells以及在佛教這種學說問題就顯得更加恐懼和必然性格較前佛教brahminism 。 (See BUDDHISM) (見佛教)

(d) Persian (四)波斯語

In the ancient Persian religion (Zoroastrianism, Mazdaism, Parseeism) we meet with what is perhaps, in its better elements, the highest type of ethnic eschatology.在古代波斯宗教( zoroastrianism , mazdaism , parseeism )我們見面是什麼,也許,在其更好要素中,最高類型的民族末世。 But as we know it in the Parsee literature, it contains elements that were probably borrowed from other religions; and as some of this literature is certainly post-Christian, the possibility of Jewish and even Christian ideas having influenced the later eschatological developments is not to be lost sight of.但是,正如我們知道它在parsee文學,它包含的內容很可能是借來的,由其他宗教的,並且隨著一些本文學當然是後基督教,就有可能被猶太人和基督徒甚至設想既影響了後來eschatological發展,是不以被忽略的。 The radical defect of the Persian religion was its dualistic conception of deity.激進缺損的波斯宗教是它的二元對立觀神。 The physical and moral world is the theatre of a perpetual conflict between Ahura Mazda (Ormuzd), the good, and Angra-Mainyu (Ahriman), the evil, principle, co-creators of the universe and of man.身體和道德世界,是戲劇的永恆矛盾阿胡拉馬自達( ormuzd ) ,善, angra -曼紐( ahriman ) ,惡,原則上,共同創造宇宙和人類的。 Yet the evil principle is not eternal ex parte post; he will finally be vanquished and exterminated.然而,邪惡的原則,是不是永恆的單方面後,他將最終戰勝和消滅。 A pure monotheistic Providence promises at times to replace dualism, but never quite succeeds -- the latest effort in this direction being the belief in Zvran Akarana, or Boundless Time as the supreme deity above both Ahriman and Ormuzd.一個單純的一神教普羅維登斯的諾言,有時以取代二元論,但從來沒有相當成功-最新朝著這個方向努力,作為信仰z vrana karana,或無限的時候,作為最高神,上述兩a hriman和o rmuzd。 Morality has its sanction not merely in future retribution, but in the present assurance that every good and pious deed is a victory for the cause of Ahura Mazda; but the call to the individual to be active in this cause, though vigorous and definite enough, is never quite free from ritual and ceremonial conditions, and as time goes on becomes more and more complicated by these observances, especially by the laws of purity.道德有其制裁,而不僅僅是在未來的報應,但在目前的保證,一切美好和虔誠的契約,是一個勝利的原因是阿胡拉馬自達,但要求個人積極參與這項事業,雖然充滿生機和一定不夠的,絕不是相當不受祭祀和禮儀條件下,隨著時間的推移變得越來越複雜了這些紀念活動,特別是受瑞士法律的純潔性。 Certain elements are holy (fire, earth, water), certain others unholy or impure (dead bodies, the breath, and all that leaves the body, etc.); and to defile oneself or the holy elements by contact with the impure is one of the deadliest sins.某些元素都是聖(火,土,水) ,某些其他非神聖或不純(死人,呼吸,而所有剩下的只有身體,等等) ;及強姦自己或他人神聖的元素與不純,是一個最致命的罪孽。 Consequently corpses could not be buried or cremated, and were accordingly exposed on platforms erected for the purpose, so that birds of prey might devour them.因此屍體無法安葬或火化,並因此而暴露於搭建平台為目的,使猛禽可能吃掉它們。 When the soul leaves the body it has to cross the bridge of Chinvat (or Kinvad), the bridge of the Gatherer, or Accountant.當靈魂離開身體,既要過橋的chinvat (或kinvad )和橋的採集,或會計師。 For three days good and evil spirits contend for the possession of the soul, after which the reckoning is taken and the just men is rejoiced by the apparition, in the form of a fair maiden, of his good deeds, words, and thoughts, and passes over safely to a paradise of bliss, while the wicked man is confronted by a hideous apparition of his evil deeds, and is dragged down to hell.為期三天的善良與邪惡的精神,爭取擁有靈魂,然後由清算是採取以及剛剛男人是歡欣鼓舞,由apparition ,其形式是一個公平的處女作,他的善行,文字,思考,通過以上的安全天堂的極樂世界,而邪惡的人是面對一個醜陋apparition他的劣跡,並拖累了地獄之路。 If the judgment is neutral the soul is reserved in an intermediate state (so at least in the Pahlavi books) till the decision at the last day.如果該判決是中性的靈魂,是保留在一個中間狀態(這樣至少在巴列維書籍) ,直到決定在最後一天。 The developed conception of the last days, as it appears in the later literature, has certain remarkable affinities with Jewish Messianic and millennial expectations.發達的構想過去幾天來,因為它似乎是在後來的文學,有一定的顯著親和力與猶太彌賽亞和千年的期望。 A time during which Ahriman will gain the ascendancy is to be followed by two millennial periods, in each of which a great prophet will appear to herald the coming of Soshyant (or Sosioch), the Conqueror and Judge who will raise the dead to life.一段時間,期間ahriman將獲得向上提升,是應遵循的兩個千年時期,在其中的每一個偉大的先知會出現,將預示著未來的soshyant (或sosioch ) ,征服者和判斷,他們會提出這些死者的生活。 The resurrection will occupy fifty-seven years and will be followed by the general judgement, the separation of the good from the wicked, and the passing of both through a purgatorial fire gentle for the just, terrible for sinners, but leading to the restoration of all.復活就會去佔領57年,隨後將一般的判斷是,分離良好,從惡人,並通過雙方通過purgatorial消防溫柔,為公正,可怕的罪人,但導致恢復所有。 Next will follow the final combat between the good and the evil spirits, in which the latter will perish, all except Ahriman and the serpent Azhi, whose destruction is reserved to Ahura Mazda and Scraosha, the priest-god.明年將按照最後作戰之間的良好的和邪靈,其中後者將亡,除ahriman和毒蛇azhi ,其破壞是保留給阿胡拉馬自達和scraosha ,牧師-神。 And last of all hell itself will be purged, and the earth renewed by purifying fire.最後,所有的地獄本身將受到整肅,大地延長淨化火災。

(e) Greek (五)希臘

Greek eschatology as reflected in the Homeric poems remains at a low level.希臘末世反映在荷馬詩歌仍然處於較低的水平。 It is only very vaguely retributive and is altogether cheerless in its outlook.它只是非常含糊其辭的報復性的,是完全cheerless在其視野。 Life on earth, for all its shortcomings, is the highest good for men, and death the worst of evils.地球上的生命,為所有有其缺點,這是最高的好男人,和死亡最壞的邪惡。 Yet death is not extinction.然而,死亡是不會滅絕。 The psyche survives - not the purely spiritual soul of later Greek and Christian thought, but an attenuated, semi-material ghost, or shade, or image, of the earthly man; and the life of this shade in the underworld is a dull, impoverished, almost functionless existence.心理生存-而不是純粹精神的靈魂,後來希臘和基督教思想,而是一種減毒,半導體材料的鬼,或遮蔭,或形象,對俗世的人,以及生活的這個陰影,在當地黑社會是一個枯燥,貧困幾乎無功能的存在。 Nor is there any distinction of fates either by way of happiness or of misery in Hades.也不是有什麼區別的命運借幸福或痛苦,在地獄。 The judicial office of Minos is illusory and has nothing to do with earthly conduct; and there is only one allusion to the Furies suggestive of their activity among the dead (Iliad XIX, 258-60).司法辦公室米諾斯是虛幻的,並已完全與俗世的行為;現時只有一個典故以極大憤慨暗示他們的活動中喪生(伊利亞特第十九258-60 ) 。 Tartarus, the lower hell, is reserved for a few special rebels against the gods, and the Elysian Fields for a few special favourites chosen by divine caprice. tartarus ,下地獄,是保留給少數特別叛軍對神明,以及伊利森領域,為一些特殊的收藏選擇,以神反复無常。

In later Greek thought touching the future life there are notable advances beyond the Homeric state, but it is doubtful whether the average popular faith ever reached a much higher level.在以後的希臘思想感人的未來生活有顯著的進步,超越了荷馬州,但它是有疑問的平均民眾信心任何時候都達到了較高水平。 Among early philosophers Anaxagoras contributes to the notion of a purely spiritual soul; but a more directly religious contribution is made by the Eleusinian and Orphic mysteries, to the influence of which in brightening and moralizing the hope of a future life we have the concurrent witness of philosophers, poets, and historians.其中早期哲學家阿那克薩戈拉有助於概念的一個純粹的精神靈魂,但更直接的貢獻,宗教是由eleusinian和orphic奧秘,以影響,其中在光大和道德說教,希望未來的生活,我們有共同的見證哲學家,詩人,史學家。 In the Eleusinian mysteries there seems to have been no definite doctrinal teaching - merely the promise or assurance for the initiated of the fullness of life hereafter.在eleusinian之謎似乎已經沒有確切的理論教學-只是承諾或保證,為倡導的豐滿的人生來世。 With the Orphic, on the other hand, the divine origin and pre- existence of the soul, for which the body is but a temporary prison, and the doctrine of a retributive transmigration are more or less closely associated.與orphic ,另一方面,神聖的起源和預先存在的靈魂,而身體只不過是一個臨時監獄,並學說一個報復性的輪迴是較多或較少緊密聯繫在一起的。 It is hard to see how far the common belief of the people was influenced by these mysteries, but in poetical and philosophical literature their influence is unmistakable.這是難以看到多遠的共同信仰的人是受這些謎,但在詩學和哲學文學的影響是明白無誤的。 This is seen especially in Pindar among the poets, and in Plato among the philosophers.普遍認為這是特別是在pindar之間的詩人,而在柏拉圖之間的哲學家。 Pindar has a definite promise of a future life of bliss for the good or the initiated, and not merely for a few, but for all. pindar有一個明確的承諾,提出了一個今後的生活中的極樂世界,為良好或發起的,而不是僅僅為少數人,而是為所有人。 Even for the wicked who descend to Hades there is hope; having, purged their wickedness they obtain rebirth on earth, and if, during three successive existences, they prove themselves worthy of the boon, they will finally attain to happiness in the Isles of the Blest.即使是惡人的人淪落到地獄是有希望的;過,整肅自己的邪惡,他們獲得重生地球上,如果在連續3存在的,他們證明自己值得的福音,他們將最終達到幸福的,在那利群島的blest 。 Though Plato's teaching is vitiated by the doctrine of pre-existence, metempsychosis, and other serious errors it represents the highest achievement of pagan philosophic speculation on the subject of the future life.雖然柏拉圖的教學是無效的,由學說的預先存在, metempsychosis ,以及其他嚴重錯誤,它代表著最高成就的異教哲學投機關於這一主題的未來生活。 The divine dignity, spirituality, and essential immortality of the soul being established, the issues of the future for every soul are made clearly dependent on its moral conduct in the present life in the body.神聖的尊嚴,靈性,和必要的靈魂不會被建立起來,問題的,將來每個靈魂都作出了明確依賴於它的道德操守,在目前生活中的身體。 There is a divine judgment after death, a heaven, a hell, and an intermediate state for penance and purification; and rewards and punishments are graduated according to the merits and demerits of each.有一種神聖的判決亡故後,天堂,地獄,及一個中間狀態懺悔和淨化和獎懲都畢業於根據的優點和缺點。 The incurably wicked are condemned to everlasting punishment in Tartarus; the less wicked or indifferent go also to Tartarus or to the Acherusian Lake, but only for a time; those eminent for goodness go to a happy home, the highest reward of all being for those who have purified themselves by philosophy.該治愈的十惡不赦的人注定要永遠的處罰tartarus ;較差的惡人或冷淡還要向tartarus或向acherusian湖,但只有一個時間,那些傑出的,為善去一個快樂的家庭中,最高的獎賞都被那些有淨化自己的哲學。

From the foregoing sketch we are able to judge both of the merits and defects of ethnic systems of eschatology.從前述素描,我們可以判斷雙方的優點和缺陷的種族制度的末世。 Their merits are perhaps enhanced when they are presented, as above, in isolation from the other features of the religions to which they belonged.其優點是提高了,也許,當他們介紹,由於上述情況,孤立地從其他特點的宗教與他們所屬的。 Yet their defects are obvious enough; and even those of them that were best and most promising turned out, historically, to be failures.但其缺陷是顯而易見的不夠;即使是那些他們認為最優秀和最有前途的,原來,從歷史上看,要失敗。 The precious elements of eschatological truth contained in the Egyptian religion were associated with error and superstition, and were unable to save the religion from sinking to the state of utter degeneration in which it is found at the approach of the Christian Era.珍貴的要素eschatological真理包含在埃及宗教與誤差與迷信,無力挽救宗教沉降到國家的完全變性,因為它發現,在臨近的基督教時代。 Similarly, the still richer and more profound eschatologies of the Persian religion, vitiated by dualism and other corrupting influences, failed to realize the promise it contained, and has survived only as a ruin in modern Parseeism.同樣,還有更加豐富,更加深刻eschatologies的波斯宗教,無效,由二元和其他敗壞風氣的影響,未能實現承諾,它載,並已存活僅作為斷送在現代parseeism 。 Plato's speculative teaching failed to influence in any notable degree the popular religion of the Greco-Roman world; it failed to convert even the philosophical few; and in the hands of those who did profess to adopt it, Platonism, uncorrected by Christianity ran to seed in Pantheism and other forms of error.柏拉圖的投機性教學沒有影響,在任何明顯的程度上民間宗教的希臘羅馬世界,它無法轉換,甚至哲學數,而且在手上那些曾經自稱對採用它,柏拉圖,未由基督教洋洋種子在泛神論和其他形式的誤差。


Without going into details either by way of exposition or of criticism, it will be sufficient to point out how Old Testament eschatology compares with ethnic systems, and how notwithstanding its deficiencies in point of clearness and completeness, it was not an unworthy preparation for the fullness of Christian Revelation.撇開細節借博覽會或批評,這將足以指出,如何舊約末世與之相比,種族系統,以及如何儘管有其不足之點的晴空和完整性,它不是一個卑微的準備,為豐滿基督教的啟示。

(1) Old Testament eschatology, even in its earliest and most imperfect form, shares in the distinctive character which belongs to Old Testament religion generally. ( 1 )舊約末世,即使在其最早和最完美的形式,股份,在鮮明的時代特色,其中屬於舊約宗教普遍。 In the first place, as a negative distinction, we note the entire absence of certain erroneous ideas and tendencies that have a large place in ethnic religions.擺在首位,作為一個消極的區分,我們注意到,在整個缺乏某些錯誤思想和傾向,即有一個大的地方,在民族宗教。 There is no pantheism or dualism no doctrine of pre-existence (Wisdom 8:17-20 does not necessarily imply this doctrine, as has sometimes been contended) or of metempsychosis; nor is there any trace, as might have been expected, of Egyptian ideas or practices.有沒有泛神論或二元論,沒有理論的預先存在(智慧8:17-20 ,並不一定意味著這種學說,因為有時被人爭辯)或metempsychosis ;也不會有任何痕跡,可能是在人們意料之中,埃及想法或做法。 In the next place, on the positive side, the Old Testament stands apart from ethnic religions in its doctrine of God and of man in relation to God.在未來的地方,就積極方面而言,舊約停機除民族宗教,在其教義的上帝和人的天主間的關係。 Its doctrine of God is pure and uncompromising monotheism; the universe is ruled by the wisdom, Justice, and omnipotence of the one, true God.其學說的上帝是純潔和不妥協的一神論;宇宙是法治的智慧,正義,和全能的一個,真正的上帝。 And man is created by God in His own image and likeness, and destined to relations of friendship and fellowship with Him.與人是上帝創造的在其自身的形象和相似性,並注定要友好關係和團契他。 Here we have revealed in clear and definite terms the basal doctrines which are at the root of eschatological truth, and which, once they had taken hold of the life of a people, were bound, even without new additions to the revelation, to safeguard the purity of an inadequate eschatology and to lead in time to richer and higher developments.在這裡,我們已經發現,在明確的條款基底學說是在治本eschatological堅持解放思想,實事求是,其中,一旦他們抓住了一個民族的生活,是有限定的,即使沒有新增的啟示,以保障純度不足的末世,並率先在時間,以更豐富和更高的發展。 Such additions and developments occur in Old Testament teaching; but before noticing them it is well to call attention to the two chief defects, or limitations, which attach to the earlier eschatology and continue, by their persistence in popular belief, to hinder more or less the correct understanding and acceptance by the Jewish people as a whole of the highest eschatological utterances of their own inspired teachers.例如,補充和發展,發生在舊約教學;但在此之前看見他們來說,這是好,以提醒人們注意兩個主要缺陷,或局限,重視較早末世並繼續,他們的毅力,在民間信仰,阻礙較多或較少能否正確認識和接受,猶太人民作為一個整體的最高eschatological話語他們自己的靈感教師。

(2) The first of these defects is the silence of the earlier and of some of the later books on the subject of moral retribution after death, or at least the extreme vagueness of such passages in these books as might be understood to refer to this subject. ( 2 )第一,這些缺陷是沉默的更早一些後來的書籍關於這一主題的道德報應死亡後,或者至少是極端含混的,如機票,在這些書籍可能會被理解為是指本課題。 Death is not extinction; but Sheol, the underworld of the dead, in early Hebrew thought is not very different from the Babylonian Aralu or the Homeric Hades, except that Jahve is God even there.死亡不是滅絕,但sheol ,黑社會性質的死者,在早期希伯來思想並不十分不同,從巴比倫aralu或荷馬地獄,除表示jahve是上帝,即使在那裡。 It is a dreary abode in which all that is prized in life, including friendly intercourse with God, comes to an end without any definite promise of renewal.這是一個悲涼的居留權,其中所有這就是珍貴的,在生活中,其中包括友好交往與神,將告結束,沒有任何明確的承諾,重建等。 Dishonour incurred in life or in death, clings to a man in Sheol, like the honour he may have won by a virtuous life on earth; but otherwise conditions in Sheol are not represented as retributive, except in the vaguest way.拒付招致生命或死亡,抱住一名男子在sheol ,如有幸他可能贏得良性地球上的生命,但其他條件sheol都沒有派代表作為報復,但在模糊的方式。 Not that a more definite retribution or the hope of renewal to a life of blessedness is formally denied and excluded; it simply fails to find utterance in earlier Old Testament records.沒有一個較明確的報應或希望延續到生命的幸福是正式否定和排斥,而是根本無法找到話語中較早舊約記錄。 Religion is pre-eminently an affair of this life, and retribution works out here on earth.宗教最重要的作用是一個內政的現世生活,並遭報應的作品出來就在地球上。 This idea which to us seems so strange, must, to be fairly appreciated, be taken in conjunction with the national as opposed to the individual viewpoint [see under (3) of this section]; and allowance must also be made for its pedagogic value for a people like the early Hebrews.這一構想,我們似乎很奇怪,要,可算是相當欣賞,而應採取與國家作為反對個人觀點[見( 3 )本節]和免稅額也必須為它的教學價值一個人喜歡早期希伯來人。 Christ himself explains why Moses permitted divorce ("by reason of the hardness of your heart", Matthew 19:8); revelation and legislation had to be tempered to the capacity of a singularly practical and unimaginative people, who were more effectively confirmed in the worship and service of God by a vivid sense of His retributive providence here on earth than they would have been but a higher and fuller doctrine of future immortality with its postponement of moral rewards.基督本人解釋了為什麼摩西准許離婚(下稱" ,因硬度,你的心" ,馬修19時08分) ;啟示和立法都必須經受鍛煉,以身份是奇實際和枯燥呆板的人註冊,這些人更有效地證實,在崇拜和天主服務的一個生動的責任感,他的報復性普羅維登斯就在地球上比,他們將被而是一個更高和更充分的理論將來不死其推遲道德重獎。 Nor must we exaggerate the insufficiency of this early point of view.我們也不能誇大功能不全的這一早期的觀點。 It gave a deep religious value and significance to every event of the present life, and raised morality above the narrow, utilitarian standpoint.它發表了深厚的宗教價值和意義,以每一個事件的現在的生活,並提出上述道德狹隘,功利的立場。 Not worldly prosperity as such was the ideal of the pious Israelite, but prosperity bestowed by God as the gracious reward of fidelity in keeping His Commandments.沒有世俗的繁榮,因此是理想的虔誠israelite ,但繁榮賜予的,上帝為殷勤懸賞富達保持他的誡命。 Yet, when all has been said, the inadequacy of this belief for the satisfaction of individual aspirations must be admitted; and this inadequacy was bound to prove itself sooner or later in experience.然而,當一切已經說了,不足之處,這個信念,為滿足個人的願望必須承認和不足之處,這是必然要證明自己是遲早的事,在經驗。 Even the substitution of the national for the individual standpoint could not indefinitely hinder this result.甚至取代國家對於個人的立場不能無限期地阻礙了這一結果。

(3) The tendency to sink the individual in the nation and to treat the latter as the religious unit was one of the most marked characteristics of Hebrew faith. ( 3 )趨勢向下沉淪,個人在全國和對待後者作為宗教股,其中最顯著的特點,希伯來的信仰。 And this helped very much to support and prolong the other limitation just noticed, according to which retribution was looked for in this life.這有助於十分支持,並延長其他限制剛剛注意到,根據該報應的,是找在這生活。 Deferred and disappointed personal hopes could be solaced by the thought of their present or future realization in the nation.遞延和失望,個人希望能solaced所想到的,他們現在或將來的實現居全國第一。 It was only when the national calamities, culminating in the exile, had shattered for a time the people's hope of a glorious theocratic kingdom that the eschatology of the individual became prominent; and with the restoration there was a tendency to revert to the national point of view.它是只有當國家災難,終於在流亡,已經粉碎了今後一個時期人民的希望的光輝神英國末世的個人突出,並與恢復,有一個傾向是回复到全國點看法。 It is true of the 0.T.這是真正的0.t. as a whole that the eschatology of the people overshadows that of the individual, though it is true at the same time that, in and through the former, the latter advances to a clear and definite assurance of a personal resurrection from the dead, at least for the children of Israel who are to share, if found worthy, in the glories of the Messianic Age.作為一個整體,即末世的人黯然失色,即個體,雖然這是事實,在同一時間,並通過前者,而後者的進步,以明確的保證,一個個人的復活,從死了,至少為兒童的以色列人士分享,如果發現值得,在輝煌的救世主的時代。

It is beyond the scope of this article to attempt to trace the growth or describe the several phases of this national eschatology, which centres in the hope of the establishment of a theocratic and Messianic kingdom on earth (see MESSIAS).它超越了這一條的範圍,試圖追查增長或描述幾個階段,這次全國末世,中心希望建立一個神權和救世主英國地球上(見messias ) 。 However spiritually this idea may be found expressed in Old Testament prophecies, as we read them now in the light of their progressive fulfillment in the New Testament Dispensation, the Jewish people as a whole clung to a material and political interpretation of the kingdom, coupling their own domination as a people with the triumph of God and the worldwide establishment of His rule.然而精神上這一想法可能發現表示,在舊約聖經的預言,正如我們看過他們,現在是鑑於它們逐步完成,在新約聖經配藥,猶太人民作為一個整體,醉心於物質和政治的詮釋王國,其耦合自己的統治,作為一個人的勝利上帝和全世界建立自己的一票。 There is much, indeed, to account for this in the obscurity of the prophecies themselves.有很多,而事實上,以戶口本,在朦朧的預言。 The Messias as a distinct person is not always mentioned in connexion with the inauguration of the kingdom, which leaves room for the expectation of a theophany of Jahve in the character of judge and ruler.該messias作為一個獨特的人並不總是提到,在與Connexion公司就職的王國,其中的餘地期望一個theophany的jahve在性質判斷和統治者。 But even when the person and place of the Messias are distinctly foreshadowed, the fusion together in prophecy of what we have learned to distinguish as His first and His second coming tends to give to the whole picture of the Messianic kingdom an eschatological character that belongs in reality only to its final stage.但即使是當這個人,並代替了messias明顯的預示,融合在一起的預言是什麼,我們學會了分辨,因為他的第一次和他的第二次來臨,往往給整個圖片的救世主英國一個eschatological性格屬於實際上只進行到最後階段。 It is thus the resurrection of the dead in Isaias, xxvi, 19, and Daniel, xii, 2, is introduced; and many of the descriptions foretelling "the day of the Lord", the judgment on Jews and Gentiles, the renovation of the earth and other phenomena that usher in that day while applicable in a limited sense to contemporary events and to the inauguration of the Christian Era, are much more appropriately understood of the end of the world.因此,它是從死中復活,在伊薩亞斯羅,第26 ,第19 ,和Daniel ,第十二章,二,是引進和很多的說明預言的"主日" ,判決對猶太人和外邦人,翻新了地球和其他現象,迎來這一天,同時適用於在有限的意義上,當代事件,並宣誓就職基督教時代,是更為恰當理解的世界的末了。 It is not, therefore, surprising that the religious hopes of the Jewish nation should have be come so predominantly eschatological, and that the popular imagination, foreshortening the perspective of Divine Revelation, should have learned to look for the establishment on earth of the glorious Kingdom of God, which Christians are assured will be realized only in heaven at the close of the present dispensation.這不是,因此,令人驚訝的是,宗教的希望猶太國家都不應該擁有可來得這麼eschatological為主,並廣受歡迎的想像力, foreshortening的角度來看,神的啟示,應該學會研究,為建立地球上的光榮英國上帝,基督信徒保證一定能夠實現,只有在天上結束時,目前的特許。

(4) Passing from these general observations which seem necessary for the true understanding of Old Testament eschatology, a brief reference will be made to the passages which exhibit the growth of a higher and fuller doctrine of immortality. ( 4 )通過這些一般性的意見,似乎有必要為真正了解舊約末世,簡要地提到了,會向通道,其中展出的增長更高,更全面的學說不朽。 The recognition of individual as opposed to mere corporate responsibility and retribution may be reckoned, at least remotely, as a gain to eschatology, even when retribution is confined chiefly to this life; and this principle is repeatedly recognized in the earliest books.承認個人作為反對僅僅是公司的責任和報應的,可估計,至少有遙控,作為一個增益,以末世,甚至當報應是主要局限於此生活和這個原則是一再承認在最早的書籍。 (See Genesis 18:25; Exodus 32:33; Numbers 16:22; Deuteronomy 7:10; 24:16; 2 Kings 24:17; 2 Kings 14:6; Isaiah 3:10 sq.; 33:15 sqq.; Jeremiah 12:1 sq.; 17:5-10; 32:18 sq.; Ezekiel 14:12-20; 18:4, 18 sqq.; Psalms, passim; Proverbs 2:21 sq.; 10:2; 11:19, 31; etc.) It is recognized also in the very terms of the problem dealt with in the Book of Job. (見成因18時25分;外流32:33 ;號碼16時22分;申命記7時10分; 24:16 ; 2 ,國王24:17 2國王14時06分;以賽亞下午3點10分平方米; 33:15 sqq 。 ;耶利米12:1平方米; 17:5-10 ; 32:18平方米;以西結書14:12-20 ; 18時04分, 18 sqq ;詩篇,各處;諺語2點21平方米; 10時02分; 11時19分, 31人;等) ,這是公認的,也非常的條款問題處理在這本書的工作。

But, coming to higher things, we find in the Psalms and in Job the clear expression of a hope or assurance for the just of a life of blessedness after death.但是,未來,以更高的東西時,我們發現在詩篇,並在求職的明確表達一個希望,還是為保證公正的生活幸福後死亡。 Here is voiced, under Divine inspiration, the innate craving of the righteous soul for everlasting fellowship with God, the protest of a strong and vivid faith against the popular conception of Sheol.這裡是表示,根據神的啟示,天生的渴求正義的靈魂,永恆的團契與上帝,抗議是一個強大的和生動的信念,對流行概念的sheol 。 Omitting doubtful passages, it is enough to refer to Psalms xv (AV xvi), xvi (AV xvii), xlviii (AV xlix ), and lxxii (AV lxxiii).省略疑問通道,但它足以指詩篇十五(房室十六) ,第十六章(房室十七) , 48 (視聽XLIX )號決定,並lxxii (視聽lxxiii ) 。 Of these it is not impossible to explain the first two as prayers for deliverance from some imminent danger of death, but the assurance they express is too absolute and universal to admit this interpretation as the most natural.這些是不是不可能的,以解釋前兩個為祈禱,為救我們脫離一些迫在眉睫的危險的死因,但保證他們表示,是太絕對和普遍承認這一解釋,認為是最自然的事。 And this assurance becomes still more definite in the other two psalms, by reason of the contrast which death is asserted to introduce between the fates of the just and the impious.和這樣的保證變得更加明確的,在其他兩個詩篇,因她的反差,其中死亡是斷言引進與命運的正義與impious 。 The same faith emerges in the Book of Job, first as a hope somewhat questionably expressed, and then as an assured conviction.同樣的信念出現在這本書的工作,首先是作為一個希望,有點questionably表達,然後作為一個有保證的信念。 Despairing of vindication in this life and rebelling against the thought that righteousness should remain finally unrewarded, the sufferer seeks consolation in the hope of a renewal of God's friendship beyond the grave: "O that thou wouldest hide me in Sheol, that thou wouldest keep me secret, until thy wrath be past, that thou wouldest appoint me a set time, and remember me. If a man die, shall he live again? All the days of my warfare would I wait, till my release should come" (xiv, 13 sq.).絕望的平反,在此生活和反抗,以為正義仍應最後未獲報償,患者尋求慰藉,在希望的一個延續上帝的友誼超越了嚴重: "啊,你是wouldest隱藏我sheol ,那你wouldest留下我秘密的,直到你被憤怒的過去,那你wouldest任命我一個設定時間,並記得我。如果一個男人死了,他會活嗎?所有的日子,我的戰爭,我會等待,直到放我應該回來" (第十四13平方米) 。 In xvii, 18 - xvii, 9, the expression of this hope is more absolute; and in xix, 23-27, it takes the form of a definite certainty that he will see God, his Redeemer: "But I know that my Redeemer liveth and that he shall stand up at the last upon the earth [dust]; and after this my skin has been destroyed, yet from [al. without] my flesh shall I see God, whom I shall see for myself and my eyes shall behold, and not another" (25 - 27).在十七,十八-十七, 9 ,表達這個希望是更絕對的,並在十九, 2 3-27,它採取的形式明確肯定地說,他所見到上帝,他的救贖主說: "但是我知道我的救贖主liveth和說,他會站起來,在最後一經地球[塵]和後,我這樣的皮膚已被摧毀,但由[鋁沒有]我的肉體應我看到上帝,我會看看,為我自己和我的眼睛應你看,而不是另一個" ( 25 -2 7) 。 In his risen body he will see God, according to the Vulgate (LXX) reading: "and in the last day I shall rise out of the earth. And I shall be clothed again with my skill, and in my flesh I shall see my God" (25 - 26).在他的上升身體,他所見到上帝,根據該vulgate ( lxx ) ,內容為: "在最後一天,我將崛起走出地球,而且我不得溫飽,又與我的技能,而在我的血肉,我會看到我的以神之名" ( 25 -2 6) 。

The doctrine of the resurrection finds definite expression in the Prophets; and in Isaiah 26:19: "thy dead shall live, my dead bodies shall rise again. Awake and sing, ye that dwell in the dust" etc.; and Daniel 12:2: "and many of those that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake: some unto everlasting life, and others to everlasting shame and contempt" etc., it is clearly a personal resurrection that is taught -- in Isaias a resurrection of righteous Israelites; in Daniel, of both the righteous and the wicked.該學說的復活認定,明確表達了先知,而且在以賽亞書26:19 : "你死不得活,我的屍體會再次上升。覺悟了,並能唱歌,你們只要住在灰塵"等;丹尼爾12 : 2 : "與許多人認為,睡在塵埃對地球應清醒:一些祂永恆的生命,別人永遠的恥辱和蔑視"等,很明顯,這是一種個人的復活,就是教導-在伊薩亞斯羅一復活正義的以色列人,在丹尼爾,無論是正義與邪惡的。 The judgment, which in Daniel is connected with the resurrection, is also personal; and the same is true of the judgment of the living (Jews and Gentiles) which in various forms the prophecies connect with the "day of the Lord".這個判斷,在丹尼爾與復活,同時也是個人和同樣如此判決的生活(猶太人和外邦人) ,其中以各種形式預言連線"主日" 。 Some of the Psalms (eg 48) seem to imply a judgment of individuals, good and bad, after death; and the certainty of a future judgment of "every work, whether it be good or evil", is the final solution of the moral enigmas of earthly life offered by Ecclesiastes (xii, 13-14; cf. iii, 17).一些詩篇(如: 48 ) ,似乎暗示了判斷個人的,有好有壞,後死亡;確定性,未來的判斷: "每一個工作,無論是善或惡" ,是最終解決道德謎題的俗世生活提供傳道書(十二, 13日至14日;比照三, 17 ) 。 Coming to the later (deuterocanonical) books of the 0.到了後來(次經)書的0 。 T. we have clear evidence in II Mach.湯匙,我們有明確的證據顯示,在二馬赫。 of Jewish faith not only in the resurrection of the body (vii, 9-14), but in the efficacy of prayers and sacrifices for the dead who have died in godliness (xi, 43 sqq.).猶太人的信仰不只是在復活的身體(七9-14 ) ,但在療效的祈禱和犧牲的死難者已經死亡,在虔誠的信徒(十一, 43 sqq ) 。 And in the second and first centuries BC, in the Jewish apocryphal literature, new eschatological developments appear, chiefly in the direction of a more definite doctrine of retribution after death.而在第二次和第一次在公元前數百年,在猶太猜測文學,新eschatological的發展似乎主要是在方向的一個較明確的教義報應後死亡。 The word Sheol is still most commonly understood of the general abode of the departed awaiting the resurrection, this abode having different divisions for the reward of the righteous and the punishment of the wicked; in reference to the latter, Sheol is sometimes simply equivalent to hell.字sheol仍是最常見的理解一般居留權的離開,等待復活的,這居留權後,不同部門,為獎勵的正義和懲罰惡人;提及後者, sheol有時簡直等於地獄。 Gehenna is the name usually applied to the final place of punishment of the wicked after the last judgment, or even immediately after death; while paradise is often used to designate the intermediate abode of the souls of the just and heaven their home of final blessedness.地獄是名字通常適用於最後發生的懲罰惡人後,最後判決,或什至後立即死亡,而天堂,是經常被用來指定中介居留權的亡靈,公正和天堂,他們的家中最後的幸福。 Christ's use of these terms shows that the Jews of His day were sufficiently familiar with their New Testament meanings.基督的使用這些條款表明,猶太人,他每天都是不夠熟悉,他們的新約聖經的意義。


In this article there is no critical discussion of New Testament eschatology nor any attempt to trace the historical developments of Catholic teaching from Scriptural and traditional data; only a brief conspectus is given of the developed Catholic system.在這篇文章中不存在臨界討論新約聖經末世,也沒有嘗試探究歷史的發展,天主教教學從聖經和傳統的數據;只是短暫概論給出的發達天主教系統。 For critical and historical details and for the refutation of opposing views the reader is referred to the special articles dealing with the various doctrines.為批判與歷史細節,並為駁斥反對意見的讀者可參考的特殊物品處理各種學說。 The eschatological summary which speaks of the "four last things" (death, judgment, heaven, and hell) is popular rather than scientific.該eschatological摘要,其中談到"四上的事情" (死亡,判斷,天堂,地獄) ,是受歡迎的,而不是科學。 For systematic treatment it is best to distinguish between (A) individual and (B) universal and cosmic eschatology, including under (A):為有系統的治療,最好是要區分(一)個人和( b )普及和宇宙末世,包括第(一)項:

death; the particular judgment; heaven, or eternal happiness; purgatory, or the intermediate state; hell, or eternal punishment;死亡;特定的判斷;天堂,或永恆的幸福;煉獄,或中間狀態;地獄,或永恆的處罰;

and under (B):及( b )項下:

the approach of the end of the world; the resurrection of the body; the general judgment; and the final consummation of all things.臨近年底的世界;復活的身體;總體判斷,以及最後的一切事物。

The superiority of Catholic eschatology consists in the fact that, without professing to answer every question that idle curiosity may suggest, it gives a clear, consistent, satisfying statement of all that need at present be known, or can profitably be understood, regarding the eternal issues of life and death for each of us personally, and the final consummation of the cosmos of which we are a part.優越性天主教末世於一個事實,如果沒有空頭回答每一個問題,即閒置的好奇心,可以建議,它賦予一個明確的,一貫的,令人滿意的聲明中的所有需要,目前不得而知,或能在贏利的理解,關於永恆生死問題,為我們每一個人,並在最後圓滿的宇宙中我們是其中的一部分。

(A) Individual Eschatology (一)個人末世


Death, which consists in the separation of soul and body, is presented under many aspects in Catholic teaching, but chiefly死亡,其中包括在分離的靈魂與身體,是根據多方面的,在天主教教學,但主要是

as being actually and historically, in the present order of supernatural Providence, the consequence and penalty of Adam's sin (Genesis 2:17; Romans 5:12, etc.);作為其實和歷史上來說,在當前的命令超自然的普羅維登斯,後果及罰款的亞當的罪孽(創2:17 ;入鄉隨俗5時12分,等等) ;

as being the end of man's period of probation, the event which decides his eternal destiny (2 Corinthians 5:10; John 9:4; Luke 12:40; 16:19 sqq.; etc.), though it does not exclude an intermediate state of purification for the imperfect who die in God's grace; and作為年底的人的試用期,一旦它決定著他永恆的命運( 2哥林多前書5:10 ;約翰9時04分;路加福音12:40 ; 16時19 sqq ;等) ,這雖不排除中間狀態的淨化不完善的,他們死在上帝的恩典;

as being universal, though as to its absolute universality (for those living at the end of the world) there is some room for doubt because of I Thess., iv, 14 sqq.; I Cor., xv, 51; II Tim., iv, 1.作為普遍的,但由於其絕對的普遍性(對那些生活在世界的末了) ,也有一些空間,這無疑是因為的I帖,四, 14 sqq 。我肺心病, 15 , 51 ;二添。 ,四, 1 。

Particular Judgment特別是判斷

That a particular judgment of each soul takes place at death is implied in many passages of the New Testament (Luke 16:22 sqq.; 23:43; Acts 1:25; etc.), and in the teaching of the Council of Florence (Denzinger, Enchiridion, no. 588) regarding the speedy entry of each soul into heaven, purgatory, or hell.某一特定的判斷每一個靈魂,發生在死因是隱含在許多段落的新約聖經(路加福音16時22 sqq ; 23時43分;行為25等) ,並在教學中的理事會佛羅倫薩(登青格, enchiridion ,沒有。 588 )就迅速進入每一個靈魂進入天堂,煉獄,地獄。


Heaven is the abode of the blessed, where (after the resurrection with glorified bodies) they enjoy, in the company of Christ and the angels, the immediate vision of God face to face, being supernaturally elevated by the light of glory so as to be capable of such a vision.天堂是居留權的有福了,在哪裡(復活之後與歌頌機構) ,他們享有的,在該公司的基督與天使,眼前的遠景上帝,面對面地被supernaturally高架由光的榮耀,所以應以使其能在這樣的遠景。 There are infinite degrees of glory corresponding to degrees of merit, but all are unspeakably happy in the eternal possession of God.有無限度的榮耀了相應程度的好處,但都無法形容的幸福,永恆的藏神。 Only the perfectly pure and holy can enter heaven; but for those who have attained that state, either at death or after a course of purification in purgatory, entry into heaven is not deferred, as has sometimes been erroneously held, till after the General Judgment.只有完美的純潔和神聖的,可以進入天堂,但對於那些已經達到了這一狀態,無論是在死亡後,或在過程中淨化煉獄,進入天國,是不是推遲,因為有時被錯誤地舉行,出爐後的總體判斷。


Purgatory is the intermediate state of unknown duration in which those who die imperfect, but not in unrepented mortal sin, undergo a course of penal purification, to qualify for admission into heaven.煉獄是中間狀態不明的時間在那些死於不完善的,但不是在unrepented致命的罪過,接受一個療程的刑法淨化,才有資格進入天堂。 They share in the communion of saints and are benefited by our prayers and good works (see DEAD, PRAYERS FOR THE).他們分享的共融聖人是得益於我們的祈禱和優秀作品(見死亡的人祈禱,為) 。 The denial of purgatory by the Reformers introduced a dismal blank in their eschatology and, after the manner of extremes, has led to extreme reactions.否定煉獄由改革者推出了令人沮喪的空白,他們的末世,在經過該地的極端,導致了極端的反應。


Hell, in Catholic teaching, designates the place or state of men (and angels) who, because of sin, are excluded forever from the Beatific Vision.地獄,在天主教教學,指定地點或國家的男子(天使)的人,因為罪的,並不屬於永遠擺脫beatific視野。 In this wide sense it applies to the state of those who die with only original sin on their souls (Council of Florence, Denzinger, no. 588), although this is not a state of misery or of subjective punishment of any kind, but merely implies the objective privation of supernatural bliss, which is compatible with a condition of perfect natural happiness.在這種廣義上講,它適用於國家的那些人一起死,只有原罪對自己的靈魂(理事會的佛羅倫斯,登青格,沒有。 588 ) ,雖然這不是一個國家的苦難,或主觀的處罰任何形式的,而僅僅是意味著客觀窮困的超自然的極樂世界,這是符合一個條件完善的自然幸福。 But in the narrower sense in which the name is ordinarily used, hell is the state of those who are punished eternally for unrepented personal mortal sin.但在狹義的,其中名字是通常使用的,地獄是國家的那些懲罰大智為unrepented個人致命的罪過。 Beyond affirming the existence of such a state, with varying degrees of punishment corresponding to degrees of guilt and its eternal or unending duration, Catholic doctrine does not go.以後肯定存在這樣的一個國家,取得了不同程度的處罰了相應程度的罪惡感和其永恆的或永無止境的期限,天主教教義並不路要走。 It is a terrible and mysterious truth, but it is clearly and emphatically taught by Christ and the Apostles.這是一個可怕而神秘的事實,但它顯然並強調老師耶穌和使徒。 Rationalists may deny the eternity of hell in spite of the authority of Christ, and professing Christians, who are unwilling to admit it, may try to explain away Christ's words; but it remains as the Divinely revealed solution of the problem of moral evil.理性可以否認永恆的地獄,儘管該國權威的基督,並自稱基督徒,他們是不願承認它,可以嘗試解釋遠離基督的話,但它仍然是作為神透露,解決這一問題的道德上的邪惡。 (See HELL.) Rival solutions have been sought for in some form of the theory of restitution or, less commonly, in the theory of annihilation or conditional immortality. (見地獄)的競爭對手解決方案已尋求某種形式的理論,要求恢復原狀,而不太常見的是,在理論殲滅戰或有條件的永生。 The restitutionist view, which in its Origenist form was condemned at the Council of Constantinople in 543, and later at the Fifth General Council (see APOCATASTASIS), is the cardinal dogma of modern Universalism, and is favoured more or less by liberal Protestants and Anglicans.該restitutionist意見,在其origenist形式譴責在安理會的君士坦丁堡在543 ,後來又在第五次總理事會(見apocatastasis ) ,它是紅衣主教教條的現代普遍性,並主張更多或更少自由,由新教徒和英國聖公會。 Based on an exaggerated optimism for which present experience offers no guarantee, this view assumes the all-conquering efficacy of the ministry of grace in a life of probation after death, and looks forward to the ultimate conversion of all sinners and the voluntary disappearance of moral evil from the universe.基於一種誇張的樂觀,其中現有的經驗提供任何保證,這種看法是假設所有無堅不摧的功效財政部寬限期,在生活中的感化亡故後,並期待著最終轉換所有的罪人,並自願失踪的道德邪惡從宇宙中。 Annihilationists, on the other hand, failing to find either in reason or Revelation any grounds for such optimism, and considering immortality itself to be a grace and not the natural attribute of the soul, believe that the finally impenitent will be annihilated or cease to exist -- that God will thus ultimately be compelled to confess the failure of His purpose and power. annihilationists ,另一方面,沒有找到任何合理或披露任何理由為這種樂觀情緒,並考慮到永生本身是一個寬限期,而不是自然屬性的靈魂,相信這最後impenitent將予以殲滅或不復存在-上帝會因此最終被強迫招供失敗的,其目的和力量。

(B) Universal and Cosmic Eschatology (二)普及和宇宙末世

The Approach of the End of the World臨近年底,世界

Notwithstanding Christ's express refusal to specify the time of the end (Mark 13:32; Acts 1:6 sq.), it was a common belief among early Christians that the end of the world was near.儘管基督的表達拒絕指定時間結束( 13時32馬克;行為1時06平方) ,它是一個共同的信念,其中早期基督徒說,去年底,世界上近。 This seemed to have some support in certain sayings of Christ in reference to the destruction of Jerusalem, which are set down in the Gospels side by side with prophecies relating to the end (Matthew 24; Luke 21), and in certain passages of the Apostolic writings, which might, not unnaturally, have been so understood (but see 2 Thessalonians 2:2 sqq., where St. Paul corrects this impression).這似乎有一定的支持,在某些熟語基督教參考,以摧毀耶路撒冷,它是建立在美國福音並肩與讖有關結束(馬太24人;盧克21 ) ,並在某些段落的使徒著作,有可能,而不是人為地,有這麼理解(但參閱第2撒羅尼迦2:2 sqq 。那裡聖保祿糾正這種印象) 。 On the other hand, Christ had clearly stated that the Gospel was to be preached to all nations before the end (Matthew 24:14), and St. Paul looked forward to the ultimate conversion of the Jewish people as a remote event to be preceded by the conversion of the Gentiles (Romans 11:25 sqq.).在另一方面,基督曾明確表示,福音要傳福音給所有國家在年底之前(馬太24:14 ) ,和聖保羅期待著最終的轉化猶太人民作為一個偏遠的活動之前,必須進行由轉換外邦人(羅馬書11:25 sqq ) 。 Various others are spoken of as preceding or ushering in the end, as a great apostasy (2 Thessalonians 2:3 sqq.), or falling away from faith or charity (Luke 18:8; 17:26; Matthew 24:12), the reign of Antichrist, and great social calamities and terrifying physical convulsions.其他各個專業都談到由於之前或迎來了年底,作為一個偉大的叛教( 2撒羅尼迦2:3 sqq ) ,或落入遠離信仰或慈善組織(盧克18時08分; 17時26分;馬修24:12 ) ,腥風血雨箴,和社會的巨大災難和可怕的身體抽搐。 Yet the end will come unexpectedly and take the living by surprise.但會結束沒想到,並採取生活感到驚訝。

The Resurrection of the Body復活的身體

The visible coming (parousia) of Christ in power and glory will be the signal for the rising of the dead (see RESURRECTION).可見未來(圓滿)的基督教會的權力和榮耀,將信號為上升的死亡(見復活) 。 It is Catholic teaching that all the dead who are to be judged will rise, the wicked as well as the Just, and that they will rise with the bodies they had in this life.這是天主教會教所有的死難者都須視乎能否將上升,惡人,以及為公正,他們會與有關機構,他們已在此生活。 But nothing is defined as to what is required to constitute this identity of the risen and transformed with the present body.但是,沒有什麼是確定的,以需如何構成這個身分復活的轉化與現行的機構。 Though not formally defined, it is sufficiently certain that there is to be only one general resurrection, simultaneous for the good and the bad.雖然沒有正式確定,這是充分肯定的是,將來有只有一個一般的復活,同時為好的和壞的。 (See MILLENNIUM.) Regarding the qualities of the risen bodies in the case of the just we have St. Paul's description in 1 Corinthians 15 (cf. Matthew 13:43; Philippians 3:21) as a basis for theological speculation; but in the case of the damned we can only affirm that their bodies will be incorruptible. (見千年)關於素質的提高,機構在案件剛剛我們有聖保祿的描述,在哥林多前書15 (參見馬太13時43分; philippians 3時21分)為依據,對神學的猜測,但在至於該死,我們只能肯定,他們的屍體將廉潔。

The General Judgment一般判斷

Regarding the general judgment there is nothing of importance to be added here to the graphic description of the event by Christ Himself, who is to be Judge (Matthew 25, etc.).對於一般的判斷是沒有的重要性,以增加在此圖形對事件的描述基督自己,誰被法官(馬太25等) 。 (See JUDGMENT, GENERAL.) (見判斷,一般) 。

The Consummation of All Things該圓滿的一切事物

There is mention also of the physical universe sharing in the general consummation (2 Peter 3:13; Romans 8:19 sqq.; Revelation 21:1 sqq.).因此,也能提及的物理宇宙分享在一般性圓滿( 2彼得3時13分;羅馬書8時19 sqq ;啟示21時01 sqq ) 。 The present heaven and earth will be destroyed, and a new heaven and earth take their place.目前天堂和地球要毀滅,開創了新的天地,採取自己的位置。 But what, precisely, this process will involve, or what purpose the renovated world will serve is not revealed.但是,正是這個過程將涉及,或有什麼目的,翻新後世界將是沒有透露。 It may possibly be part of the glorious Kingdom of Christ of which "there shall be no end".它可能是部分的光榮英國基督教會,其中"不得有沒有盡頭" 。 Christ's militant reign is to cease with the accomplishment of His office as Judge (1 Corinthians 15:24 sqq.), but as King of the elect whom He has saved He will reign with them in glory forever.基督教的好戰統治是停止與素養的他的辦公室,作為法官( 1哥林多15時24 sqq ) ,但作為國王的選人,他挽救了他的統治與他們永遠的榮耀。

Publication information Written by PJ Toner.出版信息寫PJ -碳粉。 Transcribed by Michael C. Tinkler.轉錄由Michael長tinkler 。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.天主教百科全書,體積訴公佈1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. nihil obstat , 1909年5月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約


Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

The Day of the Lord.主日。

Gen. xlix.將軍xlix 。 1; comp. 1 ;可比。 Gen. R. xcviii., "the Messianic end" ; Isa.將軍傳譯xcviii , "救世主結束" ;伊薩。 ii.二。 1; also "the end," Dent. 1 ,還借"世界末日" ,反映平平。 xxxii.三十二。 20; Ps.第20條;聚苯乙烯。 lxxiii. lxxiii 。 17; Ben Sira vii. 17 ;賁西拉七。 36, xxviii. 36 ,二十八。 6; comp. 6 ;可比。 "Didache," xvi. " didache , "十六。 3): The doctrine of the "last things." 3 ) :中庸的"最後的事物" 。 Jewish eschatology deals primarily and principally with the final destiny of the Jewish nation and the world in general, and only secondarily with the future of the individual; the main concern of Hebrew legislator, prophet, and apocalyptic writer being Israel as the people of God and the victory of His truth and justice on earth.猶太末世主要是處理與主要的最終命運,猶太民族和世界一般,而且只有為輔,與日後的個人;主要關注的希伯來語立委,先知,和世界末日的作家被以色列作為人的神和勝利,他的真理和正義的地球。 The eschatological view, that is, the expectation of the greater things to come in the future, underlies the whole construction of the history of both Israel and mankind in the Bible.該eschatological看法,那就是,期望越大,事情在不久的將來推出,突顯整個建造的歷史,雙方的以色列和人類的聖經。 The patriarchal history teems with such prophecies (Gen. xii. 3, 16; xv. 14; xviii. 18; xxii. 18; xxvi. 4); the Mosaic legislation has more or less explicitly in view the relation of Israel to the nations and the final victory of the former (Ex. xix.. 5; Lev. xxvi. 45; Num. xxiii. 10, xxiv. 17-24; Deut. iv. 6; vii. 6 et seq. ; xxviii. 1, 10; xxx. 3 et seq. ; xxxii. 43; xxxiii. 29).父權制歷史匯聚到這樣的預言(創十二3日, 16日;十五, 14個;十八, 18歲;二十二, 18歲;二十六。 4 ) ;鑲嵌立法已較為明確,鑑於關係以色列向聯合國和最後的勝利,前者(如19 .. 5 ;列弗。 26 。 45 ;序號。二十三, 10 , 24 17-24 ; deut 。四,六;第七6段及以下各段;二十八。一日第10條;三十,三段及以下各段;三十二。 43 ;三十三, 29頁) 。 But it was chiefly the Prophets who dwelt with great emphasis upon the Day of the Lord as the future Day of Judgment.但它主要是先知,他們花了極大的重視主日作為未來一天的判斷。 Originally spoken of as the day when Yhwh as the God of heaven visits the earth with all His terrible powers of devastation (comp. Gen. xix. 24; Ex. ix. 23, xi. 4, xii. 12; Josh. x. 11), the term was employed by the Prophets in an eschatological sense and invested with a double character: on the one hand, as the time of the manifestation of God's punitive powers of justice directed against all that provokes His wrath, and, on the other hand, as the time of the vindication and salvation of the righteous.原先發言的,因為有一天yhwh為上帝的天堂探訪地球與他的所有可怕的權力蹂躪( comp.將軍十九。 24 ;特惠第九。 23 ,十一,四,十二, 12歲;喬什。十。 11 ) ,該詞是受僱於該先知在eschatological常識和投資雙重性質:一方面,隨著時間的,體現了上帝的懲罰權力的正義是針對所有挑起他的憤怒,以及對另一方面,隨著時間的平反與救亡的正義。 In the popular mind the Day of the Lord brought disaster only to the enemies of Israel; to His people it brought victory.在大眾心目中主日所帶來的災難,只是向敵人以色列,向他的人民所帶來的勝利。 But this is contradicted by the prophet Amos (iii. 2, v. 20).不過,這是自相矛盾,由先知阿摩司( iii. 2 ,五20 ) 。 For Isaiah, likewise, the Day of the Lord brings terror and ruin to Judah and Israel (Isa. ii. 12, x. 3, xxii. 5; comp. Micah i. 3) as well as to other nations (Isa. xiv. 25, xxiv.-xxv.).為以賽亞書,同樣地,一天上帝帶來恐怖和毀滅,以Judah和以色列(以賽亞書二12 ,十三日二十二。五日;可比。彌迦一3 )以及其他國家(以賽亞書14章25 , xxiv. - 25 ) 。 In the same measure, however, as Israel suffers defeat at the hand of the great world-powers, the Day of the Lord in the prophetic conception becomes a day of wrath for the heathen world and of triumph for Israel.在同一措施,但是,由於以色列遭受敗在手的偉大的世界軍事大國,主日在先知性構想成為日間的憤怒,為異教徒世界和凱歌對以色列的偏袒。 In Zeph.在zeph 。 i-iii.一至三。 it is a universal day of doom for all idolaters, including the inhabitants of Judea, but it ends with the glory of the remnant of Israel, while the assembled heathen powers are annihilated (iii. 8-12).這是一個普遍的一天厄運所有盲目崇拜者,其中包括居民的朱迪亞,但兩端與榮耀殘的以色列,而組裝異教徒權力殲滅( iii. 8-12 ) 。 This feature of the final destruction, before the city of Jerusalem, of the heathen world-empires becomes prominent and typical in all later prophecies (Ezek. xxxviii., the defeat of Gog and Magog; Isa. xiii. 6-9, Babel's fall; Zech. xii. 2 et seq., xiv. 1 et seq.; Hag. i. 6; Joel iv. [iii.] 2 et seq.; Isa. lxvi. 15 et seq.), the Day of the Lord being said to come as "a fire which refines the silver" (Mal. iii. 2 et seq., 9; comp. Isa. xxxiii. 14 et seq.).這篇專題的最後銷毀之前,耶路撒冷城的,對異教徒的世界帝國,成為突出的典型,在所有後來讖( ezek.三十八,打敗gog和瑪;伊薩第十三6-9 ,通天塔的秋天;撒加利亞十二, 2等條,第十四條第1段及以下各段; hag一,六;的Joel四, [三] 2段及以下各段;伊薩。 lxvi 15頁起) ,在主日有人說來是"火警纖細銀" ( mal.三, 2等及以下各段, 9歲;可比。伊薩。三十三, 14頁起) 。 Especially strong is the contrast between the fate which awaits the heathen and the salvation promised Israel in Isa.特別堅強,是對比的命運,而等待著異教徒和救贖允諾以色列在伊薩。 xxxiv.-xxxv., whereas other prophecies accentuate rather the final conversion of the heathen nations to the belief in the Lord (Isa. ii. 1 et seq., xlix. lxvi. 6-21, Zech. viii. 21 et seq., xiv. 16 et seq.). xxxiv. -三十五,而其他的預言加劇,而最終轉化的異教徒國家,使他們以為在主(以賽亞書二1段及以下各段, xlix 。 lxvi 。 6月21日,撒加利亞八, 21頁起。 ,十四, 16頁起) 。

Resurrection of the Dead.死人的復活。

In addition to this conception of the Day of the Lord, the Prophets developed the hope of an ideal Messianic future through the reign of a son of the house of David-the golden age of paradisiacal bliss, of which the traditions of all the ancient nations spoke (see Dillmann's commentary to Gen. ii-iii., p. 46).此外,這個構想的主日,是先知,制定了希望的一個理想的救世主式的將來通過在位的一個兒子的眾院大衛-黃金時代paradisiacal極樂世界,其中的傳統,所有古老的民族講話(見dillmann的評上將第二和第三節,第46頁) 。 It would come in the form of a world of perfect peace and harmony among all creatures, the angelic state of man before his sin (Isa. xi. 1-10, lxv. 17-25: "new heavens and a new earth").它會在形式的世界完美的和平,人類和諧,所有的動物,天使般的狀態的男子,然後他單仲偕(以賽亞書十一1-10 , lxv 17-25說: "新的天地一顆新的地球" ) 。 It was only a step further to predict the visitation of all the kingdoms of the earth, to be followed by the swallowing up of death forever and a resurrection of the dead in Israel, so that all the people of the Lord might witness the glorious salvation (Isa. xxiv. 21-xxv. 8, xxvi. 19).這只是一個步預測探視所有演義的地球,然後吞下了死亡的,永遠和死人復活,在以色列,使全體人民的耶和華見證會的光榮救贖(以賽亞書24 。 21 - 25 8 26 19段) 。 The hope of resurrection had been expressed by Ezekiel only with reference to the Jewish nation as such (Ezek. xxxvii.).希望復活已發表以西結書只提及猶太民族等( ezek.三十七) 。 Under Persian influence, however, the doctrine of resurrection underwent a change, and was made part of the Day of Judgment; hence in Dan.根據波斯語的影響力,但是,這個學說的復活經歷了一個轉變,並取得了部分審判的日子,因此,在丹。 xii.十二。 2 the resurrection is extended to both the wicked and the righteous: the latter "shall awake to everlasting life," the former "to shame and everlasting horror" (AV "contempt"). 2復活延長至兩個壞蛋和正義:後者"應驚醒,以永恆的生命, "這位前"羞恥和永恆的恐怖" (視聽"蔑視" ) 。

The Formation of an Eschatological System.形成一個eschatological制度。

It is certainly incorrect to speak of an eschatological system of the Bible, in which there is no trace of an established belief in the future life.它肯定不正確發言的一個eschatological系統的聖經,在不存在任何微量的一個既定的信念,在未來的生活。 Both Ben Sira and Tobit still adhere to the ancient view of Sheol as the land of the shades (see Sheol).兩本西拉,並以Tobit仍然沿襲古老的看法sheol由於土地的色調(見sheol ) 。 It was the future destiny of the nation which concerned the Prophets and the people; and the hope voiced by prophet, psalmist, and liturgical poet was simply that the Lord as the Only One will establish His kingdom over the whole earth (Ex. xv. 18; Micah ii. 13, iv. 7; Obad. 21; Zech. xiv. 9; Isa. xxiv. 23; Ps. xciii. 1, xcvi. 10, xcvii. 1, xcix. 1).這是未來的民族的命運,其中涉及先知和人民,並希望表達了先知,詩人,禮儀詩人被簡單地說,上帝為唯一的一個將建立他的王國超過整個地球(比如十五。 18歲;彌迦二13四,七; obad 21段;撒加利亞十四。九日;伊薩。二十四, 23歲;聚苯乙烯。 xciii 1 , xcvi 10 xcvii 1 , xcix 1款) 。 This implied not only the reunion of the twelve tribes (Ezek. xxxvii. 16 et seq.; Zeph. iii. 20), but the conversion of the heathen surviving the divine day of wrath as well as the downfall of the heathen powers (Zeph. iii. 8-9; Zech. xiv. 9-19; Isa. lvi. 6, lxiii. 1-6; Ps. ii. 8-12).這意味著不僅是團聚的十二個部落( ezek.三十七, 16頁起; zeph三。 20 ) ,但轉換的異教徒尚存的神聖一天的憤怒,以及因此而下台的異教徒權力( zeph三,第8-9頁;撒加利亞十四, 9月19日;伊薩。 56 。 6 , lxiii 1-6 ;聚苯乙烯二。 8-12 ) 。 It seems that, because of the tribulation which the house of Zerubbabel had to undergo-not, as Dalman ("Die Worte Jesu," p. 243) thinks, "because the Messiah was not an essential part of the national hope"-the expectation of a Messiah from the house of David was kept in the background, and the prophet Elijah, as the forerunner of the great Day of the Lord who would reassemble all the tribes of Israel, was placed in the foreground (Ecclus. [Sirach] xlviii. 10; I Mace. xiv. 41).看來,是因為該磨難,其中眾議院所羅巴伯不得不接受-並非如d alman(下稱"模具w ortej esu" ,頁2 43)認為, "因為彌賽亞不是本質的一部分,國家的希望" -期望一個救世主由眾議院國寶存放在後台,和先知以利亞,為先導的偉大主日,他們將重新組合所有部落的以色列,擺在了前面( ecclus. [西拉奇] 48 , 10 ,我鐧。十四, 41 ) 。 See Elijah.見利亞。

The "Kingdom of God." "神的國度" 。

It is difficult to say how far the Sadducees or the ruling house of Zadok shared in the Messianic hope of the people (see Sadducees).這是很難說,在多大程度上撒都該人或執政黨眾議院扎多克共享救世主全國人民的希望(見撒都該人) 。 It was the class of the Ḥasidim and their successors, the Essenes, who made a special study of the prophetical writings in order to learn the future destiny of Israel and mankind (Dan. ix. 2; Josephus, "BJ" ii. 8, §§ 6, 12; idem, "Ant." xiii. 5, § 9, where the term εἱμαρμένη is to be taken eschatologically).這是工人階級的ḥasidim及其繼承人, essenes ,並作了專題研究,該prophetical著作,以了解未來的命運以色列和全人類( dan.九。 2 ;約瑟夫, " BJ的"二。 8 , § § 6 , 12歲;同上, "螞蟻" 。十三。 5 ,第9 ,凡任期εἱμαρμένη是採取eschatologically ) 。 While announcing the coming events in visions and apocalyptic writings concealed from the multitude (see Apocalyptic Literature), they based their calculations upon unfulfilled prophecies such as Jeremiah's seventy years (Jer. xxv. 11, xxix. 10), and accordingly tried to fix "the end of days" (Dan. ix. 25 et seg.; Enoch, lxxxix. 59).而在宣布即將開展的活動中的視野和世界末日的著作隱蔽,從千頭萬緒(見世界末日文學) ,他們根據他們的計算後,沒有實現的預言,如耶利米的七十年( jer.二十五。 11 ,第29號第10號) ,並據此試圖修復"年底的日子" ( dan.九, 25日,賽格等。 ;伊諾克, lxxxix 59段) 。 The Talmud reproachingly calls these men, who frequently brought disappointment and wo upon the people, "mahshebe ḳeẓim" (calculators of the [Messianic] ends: Sanh. 97b; comp. 92b, 99a; Ket. 111a; Shab. 138b; 'Eduy. ii. 9-10; for the expression , see Dan. xii. 4, 13; Assumptio Mosis, i. 18, xii. 4; II Esd. iii. 14; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xxvii. 15; Matt. xiii. 39, xxiv. 3).猶太法典reproachingly呼籲這些男子,因為他們經常帶來失望和窩後,在民"的mahshebe ḳeẓim " (計算器的[救世主]結束: sanh 。汕97 B ;可比。 92b , 99A型巨力; KET的。 111a ;沙巴。 138b ; ' eduy二。 9-10 ;為表達,見丹。十二, 4日, 13日; assumptio mosis ,一,十八,十二,四;二,公共服務電子化。三, 14票;敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch ,二十七。 15 ;馬特第十三39 , 24條3款) 。 It can not be denied, however, that these Ḥasidean or apocalyptic writers took a sublime view of the entire history of the world in dividing it into great worldepochs counted either after empires or millenniums, and in seeing its consummation in the establishment of "the kingdom of the Lord," called also, in order to avoid the use of the Sacred Name, ("the kingdom of heaven").但不能否認的事實,但是,這些ḥasidean或世界末日的作家了壯美的看法,整個世界的歷史劃分成偉大worldepochs清點後,無論是帝國或數千年,而在看到它的圓滿,在建立"王國的主" ,所謂的同時,為了避免使用這個神聖的名字, ( "天國" ) 。 This prophetic goal of human history at once lent to all struggle and suffering of the people of God a higher meaning and purpose, and from this point of view new comfort was offered to the saints in their trials.這一先知性的目標,是人類歷史上一次借給一切鬥爭和人民的苦難的上帝更高的意義和目的,從這個角度來看,新的舒適性提供給聖人,在他們的審判。 This is the idea underlying the contrast between the "kingdoms of the powers of the earth" and "the kingdom of God" which is to be delivered over at the end of time to the saints, the people of Israel (Dan. ii. 44; vii. 14, 27).這是基本的理念的對比, "王國的權力地球" , "神的國度" ,這是準備運出超過於去年底的時候向聖人,以色列人民( dan.二, 44 ;七, 14 , 27 ) 。 It is, however, utterly erroneous to assert, as do Schürer ("Geschichte," ii. 504 et seq.) and Bousset (" Religion des Judenthums," pp. 202 et seq.), that this kingdom of God meant a political triumph of the Jewish people and the annihilation of all other nations.但是,它絕對是錯誤的斷言,因為這樣做schürer ( "歷史館" ,二, 504頁起)和bousset ( "宗教萬judenthums "頁202頁起) ,這個神的國度意味著政治凱旋的猶太人民和湮沒的所有其他國家。 As may be learned from Tobit xiii.可從以Tobit十三。 11 et seq., xiv.十一等條,第十四條。 6, quoted by Schürer (lc ii. 507), and from the ancient New-Year's liturgy (see also 'Alenu), "the conversion of all creatures to become one single band to do, God's will" is the foremost object of Israel's Messianic hope; only the removal of "the kingdom of violence" must precede the establishment of God's kingdom. 6 ,引述schürer (立法會二507 ) ,並從古代新一年的禮儀中(也見' alenu ) , "轉換的所有動物,要成為一個單一波段做上帝的意志" ,是最首要的對象是以色列的救世主的希望;只有去除"王國暴力" ,必須先建立神的王國。 This hope for the coming of the kingdom of God is expressed also in the Ḳaddish (comp. Lord's Prayer) and in the eleventh benediction of the "Shemoneh 'Esreh," whereas the destruction of the kingdom of wickedness first found expression in the added (nineteenth) benediction (afterward directed chiefly against obnoxious informers and heretics; see Liturgy), and was in the Hellenistic propaganda literature, the Sibyllines (iii. 47, 767 et al.), emphasized especially with a view to the conversion of the heathen.這個希望,為未來的神的國度,是還表示,在ḳaddish ( comp.主禱文) ,並在第十一屆功德的" shemoneh ' esreh " ,而破壞了英國的邪惡首先體現在補充說: (第十九)功德(事後指示,主要是針對厭惡告密者和異教徒;見教會禮儀) ,並在古希臘文學的宣傳, sibyllines ( iii. 47 , 767等)時強調,尤其是要考慮到轉換的異教徒。一個時代。

In contrasting the future kingdom of God with the kingdom of the heathen powers of the world the apocalyptic writers were undoubtedly influenced by Parsism, which saw the world divided between Ahuramazda and Angro-mainyush, who battle with each other until finally the latter, at the end of the fourth period of the twelve world-millenniums, is defeated by the former after a great crisis in which the bad principle seems to win the upper hand (see Plutarch, "On Isis and Osiris," ch. 47; Bundahis, xxxiv. 1; "Bahman Yasht," i. 5, ii. 22 et seq. ; "SBE" v. 149, 193 et seq. ; Stade, "Ueber den Einfluss, des Parsismus auf das Judenthum," 1898, pp. 145 et seq.).對比將來神的國度與英國的異教徒於世界強國之世界末日作家無疑是影響parsism ,看到了世界分為兩派ahuramazda和angro - mainyush ,這場與對方直到最後,後者在年底的第四個時期的十二項世界數千年,是戰勝由前經過一場重大危機,其中壞的原則,似乎是雙贏得勢(見普魯塔克, " ISIS和日簽署的, "章47條; bundahis ,第三十四1 " ; bahman yasht , "一,五,二, 22段及以下各段, "專業英語"五, 149 , 193頁起;比賽, " ueber書齋einfluss ,萬parsismus auf之judenthum " , 1898年,第145頁起) 。 The idea of four world-empires succeeding one another and represented by the four metals (Dan. ii., vii.), which also has its parallel in Parsism ("Bahman Yasht," i. 3), and in Hindu, Greek, and Roman traditions ("Laws of Manes," i. 71 et seq. ; Hesiod, "Works and Days," pp. 109 et seq. ; Ovid, "Metamorphoses," i. 89), seems to rest upon an ancient tradition which goes back to Babylonia (see Gunkel's commentary on Genesis, 1902, p. 241).的思想,四個世界-帝國接替一個又一個代表,由4個金屬( dan.二,七) ,它也有其並行的parsism ( " bahman yasht , "一, 3 ) ,並在印度教,希臘文,和羅馬傳統( "法律Manes認為, "一, 71條;赫希爾德, "工程及天" ,第109頁起;奧維德, "金驢" ,一89 ) ,似乎休息時,一個古老的傳統這可以追溯到巴比倫王國(見gunkel的評成因, 1902年,第241頁) 。 Gunkel finds in the twelve millenniums of Persian belief an astronomical world-year with four seasons, and sees the four Babylonian world-epochs reproduced in the four successive periods of Adam, Noah, Abraham, and Moses. gunkel認定,在12個千年的波斯信仰是一個天文世界年與四季分明,並看到四個巴比倫的世界-一個時代的複製,在連續4期的亞當,諾亞,亞伯拉罕,摩西。 The four periods occur again in Enoch, lxxxix.四個時期再次出現伊諾克, lxxxix 。 et seq.頁起。 (see Kautzsch, "Pseudepigraphen," p. 294) and Rev. vi. (見kautzsch , " pseudepigraphen " ,頁294 )及Rev六。 1; also in Zech. 1 ,又在撒加利亞。 ii.二。 1 (AV i. 18), vi.1; and Dan. 1 (影音一18 ) ,六.1 ;丹。 viii.八。 22; and the four undivided animals in the vision of Abraham (Gen. xv. 9) were by the early haggadists (Johanan b. Zakkai, in Gen. R. xliv.; Apoc. Abraham, xv., xxviii.) referred to the four world-empires in an eschatological sense. 22日及4個都守不住動物在視覺亞伯拉罕(創十五。九日)分別由年初haggadists (約哈難乙zakkai ,在將軍傳譯四十四;載脂蛋白C 。石禮謙,十五,二十八)提到四個世界-帝國在eschatological常識。

A World-Week.一個世界一周。

The Perso-Babylonian world-year of twelve millenniums, however, was transformed in Jewish eschatology into a world-week of seven millenniums corresponding with the week of Creation, the verse "A thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday" (Ps. xc. 5 [AV 4]) having suggested the idea that the present world of toil ("'olam ha-zeh") is to be followed by a Sabbatical millennium, "the world to come" ("'olam ha-ba'": Tamid vii. 4; RH 31a; Sanh. 97a; Ab. RN i., ed. Schechter, p. 5; Enoch, xxiii. 1; II Esdras vii. 30, 43; Testament of Abraham, A. xix., B. vii.; Vita Adæ et Evæ, 42; Rev. xx. 1; II Peter iii. 8; Epistle of Barnabas, xv.; Irenæus, v. 28, 3).該perso -巴比倫世界年的12個千年,但是,在轉化的猶太末世成為世界級的週七千年,與之相對應的一周創作,詩歌" , 1000年在你的視線,不過是因為昨天" (雅歌越野5 [影音4 ] )在建議的設想,即目前世界的辛勞( " ' olam夏zeh " ) ,是應遵循的一個安息千年時, "未來世界" ( " ' olam公頃鋇' " : tamid七。 4 ;銠31 A條; sanh 。 97A條;抗體。氡一,教育署。 Schechter已,第5頁;伊諾克,二十三。一日;第二埃斯德拉斯七, 30 , 43 ;全書亞伯拉罕,甲十九。 ,乙七;履歷表adæ等evæ , 42歲;牧師二十一日;第二,彼得三世。 8 ;墳墓的石碑,十五; irenæus ,五, 28日, 3 ) 。 Of these the six millenniums were again divided, as in Parsism, into three periods: the first 2,000 years devoid of the Law; the next 2,000 years under the rule of the Law; and the last 2,000 years preparing amid struggles and through catastrophes for the rule of the Messiah (Sanh. 97a; 'Ab. Zarah 9a; Midr. Teh. xc. 17); the Messianic era is said to begin 4,291 years after Creation (comp. the 5,500 years after Creation, after the lapse of which the Messiah is expected, in Vita Adæ et Evæ, 42; also Assumptio Mosis, x. 12).這6個千年,再次劃分,因為在parsism ,分為三個時期:第一二千年缺乏法律;下屆2000年的統治下,法律和過去2000年中,準備鬥爭,並通過災難為法治的彌賽亞( sanh. 97A條; '抗體。 zarah 9A條; midr 。了。 XC的17段) ;救世主的時代,是說,開始4291年後創作( comp.了五千五百年創建後,經過哪些彌賽亞預計,在履歷表adæ等evæ , 42 ,也assumptio mosis ,十, 12 ) 。 On a probably similar calculation, which placed the destruction of the Second Temple at 3828 (Sanh. lc), rests also the division of the world into twelve epochs of 400 years, nine and a half of which epochs had passed at the time of the destruction of the Temple (II Esdras xiv. 11; comp. vii. 28).一個大概類似的計算,其中放在第二聖殿被毀於3828年( sanh.立法會) ,還在於分工的世界帶入12個時代的400年,九年半,其中的時代已經過去了,在時間的破壞了該廟(二埃斯德拉斯十四, 11人;可比。七, 28 ) 。 Twelve periods occur also in the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch (xxvii., liii.) and the Apocalypse of Abraham (xxix.); the ten millenniums of Enoch xxi.十二期,也發生在敘利亞文的啟示baruch ( xxvii. , liii )及啟示亞伯拉罕( xxix. ) ;十個千年的伊諾克二十一。 6, however, appear to be identical with the ten weeks in ch. 6 ,然而,似乎是完全相同的,與10個星期在CH 。 xciii., that is, 10 x 700 years. xciii ,也就是10 × 700年。 As a matter of course, Biblical chronology was always so construed as to bring the six millenniums into accord with the Messianic expectations of the time; only by special favor would the mystery of the end, known only to God, be revealed to His saints (Dan. xii. 9; II Esd. iv. 37, xi. 44; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, liv. 1, lxxxi. 4; Matt. xxiv. 36; Pes. 54b).作為理所當然的事,聖經年表,是經常如此,為使以上六條千年成符合救世主期望的時候,才由特別青睞,將之謎底,只知道向上帝透露給他的聖徒教會(丹。十二,九;二,公共服務電子化。四, 37 ,十一, 44 ;敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch ,麗芙阿薩諾1 , lxxxi 4段;馬特。 24 。 36 ;聚醚砜。 54b ) 。 The end was believed to be brought about by the merit of a certain number of saints or martyrs (Enoch, xlvii. 4; II Esd. iv. 36; Rev. vii. 4), or by the completion of the number of human souls sent from their heavenly abode to the earth, the number of created souls being fixed (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xxiii. 4; 'Ab. Zarah 5a; Yeb. 63b).年底,相信所帶來的好處,一定數目的聖人或烈士(伊諾克,四十七。四日;二,公共服務電子化四。 36 ;牧師七。 4 ) ,或以完成多少人的心靈派從他們的天朝居留權至地球,有多少創造的靈魂被固定(敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch ,二十三,四; '抗體。 zarah 5A條; yeb 。 63 B ) 。 Finally, it was taught that "he who announces the Messianic time based on calculation forfeits his own share in the future" (R. Jose, in Derek Ereẓ R. xi.) and that "the advent of the Messiah is dependent upon general repentance brought about by the prophet Elijah" (Sanh. 97b; Pirḳe R. El. xliii.; Assumptio Mosis, i. 18).最後,它被教導說: "他世衛組織宣布救世主的時候基於計算斷送自己的未來共同的願景" (傳譯聖何塞,在德里克ereẓ傳譯十一) ,以及"來臨的彌賽亞,是依賴於一般悔過書所帶來的先知以利亞" ( sanh.汕97 B ; pirḳe傳譯下午。四十三; assumptio mosis ,一18 ) 。

Travail of the Messianic Time. travail的救世主的時候。

There prevails a singular harmony among the apocalyptic writings and traditions, especially regarding the successive stages of the eschatological drama.有普遍存在的一個獨特的和諧,世界末日的著作和傳統,特別是對於連續階段的eschatological話劇。 The first of these is the "travail" of the Messianic time (; literally, "the suffering of the Messiah"; comp. Pesiḳ. R. 21, 34; Shab. 118a; Pes. 118a; Sanh. 98b; Mek., Beshallaḥ, Wayassa', 4, 5; or , Matt. xxiv. 8; Mark xiii. 9, taken from Hosea xiii. 13).這些問題首先是" travail "救世主時間( ;字面上來看, "痛苦的彌賽亞" ;可比。 pesiḳ 。傳譯21 , 34 ;沙巴。 118 A條;聚醚砜。 118 A條; sanh 。 98b ; MEK的, beshallaḥ , wayassa ' , 4 , 5 ,或馬特。二十四。 8 ;馬克十三9 ,從何西阿十三13 ) 。 The idea that the great redemption shall be preceded by great distress, darkness, and moral decline seems to be based on such prophetic passages as Hosea xiii.這一想法,即大贖回之前應當極大痛苦,黑暗,道德滑坡似乎是基於這樣的預言果然通道作為何西阿十三。 13 et seq.; Joel ii. 13段及以下各段;的Joel二。 10 et seq.; Micah vii.十段及以下各段;彌迦七。 1-6; Zech. 1-6 ;撒加利亞。 xiv.十四。 6 et seq.; Dan. 6條ET條;丹。 xii.十二。 1. 1 。 The view itself, however, is not that of the Prophets, whose outlook is altogether optimistic and eudemonistic (Isa. xi. 1-9, lxv. 17-25), but more in accordance with the older non-Jewish belief in a constant decline of the world, from the golden and silver to the brass and iron age, until it ends in a final cataclysm or conflagration, contemplated alike by old Teuton and Greek legend.觀點本身,但是,是不是說的是先知,其前景是完全樂觀,並eudemonistic (以賽亞十一1-9 , lxv 17-25 ) ,但也更符合老年人非猶太人的信仰不斷跌幅全世界,從黃金和白銀的黃銅和鐵器時代,到結束,在最後的大災難或衝突,爭議一樣,由舊位條頓和希臘神話中。 It was particularly owing to Persian influence that the contrast between this world, in which evil, death, and sin prevail, and the future world, "which is altogether good" (Tamid lc), was so strongly emphasized, and the view prevailed that the transition from the one to the other could be brought about only through a great crisis, the signs of decay of a dying world and the birth-throes of a new one to be ushered into existence.它特別由於波斯語的影響力的對比這個世界上,在這邪惡,死亡與罪惡得逞的,和未來世界" ,這是共好" ( tamid立法會) ,是如此強烈地強調,和意見為依歸說轉變,從一個向其他可能帶來的,只有通過一場重大危機,種種跡象衰變的一個垂死世界和生育陣痛的一個新的將迎來存在。 Persian eschatology had no difficulty in utilizing old mythological and cosmological material from Babylonia in picturing the distress and disorder of the last days of the world (Bundahis, xxx. 18 et seq.; Plutarch, lc 47; Bahman, lc ii. 23 et seq., iii. 60); Jewish eschatology had to borrow the same elsewhere or give Biblical terms and passages a new meaning so as to make all terrestrial and celestial powers appear as participants in the final catastrophe.波斯語末世沒有困難,在利用舊神話和宇宙物質從巴比倫王國,在想像的困擾和障礙,在過去幾天的世界( bundahis了XXX , 18段及以下各段;普魯塔克,立法會47個; bahman ,立法會二, 23頁起,三, 60 ) ;猶太末世不得不借用同別處或給予聖經條款和段落了新的含義,以便使所有陸地和天體的權力似乎參加了最後的災難。 This world, owing to the sin of the first man (II Esd. iv. 30), or through the fall of the angels (Enoch, vi.-xi.), has been laden with curses and is under the sway of the power of evil, and the end will accordingly be a combat of God with these powers of evil either in the heavens above or on earth (Isa. xxiv. 21 et seq., xxv. 7, xxvii. 1; Dan. vii. 11, viii. 9; Book of Jubilees, xxiii. 29; Test. Patr., Asher, 7, Dan. 5; Assumptio Mosis, x. 1; Psalms of Solomon, ii. 25 et seq.; and see Gunkel, "Schöpfung und Chaos," pp. 171-398).這個世界上,由於該罪的第一人(二公共服務電子化。四, 30 ) ,或透過天使的墮落(伊諾克, vi.-xi. ) ,已滿載著詛咒也好,是根據擺動的權力無惡不作,最終也會相應的是一個戰鬥的上帝與這些權力的邪惡無論在老天爺以上或地球上(以賽亞書24 。 21段及以下各段,二十五。 7 ,二十七。一日;丹七。 11 ,八,九日;易經jubilees ,二十三,二十九;考驗。 patr ,阿什爾日, 7日,丹5款; assumptio mosis ,十一;詩篇的索羅門,二, 25段及以下各段;看看gunkel , " schöpfung und混沌, "頁171-398 ) 。 The whole world, then, appears as in a state of rebellion before its downfall.整個世界的話,那麼,出現在一國的叛亂之前,它的滅亡。 A description of these Messianic woes is given in the Book of Jubilees, xx.說明這些救世主的疾苦,是由於在這本書的jubilees ,二十。 11-25; Sibyllines, ii. 11月25日; sibyllines ,二。 154 et seq., iii. 154頁起,三。 796 et seq.; Enoch, xcix. 796頁起;伊諾克, xcix 。 4 et seq., c.第4段及以下各段,長 1 et seq.; II Esd.一日段及以下各段;二,公共服務電子化。 v.-vi.; Syriac Apoc. v.-vi. ;敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 Baruch xxv.-xxvii., xlviii. baruch xxv. -二十七, 48 。 31 et seq., lxx.; Matt. 31段及以下各段, lxx ;馬特。 xxiv.二十四。 6-29; Rev. vi.-ix.; Soṭah ix. 6月29日;牧師vi.-ix. ; soṭah九。 15; Derek Ereẓ Zuṭa x.; Sanh. 15 ;德里克ereẓ zuṭa十; sanh 。 96b-97a. 96 B條- 97A條。 "A third part of all the world's woes will come in the generation of the Messiah" (Midr. Teh. Ps. ii. 9). "的第三部分,世界上所有的苦難會在一代人的彌賽亞" ( midr.了。常任二。 9 ) 。 In all these passages evil portents are predicted, such as visions of swords, of blood, and of warfare in the sky (Sibyllines, iii. 795; comp. Luke xxi. 21; Josephus, "BJ", vi. 5, § 3), disorder in the whole celestial system (Enoch,lxxx. 4-7; II Esd. v. 4; comp. Amos viii. 9; Joel ii. 10), in the produce of the earth (Enoch, lxxx. 2; Book of Jubilees, xxiii. 18; II Esd. vi. 22; Sibyllines, iii. 539), and in human progeny (Book of Jubilees, xxiii. 25; Sibyllines, ii. 154 et seq.; II Esd. v. 8, vi. 21).在所有這些通道邪惡印預測,如願景劍,血,戰爭的天空( sibyllines ,三, 795 ;可比。路加福音二十一, 21個;約瑟夫, " BJ的"六。 5 , § 3 ) ,亂,在整個天體系統(伊諾克, lxxx 4-7 ;二,公共服務電子化。訴4 ;可比。阿莫斯八,九日;約珥二10 ) ,在生產中的地球(伊諾克, lxxx 2 ;本書的jubilees ,二十三, 18歲;二,公共服務電子化。六, 22條; sibyllines ,三, 539 ) ,在人類的後代(書jubilees ,二十三,二十五; sibyllines ,二, 154頁起。 ;二,公共服務電子化。訴八日,六, 21 ) 。 Birds and beasts, trees, stones, and wells will cease to act in harmony with nature (II Esd. v. 6-8, vi. 24).鳥類和野獸,樹木,石頭,和水井將不再是法與自然和諧共存(二公共服務電子化。五6-8 ,六, 24 ) 。

Particularly prominent among the plagues of the time, of which Baruch xxviii.尤其突出,其中瘟疫的時間裡,其中baruch二十八。 2-3 counts twelve, will be "the sword, famine, earthquake, and fire"; according to Book of Jubilees, xxiii. 2-3計數12 ,將"劍,飢荒,地震,並火" ,據本書的jubilees ,二十三。 13, "illness and pain, frost and fever, famine and death, sword and captivity"; but greater than the terror and havoc caused by the elements will be the moral corruptionand perversion, the wickedness and unchastity anticipated in prophetic visions, and the power of evil spirits (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, lc and lxx. 2-8; Book of Jubilees, xxiii. 13-19). 13 , "疾病和痛苦,霜凍和發燒,飢荒和死亡,劍和圈養" ,但大於恐怖和破壞所造成的要素將是意大利的道德corruptionand反常,邪惡和不貞潔預計在先知性眼光,與電力的邪靈(敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch , LC和lxx 2-8 ;易經jubilees ,二十三13-19 ) 。 This view of the prevalence of the spirit of evil and seduction to sin in the last days received special emphasis in the Ḥasidean schools; hence the striking resemblance between the tannaitic and the apocalyptic picture of the time preceding the Messianic advent: "In the last days false prophets [pseudo-Messiahs] and corrupters will increase and sheep be turned into wolves, love into hatred; lawlessness [see Belial] will prevail, causing men to hate, persecute, and deliver up each other; and Satan, 'the world-deceiver' (see Antichrist), will in the guise of the Son of God perform miracles, and as ruler of the earth commit unheard-of crimes" ("Didache," xvi. 3 et seq.; Sibyllines, ii. 165 et seq., iii. 63; Matt. xxiv. 5-12; II Tim. iii. 1 et seq.).這種觀點的盛行的精神邪惡和誘惑,以至單,在最後幾天收到特別強調在ḥasidean學校,所以出現了驚人的相似性之間tannaitic和世界末日圖片的時候前面的救世主的到來: "在最後的日子假先知[偽救星]和corrupters將增加,羊變成狼,愛情變成仇恨;無法無天[見belial ]將佔上風,導致男人的仇恨,迫害,並提供了對方;撒旦, 『世界- deceiver ' (見箴) ,將在假借神的兒子創造奇蹟,並作為統治者,地球犯下奇聞的罪行" (下稱" didache , "十六3段及以下各段; sibyllines ,二, 165頁起,三, 63個;馬特。二十四。 5-12 ;添第二第三1頁起) 。 The rabbinic description is similar: "The footsteps of the Messiah [, taken from Ps. lxxxix. 52; comp. the term , "the last days of the rule of Esau"="Edom-Rome"; II Esd. vi. 8-10; comp. Gen. R. lxiii.; Yalḳut and Midrash ha-Gadol, ed. Schechter, on Gen. xxv. 26; Pirḳe R. El. xxxii.] are seen in the turning of the schoolhouse into a brothel, the desolation of Galilee and Gaulanitis, the going about of the scribes and saints as despised beggars, the insolence and lawlessness of the people, the disrespect of the younger generation toward the older, and the turning of the rulers to heresy" (Soṭah ix. 15; Derek Ereẓ Zuṭa x.; Sanh. 97b; Cant. R. ii. 13; Ket. 112b; in these passages amoraim of the second and third centuries are often credited with the views of tannaim of the first; comp. also Shab. 118a with Mek., Beshallaḥ, lc).該rabbinic描述的是類似的: "又步其後塵彌賽亞[ ,從聚苯乙烯。 lxxxix 52 ;可比。而言, "過去幾天的統治以掃" = "益登-羅馬" ;二,公共服務電子化。六,八-10 ;可比。將軍傳譯lxiii ; yalḳut和midrash夏紅景天,教育署。 Schechter已,對將軍二十五,二十六日; pirḳe傳譯下午。三十二。 ]出現轉折的學校,到一家妓院,這個荒涼的加利利和gaulanitis ,持續約的文士與聖人,因為看不起乞丐,狂悖和無法無天的人,不敬的年輕一代對老年人和轉折的統治者邪" ( soṭah九。 15 ;德里克ereẓ zuṭa十; sanh 。汕97 B ;斜面。傳譯二, 13歲; KET的。 112b ,在這些通道亞摩蘭的第二和第三個世紀,往往貸的意見tannaim的第一次;可比,而且沙巴。 118 A條與人民聖戰者組織, beshallaḥ ,立法會) 。 Simon ben Yoḥai (comp. Derek Ereẓ Zuṭa x. with Sanh. lc) counts seven periods of tribulation preceding the advent of the son of David.西蒙賁yoḥai ( comp.德里克ereẓ zuṭa十,與sanh 。立法會)的七個時期的磨難之前來臨的兒子大衛。 The Abraham Apocalypse (xxx.) mentions ten plagues as being prepared for the heathen of the time: (1) distress; (2) conflagration; (3) pestilence among beasts; (4) famine; (5) earthquakes and wars; (6) hail and frost; (7) wild beasts; (8) pestilence and death among men; (9) destruction and flight (comp. Isa. xxvi. 20; Zech. xiv. 5); and (10) noises and rumblings (comp. in the sixth period of Simon b. Yoḥai; comp. Test. Patr., Levi, 17, where also seven periods precede the kingdom of God).亞伯拉罕啟示( xxx. )提到十大瘟疫,因為正在準備為異教徒的時間: ( 1 )遇險; ( 2 )火災; ( 3 )瘟疫當中禽獸; ( 4 )飢荒; ( 5 )地震和戰爭; ( 6 )冰雹和霜凍; (七)野生禽獸; (八)瘟疫和死亡之間的男性; ( 9 )銷毀和飛行( comp.伊薩。二十六,第20條;撒加利亞十四,五) ; ( 10 )噪聲和傳言( comp.在第六時期西蒙乙yoḥai ;可比。考驗。 patr ,利維, 17 ,哪裡還七期先於神的國度) 。

The War of Gog and Magog.抗戰gog和瑪。

An important part in the eschatological drama is assigned to Israel's final combat with the combined forces of the heathen nations under the leadership of Gog and Magog, barbarian tribes of the North (Ezek. xxxviii-xxxix.; see Gog and Magog).的一個重要組成部分,在eschatological戲劇是分配給以色列的最後作戰與聯合部隊的異教徒國家的領導下, gog和瑪,野蠻人部落的北部( ezek.三十八-三十九;見gog和瑪) 。 Assembled for a fierce attack upon Israel in the mountains near Jerusalem, they will suffer a terrible and crushing defeat, and Israel's land will thenceforth forever remain the seat of God's kingdom.組裝了猛烈攻擊後,以色列在附近的山區耶路撒冷,他們會很痛苦的可怕和慘敗,而以色列的土地將自此永遠所在地的上帝的王國。 Whether originally identical or identified only afterward by Biblical interpretation with the battle in the valley of Jehoshaphat (Joel iv. [AViii.] 12; comp. Zech. xiv. 2 and Isa. xxv. 6, where the great warfare against heathen armies is spoken of), the warfare against Gog and Magog formed the indispensable prelude to the Messianic era in every apocalyptic vision (Sibyllines, iii. 319 et seq., 512 et seq., 632 et seq.; v. 101; Rev. xx. 8; Enoch, lvi. 5 et seq., where the place of Gog and Magog is taken by the Parthians and Medes; II Esd. xiii. 5, "a multitude of men without number from the four winds of the earth"; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, LXX. 7-10; Targ. Yer. to Num. xi. 26, xxiv. 17, Ex. xl. 11, Deut. xxxii. 39, and Isa. xxxiii. 25; comp. Num. xxiv. 7 [Septuagint, Γὼγ for "Agag"]; see Eldad and Medad).不論原本相同或只鑑定出事後由聖經詮釋與戰鬥在山谷中的傑霍沙法特(約珥四[ aviii 。 ] 12歲;可比。撒加利亞十四2和伊薩。二十五。 6 ,凡偉大戰爭中對異教徒軍隊的友誼非同一般談到) ,戰爭對gog和瑪形成了不可缺少的前奏,以救世主的時代,在每一個世界末日的願景( sibyllines ,三, 319頁起, 512頁起, 632頁起;訴101個;牧師二十。 8 ;伊諾克, 56 5段及以下各段,那裡發生的gog和瑪是由parthians和medes ;二,公共服務電子化。十三。 5 , "千頭萬緒,如果沒有官兵人數從康萊的地球" ;敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch , lxx 7-10 ; targ 。也門里亞爾。序號。十一, 26日, 24月17日:當然。四十, 11 , deut 。三十二。 39 ,和ISA 。三十三,第25條;可比。序號。二十四。 7 [ septuagint , γὼγ " agag " ] ;見eldad和medad ) 。

R. Eliezer (Mek., Beshallaḥ, lc) mentions the Gog and Magog war together with the Messianic woes and the Last Judgment as the three modes of divine chastisement preceding the millennium.傳譯埃利澤( mek. , beshallaḥ ,立法會)提到gog和瑪戰爭連同救世主的疾苦,以及最後的判決為三個模式神的責罰前款千年。 R. Akiba assigns both to the Gog and Magog war and to the Last Judgment a duration of twelve months ('Eduy. ii. 10); Lev.傳譯秋葉轉讓雙方向gog和瑪戰爭,並最後的審判歷時12個月( ' eduy二。 10 ) ;列弗。 R. xix.傳譯十九。 has seven years instead, in accordance with Ezek.已經七年,而是按照ezek 。 xxxix.第39屆。 9; Ps. 9 ;聚苯乙烯。 ii.二。 1-9 is referred to the war of Gog and Magog ('Ab. Zarah 3b; Ber. 7b; Pesiḥ. ix. 79a; Tan., Noah, ed. Buber, 24; Midr. Teh. Ps. ii.). 1-9轉介到戰爭的gog和瑪( '抗體。 zarah 3B及第;誤碼率。 7B條; pesiḥ第九。 79A條;火炭,挪亞,教育署。布伯, 24歲; midr 。了。常任二) 。

The destruction of Gog and Magog's army implies not, as falsely stated by Weber ("Altsynagogale Theologie," 1880, p. 369), followed by Bousset ("Religion des Judenthums," p. 222), the extermination of the Gentile world at the close of the Messianic reign, but the annihilation of the heathen powers who oppose the kingdom of God and the establishing of the Messianic reign (see Enoch, lvi.-lvii., according to which the tribes of Israel are gathered and brought to the Holy Land after the destruction of the heathen hosts; Sifre, Deut. 343; and Targ. Yer. to Num. xi. 26).銷毀gog和瑪軍隊的意味,並非如偽稱韋伯( " altsynagogale theologie " , 1880年,頁369 ) ,其次是bousset ( "宗教萬judenthums " ,頁222 ) ,滅絕了gentile世界上截止救世主的統治,但湮沒的異教徒的權力,反對神的國度,並建立了救世主的統治(見伊諾克, lvi. - 57 。根據該部落的以色列聚集,並提請有關聖地後,破壞了該異教徒主持人; sifre , deut 343 ; targ 。也門里亞爾。序號。十一, 26 ) 。

The Gentiles who submit to the Law are expected to survive (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, lxxii. 4; Apoc. Abraham, xxxi.); and those nations that did not subjugate Israel will be admitted by the Messiah into the kingdom of God (Pesiḥ. R. 1, after Isa. lxvi. 23).外邦人的人服從法律,預計生存(敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch , lxxii 4段;載脂蛋白C 。石禮謙,三十一) ,以及這些國家並沒有滅亡以色列將承認彌賽亞進入神的國度( pesiḥ 。傳譯一日後,伊薩。 lxvi 23段) 。 The Messiah is called "Hadrach" (Zech. ix. 1), as the one who leads the heathen world to repentance (), though he is tender to Israel and harsh toward the Gentiles (: Cant. R. vii. 5).彌賽亞是所謂的" hadrach " ( zech.九1 ) ,作為一位領導異教徒世界悔改( ) ,他雖然是在公開招標中,以色列和苛刻,對外邦人( :斜面。傳譯七。 5 ) 。 The loyalty of the latter will be severely tested ('Ab. Zarah 2b et seq.), while during the established reign of the Messiah the probation time of the heathen will have passed over (Yeb. 24b).忠誠的,後者將經受嚴峻考驗( '抗體。 zarah乙等及以下各段) ,而在既定的統治彌賽亞試用時間的異教徒將通過以上( yeb. 24 B條) 。 "A third part of the heathen world alone will survive" (Sibyllines, iii. 544 et seq., v. 103, after Zech. xiii. 8; in Tan., Shofeṭim, ed. Buber, 10, this third part is referred to Israel, which alone, as the descendants of the three patriarchs, will escape the fire of Gehenna). "第三部分的異教徒世界僅會生存" ( sibyllines ,三, 544頁起,訴103 ,後撒加利亞十三。八日,在火炭, shofeṭim ,教育署。布伯年, 10年,這三部分,是指以色列,其中,僅作為華夏子孫,三位長者,將難逃火地獄) 。 According to Syriac Apoc.據敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 Baruch, xl. baruch ,銷售。 1, 2, it is the leader of the Gog and Magog hosts who will alone survive, to be brought bound before the Messiah on Mount Zion and judged and slain. 1 , 2 ,它是該gog和瑪東道主,他們將獨自生存,將必然帶來之前彌賽亞山錫安和判斷,並殺害。 According to II Esd.據二公共服務電子化。 xiii.十三。 9 et seq., fire will issue forth from the mouth of the Messiah and consume the whole army.第9頁起,將消防問題,提出了從口入的彌賽亞和消耗全軍。 This indicates an identification of Gog and Magog with "the wicked one" of Isa.這表明鑑定gog和瑪與"惡人"的伊薩。 xi.十一。 4, interpreted as the personification of wickedness, Angro - mainyush (see Armilus). 4 ,解釋為是人格化的邪惡, angro -m ainyush(見a rmilus) 。 In Midrash Wayosha' (Jellinek, "BH" i. 56) Gog is the leader of the seventy-two nations of the world, minus one (Israel), and makes war against the Most High; he is smitten down by God.在midrash wayosha ' ( jellinek , "波黑"一56 ) gog處於領先地位的72世界民族之林,再減去一(以色列) ,並使得戰爭的最高級;他是責罰,由上帝。 Armilus rises as the last enemy of God and Israel. armilus上升,作為最後的敵人,上帝和以色列。

Gathering of the Exiles.承前啟後,繼往開來的流亡者。

The great event preparatory to the reign of the Messiah is the gathering of the exiles, "ḳibbuẓgaliyyot."大事籌備腥風血雨的彌賽亞,是承前啟後,繼往開來的流亡人士, " ḳibbuẓgaliyyot " 。 This hope, voiced in Deut.這個希望,表達了在deut 。 xxx.三十。 3; Isa. 3個;伊薩。 xi.十一。 12; Micah iv. 12歲;彌迦四。 6, vii.六,七。 11; Ezek.第11條; ezek 。 xxxix.第39屆。 27; Zech.第27條;撒加利亞。 xi.十一。 10-12 and Isa. 10-12和ISA 。 xxxv.三十五。 8, is made especially impressive by the description in Isa. 8 ,是取得了令人印象深刻,尤其是所描寫的伊薩。 xxvii.二十七。 13 of the return of all the strayed ones from Assyria and Egypt, and by the announcement that "the Gentiles themselves shall carry Israel's sons and daughters on their arms to Jerusalem with presents for the Lord" (Isa. xlix. 22, lx. 4-9, lxvi. 20). 13歸還所有strayed者從assyria和埃及,並宣布說, "外邦人自己應當履行以色列的兒子和女兒,對他們的武器,以耶路撒冷介紹,為耶和華" (以賽亞xlix 22 ,中心LX 4 -9 , lxvi 20條) 。 It was accordingly dwelt upon as a miraculous act in the synagogal liturgy and song (Shemoneh 'Esreh; Meg. 17a; Cant. xi. 1, xvii. 31), as well as in apocalyptic visions (Apoc. Abraham, xxxi.; II Esd. xiii. 13; Matt. xxiv. 31).有人據此白景富後,作為一個神奇的行為,在synagogal禮儀中,宋( shemoneh ' esreh ;梅格。 17A條;斜面。十一, 1 ,十七, 31歲) ,以及在世界末日的願景( apoc.亞伯拉罕,三十一;二公共服務電子化。十三, 13歲;馬特。 24 。 31 ) 。 God shall bring them back from the East and the West (Baruch, iv. 37, v. 5 et seq.; Ecclus. [Sirach] xxxvi. 13; Tobit xiii. 13); Elijah shall gather them and the Messiah summon them together (Ecclus. [Sirach] xlviii. 10; Sibyllines, ii. 171-187; Cant. xvii. 26; Targ. Yer. to Ex. vi. 18, xl. 9-10, Num. xxiv. 7, Deut. xxx. 4, Jer. xxxiii. 13).上帝應帶回由東及西( baruch ,四, 37 ,五,五段及以下各段; ecclus [西拉奇]三十六, 13歲; Tobit回歸十三, 13 ) ;利亞應收集他們與彌賽亞傳召他們在一起( ecclus. [西拉奇] 48 。 10 ; sibyllines ,二, 171-187 ;斜面。十七, 26人; targ 。也門里亞爾。單方面六。 18 ,四十, 9-10 ,序號。二十四。 7 , deut XXX計劃4 ,張哲。三十三, 13 ) 。 In wagons carried by the winds the exiles shall be borne along with a mighty noise (Enoch, lvii. 1 et seq.; Zeb. 116a; Cant. R. and Haggadat Shir ha-Shirim to Cant. iv. 16; Midr. Teh. to Ps. lxxxvii. 6), and a pillar of light shall lead them (Philo, "De Execrationibus," 8-9).在貨車運載的風流亡者應由隨著浩浩蕩盪的噪聲(伊諾克, 57 1段及以下各段; zeb 。 116a ;斜面。 R.和haggadat shir夏shirim以斜面。四, 16歲; midr 。 。向PS 。 lxxxvii 6 ) ,以及支柱輕應帶領他們(斐洛, "德execrationibus , " 8-9 ) 。 The Lost Ten Tribes shall be miraculously brought back across the mighty waters of the River Euphrates (II Esd. xiii. 39-47; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, lxxvii.; Sanh. x. 13; Tan., Miḳḳez and Shelaḥ, i. 203, iii. 79, ed. Buber, after Isa. xi. 15; see Arzareth; Sambation; Ten Tribes).失去的十年部落應奇蹟般地帶回全國各地,浩浩蕩盪水域的內河幼發拉底河(二公共服務電子化。十三39-47 ;敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch , lxxvii ; sanh 。十, 13歲;火炭, miḳḳez和shelaḥ ,一。 203 ,三79 ,教育署。布伯後,伊薩。十一, 15票;見arzareth ; sambation ;十個部落) 。

The Days of the Messiah.幾天的彌賽亞。

The central place in the eschatological system is, as a matter of course, occupied by the advent of the messiah.中央在eschatological制度,是眾所周知的事,當然,所佔用的來臨,彌賽亞。 Nevertheless the days of the Messiah ("yemot ha-Mashiaḥ"), the time when the prophetic predictions regarding the reign of the descendant of David find their fulfilment, do not form the end of the world's history, but are merely the necessary preparatory stage to the kingdom of God ("malkut shamayim"), which, when once established, will last forever (Dan. vii. 27; Sibyllines, iii. 47 et seq., 767 et seq.; Mek., Beshallaḥ, 'Amaleḳ, end).然而,幾天的彌賽亞( " yemot夏mashiaḥ " ) ,的時候,先知性的預言就統治的後裔大衛找到自己的履行,不構成結束了世界的歷史,但大多只進行必要的準備階段以神的國度(下稱" malkut shamayim " ) ,該組織一旦成立後,將會永遠延續下去( dan.七,第27條; sibyllines ,三, 47頁起, 767頁起;人民聖戰者組織, beshallaḥ , ' amaleḳ ,全文完) The Messiah is merely "the chosen one" (Enoch, xlv. 3, xlix. 2, li. 3 et seq.); he causes the people to seek the Lord (Hosea iii. 5; Isa. xi. 9; Zech. xii. 8; Ezek. xxxiv. 24, xxxvii. 24 et seq.), and, as "the Son of God," causes the nations to worship Him (Enoch, cv. 2; II Esd. viii. 28 et seq., xiii. 32-52, xiv. 9, after Ps. ii. 7, lxxxix. 27 et seq.).彌賽亞只不過是"選擇之一" (伊諾克,四十五。 3 , xlix 。 2 ,李3頁起) ;他造成民眾求主(何西阿三,五;伊薩。十一。九日;撒加利亞。十二, 8名; ezek 。三十四。 24 ,三十七, 24頁起) ,而且,正如"上帝的兒子" ,導致國家崇拜他(伊諾克,簡歷。 2 ;二,公共服務電子化。八, 28頁起。 ,十三32-52 ,十四,九,後的PS二。 7 , lxxxix 27頁起) 。 The time of his kingdom is therefore limited according to some to three generations (Mek., lc, after Ex. xvii. 16, ); according to others, to 40 or 70, to 365 or 400 years, or to 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, or 7,000 years (Sanh. 99a, 97b; Pesiḥ. R. 1, end; Midr. Teh. xc. 17); the number 400, however, based upon a combination of Gen. xv.的時候,他的王國,因此,有限的,據一些三代( mek. ,信用證支付的方式,經過前十七16 ) ;根據其他人,在40歲或70歲,以365或400年,或至1000 , 2000 , 4000 ,或七千年( sanh. 99A型巨力,汕97 B ; pesiḥ 。傳譯1日結束; midr 。了。 XC的17段) ;人數400人,然而,根據組合上將十五。 13 and Ps. 13和PS 。 xc.越野。 15 (see Pesiḥ. R. 1), is supported by II Esd. 15條(見pesiḥ 。傳譯1 ) ,是支持二公共服務電子化。 vii.七。 28 et seq., where it is positively stated that after his 400 years' reign the Messiah will die to rise again, after the lapse of a week, with the rest of the righteous in the world's regeneration. 28段及以下各段,因為它正在積極地表示,經他的400年'在位彌賽亞會死回升後,事隔一個星期,其餘的義人,在世界上的復興是指日可待的。 It is probably to emphasize his human character that the Messiah is frequently called the "Son of Man" (Dan. viii. 13; Enoch, xlvi. 2 et seq., xlviii. 2, lxii. 7; See Man, Son of).它或許是要強調他的人的品格,彌賽亞,是經常被稱為"人子" ( dan.八, 13歲;伊諾克,四十六2段及以下各段, 48 。 2 , lxii 7 ,見男子的兒子) 。 For it is in order to fulfil the designs of God for Israel and the whole race of man that he is to appear as the triumphant warrior-king to subjugate the nations (Sibyllines, iii. 653-655), to lead in the war against Gog and Magog (II Esd. xiii. 32; Targ. Yer. to Num. xxiv. 17, 20), to annihilate all the powers of wickedness and idolatry, cleanse the Holy Land and city from all heathen elements, build the new house of the Lord "pure and holy," and become the Redeemer of Israel (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xxxix. 7 et seq., lxxii. 2; Cant. xvii. 21-30; Targ. Yer. to Gen. xlix. 11, Ex. xl. 9, Num. xi. 16, Isa. x. 27; comp. Philo, "De Præmiis et Pœnis," with reference to Num. xxiv. 7): "he is to redeem the entire creation by chastising the evil-doers and making the nations from all the ends of the world see the glory of God" (II Esd. xiii. 26-38; Cant. xvii. 31).它是為了履行該外觀設計的上帝為以色列和整個賽事的男子說,他是在出庭為凱旋的勇士-國王征服國( sibyllines ,三。 653-655 ) ,導致在戰爭中打擊gog和瑪(二公共服務電子化。十三,第32條; targ 。也門里亞爾。序號。二十四, 17日, 20日) ,殲滅一切權力的邪惡和偶像崇拜,淨化神聖的土地和城市,從所有異教徒要素,建立新房子對上帝的"淨土和聖地" ,成為救贖的以色列(敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch ,三十九,第七段及以下各段, lxxii 2款;斜面。十七。 21-30 ; targ 。也門里亞爾。將軍xlix 11 ,當然。四十, 9 ,序號。十一, 16 , ISA的。十大第27條;可比。斐洛, "德præmiis等pœnis , "參考數值。二十四。 7 ) : "他是贖回整個創作chastising該惡人,使國家免受一切,目的是把世界看到神的榮耀" (二公共服務電子化。十三26-38 ;斜面。十七, 31 ) 。 "Free from sin, from desire for wealth or power, a pure, wise, and holy king imbued with the spirit of God, he will lead all to righteousness and holiness (Cant. xvii. 32-43; Sibyllines, iii. 49, v. 414 et seq.; Test. Patr., Levi, 18; Midr. Teh. lxxii. 12; Targ. Yer. to Gen. xlix. 12, and Isa. xi. 2, xli. 1). "不受單,從渴望財富或權力,一個純粹的,明智和聖景處處洋溢著上帝的恩典,他將率領所有,以正義與聖德( cant.十七32-43 ; sibyllines ,三49 ,五, 414頁起;考驗。 patr ,利維, 18歲; midr 。了。 lxxii 12條; targ 。也門里亞爾。將軍xlix 。 12 ,和ISA 。十一。 2 ,四十一, 1 ) 。

Time of Universal Peace.當時的世界和平。

The Messianic time, accordingly, means first of all the cessation of all subjection of Israel by other powers (, Ber. 34b; Sanh. 91b), while the kingdoms and nations will bring tributes to the Messiah (Pes. 118b; Gen. R. lxxviii.; Tan., Yelamdenu, Shofeṭim; Sibyllines, iii. 350, iv. 145, all based upon Ps. lxxii. 10 and lxviii. 32); furthermore, it will be a time of conversion of the heathen world to monotheism (Tobit xiv. 6; Sibyllines, iii. 616, 624, 716 et seq.; Enoch, xlviii. 4 et seq.; 'Ab. Zarah 24a, after Zeph. iii. 9), though the Holy Land itself will not be inhabited by strangers (Cant. xvii. 28; Sibyllines, v. 264; Book of Jubilees, 1. 5).救世主的時候,因此,首先意味著一切停止一切屈從以色列的其他權力( ,誤碼率。 34 / B ; sanh 。 91b ) ,而演義和各民族帶來的貢品,以彌賽亞( pes. 118b ;上將r 。 lxxviii ;火炭, yelamdenu , shofeṭim ; sibyllines ,三350 ,四145 ,全部依據的PS 。 lxxii 10和lxviii 32 ) ;此外,這將是一個時間轉換的異教徒世界,以神( Tobit回歸第十四6段; sibyllines ,三, 616 , 624 , 716頁起;伊諾克,四十八4段及以下各段; '抗體。 zarah 24A條後, zeph三。 9 ) ,雖然聖地本身將不會有人居住的陌生人( cant.十七, 28日; sibyllines ,訴264個;易經jubilees , 1 。 5 ) 。 Both earth and man will be blessed with wondrous fertility and vigor (Enoch, x. 17-19, "They will live until they have a thousand children"; Sibyllines, iii. 620 et seq., 743; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xxix. 5; comp. Papias' description of the millennium given as coming directly from Jesus, in Irenæus, "Adversus Hæreses," v. 33, 3-4; Ket. 111b; Shab. 30b, "The earth will produce new fruits daily, women will bear children daily, and the land will yield loaves of bread and garments of silk," all with reference to Ps. lxxii. 16; Deut. xxxii. 1; Gen. xlix. 11; comp. Targ. Yer.).無論地球和人類將擁有令人驚奇的生育率和活力(伊諾克,十17-19 , "他們會活到他們有1000名兒童" ; sibyllines ,三, 620頁起, 743名;敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch ,二十九5款;可比。 papias '描述的千年給予直接來自耶穌,在irenæus , "相反hæreses , "五33 , 3-4 ; KET的。 111b ;沙巴。第三十B , "地球會產生新的成果日報中,婦女將生育日報,以及土地,將收益率條麵包和服裝的絲綢, "所有參考的PS 。 lxxii 16段; deut 。三十二。一日;將軍xlix 。 11 ;可比。 targ 。也門里亞爾) 。 。 The days of the youth of the earth will be renewed; people will again reach the age of 1,000 years (Book of Jubilees, xxx. 27; comp. Isa. lxv. 20); the birth of children will be free from pain (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, lxxiii. 60, after Isa. xiii. 8; Philo, "De Præmiis et Pœnis," 15 et seq.); there will no longer be strife and illness, plague or trouble, but peace, health, and joy (Enoch, x. 16-22; Sibyllines, iii. 371; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, lxxiii. 1-5).昔日的青年地球要續約,人們將再次達到年齡的1000年(本書的jubilees了XXX , 27 ;可比。伊薩。 lxv 20條) ;誕生的兒童將獲免費從疼痛(敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch , lxxiii 60後,伊薩。十三。 8 ;斐洛, "德præmiis等pœnis " , 15頁起) ;將不再會有紛爭和疾病,瘟疫或麻煩,但和平,健康和歡樂(伊諾克,十16-22 ; sibyllines ,三, 371人;敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch , lxxiii 1-5 ) 。 All physical ailments and defects will be healed (Gen. R. xcv.; Pesiḥ. R. 42 [ed. Friedmann, p. 177, note]; Midr. Teh. cxlvi. 8; Eccl. R. i. 9, after Isa. xxxv. 6; comp. Matt. xi. 5).所有身體不適和缺陷會癒合(創傳譯xcv ; pesiḥ 。傳譯42 [海關。弗里德曼,第177條,注〕 ; midr 。了。 cxlvi 8 ; eccl 。傳譯一, 9 ,後伊薩。三十五,六;可比。馬特。十一。 5 ) 。 A spiritual regeneration will also take place, and Israel's sons and daughters will prophesy (Num. R. xv., after Joel iii. 1 [AV ii. 28], a passage which contradicts the statement of Bousset, lcp 229).一種精神復興也將在什麼地方,和以色列的兒子和女兒將預言( num.傳譯十五後,約珥三,一[影音二, 28 ] ,一個通道,這是自相矛盾的聲明bousset ,液晶聚合物229 ) 。

Renewal of the Time of Moses.續期的時候,摩西。

The Messiah will furthermore win the heathen by the spirit of wisdom and righteousness which rests upon him (Sibyllines, iii. 780; Test. Patr., Levi, 18; Judah, 24; Targ. Yer. to Gen. xlix. 12 and Isa. xli. 1).彌賽亞將進一步贏得異教徒所體現的精神,智慧和公義,這取決於他( sibyllines ,三, 780 ;考驗。 patr ,利維, 18歲;猶大, 24歲; targ 。也門里亞爾。將軍xlix 12和ISA 。四十一, 1 ) 。 He will teach the nations the Noachian laws of humanity and make all men disciples of the Lord (Midr. Teh. xxi.).他將教導各該noachian人道法律,使所有男弟子的主( midr.了。二十一) 。 The wonders of the time of Moses will be repeated on a larger scale in the time of the Messiah (Mek., Beshallaḥ, Shirah, 8, after Micah vii. 15; comp. Hosea ii. 17; Targ.; Tan., Bo, ed. Buber, 6).奇觀的時候,摩西將會重演規模就比較大,在時間的彌賽亞( mek. , beshallaḥ , shirah日, 8日,經過彌迦七, 15人;可比。何西阿二, 17人; targ ;火炭時,薄熙來教育署。布伯, 6 ) 。 What Moses, the first redeemer, did is typical of what the Messiah as the last redeemer will do (Eccl. R. i. 9).什麼摩西,第一救贖主,做的,是典型的是什麼救世主作為最後的救贖會(傳道書傳譯一9 ) 。 The redemption will be in the same month of Nisan and in the same night (Mek., Bo, 14); the same pillar of cloud will lead Israel (Philo, "De Execrationibus," 8; Targ. Yer. to Isa. xxxv. 10): the same plagues will be sent upon Israel's foes (Tan., Wa'era, ed. Buber, 15; Bo, 6, 19; Midr. Wayosha'; Jellinek, "BH" i. 45); the redeemer will ride on an ass (Zech. ix. 9; comp. Ex. iv. 20); manna will again be sent down from heaven (Ps. lxxii. 16; comp. Ps. lxxviii. 24; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xxix. 8); and water rise from beneath by miraculous power (Joel iv. [AV iii.] 18; comp. Ps. lxxviii. 15 et seq.; Eccl. R. i. 9).贖回將在同一個月內尼散月14日,並在同一天晚上( mek. ,薄熙來, 14 ) ;同時黑影將導致以色列(斐洛, "德execrationibus , " 8 ; targ 。也門里亞爾。到ISA第三十五。 10 ) :同瘟疫將被派往以色列的敵人( tan. , wa'era ,教育署。布伯, 15人;公報,第6 ,第19條; midr 。 wayosha ' ; jellinek , "波黑"一45 ) ;救贖要藉一個驢( zech.九九;可比。前四。 20 ) ;甘露將再次派出由天堂(雅歌lxxii 16段;可比。聚苯乙烯。 lxxviii 。 24 ;敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch ,二十九。 8 ) ;及水上升,從下方由神奇的力量(約珥四[影音第三節] 18歲;可比。聚苯乙烯。 lxxviii 15段及以下各段; eccl 。傳譯一9 ) 。 Like Moses, the Messiah will disappear for 90 or 45 days after his appearance (Pesiḥ. R. 15; Pesiḥ. v. 49b, after Hosea v. 15).像摩西,彌賽亞將消失,為90或45天之後,他的外貌( pesiḥ.傳譯15項; pesiḥ訴第49B後,何西阿訴15 ) 。 The same number of people will be redeemed (Sanh. 111a) and the Song of Moses be replaced by another song (Mek., Beshallaḥ, Shirah, 1; Rev. xv. 3).同樣數目的人將被贖回( sanh. 111a ) ,這首歌的摩西取代另一首歌( mek. , beshallaḥ , shirah , 1 ;牧師十五。 3 ) 。 But, like Moses, the Messiah will die (II Esd. lc); the opinion that the Messiah will not taste death (Midr. Teh. lxxii. 17) seems to be of later origin, and will be discussed in connection with the account of the Messiah from the tribe of Joseph or Ephraim (see below).但是,像摩西,彌賽亞會死(二公共服務電子化計劃。立法會) ;認為,彌賽亞將不會品味死亡( midr.了。 lxxii 17 ) ,似乎是後來的原產地,以及將討論他們涉嫌與該帳戶的彌賽亞,從部落的約瑟夫或艾弗冷(見下文) 。

The Cosmic Characters of the Messianic Time.宇宙特性救世主的時候。

Jewish theology always insisted on drawing a sharp line between the Messianic days and the final days of God's sole kingdom.猶太神學始終堅持統籌兼顧,夏普線之間的救世主天,並在最後的日子上帝的唯一英國。 Hence the characteristic baraita counting ten world-rulers, beginning with God before Creation, then naming, Nimrod, Joseph, Solomon, Ahab, Nebuchadnezzar, Cyrus, Alexander the Great, the Messiah, and ending with God last as He was the first (Pirḳe R. El. xi.; Meg. 11a is incomplete).因此特徵baraita計數10位世界的統治者,開始與上帝才創造,然後命名,尼姆羅德,約瑟夫,索羅門, ahab , nebuchadnezzar ,居魯士,亞歷山大大帝,彌賽亞,並結束與神上,因為他是第一個( pirḳe傳譯下午第十一;梅格。 11A條是不完整的) 。 There are, however, in the personality of the Messiah supernatural elements adopted from the Persian Soshians ("Savior") which lent to the whole Messianic age a specifically cosmic character.有,但是,在人格的彌賽亞超自然元素通過從波斯語soshians ( "救世主" ) ,其中借給整個救世主歲數的具體宇宙特性。 An offspring of Zoroaster, born miraculously by a virgin of a seed hidden in a lake for thousands of years, Soshians is, together with a number of associates, six, or seven, or thirty, to bring about the resurrection, slay Angro-mainyush and his hosts of demons, judge the risen dead, giving each his due reward, and finally renew the whole world (Bundahis, xxx.; Windischmann, "Zoroastrische Studien," 1863, pp. 231 et seq.; Böcklen, "Die Verwandtschaft der Jüdischchristlichen mit der Parsischen Eschatologie," 1902, pp. 91 et seq.).一個後代zoroaster ,生於奇蹟般地由一個處女的種子藏在湖千百年來, soshians是,連同一些同夥,六,或七,或三十,使復活,斬angro - mainyush和他的東道主的魔鬼,判斷上升死了,相互給予他應有的報酬,並最終延續整個世界( bundahis了XXX 。 ; windischmann , " zoroastrische研究會" , 1863年,第231頁起; böcklen , "死verwandtschaft明鏡jüdischchristlichen麻省理工學院明鏡parsischen eschatologie " , 1902年,第91頁起) 。 Similarly, the Messiah is a being existing from before Creation (Gen. R. i.; Pesiḥ. R. 33; Pirḳe R. El. iii.; Pes. 54a, based on Ps. lxxii. 17), and kept hidden for thousands of years (Enoch, xlvi. 2 et seq., xlviii. 6, lxii. 7; II Esd. xii. 32, xiii, 26; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xxix.; Midr. Teh. xxi.; Targ. to Micah iv. 8).同樣地,彌賽亞是一個正在從現有之前創作(創傳譯一; pesiḥ 。傳譯33個; pirḳe傳譯下午三。 ;聚醚砜。 54A條的基礎上,聚苯乙烯。 lxxii 17 ) ,並保存為隱藏千百年來(伊諾克,四十六2段及以下各段, 48 。 6 , lxii 7段;二,公共服務電子化計劃。十二, 32 , 13 , 26 ,敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch ,二十九; midr 。第二十一; targ 。彌迦四8 ) 。 He comes "from a strange seed" (: Gen. R. xxiii., with reference to Gen. iv. 25; Gen. R. li., with reference to Gen. xix. 34; Gen. R. lxxxv.; Tan., Wayesheb, ed. Buber, 13, with reference to Gen. xxxviii. 29; comp. Matt. i. 3); or from the North (, which may also mean "concealment": Lev. R. ix.; Num. R. xiii., after Isa. xli. 25; comp. John vii. 27).他說到: "從一個奇怪的種子" ( :將軍傳譯二十三,參照將軍四,第25條;將軍傳譯李,參照將軍十九。 34 ;將軍傳譯lxxxv ;檀, wayesheb ,教育署。布伯, 13 ,參照將軍三十八, 29人;可比。馬特。一, 3 ) ;或從北( ,也可以指"隱藏" :列弗。傳譯九;序號。傳譯十三後,伊薩。四十一,第25條;可比。約翰七, 27 ) 。

The Messiah's immortal companions reappear with him (II Esd. xiii. 52, xiv. 9; comp. vi. 26).彌賽亞的不朽同伴捉獲,跟他(二公共服務電子化。十三, 52 , 14 。 9 ;可比。六, 26 ) 。 Derek Ereẓ Zuṭa i.德里克ereẓ zuṭa一。 mentions nine immortals (see Kohler, in "JQR" v. 407-419, and comp. the transposed [hidden] righteous ones in Mandäan lore; Brand, "Die Mandäische Religion," 1889, p. 38).提到九個神仙(見科勒,在" jqr "五407-419 ,並可比。換位[隱藏]正義在mandäan知識;品牌, "死mandäische宗教" , 1889年,第38頁) 。 They are probably identical with "the righteous who raise the dead in the Messianic time" (Pes. 68a).他們很可能是一致的: "站在正義的人,提高人死亡救世主的時間" ( pes. 68 A條) 。 Prominent among the companions of the Messiah are: (1) Elijah the prophet (see Elijah in Rabbinical Literature), who is expected as high priest to anoint the Messiah (Justin, "Dialogus cum Tryphone," viii., xlix.; comp. Targ. to Ex. xl. 10; John i. 21); to bring about Israel's repentance (Pirḳe R. El. xliii.) and reunion (Targ. Yer. to Deut. xxx. 4; Sibyllines, v. 187 et seq.), and finally the resurrection of the dead (Yer. Shab. i. 5-3c; Sheḳ. iii. 47c; Agadat Shir ha-Shirim, ed. Schechter, to Cant. vii. 14); he will also bring to light again the hidden vessels of Moses' time (Mek., Beshauah, Wayassa', 5; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, vi. 8; comp., however, Num. R. xviii.: "the Messiah will disclose these"); (2) Moses, who will reappear with Elijah (Deut. R. iii.; Targ. Yer. to Ex. xii. 42; comp. Ex. R. xviii. and Luke ix. 30); (3) Jeremiah (II Macc. xv. 14; Matt. xvi. 14); (4) Isaiah (II Esd. ii. 18); (5) Baruch (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, vi. 8, xiii. 3, xxv. 1, xlvi. 2); (6) Ezra (II Esd. xiv. 9); (7) Enoch (Enoch, xc. 31; Evangelium Nicodemi, xxv.), and others (Luke ix. 8; comp. also Septuagint to Job, end).其中最突出的同伴的彌賽亞是: ( 1 )以利亞的先知(見利亞在猶太教文學) ,世衛組織預計,作為大祭司以傅油彌賽亞(賈斯汀, " dialogus暨tryphone , "八, xlix ;可比。 targ 。移。四十, 10歲;約翰一21 ) ;促成以色列的懺悔( pirḳe傳譯下午。四十三)和留尼汪( targ.層。 deut XXX計劃。四日; sibyllines ,五, 187頁起) ,並最終死中復活( yer.沙巴一,五- 3C型; sheḳ三。 47 c ; agadat shir夏shirim ,教育署。 Schechter已,以斜面。七, 14 ) ,他也將帶來輕又隱藏船隻的摩西時間( mek. , beshauah , wayassa ' , 5 ;敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch ,六,八;可比。不過,序號。傳譯十八說: "彌賽亞會透露這些" ) ; ( 2 )摩西,他們將重現與以利亞(申命記傳譯三; targ 。也門里亞爾。單方面的。十二。 42 ;可比。特惠。傳譯十八和路加九30 ) ; ( 3 )耶利米(二排雷行動。十五, 14個;馬特。十六, 14 ) ; ( 4 )以賽亞書(二公共服務電子化二。 18 ) ; ( 5 ) baruch (敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch ,六,八,十三, 3 ,二十五。一日四十六。 2 ) , ( 6 )以斯拉(二公共服務電子化。第十四9 ) , ( 7 )伊諾克(伊諾克,越野31 evangelium nicodemi ,二十五) ,以及其他(路加福音九八;可比。 septuagint也為求職,完) 。 The "four smiths" in the vision of Zech. "四個史密斯" ,在視覺的撒加利亞。 ii.二。 3 (i. 20, RV) were referred by the Rabbis to the four chiefs, or associates, of the Messianic time; Elijah and the Messiah, Melchizedek and the "Anointed for the War" (Messiah ben Joseph: Pesiḥ. v. 51a; comp. Suk. 55b). 3 (一20 , RV )的則轉交由拉比向四個酋長,或同夥,對救世主的時間;利亞和彌賽亞, melchizedek和"選定為戰爭" (彌賽亞賁約瑟夫: pesiḥ訴51 ;可比。淑。山東) 。 The "seven shepherds and the eight princes" (Micah v. 4 [AV 5]) are taken to be: Adam, Seth, Methuselah (Enoch was stricken from the list of the saints in post-Christian times), Abraham, Jacob, and Moses, with David in the middle, forming the set of "shepherds"; Jesse, Saul, Samuel (?), Amos (?), Hezekiah, Zedekiah, Elijah, and the Messiah, forming the set of "princes" (Suk. 52b). "七個牧羊人和八個王子" (彌迦訴4 [影音5 ] ) ,是採取將是:亞當,塞思庫, methuselah (伊諾克是力爭從名單上的聖徒,在後基督教時代) ,亞伯拉罕,雅各,和摩西,大衛在中間,形成了一套"牧羊人" ;傑西,娑羅雙樹,塞繆爾( ? ) ,阿莫斯( ? ) , hezekiah , zedekiah ,以利亞和彌賽亞,最終形成了一套"王子" (淑。 52 b型) 。 These, fifteen in number, correspond to the fifteen men and women in the company of the Persian Soshians.其中,在15個號碼,對應15個男性和女性在該公司的波斯語soshians 。 The Coptic Elias Apocalypse (xxxvii., translated by Steindorf), speaks of sixty companions of the Messiah (see Bousset, lcp 221).科普特埃利亞斯啟示( xxxvii. ,翻譯施泰因多夫) ,談第六十一同伴的彌賽亞(見bousset ,液晶聚合物221 ) 。

The Messiah of the Tribe of Joseph.彌賽亞該部落的約瑟夫。

The origin and character of the Messiah of the tribe of Joseph, or Ephraim, are rather obscure.起源和性質彌賽亞該部落的約瑟夫,或艾弗冷,是相當模糊。 It seems that the assumed superhuman character of the Messiah appeared to be in conflict with the tradition that spoke of his death, and therefore the figure of a Messiah who would come from the tribe of Joseph, or Ephraim, instead of from Judah, and who would willingly undergo suffering for his nation and fall as victim in the Gog and Magog war, was createdby the haggadists (see Pesik. R. 37; comp. 34.).看來,假設超人的性格彌賽亞似乎是在衝突與傳統,以他的死因,因此,這個數字一彌賽亞的人將來自部落的約瑟夫,或艾弗冷,而不是由猶大,是誰會心甘情願地接受痛苦,為自己民族的存亡,作為受害者在gog和瑪戰爭中,被createdby該haggadists (見佩希克。傳譯37 ;可比34 ) 。 To him was referred the passage, "They shall look unto him whom they have pierced and mourn for him" (Zech. xii. 10, Hebr.; Suk. 52a), as well as the fifty-third chapter of Isaiah (see Justin, "Dialogus cum Tryphone," lxviii. and xc.; comp. Sanh. 98b, "the Messiah's name is 'The Leper' ['ḥiwwara'; comp. Isa. liii. 4]; the passage quoted in Martini, "Pugio Fidei," p. 417, cited by Gfrörer [lc 267] and others, is scarcely genuine; see Eppstein, "Bereshit Rabbati," 1888, p. 26). The older haggadah referred also "the wild ox" who with his horns will "push the people to the ends of the earth" (Deut. xxxiii. 17, Hebr.) to the Ephraimite Messiah (Gen. R. lxxv.; comp. Num. R. xiv.). The Messiah from the tribe of Ephraim falls in the battle with Gog and Magog, whereas the Messiah from the house of David kills the superhuman hostile leader (Angro-mainyush) with the breath of his mouth; then he is universally recognized as king (Suk. 52a; comp. Targ. Yer. to Ex. xl. 9, 11; Targ. to Isa. xi. 4, Cant. iv. 5; Sefer Zerubbabel, in Jellinek, "BH" ii. 56, where he is introduced with the name of Nehemiah b. Ḥushiel; comp. lc 60 et seq., iii. 80 et seq.).他所指的是通過" ,他們會指望祂的人,他們都射穿,並悼念為他" ( zech.十二, 10 ,黑布爾;淑。 52 ) ,以及作為第五十三章以賽亞書(見賈斯汀" dialogus暨tryphone , " lxviii和越野;可比。 sanh 。 98b , "彌賽亞的名字就是『 leper ' [ ' ḥiwwara ' ;可比。伊薩。 liii 。 4 〕 ;通過引述馬提尼" , pugio信" , 417頁,列舉gfrörer [立法會267 ]和其他人,這是無法真正見eppstein , " bereshit rabbati " , 1888年,第26頁) 。老一輩haggadah也提到: "野生黃牛"的人與他的牛角將"把人民推到兩端的地球" (申命記三十三。 17 ,黑布爾) ,以該ephraimite彌賽亞(創傳譯lxxv ;可比。序號。傳譯十四) 。彌賽亞從部落艾弗冷瀑布,在這場與gog和瑪,而彌賽亞由眾議院大衛殺死了超人的敵對領袖( angro - mainyush )隨呼氣他的嘴,然後他已成為舉世公認景( suk. 52A的;可比。 targ 。也門里亞爾。移。四十, 9日, 11日; targ 。伊薩。十一。 4 ,斜面。四,五日; sefer所羅巴伯,在jellinek , "波黑"二, 56 ,在那裡他介紹了該人的姓名的尼希米記b 。 ḥushiel ;可比。立法會60段及以下各段,三, 80頁起) 。

"Great will be the suffering the Messiah of the tribe of Ephraim has to undergo for seven years at the hand of the nations, who lay iron beams upon him to crush him so that his cries reach heaven; but he willingly submits for the sake of his people, not only those living, but also the dead, for all those who died since Adam; and God places the four beasts of the heavenly throne-chariot at his disposal to bring about the great work of resurrection and regeneration against all the celestial antagonists" (Pesiḥ. R. 36). "偉大的,將苦難彌賽亞該部落的艾弗冷已進行了7年,在手的國家,誰打好鐵梁後,他砸死他,使他的呼聲達到上天,但他心甘情願地提出,為他的人,不僅是生活,而且還死了,對於所有那些死於自從亞當和上帝的地方,四個獸的天朝寶座-戰車,在他的處置,使偉大的工作,復活和再生對所有天體拮抗劑" ( pesiḥ.傳譯36 ) 。 The Patriarchs will rise from their graves in Nisan and pay homage to his greatness as the suffering Messiah, and when the nations (104 kingdoms) put him in shackles in the prison-house and make sport of him, as is described in Ps.該patriarchs將上升,從他們的墳墓在尼散月14日祭奠自己的偉大,因為苦難的救世主,當國家( 104演義)把他放在桎梏,在監獄內部,使體育的他,因為是描述在PS 。 xxii.二十二。 8-16, God will address him with the words "Ephraim, My dear son, child of My comfort, I have great compassion on thee" (Jer. xxxi. 20, Hebr.), assuring him that "with the breath of his mouth he shall slay the wicked one" (Isa. xi. 4); and He will surround him with a sevenfold canopy of precious stones, place streams of wine, honey, milk, and balsam at his feet, fan him with all the fragrant breezes of paradise, and then tell the saints that admire and pity him that he has not gone through half the suffering imposed upon him from the world's beginning (Pesiḥ. R. 37). 8-16 ,上帝會稱呼他後面加上"與艾弗冷吧,我親愛的兒子,孩子我的安慰,我有很大的同情心,對祢" ( jer.三十一。 20 ,黑布爾) ,向他保證說: "隨著呼吸的,他他的嘴應斬惡人之一" (以賽亞書十一4 ) ,以及他將環繞給他送上了七倍傘蓋的寶石,發生了源源不斷的葡萄酒,蜂蜜,牛奶和苦瓜在他的腳,範與他的一切芬芳海風的天堂,然後告訴聖徒表示敬佩和同情他說,他沒有經過半個世紀的苦難強加給他,從世界的開始( pesiḥ.傳譯37 ) 。 The haggadists, however, did not always clearly discriminate between the Ephraimite Messiah, who falls a victim, and the son of David, who is glorified as victor and receives the tributes of the nations (Midr. Teh. xviii. 5, where the former is meant as being the one "insulted" according to Ps. lxxxix. 51 [AV 52]; comp. Targ. Yer. to Num. xi. 26, and Midr. Teh. lxxxvii. 6, where the two Messiahs are mentioned together).該haggadists ,然而,並不總是明確地區別對待ephraimite彌賽亞,他們屬於受害者,而兒子大衛,他是美化為勝利者,並接收該悼念的國家( midr.了。十八。 5 ,如果前就是被稱為是一個"侮辱"根據聚苯乙烯。 lxxxix 51 [視聽52 〕 ;可比。 targ 。也門里亞爾。序號。十一, 26條和第midr 。了。 lxxxvii 。 6 ,如果兩個救星提到了一起) 。 According to Tan.據譚。 Yelamdenu, Shofeṭim (end), the nations will first bring tributes to the Messiah; then, seized by a spirit of confusion ("ruaḥ tezazit"), they will rebel and make war against him; but he will burn them with the breath of his mouth and none but Israel will remain (that is, on the battle-field: this is misunderstood by Weber, lc; comp. II Esd. xiii. 9). yelamdenu , shofeṭim (完)看來,各國將首先帶來的貢品,以彌賽亞,緊接著,檢獲的精神混亂( " ruaḥ tezazit " ) ,他們將叛亂,使戰爭對他,但他會燒他們同呼吸他的嘴,沒有但是,以色列將繼續(也就是對戰鬥場:這是誤解了韋伯,立法會;可比。二,公共服務電子化。十三。 9 ) 。

In the later apocalyptic literature the Ephraimite Messiah is introduced by the name of Nehemiah ben Ḥushiel, and the victorious Messiah as Menahem ben 'Ammi El ("Comforter, son of the people of God": Jellinek, "BH" ii. 56, 60 et al.).在後來的世界末日文學ephraimite彌賽亞是介紹所的名義尼希米記本ḥushiel ,戰勝國彌賽亞作為menahem奔'的AMMI下午(下稱"保惠師的兒子,人民的上帝" : jellinek , "波黑"二, 56 , 60等) 。 It appears that the eschatologists were anxious to discriminate between the fourth heathen power personified in Edom (Rome) the wicked, over whom the Ephraimite Messiah alone is destined to carry victory (Pesiḥ. R. 12; Gen. R. lxxiii.; BB 123b), and the Gog and Magog army, over which the son of David was to triumph while the son of Ephraim fell (see Otot ha-Mashiaḥ, Jellinek, lc).看來,這eschatologists急於區別第四異教徒權力人格化,在益登(羅馬)惡人,誰ephraimite彌賽亞單是注定要進行勝利( pesiḥ.傳譯12歲;將軍傳譯lxxiii ; BB心跳123b ) ,以及gog和瑪軍隊,其中的兒子大衛,是凱旋而兒子的艾弗冷下降(見otot夏mashiaḥ , jellinek ,立法會) 。 While the fall of the wicked kingdom (Rome) was taken to be the beginning of the rise of the kingdom of God (Pesiḥ. v. 51a), the belief was that between the fall of the empire of Edom = Rome and the defeat of the Gog and Magog army there would be a long interval (see Pesiḥ. xxii. 148a; comp. Pesiḥ. R. 37 [ed. Friedmann, 163b, note]).而秋天的惡人英國(羅馬)採取了將開始崛起,神的國度( pesiḥ.訴51 ) ,信仰之間,秋天帝國的益登=羅馬和失敗該gog和瑪軍隊將有很長一段間隔時間(見pesiḥ 。二十二。 148a ;可比。 pesiḥ 。傳譯37 [海關。弗里德曼, 163b ,注] ) 。

According to R. Eliezer of Modin (Mek., Beshallaḥ, Wayassa', 4 [ed. Weiss, p. 58b, note]), the Messiah is simply to restore the reign of the Davidic dynasty ("malkut bet Dawid"; comp. Maimonides, Commentary to Sanh. xi.: "The Messiah, the son of David, will die, and his son and grandson will follow him"; on the other hand, Baḥya ben Joseph in his commentary to Gen. xi. 11 says: "The Messiah will not die"); also "the Aaronitic priesthood and Levitic service."據傳譯埃利澤的modin ( mek. , beshallaḥ , wayassa ' , 4 [海關維斯,第58B條,注] ) ,彌賽亞純粹是為了挽回執政的davidic王朝( " malkut打賭dawid " ;可比。邁蒙尼德,評sanh第十一說: "彌賽亞,兒子大衛,將求死之心,他的兒子和孫子會追隨他的" ;另一方面, baḥya賁約瑟夫在他的評論,以將軍溪11說:說: "彌賽亞不會死" ) ;也是" aaronitic神職人員和levitic服務" 。

The New Jerusalem.新耶路撒冷。

The apocalyptic writers and many rabbis who took a less sober view of the Messianic future expected a new Jerusalem built of sapphire, gold, and precious stones, with gates, walls, and towers of wondrous size and splendor (Tobit xiii. 15, xiv. 4; Rev. xxi. 9-21; Sibyllines, iii. 657 et seq., v. 250 et seq., 420 et seq.; BB 75a; Pes. 50a; Pesiḥ. xx. 143a; Pesiḥ. R. 32; Midr. Teh. lxxxvii.; in accordance with Isa. liv. 11 et seq., lx. 10; Hag. ii. 7; Zech. ii. 8).世界末日作家和許多拉比的人採取較不清醒的看法的救世主,預計未來一個新的耶路撒冷興建的寶石,黃金和寶石,與蓋茨,牆壁,和塔驚異的規模和輝煌(以Tobit十三,十五,十四。 4 ;牧師二十一, 9月21日; sibyllines ,三, 657頁起,訴250頁起, 420頁起; BB心跳US_條;狗。 50條A ; pesiḥ 。二十。世界級; pesiḥ 。傳譯32 ; midr 。了。 lxxxvii ;按照伊薩。麗芙阿薩諾11段及以下各段,中心LX 。 10 ; hag 。二,七;撒加利亞二。 8 ) 。 The "new" or "upper Jerusalem" (; Ta'an 5a; Ḥag. 12b; Test. Patr., Dan. 5; Rev. xxi. 2, 10; Gal. iv. 26; Heb. xii. 22) seen in visions by Adam, Abraham, and Moses (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, iv. 2-6) will in the days of the Messiah appear in all its splendor (II Esd. vii. 26, x. 50 et seq.; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xxxii. 4); it will be reared upon the top of all the mountains of the earth piled one upon the other (Pesiḥ. xxi. 144b, after Isa. ii. 2). "新"或"上的耶路撒冷" ( ; ta'an 5A條; ḥag 。 12 B條;考驗。 patr ,丹5款;牧師二十一。 2 ,第10條;加爾四。 26 ;以弗所書十二22 )閱讀在願景,亞當,亞伯拉罕,摩西(敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch ,四2-6 ) ,將在今後幾天的彌賽亞出現,在其所有的輝煌(二公共服務電子化。七, 26 ,十, 50段及以下各段;敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch ,三十二。四日) ,它會被飼養後,除了現行的所有上山的地球成堆之一後,其他( pesiḥ.二十一。 144b後,伊薩二。 2 ) 。

This expectation of course includes a "heavenly temple," "miḳdash shel ma'alah" (Enoch, xc. 29 et seq.; comp. Ḥag. lc; Pes. 54, after Jer. xvii. 12).這種期望當然也包括了"天朝廟" , " miḳdash shel ma'alah " (伊諾克, XC的29段及以下各段;可比。 ḥag 。信用證;聚醚砜54後,張哲。十七, 12 ) 。 The more sober view is that the Messiah will replace the polluted temple with a pure and holy one (Enoch, liii. 6, xc. 28, xci. 13; Sibyllines, iii. 77b; Psalms of Solomon xvii. 30; comp. Lev. R. ix.: "Coming from the North, the Messiah will erect the temple in the South").更清醒的看法是,彌賽亞將取代污染廟用純潔和神聖一(伊諾克, liii 。 6 ,越野28 , xci 13 ; sibyllines ,三, 77b ;詩篇所羅門十七, 30日;可比。列弗。傳譯九說: "來自北方,彌賽亞將豎立在廟南" ) 。 The sacred vessels of the Tabernacle of Moses' time, hidden ever since, are expected to reappear (II Macc. ii. 4-8; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, vi. 7-10; Tosef., Soṭah, xiii. 1; apocryphical Masseket Kelim; Yoma 52b; Tan., Wayeḥi, ed. Buber, 3; comp. Josephus, "Ant." xviii. 4, § 1).神聖的船隻幕摩西的時候,隱性自那以後,預計將再現(二排雷二。 4-8 ;敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch ,六7-10 ; tosef , soṭah ,十三, 1條; apocryphical masseket凱利姆; yoma 52 b型;火炭, wayeḥi ,教育署。布伯, 3 ;可比。約瑟夫, "螞蟻" 。十八。 4 , § 1 ) 。 There will be no sin any more, for "the Lord will shake the land of Israel andcleanse it from all impurity" (Pirḳe R. El. xxxiv. 21, after Job xxxviii. 13).將不會有任何單更多,因為"上帝會動搖以色列的土地andcleanse它的一切污穢" ( pirḳe傳譯下午。三十四。 21 ,就業後的三十八13 ) 。 The Messianic time will be without merit ["zekut"] and without guilt ["ḥobah"] (Shab. 151b).救世主的時候,將毫無實據[ " zekut " ] ,並沒有罪惡感[ " ḥobah " ] ( shab. 151b ) 。 Yet "only the select ones will be allowed to go up to the new Jerusalem" (BB 75b).然而, "只有專責者將被允許進入到新的耶路撒冷" ( BB心跳75b ) 。

A. New Law.答:新的法律。

Whereas the Babylonian schools took it for granted that the Mosaic law, and particularly the sacrificial and priestly laws, will be fully observed in the Messianic time (Yoma 5b et al.), the view that a new Law of God will be proclaimed by the Messiah is occasionally expressed (Eccl. R. ii. 1; Lev. R. xiii., according to Jer. xxxi. 32)-"the thirty commandments" which comprise the Law of humanity (Gen. R. xcviii.).而巴比倫的學校了,它理所當然地認為鑲嵌法,特別是祭祀和司鐸法律,將完全遵守在救世主的時間( yoma五十億等) ,還有人認為,這一項新的法律,上帝將宣布由彌賽亞是偶爾表達(傳道書傳譯二,一;列弗。傳譯十三,根據張哲。三十一,三十二) -"第三十二戒律" ,其中包括法律的人性(創傳譯x cviii) 。 "Ye will receive a new Law from the Elect One of the righteous" (Targ. to Isa. xii. 3). "葉將獲得一項新的法律,從互選一人的正義" ( targ.到ISA 。十二。 3 ) 。 The Holy One will expound the new Law to be given by the Messiah (Yalḳ. ii. 296, to Isa. xxvi.); according to Pes.聖地之一,將就此闡述了新的法律必須由彌賽亞( yalḳ.二296 ,到ISA 。二十六) ;根據狗。 xii.十二。 107a, He will only infuse new ideas ("ḥiddush debarim"); or the Messiah will take upon himself the kingdom of the Law and make many zealous followers thereof (Targ. to Isa. ix. 5 et seq., and Iiii. 11-12). 107a ,他將只注入新的思路(簡稱" ḥiddush debarim " ) ;或彌賽亞將自己置身於英國的法律,使很多熱心的追隨者( targ.到ISA第九5段及以下各段,並㈣ 11 。 -12 ) 。 "There will be a new covenant which shall not be broken" (Sifra, Beḥuḳḳotai, ii., after Jer. xxxi. 32). "將有新的盟約,不得被打破" ( sifra , beḥuḳḳotai ,二後,張哲。三十一。 32 ) 。 The dietary and purity laws will no longer be in force (Lev. R. xxii.; Midr. Teh. cxlvii., ed. Buber, note; R. Joseph said: "All ceremonial laws will be abrogated in the future" [Nid. 61b]; this, however, refers to the time of the Resurrection).飲食和純潔性,法律將不再生效( lev.傳譯二十二; midr 。了。 cxlvii ,教育署。布伯,請注意;傳譯約瑟夫說: "所有禮儀法律一律廢止,在未來的"全國免疫日。 61 B條〕 ;不過,這指的就是時間的復活) 。

Resurrection formed part of the Messianic hope (Isa. xxiv. 19; Dan. xii. 2).復活的組成部分救世主的希望(以賽亞書24 。 19 ;丹。十二。 2 ) 。 Martyrs for the Law were specially expected to share in the future glory of Israel (II Macc. vii. 6, 9, 23; Book of Jubilees, xxiii. 30), the term for having a share in the future life being "to inherit the land" (Ḳid. i. 10).烈士為法律專門預計未來共同的願景,榮耀以色列(二排雷七。 6 , 9 , 23歲;易經jubilees ,二十三, 30人) ,任期為每股盈餘在今後的生活中的"繼承土地" ( ḳid.一10 ) 。 The Resurrection was therefore believed to take place solely in the Holy Land (Pesiḥ. R. 1; the "land of the living" in Ps. cxvi. 9 means "the land where the dead live again").復活的,因此被認為是僅發生在聖地( pesiḥ.傳譯1 "的土地上的生活" ,在PS 。 cxvi 9手段"的土地,死者住再次" ) 。 Jerusalem alone is the city whose dead will blossom forth as the grass, for those buried elsewhere will be compelled to creep through holes in the ground to the Holy Land (Ket. 3b; Pesiḥ. R. lc).耶路撒冷僅是城市,其死也將百花齊放,提出了為基層,對那些埋在其他地方將被迫蠕變通過孔在地面,以聖地( ket. 3B及第; pesiḥ 。傳譯) 。 From this point of view the Resurrection is accorded only to Israel (Gen. R. xiii.).從這個角度來看,復活的是只向以色列(創傳譯十三) 。 The great trumpet blown to gather the tribes of Israel (Isa. xxvii. 13) will also rouse the dead (Ber. 15b; Targ. Yer. to Ex. xx. 15; II Esd. iv. 23 et seq.; I Cor. xv. 52; I Thess. iv. 16).偉大的小號吹聚集部落的以色列(以賽亞書二十七, 13日)也將振奮死亡( ber. 15B條; targ 。也門里亞爾。單方面的XX 。 15 ;二,公共服務電子化。四, 23段及以下各段,我肺心病。 15 。 52 ,我帖前四16 ) 。

The Last Judgment precedes the Resurrection.最後的審判之前的復活。 Judged by the Messiah, the nations with their guardian angels and stars shall be cast into Gehenna.由大家來評判,彌賽亞,國家與護衛天使和星星,應投入地獄。 According to Rabbi Eleazar of Modi'im, in answer to the protests of the princes of the seventy-two nations, God will say, "Let each nation go through the fire together with its guardian deity," when Israel alone will be saved (Cant. R. ii. 1).據拉比埃萊亞薩的莫迪姆,在回答抗議的王公的72國,上帝會說, "讓每一個國家經過消防連同其守護神, "當以色列單獨將被保存(斜面。傳譯二,一) 。 This gave rise to the idea adopted by Christianity, that the Messiah would pass through Hades (Test. Patr., Benjamin, 9; Yalḳ., Isa. 359; see Eppstein, "Bereshit Rabbati," 1888, p. 31).由此引發了思想,通過了由基督教,即彌賽亞將通過地獄( test. patr 。本傑明, 9歲; yalḳ ,伊薩359見eppstein , " bereshit rabbati " , 1888年,第31頁) 。 The end of the judgment of the heathen is the establishment of the kingdom of God (Mek., Beshallaḥ, 'Amaleḳ).去年底判決的異教徒,是建立神的國度( mek. , beshallaḥ , ' amaleḳ ) 。 The Messiah will cast Satan into Gehenna, and death and sorrow flee forever (Pesiḥ. R. 36; see also Antichrist; Armilus; Belial).彌賽亞會投撒旦變成地獄,死亡和悲傷逃離永遠( pesiḥ.傳譯36 ,還見箴; armilus ; belial ) 。

In later times the belief in a universal Resurrection became general.在稍後的時間,相信在全民復活成了一般。 "All men as they are born and die are to rise again," says Eliezer ben Ḳappar (Abotiv.). "所有男人,因為他們的誕生和死亡,是為了再次攀升,說: "埃利澤賁ḳappar ( abotiv. ) 。 The Resurrection will occur at the close of the Messianic era (Enoch, xcviii. 10).復活將出現在結算救世主的時代(伊諾克, xcviii 10條) 。 Death will befall the Messiah after his four hundred years' reign, and all mankind and the world will lapse into primeval silence for seven days, after which the renewed earth will give forth its dead and God will judge the world and assign the evil-doers to the pit of hell and the righteous to paradise, which is on the opposite side (II Esd. vii. 26-36).死亡會降臨到彌賽亞後,他四百年'統治,以及所有人類,世界將陷入原始沉默七天後,再度地球會提出其死亡,上帝會評判世界和轉讓惡人該坑的地獄和正義的天堂,這是對對方的(二公共服務電子化。七26-36 ) 。 All evildoers meet with everlasting punishment.一切惡與永恆的懲罰。 It was a matter of dispute between the Shammaite R. Eliezer and the Hillelite R. Joshua whether the righteous among the heathen had a share in the future world or not (Tosef., Sanh. xiii. 2), the dispute hinging on the verse "the wicked shall return to Sheol, and all the Gentiles that forget God" (Ps. ix. 18 [AV 17], Hebr.).這是一個有爭議的關係shammaite傳譯埃利澤和hillelite傳譯約書亞是否正義之間的異教徒進行了交流,在未來的世界是不是( tosef. , sanh 。十三。 2 ) ,這一爭執毋寧說更側重於韻文"惡人應回到sheol ,所有外邦人說,忘記上帝" (詩篇九, 18 [視聽17 ] ,黑布爾) 。 The doctrine "All Israelites have a share in the world to come" (Sanh. xi. 1) is based upon Isa.該學說" ,所有以色列人都分享未來世界" ( sanh.十一1 ) ,是基於ISA的。 Ix.九。 21: "Thy people, all of them righteous, shall inherit the land" (Hebr.). 21 : "你的人,他們都是正義的,應在繼承土地" ( hebr. ) 。 At first resurrection was regarded as a miraculous boon granted only to the righteous (Test. Patr., Simeon, 6; Luke xiv. 14), but afterward it was considered to be universal in application and connected with the Last Judgment (Slavonic Enoch, lxvi. 5; comp. second blessing of the "Shemoneh 'Esreh").在第一次復活被視為一種神奇的福只給予正義( test. patr ,西麥6 ;路加福音14章14條) ,但後來它被認為是普遍適用,並與最後的審判(斯拉夫伊諾克, lxvi 5款;可比,二是祝福的" shemoneh ' esreh " ) 。 Whether the process of the formation of the body at the Resurrection is the same as at birth is a matter of dispute between the Hillelites and Shammaites (Gen. R. xiv.; Lev. R. xiv.).是否形成過程中的身體在復活是一樣的,出生時,是一個有爭議的關係hillelites和shammaites (創傳譯十四;列弗。傳譯十四) 。 For the state of the soul during the death of the body see Immortality and Soul.為國家的靈魂,在死亡的屍體見不朽的靈魂。

Regeneration of the World.再生的世界。

Owing to the gradual evolution of eschatological conceptions, the Rabbis used the terms, "'olam ha-ba" (the world to come), "le-'atid la-bo" (in the coming time), and "yemot ha-Mashiaḥ" (the Messianic days) promiscuously or often without clear distinction (see Geiger, "Lesestücke aus der Mischnah," p. 41; idem, "Jüd. Zeit." iii. 159, iv. 124).由於逐步演變eschatological觀念,拉比使用條款, " ' olam公頃鋇" (未來世界) , "樂'atid臘波" (在未來時間) ,以及" yemot夏mashiaḥ " (救世主天) promiscuously或者往往沒有明顯的區別(見蓋格, " lesestücke澳大利亞明鏡mischnah " ,第41頁;同上, " jüd 。塞特"三159 ,四124 ) 。 Thus, for instance, the question is discussed whether there will be death for the Gentiles "in the coming time" or not (Gen. R. xxvi.).因此,舉例來說,問題是討論是否會有死亡的外邦人"在未來時間"或沒有(創傳譯二十六) 。 R. Eleazar of Modi'im, of the second century (Mek., Beshallaḥ, Wayassa', ed. Weiss, p. 59, note) distinguishes between the Messianic time("malkut bet Dawid"), the "'olam ha-ba" (the future world), which is that of the souls, and the time of the Resurrection, which he calls "'olam ḥadash" (the new world, or world of regeneration).傳譯埃萊亞薩的莫迪姆,在公元二世紀( mek. , beshallaḥ , wayassa ' ,教育署。魏斯,第59頁,注)區分了救世主的時間( " malkut打賭dawid " ) , " ' olam夏廣管局" (未來世界) ,這是對亡靈,和時間的復活,而他所稱的" ' olam ḥadash " (新的世界,還是世界的再生) 。 This term, used also in the "Ḳaddish" prayer "Le-Ḥadata 'Alma" (The Renewal of the World), is found in Matt.這個詞,用的也是" ḳaddish "祈禱"樂ḥadata '母校" (續約的世界) ,是發現在馬特。 xix.十九。 28 under the Greek name παλινγένεσις: "In the regeneration when the Son of Man shall sit on the throne of his glory" and judge the world in common with the twelve Apostles (for the last words see the twelve judges for the twelve tribes of Israel in Testament of Abraham, A. 13, and compare the seventy elders around the seat of God in heaven in Lev. R. xi.) 28根據希臘語名字παλινγένεσις : "在再生時,人子應坐於寶座,他的榮耀" ,並判斷世界共通點與十二使徒(為最後一句話,看到12個法官支派在全書的亞伯拉罕,甲13 ,並比較七十左右長老所在地的上帝在天上,在列弗。傳譯十一)

Concerning this regeneration of the world Pirḳe R. El.對於這個再生的世界pirḳe傳譯下午。 i.一。 says, with reference to Isa.說,關於伊薩。 xxxiv.三十四。 4, li. 4 ,李。 6, lxv. 6 , lxv 。 17; Hosea vi. 17 ;何西阿六。 2: "Heaven and earth, as well as Israel, shall be renewed; the former shall be folded together like a book or a garment and then unfolded,and Israel, after having tasted death, shall rise again on the third day." 2 : "天堂和地球,以及以色列,不得續約,前者應折疊在一起像一本書,或成衣,然後再展開,而以色列後,嚐到了死亡的,應當再次上升,就在第三天" 。 "All the beauty of the world which vanished owing to Adam's sin, will be restored in the time of the Messiah, the descendant of Perez [Gen. R. xii.]-the fertility of the earth, the wondrous size of man [Sifra, Beḥuḳḳotai, 1-2], the splendor of sun and moon" (Isa. xxx. 26; Targ. to II Sam. xxiii. 4; comp. Apoc. Mosis, 36). "所有美麗的世界上消失了,因為亞當的罪,將被恢復,在當時的彌賽亞的後裔佩雷斯[將軍傳譯十二。 ] -生育率的地球,令人驚奇的規模男子[ sifra , beḥuḳḳotai , 1-2 ] ,輝煌的太陽和月亮" (以賽亞書三十。 26 ; targ 。二,三。二十三,四;可比。載脂蛋白C 。 mosis , 36 ) 。 Ten things shall be renewed (according to Ex. R. xv.; comp. Tan., Wayiggash, ed. Buber, 9): The sun and moon shall regain their splendor, the former endowed with healing powers (Mal. iii. 20 [AV iv. 2]); the fountains of Jerusalem shall flow, and the trees grow (Ezek. xlvii. 12); desolate cities like Sodom shall rise from their ruins (Ezek. xvi. 55); Jerusalem, rebuilt of precious stones, shall shine like the sun (Isa. liv. 11 et seq.); peace shall reign among the beasts (Isa. xi. 7); and between them and Israel (Hosea ii. 20 [AV 18]); weeping and death shall cease (Isa. 1xv. 19, xxv. 8-10); joy only shall reign (Isa. xxxv. 10); the "yeẓer ha-ra'" (evil desire) shall be slain by God (Suk. 52a).十件事應重新(按前。傳譯十五;可比。火炭, wayiggash ,教育署。布伯, 9 ) :太陽和月亮應重拾輝煌,前得天獨厚癒合權力( mal.三, 20 [影音四, 2 ] ) ;噴泉耶路撒冷應流,和樹木的生長( ezek.四十七。 12 ) ;荒涼的城市,例如路透社須起立從廢墟( ezek.十六, 55 ) ;耶路撒冷,重建的寶石應照耀如太陽(以賽亞麗芙阿薩諾11頁起) ;和平應在位當中獸(以賽亞十一7 ) ;之間以及它們同以色列(何西阿二20 [視聽18 ] ) ;如泣如訴死亡應停止(以賽亞1xv 19 ,二十五8-10 ) ;喜悅,只應在位(以賽亞書三十五, 10 ) ; " yeẓer夏在Ra ' " (邪惡的慾望)應被宰殺獻神的( suk. 52 ) 。 This regeneration of the world is to be brought about by a world-conflagration ("mabbul shel esh" = "a floor of fire" = ἐκπύρωσις: Sibyllines, iii. 542, 689; iv. 174; ii. 296; Hippolytus, "Refutatio Omnium Hæresium," ix. 30).這種再生的世界,是所帶來的一個世界大衝突( " mabbul shel esh " = "一個樓層的消防" = ἐκπύρωσις : sibyllines ,三, 542 , 689 ;四, 174 ;二, 296個; hippolytus " refutatio omnium hæresium , "九。 30 ) 。 This view, borrowed from the Stoics, is based upon Isa.這一觀點,借自stoics ,是基於ISA的。 xxxiv.三十四。 4 (comp. Bousset, "Der Antichrist," p. 159). 4 ( comp. bousset , "明鏡箴" ,第159頁) 。 In this world-conflagration Belial himself will be consumed (Sibyllines, iii. 73; compare the burning up of the primeval serpent Gohithar in Bundahis, xxx. 31).在這個世界上-大火belial自己會被消耗掉( sibyllines ,三, 73 ;比較,燃燒了的原始蛇gohithar在bundahis了XXX , 31段) 。 Thus the fire of Gehenna which consumes the wicked angels and the stars (Enoch, xc. 24 et seq., et al.) was turned into a cosmic force bringing about the world's renewal.因此火地獄消費惡人天使和星星(伊諾克, XC的24段及以下各段,等)變成了宇宙的力量,實現世界的重建。

The Last Judgment.最後的審判。

The Messianic kingdom, being at best of mere earthly splendor, could not form the end, and so the Great Judgment was placed at its close and following the Resurrection.救世主的英國,正處於最好的僅僅是人間的輝煌,不能形成到底,使偉大的判決是放置在其關閉之後復活。 Those that would not accept the belief in bodily resurrection probably dwelt with greater emphasis on the judgment of the souls after death (see Abraham, Testament of; Philo; Sadducees; Wisdom, Book of).那些不會接受的信念,身體復活,大概花了更大的重視,對判決的靈魂在死後(見亞伯拉罕,全書的;斐洛;撒都該人;智慧,帳簿) 。 Jewish eschatology combined the Resurrection with the Last Judgment: "God summons the soul from heaven and couples it again on earth with the body to bring man to judgment" (Sanh. 91b, after Ps. l. 4).猶太聯合末世復活,與最後的審判: "上帝傳票的靈魂從天上和夫妻雙方又在地球上與人體攜帶的男子,以判斷" ( sanh. 91b後,再將各屬4 ) 。 In the tenth week, that is, the seventh millennium, in the seventh part, that is, after the Messianic reign, there will be the great eternal judgment, to be followed by a new heaven with the celestial powers in sevenfold splendor (Enoch, xci. 15; comp. lxxxiv. 4, xciv. 9, xcviii. 10, civ. 5).在第十週,也就是第七千年時,在第七部分,也就是後救世主統治,那就會是偉大的永恆的判斷,然後由一個新的天堂與天體權力七倍異彩(伊諾克, xci 。 15 ;可比。 lxxxiv 。 4 , xciv 9 xcviii 10 civ 5段) 。 On "the day of the Great Judgment" angels and men alike will be judged, and the books opened in which the deeds of men are recorded (lxxxi. 4, lxxxix. 70 et seq., xc. 20, ciii. 3 et seq., civ. 1, cviii. 3) for life or for death; books in which all sins are written down, and the treasures of righteousness for the righteous, will be opened on that day (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xxiv. 1). "那天,在大審判"的天使,男人一樣會作出判斷,並打開書本中的事蹟男人都記錄( lxxxi. 4 , lxxxix 70段及以下各段,越野20 ciii 3頁起, civ 1 , cviii 3 )無期或死刑;圖書,其中所有的罪過都寫了下來,並珍視正義,為正義,將開放這一天(敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch , 24條1款) 。 "All the secret thoughts of men will then be brought to light." "所有的秘密思考的男人便揭示了" 。 "Not long-suffering and mercy, but rigid justice, will prevail in this Last Judgment"; Gehenna and Paradise will appear opposite each other for the one or the other to enter (II Esd. vii. 33 et seq.). "沒有長期遭受苦難與慈悲的,但剛性正義,將在這最後的審判" ;地獄和天堂將出現相反對方為一個或另一個進入(二公共服務電子化。七, 33頁起) 。

This end will come "through no one but God alone" (ib. vi. 6).為此將"透過任何人,但只有上帝" ( ib.六, 6 ) 。 "No longer will time be granted for repentance, or for prayer and intercession by saints and prophets, but the Only One will give decision according to His One Law, whether for life or for everlasting destruction" (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, lxxxv. 9-12). " ,不再將時間給予悔過書,或為祈禱和干涉,聖人和先知,但只有一會的決定,根據他的一項法律,無論是生活還是永遠的毀滅" (敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch , lxxxv 9 。 -12 ) 。 The righteous ones will be recorded in the Book of Life (Book of Jubilees, xxx. 22, xxxvi. 10; Abot ii. 1; "Shepherd of Hermas," i. 32; Luke x. 20; Rev. iii. 5, xiii. 8, xx. 15).正義的,將被記錄在生命之書(書jubilees了XXX , 22 ,三十六, 10歲; abot二,一" ;牧羊人的hermas , "一, 32 ;路加十,第20條;牧師三,五,十三, 8 ,二十15 ) 。 The righteous deeds and the sins will be weighed against each other in the scales of justice (Pesiḥ. R. 20; Ḳid. 40b).站在正義的先進事蹟和罪孽會權衡對方天平司法( pesiḥ.傳譯20名; ḳid 。 40B條) 。 According to the Testament of Abraham (A. xiii.), there are two angels, one on either side: one writes down the merits, the other the demerits, while Doḳiel, the archangel, weighs the two kinds against each other in a balance; and another, Pyroel ("angel of fire"), tries the works of men by fire, whether they are consumed or not; then the just souls are carried among the saved ones; those found unjust, among those who will meet their punishment.根據遺囑的亞伯拉罕(甲十三) ,有兩個天使,一個是關於任何一方:一是寫的優點,其他缺點,而doḳiel ,的Archangel ,重量為兩種對立起來,在平衡以及另一名, pyroel ( "天使火" ) ,試圖工程的男人火災,不論是消費或沒有;則只是心靈,是進行當中節省下來;發現那些不公正的,在那些能滿足自身的處罰。 Those whose merits and demerits are equal remain in a middle state, and the intercession of meritorious men such as Abraham saves them and brings them into paradise (Testament of Abraham, A. xiv.).那些優點和缺點都是平等仍處於中間狀態,並進行干預的有功官兵如亞伯拉罕節省了他們和使他們的天堂(約聖經的亞伯拉罕,甲十四) 。 According to the sterner doctrine of the Shammaites, these souls must undergo a process of purgation by fire; "they enter Gehenna, swing themselves up again, and are healed."據該更加嚴峻的中庸思想shammaites ,這些靈魂的,必須經歷一個過程的下法火災" ,他們進入地獄,擺動自己的反复實踐,是治愈" 。 This view, based upon Zech.這種觀點認為,根據撒加利亞。 xiii.十三。 9, seems to be something like the Christian purgatory. 9 ,似乎有點象基督教煉獄。 According to the Hillelites, "He who is plenteous in mercy inclines the scale of justice toward mercy"-a view which shows (against Gunkel, "Der Prophet Ezra," 1900, p. 15) that Judaism believed in divine mercy independently of the Pauline faith (Tosef., Sanh. xiii. 3).據該hillelites , "他誰是充足的慈悲傾向規模的正義走向慈悲" -以期顯示(對gunkel , "明鏡先知以斯拉" , 1900年,第15頁)表示,猶太教相信,在神聖慈悲獨立於寶蓮信仰( tosef. , sanh 。十三。 3 ) 。 As recorder of the deeds of men in the heavenly books, "Enoch, the scribe of righteousness," is mentioned in Testament of Abraham, xi.; Lev.隨著錄音機的事蹟男子在天朝書籍, "伊諾克,文士的正義" ,是提到在全書的亞伯拉罕,十一;列弗。 R. xiv.傳譯十四。 has Elijah and the Messiah as heavenly recorders, a survival of the national Jewish eschatology.已利亞和彌賽亞作為天朝錄音機,一種生存的國家猶太末世。


There is no Scriptural basis for the belief in retribution for the soul after death; this was supplied by the Babylonians and Persians, and received a Jewish coloring from the word "Gehinnom" (the valley of Hinnom), made detestable by the fires of the Moloch sacrifices of Manasseh (II Kings xxiii. 10).有沒有聖經依據,為信仰報應靈魂死亡後,這是由巴比倫人和波斯人,並收到了猶太著色,從"個欣嫩子谷" (矽谷的hinnom ) ,可恨的,由火災的moloch犧牲manasseh (二國王二十三。 10 ) 。 According to 'Er.按照'呃。 19a, the smoke from subterranean fires came up through the earth in this place; "there are cast the spirits of sinners and blasphemers and of those who work wickedness and pervert the words of the Prophets" (Enoch, cviii. 6). 19A條,濃煙從地下室火災來到了通過地球,在這個地方, "有投神罪人和blasphemers和工作的人說著什麼貪贓枉法的話,先知們" (伊諾克, cviii 6段) 。 Gehinnom has a double purpose, annihilation (Enoch, xciv. 1 et seq.) and eternal pain (II Esd. vii. 36 et seq.).個欣嫩子谷有雙重目的,湮沒(伊諾克, xciv 1頁起)和永恆的痛(二公共服務電子化。七, 36頁起) 。 Gehinnom has seven names: "Sheol," "Abbadon," "Pit of Corruption," "Horrible Pit," "Mire of Clay," "Shadow of Death," and "Nether Parts of the Earth" (Jonah ii. 3; Ps. lxxxviii. 12 [AV 11], xvi. 10, xl. 3 [AV 2], cvii. 14; Ezek. xxvi. 20).個欣嫩子谷有7個名字: " sheol " , " abbadon " , "窖腐敗" , "可怕的坑" , "沼澤濕粘土" , "死亡陰影" , "冥地球部分" (約拿二,三;聚苯乙烯。 lxxxviii 12 [視聽11 ] ,第十六章10條,四十, 3 [影音2 ] , cvii 14 ; ezek 。 26 。 20 ) 。 It is also called "Tophet" (Isa. xxx. 33).它也被稱作"托斐特" (以賽亞書三十。 33 ) 。 It has seven departments, one beneath the other (Soṭah 10b).它有七個部門,其中在下方,其他( soṭah 10 B條) 。 There are seven kinds of pains (II Esd. vii. 81 et seq.).有七種陣痛(二公共服務電子化。七, 81頁起) 。 According to rabbinical tradition, thieves are condemned to fill an unfillable tank; the impure sink into a quagmire; thosethat sinned with the tongue are suspended thereby; some are suspended by the feet, hair, or eyelids; others eat hot coals and sand; others are devoured by worms, or placed alternately in snow and fire.根據猶太教傳統,小偷的人注定要填補unfillable罐;不純陷入泥潭; thosethat罪與舌頭是總懸浮顆粒物,從而有的暫停腳,頭髮,或眼瞼;別人吃熱煤和砂;他人正在吞噬由蠕蟲,或者留黨察看輪流在雪地起火。 On Sabbath they are respited (see Dumah).關於安息日,他們respited (見度瑪) 。 These conceptions, ascribed chiefly to Joshua ben Levi, have their parallel in the apocalyptic literature appropriated by the Christian Church (see Gehenna).這些觀念,歸因於主要是約書亞賁利維,有其平行於世界末日文學核撥的基督教堂(見地獄) 。 The punishment of the wicked endures twelve months, according to R. Akiba; the generation of the Flood will in time be released (Gen. R. xxviii.), but the punishment of those who have led others into heresy or dealt treacherously against the Law will never cease (Tosef., Sanh. xiii. 5).懲罰惡人持續12個月,根據傳譯秋葉;一代的洪水,將在時間予以公佈(創傳譯二十八) ,但懲治那些導致別人度成異端或處理背信棄義的反對法將永不停止( tosef. , sanh第十三5段) 。

Gan 'Eden.甘'伊甸園。

The Garden of Eden is called the "Garden of Righteousness" (Enoch, xxxii. 3), being no longer an earthly paradise (ib. lx. 8, lxi. 12, lxx. 3).伊甸園是所謂的"花園的正義" (伊諾克,三十二。 3 ) ,已不再是一個人間天堂( ib.中心LX 。 8 , LXI的12 lxx 3款) 。 It is above the earth, and its inhabitants are "clothed with garments of light and eternal life, and eat of the tree of life" (ib. lviii. 3) in the company of the Lord and His anointed.它是在地球上空,它的居民都是"溫飽與服裝的結合和永恆的生命,吃的生命樹" ( ib. lviii 。 3 )在該公司的上帝和他的不信任。 In Slavonic Enoch its place is in the third heaven; its four streams pour out honey and milk, oil and wine (compare Sibyllines, ii. 318).在斯拉夫伊諾克取而代之的是在第三天堂,它的四個溪流傾訴蜂蜜和牛奶,石油和葡萄酒(比較sibyllines ,二318 ) 。 It is prepared for the "righteous who suffer innocently, who do works of benevolence and walk without blame before God."它準備為"正義的人無辜受害,他們做的作品,善走,沒有責怪上帝面前" 。 It has been created since the beginning of the world, and will appear suddenly at the Judgment Day in all its glory (II Esd. vi.; comp. Pes. 54a).它已經創造了年初以來,世界各地,並會突然出現在判決當日在其所有的榮耀(二公共服務電子化六。 ;可比。狗。 54A條) 。 The righteous dwell in those heights where they enjoy the sight of the heavenly "ḥayyot" that carry God's throne (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, li. 11).義人住在這些高峰那裡觀賞天上的" ḥayyot " ,那神的寶座(敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch ,李11段) 。 As the wicked have a sevenfold pain the righteous have a sevenfold joy (II Esd. vii. 88 et seq.).由於惡人有七倍疼痛正義有七倍的喜悅(二公共服務電子化。七, 88頁起) 。 There are seven divisions for the righteous, which shine like the sun (Judges v. 31; comp. Matt. xiii. 43), the moon (Ps. lxxxix. 37), the firmament (Dan. xii. 3), lightnings, torches (Nahum ii. 5 [AV 4]), and lilies (Ps. xlv. 1, Hebr.).有7個師,為正義,閃耀著像太陽(法官訴31人;可比。馬特。十三, 43 ) ,月亮(雅歌lxxxix 37 ) , firmament ( dan.十二。 3 ) ,雷電電筒(公佈在二, 5 [影音4 ] ) ,百合(詩篇四十五1 ,黑布爾) 。 Each of these divisions is placed differently before the face of God.上述每個分區放在不同在上帝的面前。 Each of the righteous will have a mansion, and God will walk with them and lead them in a dance (Yer. Meg. ii. 73b).每一個正義將有一個大廈,與神將走他們的意見,並帶領他們在一間舞蹈( yer.梅格二。 73b ) 。 See Eden, Garden of.看到伊甸,勵馨。

The Banquet.宴會上。

According to Ascensio Isaiæ, viii.據阿森西奧isaiæ ,八。 26, ix. 26日,第九。 18, xi. 18 ,十一。 40, the righteous on the arrival of the Messiah receive in the seventh heaven garments of light as well as crowns and thrones. 40 ,正義就到達彌賽亞接受在第七天堂成衣輕以及冠和王座。 No small part in the future bliss is played by the eating of the heavenly bread or manna (Sibyllines, Proœmium, 87; Ḥag. 12b; Tan., Beshallaḥ, ed. Buber, p. 21; comp. "the mysterious food," II Esd. ix. 19), the ambrosial milk and honey (Sibyllines, ii. 318, iii. 746), and, according to R. Joshua b.不小的一部分,在未來的極樂世界,是發揮所吃的,天上的麵包或甘露( sibyllines , proœmium ,有87個; ḥag 。 12 B條;火炭, beshallaḥ ,教育署。布伯,第21頁;可比" ,神秘的食物, "二,公共服務電子化。九, 19人) , ambrosial牛奶和蜂蜜( sibyllines ,二318 ,三746 ) ,並根據傳譯約書亞乙 Levi, "the wine prepared from the beginning of the world" (Ber. 34b; comp. Matt. xxvi. 29).利維, "酒準備從一開始的世界" ( ber. 34 / B ;可比。馬特。 26 。 29 ) 。 The very name for the highest bliss of the future is "the banquet" (Abot iii. 16), which is the same as "sitting at the table of the Messiah" (Rev. xix. 9; Luke xiii. 28-29, xxii. 30, et al.).非常姓名為最高極樂世界的未來是"夜宴" ( abot三, 16 ) ,這是一樣的"坐在桌子的彌賽亞" (啟示錄十九。九日;路加福音十三28-29 ,二十二, 30 ,等) 。 It is called in rabbinical literature "se'uddat ha-liwyatan" (the banquet of the leviathan), that is to say, in accordance with Job xl.它是在所謂的猶太文學" se'uddat夏liwyatan " (宴會上的利維坦) ,這就是說,按照職務銷售。 30 (AV xli. 6) the "ha-barim, or pious ones, shall hold their meal over it" (see Leviathan). 30 (房室四十一6 ) , "夏巴里姆,或虔誠的,應舉行們吃飯超過它" (見利維坦) 。 It seems that the Persian ox, "hadhayos," whose marrow imparts immortality to the eater (Bundahis, xxx. 25), gave rise to the idea of the behemoth and leviathan meal which is dwelt on in Enoch, lx.它似乎是波斯語牛, " hadhayos " ,其骨髓imparts永生向大胃王( bundahis了XXX , 25段) ,產生了這一想法的巨獸和利維坦菜式是白景富對在伊諾克,中心LX 。 7 et seq.; Syriac Apoc.第七段及以下各段;敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 Baruch, xxix. baruch ,二十九。 4; II Esd. 4 ,二,公共服務電子化。 vi.六。 52; Targ. 52名; targ 。 Yer.也門里亞爾。 to Num.以序號。 xi.十一。 26, Ps. 26 ,聚苯乙烯。 civ. civ 。 26; BB 74b; Tan., Beshallaḥ, at end. 26頁BB 74 B ;火炭, beshallaḥ ,在年底。

But while this eudemonistic view is the popular one, based upon Isa.不過,雖然這eudemonistic觀是最流行的,基於ISA的。 lxv. lxv 。 13 and Ps. 13和PS 。 xxiii.二十三。 5 (Num. R. xxi.), there is also the higher and more spiritual view taught by Rab: "In the world to come there is neither eating, drinking, nor procreation, neither barter nor envy, neither hatred nor strife; but the righteous sit with their crowns on their heads and enjoy the splendor of the Shekinah; for it is said: 'And they saw God and did eat and drink'; that is, their seeing God was meat and drink to them" (Ber. 17a). 5 ( num.傳譯二十一) ,也有一些更高,更精神的看法老師Rab的說: "在未來世界既不存在吃,喝,也沒有生育,既不是以物易物,也不嫉妒,沒有仇恨,也沒有內訌,但正義與薛其冠對他們的元首,並享有輝煌的舍吉拿,因為它仍是說: '然後他們就看見了上帝,並沒有吃喝' ,這就是他們目睹了上帝是肉類和飲料給他們" ( ber. 17A條) 。 More characteristic still is the view of Rab's Palestinian contemporary R. Johanan: All the bliss for the future promised by the Prophets refers only to the Messianic time, whereas in regard to that which is in store for the righteous in the world to come it is said: "No eye hath seen it beside thee, O God" (Isa. lxiv. 3 [AV 4]; Ber. 34b; comp., however, Ex. R. xlv., at end, according to which God showed to Moses all the treasures in store for the doers of benevolent works).更多的特點仍然是鑑於Rab的的巴勒斯坦當代傳譯約哈難:所有的極樂世界,為將來所承諾的先知們只是指救世主的時候,而對於這點,是在商店,為正義,在未來世界裡,它是說: "沒有眼睛祂所看到它旁邊的你,以神之名" (以賽亞lxiv 3 [影音4 〕 ;誤碼率。 34 / B ;可比,不過,當然。傳譯四十五,在年底,根據該神來摩西所有的寶藏,在商店供者的德政工程) 。 The New Testament sentence, "Many shall be last [there] that are first [here], and first [there] that are last [here]" (Matt. xix. 30, Greek), finds its explanation in the saying of a son of R. Joshua b.新約聖經一句, "很多應上[有]這是第一[這裡] ,並第一次[有]這是過去[這裡] " 。 ( 19 。 30 ,希臘文) ,認定其解釋中說,一兒子為R的約書亞乙 Levi: "A contrary order of things I have seen in the world beyond: the high in station are low there, the lowly are placed on high" (Ber. 50a).利維說: "相反的事我所看到的,在世界上超越:高在車站偏低,卑微的,是放在高" ( ber. 50條A ) 。

Only in the esoteric Essene circles whence the apocalyptic literature emanated were attempted all the elaborate descriptions of paradise that found their way into the Midrash Konen, the Ma'aseh Gan 'Eden, and similar midrashim of the geonic time given in Jellinek's "BH" ii.只有在深奧essene界何時會有世界末日文學源自企圖一切精美的描述天堂發現自己的方式進入midrash konen , ma'aseh甘'伊甸園,以及類似米大示的時間,若尼克在jellinek的"波黑"二。 28, 52 et seq.; iii. 28 , 52段及以下各段;三。 131, 191 et seq.; but these descriptions can be traced through early Christian back to Jewish sources (see "JQR" vii. 595). 131人, 191段及以下各段,但這些描述可追溯到通過早期基督教回到猶太來源(見" jqr "七。 595 ) 。 Mystics like Naḥmanides in his "Sha'ar ha-Gemul" adopted these views; Maimonides and his school rejected them.神秘主義者一樣naḥmanides在他的" sha'ar夏gemul "通過這些看法;邁蒙尼德和他的學校拒絕了他們。 The whole eschatological system of retribution through paradise and hell never assumed in Judaism the character of a dogmatic belief, and Talmudic Judaism boldly transferred the scene of the heavenly judgment from the hereafter to the annual Day of Judgment at the beginning of the year (RH 16b; see New-Year).整個eschatological系統的報應通過天堂與地獄從未假定在猶太教性質的教條信仰,並talmudic猶太教大膽移交現場的天朝判斷來世,以每年審判的日子,在今年年初(銠16B條;看到新的一年) 。 For Samaritan eschatology see Samaritans.為撒瑪利亞末世見撒瑪利亞。 The account above deals only with the early stages of the Jewish eschatological views, roughly speaking, down to the end of the Talmudic period.該帳戶以上僅涉及到的早期階段猶太eschatological意見,粗略來說,下降至去年底的talmudic時期。 For later development and present-day views see Immortality; Judgment, Day of; Messiah; Resurrection.為後來的發展與當今的意見,看看不死;判斷,一天;彌賽亞;復活。

Kaufmann Kohler考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版1901年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Schürer, Gesch. schürer , gesch 。 3d ed., ii.三維版,二。 496-556, where an extensive literature is given; Bousset, Die Religion des Judenthums im Neutestamentlichen Zeitalter, pp. 496-556 ,而大量文獻給出; bousset ,死於宗教萬judenthums的IM neutestamentlichen時代下,聚丙烯。 199-273, 473-483, Berlin, 1903; Charles, A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life in Israel, in Judaism, and in Christianity, London, 1899; E. Böcklen, Die Verwandtschaft der Jüdisch-Christlichen mit der Parsischen Eschatologie, Göttingen, 1902; Hastings, Dict. 199-273 , 473-483 ,柏林, 1903年;查爾斯,一個關鍵的歷史學說未來生活在以色列,猶太教,基督教,倫敦, 1899年;體育böcklen ,模具verwandtschaft明鏡jüdisch - christlichen麻省理工學院的明鏡parsischen eschatologie ,哥廷根, 1902年黑斯廷斯,字典。 Bible; Cheyne and Black, Encyc.聖經;進益和黑色encyc 。 Bibl.; Hamburger, RBT sv Auferstehung, Wiederbelebung der Todten, Messianische Zeit, Paradies Zukunftsmahl; Weber, System der Altsynagogalen Palestinischen Theologie, pp. bibl 。 ;漢堡包,隨機呼氣測試sv auferstehung , wiederbelebung明鏡todten , messianische塞特, paradies zukunftsmahl ;韋伯,系統明鏡altsynagogalen palestinischen theologie頁。 322-386, Leipsic, 1880 (to be consulted with caution); Drummond, Jewish Messiah, London, 1877; P. Volz, Jüdische Eschatologie von Daniel bis Akiba, Leipsic, 1903.K. 322-386 , leipsic , 1880年(待徵求謹慎使用) ;杜蒙德,猶太彌賽亞,倫敦, 1877年;頁volz , jüdische eschatologie馮丹尼爾之二秋葉, leipsic , 1903.k.

Also, see:此外,見:
Second Coming of Christ 耶穌第二次來
Dispensation, Dispensationalism 配藥, dispensationalism
Views of the Millennium 意見千年
Last Judgement 最後審判
Rapture, Tribulation 破裂,磨難
Tribulation, Great Tribulation 磨難,偉大的磨難

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