(Christian) Fundamentalism (基督教)原教旨主義

General Information 一般資料

Fundamentalism is a term popularly used to describe strict adherence to Christian doctrines based on a literal interpretation of the Bible.原教旨主義是一個詞,常用來形容嚴格遵守基督教教義的基礎上的字面解釋聖經。 This usage derives from a late 19th and early 20th century transdenominational Protestant movement that opposed the accommodation of Christian doctrine to modern scientific theory and philosophy.這種用法來自於晚19世紀末20世紀初transdenominational新教運動,反對住宿的基督教教義,以現代科學理論和哲學。 With some differences among themselves, fundamentalists insist on belief in the inerrancy of the Bible, the virgin birth and divinity of Jesus Christ, the vicarious and atoning character of his death, his bodily resurrection, and his second coming as the irreducible minimum of authentic Christianity.與一些分歧,他們之間的原教旨主義,堅持信念,在inerrancy的聖經,維爾京誕生與神的耶穌基督,替代和atoning性格,他死後,他的身體復活,和他第二次來作為不可最低的正宗基督教。 This minimum was reflected in such early declarations as the 14 point creed of the Niagara Bible Conference of 1878 and the 5 point statement of the Presbyterian General Assembly of 1910.這種起碼的是反映在這種早期報關單為14點信條的尼亞加拉聖經會議, 1878年的5點聲明的長老大會的1910 。

Two immediate doctrinal sources for fundamentalist thought were Millenarianism and biblical inerrancy.兩個即時教義來源原教旨主義思想的人millenarianism與聖經inerrancy 。 Millenarianism, belief in the physical return of Christ to establish a 1,000 year earthly reign of blessedness, was a doctrine prevalent in English speaking Protestantism by the 1870s. millenarianism ,信仰是在身體回到基督建立一個千年塵世間的幸福,這是一個普遍存在的學說在以英語為母語的新教由19世紀70年代。 At the same time, powerful conservative forces led by Charles Hodge and Benjamin Warfield opposed the growing use of literary and historical criticism in biblical studies, defending biblical inspiration and the inerrant authority of the Bible.在同一時間內,強大的保守勢力為首的查爾斯霍奇和本傑明沃菲爾德反對越來越多地使用文學和史學批評,在聖經研究,捍衛聖經的啟示和inerrant權威的聖經。

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The name fundamentalist was coined in 1920 to designate those "doing battle royal for the Fundamentals."名稱原教旨主義是杜撰於1920年指定的那些"打法皇家為基礎" 。 Also figuring in the name was The Fundamentals, a 12 volume collection of essays written in the period 1910 - 15 by 64 British and American scholars and preachers.也算在名稱是基本面, 12卷的文集,寫在期1910 -1 56 4英國和美國的學者和傳教士。 Three million copies of these volumes and the founding of the World's Christian Fundamentals Association in 1919 gave sharp identity to fundamentalism as it moved into the 1920s. 3000000份這些卷,並成立了世界基督教基本面協會於1919年作了尖銳的身份,以原教旨主義,因為它進入20世紀20年代。 Leadership moved across the years from such men as AT Pierson, AJ Gordon, and CI Scofield to AC Dixon and Reuben Torrey, William Jennings Bryan, and J Gresham Machen.領導移過多年,從這些男子在皮爾遜,甄戈登,與詞史高菲與AC迪克遜和reuben利松,威廉詹寧斯布賴恩,和J格雷沙姆machen 。

As fundamentalism developed, most Protestant denominations in the United States felt the division between liberalism and fundamentalism.至於原教旨主義發達國家,大多數新教教派,在美國感受到了分工,自由主義和原教旨主義。 The Baptists, Presbyterians, and Disciples of Christ were more affected than others.在浸信會, presbyterians ,弟子基督的人更受影響比其他人。 Nevertheless, talk of schism was much more common than schism itself.不過,談的分裂更為普遍比裂本身。 Perhaps the lack of a central organization and a normative creed, certainly the caricature of fundamentalism arising from the Scopes Trial (1925), the popularization of the liberal response by representatives like Harry Emerson Fosdick, well publicized divisions among fundamentalists themselves, and preoccupations with the Depression of the 1930s and World War II curtailed fundamentalism's appeal.也許是缺乏一個中央機構,並規範信條,肯定漫畫的原教旨主義所帶來的範圍審判( 1925 ) ,普及自由的反應一樣,代表哈利愛默生fosdick ,廣為宣傳的分歧原教旨主義本身,也關切與抑鬱症的20世紀30年代和二戰削弱原教旨主義的呼籲。 By 1950 it was either isolated and muted or had taken on the more moderate tones of Evangelicalism. 1950年,它不是孤立和平淡或已採取了較溫和的聲調evangelicalism 。

In the 1970s and 1980s, however, fundamentalism again became an influential force in the United States.在七十年代和八十年代,不過,原教旨主義再度成為一個有影響力在美國銷售。 Promoted by popular television evangelists and represented by such groups as the Moral Majority, the new politically oriented "religious right" opposes the influence of liberalism and secularism in American life.推動受歡迎的電視傳道士,並派等群體道德多數,新的政治導向的"宗教右翼" ,反對的影響,自由主義和世俗主義,在美國生活。 The term fundamentalist has also been used to describe members of militant Islamic groups.任期原教旨主義,也被用來形容成員的伊斯蘭好戰團體。

Paul Merritt Bassett保羅梅里巴塞特

Bibliography 參考書目
LJ Averill, Religious Right, Religious Wrong (1989); SG Cole, History of Fundamentalism (1931); N Furniss, The Fundamentalist Controversy, 1918 - 1931 (1954); B Lawrence, Defenders of God (1989); G Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture (1980); ER Sandeen, The Roots of Fundamentalism (1970). LJ ,為Averill ,宗教權利,宗教是錯誤的( 1989年) ;秘書長科爾,歷史的原教旨主義( 1931 )氮尼斯,原教旨主義的爭論, 1918年-1 931( 1 954) , B期勞倫斯,維護者的神( 1 989) 1 00馬斯登認為,原教旨主義與美國文化( 1980年) ;呃俄勒岡,根部的原教旨主義( 1970年) 。


Editor's Note 編者的話

Christian Fundamentalism is an extremely different concept from the Islamic Fundamentalism that motivates some Islamic terrorists.基督教原教旨主義是一個非常不同的概念,來自伊斯蘭原教旨主義,這樣可以激勵一些伊斯蘭恐怖分子。 They each carry a great intensity about the specific beliefs, but are otherwise quite different.他們均攜有很大的強度有關具體信仰,但在其他方面完全不同了。


Advanced Information 先進的信息

Fundamentalism is a movement that arose in the United States during and immediately after the First World War in order to reaffirm orthodox Protestant Christianity and to defend it militantly against the challenges of liberal theology, German higher criticism, Darwinism, and other isms regarded as harmful to American Christianity.原教旨主義是一種運動出現的,在美國期間和緊接第一次世界大戰後,以重申東正教,基督教新教和捍衛它militantly對挑戰的自由神學,德語更高的批評,達爾文主義,和其他主義視為有害美國基督教。 Since then, the focus of the movement, the meaning of the term, and the ranks of those who willingly use the term to identify themselves have changed several times.自那時起,重點運動,一詞的含義,和廣大那些心甘情願地使用該詞,以確定自己已改變了幾倍。 Fundamentalism has so far gone through four phases of expression while maintaining an essential continuity of spirit, belief, and method.原教旨主義至今已經歷了四個階段的表達,同時維持一個基本的連續性,精神,信仰和方法。

Phase I - Through the 1920s第一階段-通過1 920年

The earliest phase involved articulating what was fundamental to Christianity and initiating an urgent battle to expel the enemies of orthodox Protestantism from the ranks of the churches最早的一個階段所涉及的闡述什麼是根本,以基督教和發起一項緊迫的戰鬥驅逐敵人的東正教基督新教從職級的教堂

The series of twelve volumes called The Fundamentals (1910 - 15) provided a wide listing of the enemies, Romanism, socialism, modern philosophy, atheism, Eddyism, Mormonism, spiritualism, and the like, but above all liberal theology, which rested on a naturalistic interpretation of the doctrines of the faith, and German higher criticism and Darwinism, which appeared to undermine the Bible's authority.一連串的十二卷稱為基本面( 1910年-1 5) ,提供了廣泛的上市敵人, r omanism好,社會主義好,現代哲學,無神論e ddyism, m ormonism,唯心論,等等,但最自由神學,而在於對自然主義的解釋,教條的信仰,以及德國更高的批評和優勝劣汰機制,這似乎破壞了聖經的權威。 The writers of the articles were a broad group from English speaking North America and the United Kingdom and from many denominations.作家的文章了廣泛組由以英語為母語的北美和聯合王國政府以及來自許多不同面值。 The doctrines they defined and defended covered the whole range of traditional Christian teachings.該學說,他們的界定和捍衛涵蓋整個一系列傳統的基督教教義。 They presented their criticisms fairly, with careful argument, and in appreciation of much that their opponents said.他們介紹了他們的批評,以公正,慎重論調,並在欣賞得多,他們的對手說。

Almost immediately, however, the list of enemies became narrower and the fundamentals less comprehensive.幾乎馬上,不過,名單上的敵人成了窄和基本面不夠全面。 Defenders of the fundamentals of the faith began to organize outside the churches and within the denominations.捍衛者的基本信念開始組織外,教會及面額。 The General Assembly of the northern Presbyterian Church in 1910 affirmed five essential doctrines regarded as under attack in the church: the inerrancy of Scripture, the virgin birth of Christ, the substitutionary atonement of Christ, Christ's bodily resurrection, and the historicity of the miracles.大會的北部長老教會於1910年確認了五個基本教義視為攻擊下,在教會: inerrancy的經文,維爾京耶穌的誕生,替代贖罪的基督,基督的身體復活,並歷史性的奇蹟。 These were reaffirmed in 1916 and 1923, by which time they had come to be regarded as the fundamental doctrines of Christianity itself.這些重申,在1916年和1923年,到那個時候,他們已經到了被視為基本教義的基督教本身。 On a parallel track, and in the tradition of Bible prophecy conferences since 1878, premillenarian Baptists and independents founded the World's Christian Fundamentals Association in 1919, with William B Riley as the prime mover.對一個平行的軌道,並在傳統的聖經預言的會議,自1878年, premillenarian浸信會和獨立人士創立了世界的基本面基督教協會於1919年,與William b萊利作為原動機。 The premillennialists tended to replace the miracles with the resurrection and the second coming of Christ, or even premillenarian doctrine as the fifth fundamental.該premillennialists傾向,以取代與奇蹟復活與耶穌第二次來,甚至premillenarian學說作為第五個根本性的。 Another version put the deity of Christ in place of the virgin birth.另一種版本把神的基督代替維爾京誕生。

The term "fundamentalist" was perhaps first used in 1920 by Curtis Lee Laws in the Baptist Watchman - Examiner, but it seemed to pop up everywhere in the early 1920s as an obvious way to identify someone who believed and actively defended the fundamentals of the faith.而言, "原教旨主義" ,也許是第一次使用,在1920年由寇蒂斯李法律在浸會看-考官,但它似乎彈出無處不在,早在1 920年,作為一個明顯的途徑來識別的人相信並積極地捍衛了基本面的信仰。 The Baptist John Roach Straton called his newspaper The Fundamentalist in the 1920s.施洗約翰羅奇straton所謂他的報紙原教旨主義在20世紀20年代。 The Presbyterian scholar J Gresham Machen disliked the word, and only hesitantingly accepted it to described himself, because, he said, it sounded like a new religion and not the same historic Christianity that the church had always believed.該長老會的學者j格雷沙姆machen不喜歡這個詞,而只有hesitantingly接受它形容自己,因為,他說,這聽起來像一個新的宗教和不一樣的歷史性基督教說,教會一直相信。

Through the 1920s the fundamentalists waged the battle in the large northern church denominations as nothing less than a struggle for true Christianity against a new non Christian religion that had crept into the churches themselves.經過1920年的基本教義派發動戰役在大北方教會面額只不過是不到一個奮鬥的真實基督教對一個新的非基督教宗教已經悄悄進入教堂本身。 In his book Christianity and Liberalism (1923), Machen called the new naturalistic religion "liberalism," but later followed the more popular fashion of calling it "modernism."在他的書中基督教和自由主義( 1923 ) , machen所謂的新自然主義宗教"自由主義" ,後來跟隨更流行時尚的把它稱為"現代主義" 。

Even though people like Harry Emerson Fosdick professed to be Christian, fundamentalists felt they could not be regarded as such because they denied the traditional formulations of the doctrines of Christianity and created modern, naturalistic statements of the doctrines.儘管人們喜歡哈利愛默生fosdick自稱為基督徒的,原教旨主義認為,他們不能被看作是這樣的,因為他們否認傳統劑型的教條的基督教和創造現代的,自然報表的教條。 The issue was as much a struggle over a view of the identity of Christianity as it was over a method of doing theology and a view of history.這個問題既是一個奮鬥期的身分,基督教,因為這是一個方法,開展神學和歷史觀點。 Fundamentalists believed that the ways the doctrines were formulated in an earlier era were true and that modern attempts to reformulate them were bound to be false.原教旨主義認為,該辦法的教條制訂較早時代屬實,並表示,現代力求改變,他們必然是錯誤的。 In other words, the fundamentals were unchanging.在換句話說,基本面不變的。

Church struggles occurred in the Methodist Episcopal Church, the Protestant Episcopal Church, and even in the southern Presbyterian Church, but the grand battles were fought in the northern Presbyterian and northern Baptist denominations.教會的鬥爭發生在衛理公會,基督教聖公會,甚至在南部長老教會,但盛大共作戰,在北部長老及北部浸信會教派。 Machen was the undisputed leader among Presbyterians, joined by Clarence E Macartney. machen是無可爭議的領導者之一presbyterians ,加入由克拉倫斯e馬戛爾尼。 Baptists created the National Federation of the Fundamentalists of the Northern Baptists (1921), the Fundamentalist Fellowship (1921), and the Baptist Bible Union (1923) to lead the fight.浸信會創造了全國工商聯的基本教義派的北浸信會( 1921 ) ,原教旨主義團契( 1921 ) ,和浸會聖經聯盟( 1923 )帶領撲滅。 The battles focused upon the seminaries, the mission boards, and the ordination of clergy.戰鬥集中後,修院,任務議會,並統籌神職人員。 In many ways, however, the real strongholds of the fundamentalists were the Southern Baptists and the countless new independent churches spread across the south and midwest, as well as the east and west.在許多方面,然而,真正的據點的原教旨主義者在美南浸信會和無數新的獨立教會遍布美國南部和中西部,以及東部和西部。

In politics fundamentalists opposed the teaching of Darwinian evolution in public schools, leading up to the famous Scopes trial (1925) in Dayton, Tennessee.在政治上,反對原教旨主義的教學達爾文進化在公立學校中,領導了以著名的範圍審判( 1925 )在代頓,田納西州。 William Jennings Bryan, a Presbyterian layman and three times candidate for the American presidency, was acknowledged leader of the antievolution battle.威廉詹寧斯布賴恩,一個長老會門外漢倍以上3倍的人選為美國總統,是公認的領導人對antievolution仗。

Phase II - Late 1920s to the Early 1940s第二階段-上世紀2 0年代後期到2 0世紀4 0年代初

By 1926 or so, those who were militant for the fundamentals had failed to expel the modernists from any denomination.由1926年還是如此,那些好戰為基本面沒有驅逐現代派從任何教派。 Moreover, they also lost the battle against evolutionism.此外,他們也失去了對抗進化論。 Orthodox Protestants, who still numerically dominated all the denominations, now began to struggle among themselves.東正教基督徒,他們仍然數控主宰所有面額的,現在開始奮鬥當中。 During the Depression of the 1930s the term "fundamentalist" gradually shifted meaning as it came to apply to only one party among those who believed the traditional fundamentals of the faith.在大蕭條的1930年代而言, "原教旨主義"逐漸轉向意義,因為它適用於只有一個政黨的人當中,相信傳統的基本信念。 Meanwhile, neo orthodoxy associated with Karl Barth's critique of liberalism found adherents in America.與此同時,新的正統與卡爾巴特的批判自由主義的信徒們發現在美國。

In several cases in the north fundamentalists created new denominations in order to carry on the true faith in purity apart from the larger bodies they regarded as apostate.在若干情況下,在北部原教旨主義創造了新的不同面值,以履行對真正信仰的純潔,除了規模較大的機構,他們被視為叛教。 They formed the General Association of Regular Baptist Churches (1932), the Presbyterian Church of America (1936), renamed the Orthodox Presbyterian Church, the Bible Presbyterian Church (1938), the Conservative Baptist Association of America (1947), the Independent Fundamental Churches of America (1930), and many others.他們形成了總商會的定期浸信會教堂( 1932年) ,美國長老教會( 1936年) ,改名為東正教長老教會聖經長老教會( 1938 ) ,保守派浸信會聯會,美國( 1947年) ,獨立的根本教堂美國( 1930年) ,以及其他許多人。 In the south fundamentalists dominated the huge Southern Baptist Convention, the southern Presbyterian Church, and the expanding independent Bible church and Baptist church movements, including the American Baptist Association.在南部的基本教義派為主的龐大的美南浸信會的公約,南部長老教會,並擴大獨立聖經教會與浸信教會運動,其中包括美國浸信會聯會。 Across the United States fundamentalists founded new revival ministries, mission agencies, seminaries, Bible schools, Bible conferences, and newspapers.美國全國各地的原教旨主義創立新的復興部委,團機構,神學院,聖經學校,聖經會議,和報紙。

During this period the distinctive theological point that the fundamentalists made was that they represented true Christianity based on a literal interpretation of the Bible, and that de facto this truth ought to be expressed organizationally separate from any association with liberals and modernists.在此期間,鮮明的神學之點就是原教旨主義是,他們所代表的真正基督教的基礎上的字面解釋聖經,而且事實上這個真理應該是表示,組織上獨立於任何協會與自由派和現代派。 They came to connect a separatist practice with the maintenance of the fundamentals of the faith.他們來到連接的一個分離主義實踐與維護的基本信念。 They also identified themselves with what they believed was pure in personal morality and American culture.他們還確定了自己是什麼,他們認為是純粹的個人道德與美國文化。 Thus, the term "fundamentalist" came to refer largely to orthodox Protestants outside the large northern denominations, whether in the newly established denominations, in the southern churches, or in the many independent churches across the land.因此, "原教旨主義"來指主要是東正教基督徒外大面額的北方,無論是在新成立的面額,在南部的教堂,還是在許多獨立教會神州大地。

Phase III - Early 1940s to the 1970s第三階段-2 0世紀4 0年代初至7 0年代

Beginning in the early 1940s the fundamentalists, thus becoming redefined, divided gradually into two camps.從20世紀40年代初的原教旨主義者,從而成為重新劃分逐漸分為兩個陣營。 There were those who voluntarily continued to use the term to refer to themselves and to equate it with true Bible believing Christianity.有那些自願繼續使用該術語是指,給自己等同於它與真正的聖經信仰基督教。 There were others who came to regard the term as undesirable, having connotations of divisive, intolerant, anti intellectual, unconcerned with social problems, even foolish.還有其他的人來,把任期不可取的,有內涵的分化作用,不容忍,反智慧,不關心的社會問題,甚至是愚蠢的。 This second group wished to regain fellowship with the orthodox Protestants who still constituted the vast majority of the clergy and people in the large northern denominations, Presbyterian, Baptist, Methodist, Episcopalian.這第二個組希望重拾團契與正統基督教的人仍然構成了廣大神職人員和人民在大面額北部,長老會,浸信會,循道,聖公會。 They began during the 1940s to call themselves "evangelicals" and to equate that term with true Christianity.他們開始在20世紀40年代把自己稱為"福音派" ,並等同於這個名稱真基督教。 Beginning in 1948 a few called themselves neoevangelical.開始於1948年的幾個人稱自己neoevangelical 。

Organizationally this spilt among largely northern fundamentalists was expressed on one hand by the American Council of Christian Churches (1941), which was ecclesiastically separatist in principle, and on the other by the National Association of Evangelicals (1942), which sought to embrace orthodox Protestants as individuals in all denominations.在組織上,這潑其中主要是北部的原教旨主義有人表示,一方面,由美國基督教教會理事會( 1941 ) ,這是ecclesiastically分裂主義原則,另一方面,由國家協會的新教徒( 1942 ) ,它試圖擁抱東正教基督徒作為個人,在所有的教派。 The term "fundamentalist" was carried into the 1950s by the ACCC as well as by a vast number of southern churches and independent churches not included in either body.而言, "原教旨主義"進行到20世紀50年代由澳大利亞競爭和消費者以及一個數量龐大的華南教會及獨立教會不包括在這兩個機構。 It was proudly used by such schools as Bob Jones University, Moody Bible Institute, and Dallas Theological Seminary, and by hundreds of evangelists and radio preachers.這是自豪地用這樣的學校作為鮑勃瓊斯大學,穆迪聖經學院和達拉斯神學院,以及數以百計的傳道士和電台的宣講員。 The International Council of Christian Churches (1948) sought to give the term worldwide currency in opposition to the World Council of Churches.國際基督教教會理事會( 1948年)旨在讓全世界來說,貨幣在反對世界基督教協進會。

The term "fundamentalist" took on special meaning in contrast with evangelical or neoevangelical, rather than merely in contrast with liberalism, modernism, or neo orthodoxy.而言, "原教旨主義"了特殊的意義,相比之下,與福音派或neoevangelical ,而不是只是相比之下,與自由主義,現代主義,或新的正統。 Fundamentalists and evangelicals in the 1950s and 1960s shared much; both adhered to the traditional doctrines of Scripture and Christ; both promoted evangelism, revivals, missions, and a personal morality against smoking, drinking, theater, movies, and card playing; both identified American values with Christian values; both believed in creating organizational networks that separated themselves from the rest of society.原教旨主義者和新教徒在1950年代和1960年代共同得多;都是堅持傳統教義的經文和基督既促進了傳道,復甦,任務,內容和個人道德反對吸煙,飲酒,戲劇,電影,並卡玩,既確定了美國價值觀與基督教的價值觀;都認為,在創建組織網絡失散自己從其餘的社會。

However, fundamentalists believed they differed from evangelicals and neoevangelicals by being more faithful to Bible believing Christianity, more militant against church apostasy, communism, and personal evils, less ready to cater to social and intellectual respectability.不過,原教旨主義認為,他們不同於新教徒和neoevangelicals通過更忠實於聖經信仰基督教,更激進反對教會變節,共產主義,以及個人的醜惡的東西,那麼準備,以配合社會和知識尊嚴。 They tended to oppose evangelist Billy Graham, not to read Christianity Today, and not to support Wheaton College or Fuller Theological Seminary.他們傾向於反對傳道者Billy Graham ,不要讀基督教今天,不支持威敦學院或更詳盡的神學院。 Instead they favored their own evangelists, radio preachers, newspapers, and schools.相反,他們主張自己的福音使者,傳教士電台,報紙和學校等。 Fundamentalists tended to differ greatly among themselves and found it difficult to achieve widespread fundamentalist cooperation.原教旨主義傾向有很大差異,彼此之間並發現很難實現廣泛的原教旨主義合作。

Meanwhile people in North America and Great Britain who were neither fundamentalist nor evangelical tended to regard both as fundamentalist, noting their underlying similarities.同時,在北美洲和大不列顛的人既不是原教旨主義也不是福音派傾向於視既作為原教旨主義者,注意到其背後的相似之處。

Phase IV - Late 1970s and the 1980s第四階段-上世紀7 0年代末和八十年代

By the late 1970s and in particular by the 1980 campaign of Ronald Reagan for the American presidency, fundamentalists entered a new phase.由20世紀70年代末,並特別由1980年的運動裡根為美國總統,原教旨主義進入了一個新階段。 They became nationally prominent as offering an answer for what many regarded as a supreme social, economic, moral, and religious crisis in America.他們已成為全國知名提供一個答案,為許多人視為最高的社會,經濟,道德,宗教危機,在美國。 They identified a new and more pervasive enemy, secular humanism, which they believed was responsible for eroding churches, schools, universities, the government, and above all families.他們確定了新的和更無孔不入的敵人,世俗的人文精神,他們相信這些負責削弱了教會,學校,大學,政府,及以上所有的家庭。 They fought all enemies which they considered to be offspring of secular humanism, evolutionism, political and theological liberalism, loose personal morality, sexual perversion, socialism, communism, and any lessening of the absolute, inerrant authority of the Bible.他們又打了一切敵人,他們認為這將後代的世俗人文主義,進化論,政治和神學自由主義,鬆散的個人道德,性反常,社會主義,共產主義,任何削弱了絕對的, inerrant權威的聖經。 They called Americans to return to the fundamentals of the faith and the fundamental moral values of America.他們呼籲美國人要回歸到基本面的信仰和基本道德觀念的報導。

Leading this phase was a new generation of television and print fundamentalists, notably Jerry Falwell, Tim La Haye, Hal Lindsey, and Pat Robertson.領導這一階段,是一個新世代的電視和平面媒體原教旨主義者,尤其是傑里福爾韋爾,添海牙, HAL和林賽,並帕特羅伯遜。 Their base was Baptist and southern, but they reached into all denominations.他們的基地被浸會和南部,但他們達成的所有面額的。 They benefited from three decades of post World War II fundamentalist and evangelical expansion through evangelism, publishing, church extension, and radio ministry.他們得益於30年後第二次世界大戰的原教旨主義者和福音擴張傳道,出版,教堂擴建,廣播部。 They tended to blur the distinction between fundamentalist and evangelical.他們往往混淆了區分原教旨主義和福音。 Statistically, they could claim that perhaps one fourth of the American population was fundamentalist - evangelical.在統計上,他們可以聲稱也許四分之一的美國人口是原教旨主義-福音。 However, not all fundamentalists accepted these new leaders, considering them to be neofundamentalists.然而,並不是所有的原教旨主義接納這些新的領導人,考慮到他們來的neofundamentalists 。

The fundamentalists of the early 1980s were in many ways very different people from their predecessors, and they faced many different issues.原教旨主義的八十年代的初期,在許多方面都非常不同的人,從他們的前輩,他們遇到了許多不同的問題。 But they continued important traits common to fundamentalists from the 1920s through the early 1980s.但他們的持續和重要的共同特質,以原教旨主義從20世紀20年代,通過80年代初。 They were certain that they possessed true knowledge of the fundamentals of the faith and that they therefore represented true Christianity based on the authority of a literally interpreted Bible.他們確信他們擁有真正的基本知識的信念,並因此,他們所代表的真正基督教的基礎上,管理局的一個字面解釋聖經。 They believed it was their duty to carry on the great battle of history, the battle of God against Satan, of light against darkness, and to fight against all enemies who undermined Christianity and America.他們認為這是他們的職責進行偉大鬥爭的歷史,戰役,上帝對撒旦,輕反對黑暗,並打擊一切敵人,他們破壞了基督教和美國。 Faced with this titanic struggle they were inclined to consider other Christians who were not fundamentalists as either unfaithful to Christ or not genuinely Christian.面對這一巨大的鬥爭,他們願意考慮其他的基督信徒們並沒有原教旨主義,因為無論是不忠,以基督或不是真正的基督徒。 They called for a return to an inerrant and infallible Bible, to the traditional statement of the doctrines, and to a traditional morality which they believed once prevailed in America.他們呼籲建立一個返回一個inerrant和犯錯的聖經,對傳統聲明的教條,並以傳統的道德感,他們認為,一旦佔了上風,在美國。 To do all this, they created a vast number of separate organizations and ministries to propagate the fundamentalist faith and practice.做了這一切,他們創造了數量龐大的獨立組織和部委宣揚原教旨主義的信仰和實踐。

CT McIntire電腦斷層mcintire
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
GW Dollar, A History of Fundamentalism in America; R Lightner, Neo Evangelicalism; L Gasper, The Fundamentalist Movement, 1930 - 1956; J Falwell, E Dobson, and E Hindson, eds., The Fundamentalist Phenomenon; GM Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture; CA Russell, Voices of American Fundamentalism; NF Furniss, The Fundamentalist Controversy, 1918 - 1931; ER Sandeen, The Roots of Fundamentalism; JI Packer, "Fundamentalism" and the Word of God; James Barr, Fundamentalism.毛重美元,歷史上的原教旨主義在美國與r lightner ,新evangelicalism ;升gasper ,原教旨主義運動, 1930年-1 956年j福爾韋爾,電子布森,電子商務欣德森合編,原教旨主義的現象;通用馬斯登認為,原教旨主義和美國文化;鈣羅素,聲音美洲原教旨主義;的NF尼斯,原教旨主義的爭論, 1918年-1 931;呃俄勒岡,根部的原教旨主義;紀封隔器, "原教旨主義"和上帝的話;詹姆斯巴爾原教旨主義。

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