General Information 一般資料

Grace, a central concept in Christian theology, refers to God's granting Salvation not in reward for the moral worth of the human but as a free and undeserved gift of love. This concept stands opposed, therefore, to any notion that salvation can be earned by human effort apart from God's help.恩典,一個核心概念,在基督教神學,是指上帝的給予救贖不是在獎勵的道德價值及其在人類,但作為一個自由和毫無道理的禮物愛這個概念站在反對,因此,任何概念,即救贖,可以賺取事在人為,除了上帝的幫助。

The Old Testament contains important themes related to God's undeserved love for his people, Israel.舊約中包含了重要的主題有關上帝的道理熱愛他的人民,以色列。 The chief architect of the early Christian church's theology of grace, however, was Saint Paul; charis, the Greek word for "grace," is infrequent in the non Pauline writings of the New Testament.總設計師早期基督教教會的神學的恩典,不過,聖保羅; charis ,希臘語意為"寬限期" ,是生疏,在非華著作的新約聖經。 For Paul, grace means the free gift of salvation by which God liberates humans from Sin and frees them from death "through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus" (Romans 3:24). Paul deliberately sets grace in contrast to all human efforts to achieve favor with God.為保羅,寬限期是指免費贈送的救贖,其中神解放人類從罪惡和解放,他們從死亡" ,通過贖回,是在基督耶穌" (羅馬書3點24分) 。 保羅故意套寬限期,在此相反,以所有人類努力實現討好上帝。

In the subsequent development of the theology of grace, two conflicting views have predominated. The first, characteristic of medieval Christianity and continued in much Roman Catholic theology, has treated grace as a divine power that enters a person and, in cooperation with the person's own will, transforms him or her into one who loves God and is loved by God. This grace is transmitted especially, perhaps exclusively, through the church's Sacraments (the "means of grace"); and it allows some room for human merit because the one who receives grace must also cooperate with it in the process of transformation.在隨後的發展對神學的恩典,兩個互相矛盾的觀點都佔主導地位。第一,特點是中世紀基督教,並繼續在許多羅馬天主教神學,已治療的恩典,因為神的力量進入一個人,並在合作與人的自己將變換他或她變成一個喜歡上帝是愛的上帝,這個寬限期是轉發尤其是,也許完全是透過教會的聖禮( "指的恩典" ) ,以及它允許一些空間,為人類的好處,因為一接受恩典還必須與它合作,在轉換的過程。

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The second view, often a reaction against the first, is particularly associated with the Protestant Reformation and Protestant theology.第二種觀點,往往是一個反應對第一,尤其是與新教改革和新教神學。 In contrast to the ideas that the sacraments transmit grace and that one must cooperate with grace, Protestant theologians have insisted that grace is given where God wills and is not conditional on a person's receptivity. Thus the sacraments are signs of grace, but do not impart it, and salvation depends entirely on God, not at all on human will - a theme close to the idea of Presestination.形成對比的想法聖禮傳送恩典說,其中一個必須相互合作的恩典, 基督教神學家堅持認為, Grace是由於那裡上帝的意志,是不是有條件就一個人的感受性,因此聖禮跡象的寬限期,但不要傳授它與救亡完全取決於上帝,而不是在所有對人的意志-一個主題接近的想法p resestination。 This grace, controlled only by God, is not a power that transforms a person; it is a love that receives a person directly into God's favor.此寬限期,但只控制上帝,是不是一個權力變換一個人,它是一種愛,得到一個人直接進入上帝的恩賜。

These two views are not totally incompatible.這兩種觀點並非完全不相容的。 Both seek to understand the forms of God's unmerited love for people and their undeserved gift of salvation.雙方設法了解形式的上帝的unmerited熱愛人民和他們的毫無道理的禮物救贖。

William S Babcock威廉s貝比考克

Bibliography 參考書目
AC Clifford, Atonement and Justification (1990); P Fransen, Divine Grace and Man (1962); C Journet, The Meaning of Grace (1960); D Liederbach, The Theology of Grace and the American Mind (1983); J Moffatt, Grace in the New Testament (1932); P Watson, The Concept of Grace (1959); WT Whitley, ed., The Doctrine of Grace (1932).交流電克利福德,贖罪和理由( 1990年) ; p fransen ,神的恩典和人( 1962條) , c journet ,所指的恩典( 1960條) , d liederbach ,神學的恩典和美國記( 1983年) ; j moffatt ,恩典在新約全書( 1932 ) , p沃森,這一概念的恩典( 1959 ) ,九倉, Whitley ,版,中庸的恩典( 1932 ) 。


Advanced Information 先進的信息

Like many other familiar terms the word "grace" has a variety of connotations and nuances, which need not be listed here.像其他許多熟悉的術語改為"寬限期" ,有各種各樣的內涵和細微差別,它不需要在這裡列出。 For the purposes of this article its meaning is that of undeserved blessing freely bestowed on man by God, a concept which is at the heart not only of Christian theology but also of all genuinely Christian experience.為本條的目的,它的含義是毫無道理的祝福自由賜予的人都是神,因此這個概念是在心臟不僅對基督教神學的,而且所有真正基督徒的經驗。 In discussing the subject of grace an important distinction must be maintained between common (general, universal) grace and special (saving, regenerating) grace, if the relationship between divine grace and the human situation is to be rightly understood.在討論議題的寬限期,但一個重要的區別,必須保持共同的(一般,普遍)恩典和特殊(節水,再生)的恩典,如果關係神聖的恩典與人的情況是要正確地理解。

Common Grace常見的恩典

Common grace is so called because it is common to all mankind.共同Grace是所謂的,因為它是全人類的共同。 Its benefits are experienced by the whole human race without discrimination between one person and another.它的好處是有經驗的,由整個人類,而不區別一人,另一種。 The order of creation reflects the mind and the care of the Creator who sustains what he has made.該命令的創作反映了頭腦和照顧造物者維繫著什麼,他已經取得了。 The eternal Son, through whom all things were made, "upholds the universe by his word of power" (Heb. 1:2 - 3; John 1:1 - 4).永恆的兒子,並通過所有的事情發了言, "堅持以宇宙由他所說的話的力量" (希伯來書1:2 -3 ;約翰1 :1- 4) 。 God's gracious provision for his creatures is seen in the sequence of the seasons, of seedtime and harvest.上帝的慈悲的規定,他的動物,是出現於序列的季節,播期和收穫。 Thus Jesus reminded his hearers that God "makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust" (Matt. 5:45).所以耶穌提醒他hearers上帝" ,使他的太陽上升對邪惡和對良好,並移送酸雨對公正和對不公正的" 。 ( 5時45分) 。 The Creator's sustaining care for his creation is what is meant when we speak of divine providence.造物主的持續關懷,為他創造的是什麼意思,當我們在談論神的眷顧。

Another aspect of common grace is evident in the divine government or control of human society.另一個方面共同Grace是顯而易見的,在神聖的政府或控制的人類社會。 It is true that human society is in a state of sinful fallenness.這是事實,人類社會是在一國的罪孽深重fallenness 。 Were it not for the restraining hand of God, indeed, our world would long since have degenerated into a self destructive chaos of iniquity, in which social order and community life would have been an impossibility.如果不是因為制約上帝之手,事實上,我們的世界將長期以來已完全墮落成為一個自我毀滅混亂的邪惡中,在其中的社會秩序和社會生活中已經是一個不可能的事。 That a measure of domestic, political, and international harmony is enjoyed by the generality of mankind is due to the overruling goodness of God.這一項措施,對國內的,政治和國際和諧是所享有的一般性的人類,這是由於該推翻善的上帝。

Paul actually teaches that civil government with its authorities is ordained by God and that to resist these authorities is to resist the ordinance of God.保羅其實教導我們,民間與政府當局是受戒上帝,並以抵制這些當局提出的建議是抵制該條例的上帝。 He even calls secular rulers and magistrates ministers of God, since their proper concern is the maintenance of order and decency in society.他甚至呼籲世俗統治者和裁判部長的上帝,因為它們的正當關切的是維持秩序和禮儀的社會。 Insofar as they bear the sword for the punishment of wrongdoers in the interests of justice and peace, theirs is a God - given authority.至於他們承擔著寶劍,為懲治違法者,在利益的正義與和平,他們是一個神-鑑於權威。 And, significantly, the state of which the apostle was proud to be a citizen was the pagan and at times persecuting state of imperial Rome, at the hands of whose rulers he would be put to death. ,並顯著,國家,其中傳道者感到自豪的是一個公民,是異教徒,並在時代迫害國家的羅馬帝國,在手中的統治者,他將被處決。 (See Rom. 13:1ff.) (見光盤。十三法郎) 。

It is due, further, to common grace than man retains within himself a consciousness of the difference between right and wrong, truth and falsehood, justice and injustice, and the awareness that he is answerable or accountable not merely to his fellowmen but also and ultimately to God, his Maker.這是因為,此外,為共同的恩典比男子保留了內部自己是一個意識的區別正確與錯誤,真理與謬誤,正義與非正義,並認識到,他是交代或交代,不只是為了他的同胞,但也並最終上帝,他的製造商。 Man, in short, has a conscience and is endowed with the dignity of existing as a responsible being.男子,在短期內,有一個良心和得天獨厚的尊嚴現有作為一個負責任的。 He is duty bound lovingly to obey God and to serve his fellows.他是責無旁貸的慈愛服從上帝,並服務於他的研究生。 The conscience is the focus within each person, as a being formed in the image of God, not only of self respect and of respect for others but of respect for God.良心的焦點,就是每個人,作為一個正在形成中的形象,神,不僅是自我尊重和對他人的尊重,但尊重神。

To common grace, then, we must thankfully attribute God's continuing care for his creation, as he provides for the needs of his creatures, restrains human society from becoming altogether intolerable and ungovernable, and makes it possible for mankind, though fallen, to live together in a generally orderly and cooperative manner, to show mutual forbearance, and to cultivate together the scientific, cultural, and economic pursuits of civilization.以共同的恩典,那麼,我們一定要謝天謝地屬性上帝的持續關心他的創作,因為他提供了為滿足其生物的,制約人類社會變得完全不能容忍和無法控制,並有可能為人類,雖然下降了,生活在一起在普遍秩序和合作的方式,以示相互忍和培育起來的科學,文化和經濟追求文明的氣息。

Special Grace特別恩典

Special grace is the grace by which God redeems, sanctifies, and glorifies his people.特別是恩典恩典,其中神贖回, sanctifies ,並美化了他的人民。 Unlike common grace, which is universally given, special grace is bestowed only on those whom God elects to eternal life through faith in his Son, our Savior Jesus Christ.不同於常見的恩典,這是普遍給予特殊的恩典賜予的,只有對那些人,上帝選擇以永恆的生命信仰,在他的兒子,我們的救主耶穌基督。 It is to this special grace that the whole of the Christian's salvation is owed: "All this is from God, who through Christ reconciled us to himself," Paul writes of the believer's re - creation in Christ (2 Cor. 5:18).它是在這個特殊的恩典說,整個基督教的救恩是欠說: "這一切是由上帝,通過基督調和,我們對自己, "保羅寫的信的轉口-建立在基督( 2肺心病。 5時1 8分) 。 God's regenerating grace is dynamic.上帝的恩典再生的,是動態的。 It not only saves but also transforms and revitalizes those whose lives were previously broken and meaningless.它不僅可以節省,但也變換和振興那些生活被打破了以前和意義的。 This is graphically illustrated by the experience of Saul the persecutor who was dramatically changed into Paul the apostle, so that he was able to testify: "By the grace of God I am what I am, and his grace toward me was not in vain. On the contrary, I worked harder than any of them (the other apostles), though it was not I, but the grace of God which is with me" (1 Cor. 15:10).這生動地說明,由經驗娑羅雙樹的persecutor被急劇改變成保羅使徒,讓他能夠作證道: "謝天謝地,我是什麼,我和他的恩典,對我是沒有白費。與此相反,我的功夫比他們任何人(其餘的使徒) ,雖然這不是我,而是出自上帝的恩典,這是與我" ( 1肺心病。 15:10 ) 。

All is thus ascribed to the grace of God, not merely the Christian's conversion but also the whole course of his ministry and pilgrimage.所有的,因此屬於天主的恩典,而不是單純的基督教的轉換,而且整個過程中他的內務部和朝拜。 For the sake of convenience, the theme of special grace will now be developed under a number of customary theological heads or aspects, as prevenient, efficacious, irresistible, and sufficient.為方便起見,主題為特殊的恩典,現在便下形成的一些習慣神學元首或方面,由於prevenient ,有效的,不可阻擋的,並有足夠的。

Prevenient grace is grace which comes first. prevenient恩典 ,是恩典,這是第一次。 It precedes all human decision and endeavor.它先於所有人類的決定和努力。 Grace always means that it is God who takes the initiative and implies the priority of God's action on behalf of needy sinners.恩典總是意味著它是上帝的人採取主動,並暗示優先上帝的行動,代表清貧的罪人。 That is the whole point of grace: it does not start with us, it starts with God; it is not earned or merited by us, it is freely and lovingly given to us who have no resources or deservings of our own.這是整點的恩典:它沒有開始,我們開始與上帝,這是沒有賺到還是值得由我們而言,它是自由和慈愛給我們的人有沒有資源或deservings我們自己的事。 "In this is love," John declares, "not that we loved God but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the expiation for our sins"; consequently, "we love, because he first loved us" (1 John 4:10, 19). "這是愛"的約翰宣稱, "這不是說我們熱愛上帝,但他愛我們,並派他的兒子將被害人為我們的罪過" ;因此, "我們愛,因為他第一次愛我們" ( 1約翰四日: 10 , 19 ) 。

God, in fact, showed his prior love for us by graciously providing this redemption precisely when we had no love for him: "God shows his love for us," says Paul, "in that while we were yet sinners Christ died for us," so that "while we were enemies we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son" (Rom. 5:8, 10; cf. 2 Cor. 8:9).上帝,其實,更證明他的愛之前,為我們慷慨地提供這種贖回的時候,正是我們已沒有愛,他說: "上帝,足見其愛我們, "保羅說, "在這方面我們雖然尚未罪人,基督為我們死, " ,使" ,而我們的敵人,我們得與上帝之死,他的兒子" (羅馬書5時08分, 10歲;比照二日肺心病。 8時09分) 。 God took action, moreover, when we were helpless (Rom. 5:6), without any ability to help ourselves or to make any contribution toward our salvation.神採取了行動,而且,當我們無助的(羅馬書5時06分) ,在沒有任何能力幫助自己,或作出任何貢獻,對我們的救贖。 The sinner's state is one of spiritual death, that is to say, of total inability, and his only hope is the miracle of new birth from above (John 3:3).千古罪人的國家是一個靈魂的死亡,這就是說,總不能和他唯一的希望就是奇蹟誕生新的,由以上(約翰3點03分) 。 That is why the apostle reminds the Ephesian believers that salvation came to them when they were "dead" in sins, from which there follows only one conclusion, namely, that it is by grace that they were saved.這就是為什麼使徒提醒ephesian信徒說,救國前來,對他們的時候,他們"死"在捷聯慣導系統,其中有如下只有一個結論,即它是由恩典說,他們得救。

Both now and for all eternity the Christian will be indebted to "the immeasurable riches" of God's grace displayed in his kindness toward us in Christ Jesus; for, Paul insists, "by grace you have been saved through faith, and this is not your own doing, it is the gift of God, not because of works, lest any man should boast" (Eph. 2:5 - 9).無論是現在所有永恆基督教會負債,以"無法估量的財富"上帝的恩典展現在他的盛情,對我們在基督耶穌;保羅堅稱, "恩典,你已獲救,通過信仰,而這是不是你的自己做的時候,它是神的恩賜,而不是因為作品的,否則任何人不應誇" (以弗所書2時05 -9 ) 。 But for the prevenience, or priority, of divine grace, all would be lost.但對於prevenience ,或首要的,神聖的恩典,都將會消失。

Efficacious grace is grace which effects the purpose for which it is given. 有效的恩典 ,是恩典效果的目的為何,它是給予。 It is efficacious simply because it is God's grace.它是有效的簡單,因為它是上帝的恩典。 What is involved here is the doctrine of God: what God purposes and performs cannot fail or come to nothing; otherwise he is not God.什麼是這裡所涉及的是中庸之道,上帝:什麼上帝的宗旨和履行不能失敗或願望落空,否則他不是神。 The indefectibility of redeeming grace is seen not only in the turning of sinners from darkness to light but also in the bringing of them to the consummation of eternal glory.該indefectibility的救贖恩典被認為是不僅在轉折的罪人,從黑暗走向光明,而且也應在引進,他們以圓滿的永恆的榮耀。 "All that the Father gives to me will come to me," Jesus declared; "and him who comes to me I will not cast out; and this is the will of him who sent me, that I should lose nothing of all that he has given me, but raise it up at the last day" (John 6:37, 39; cf. 17:2, 6, 9, 12, 24). "不論父親,讓我來給我, "耶穌宣稱, "和他的人都交給我,我不會排斥;這是將他的人送我,我應該沒有什麼失去的一切,他給我的,但它提升了,在最後一天" (約翰6時37分, 39歲;比照17時02分, 6 , 9 , 12 , 24 ) 。 There is no power in all the universe that can undo or frustrate the work of God's special grace: "My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me," says the Good Shepherd; "and I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish, and no one shall snatch them out of my hand" (John 10:27 - 28).有沒有權力在所有宇宙,可以撤消或妨礙工作,上帝的特殊恩典說: "我的羊聽我的聲音,我知道他們,他們跟我說: "好牧人" ,我給他們永生。的,他們也絕不會滅亡,任何人不得搶奪他們離開我的手" (約翰福音10:27 -2 8) 。

All, as we have seen, from beginning to end, is owed to the grace of Almighty God (2 Cor. 5:18, 21).一切,正如我們所看到的,從開始到結束,是欠的恩典全能的上帝( 2肺心病。 5時18分, 21 ) 。 The whole of our redemption is already achieved and sealed in Christ: "For those whom (God) foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son; and those whom he predestined he also called; and those whom he called he also justified; and those whom he justified he also glorified" (Rom. 8: 29 - 30).我們整個贖回,是已經實現了和密封在基督裡說: "那些人(神) foreknew他也注定要符合形象,他的兒子和那些人,他命中註定他還呼籲,以及那些他所謂的他還正當理由;和那些人,他的理由,他也讚美" (羅馬書8 : 29 -3 0) 。 That the grace of God in Christ Jesus is efficacious, that it achieves now and for evermore the redemption it was designed to achieve, should be a source of the utmost confidence, strength, and security to the Christian.這天主的恩典,在基督耶穌裡,是有效的,它實現了當前和永中贖回我們的目的是要實現好,應該是一個來源極其有信心,有實力,與安全有關的基督徒。 The fact that "God's firm foundation stands, bearing this seal: 'The Lord knows those who are his'" (2 Tim. 2:19) should fill him with unshakable assurance.事實上, "上帝的堅實基礎停機位,同時這蓋章: '上帝知道那些是他的' " ( 2添。 19:2 ) ,應填寫他具有不可動搖的保證。 Since the grace of redemption is the grace of God, he may be absolutely certain "that he who began a good work in you will bring it to completion at the day of Jesus Christ" (Phil. 1:6).自恩典救贖,是上帝的恩典,他可以絕對肯定" ,他的人開始了一個良好的工作,你將它完成,在當天的耶穌基督" ( phil. 1時06分) 。 God's special grace is never in vain (1 Cor. 15:10).上帝的恩典,特別是從來沒有白費( 1肺心病。 15:10 ) 。

Irresistible grace is grace which cannot be rejected. 不可抗拒的恩典恩典,不能被拒絕。 The conception of the irresistibility of special grace is closely bound up with what has been said above concerning the efficacious nature of that grace.觀的irresistibility特殊恩典是息息相關的話已經說了上述關於有效性質,該恩典。 As the work of God always achieves the effect toward which it is directed, so also it cannot be resisted or thrust aside.隨著這項工作的上帝總是能達到效果,對其中的是導演,所以也不能抗拒或推力在一邊。 No doubt it is true that most persons blindly struggle against the redemptive grace of God at first, just as Saul of Tarsus fought against the goads of his conscience (Acts 26:14); subsequently, however, he understood that God had not only called him through his grace but had set him apart before he was born (Gal. 1:15), indeed that those who are Christ's were chosen in him before the foundation of the world (Eph. 1:4).毫無疑問,這是事實,大多數人盲目鬥爭的救贖謝天謝地,在第一,正如娑羅雙樹的塔爾蘇斯抗擊goads他的良知(使徒行26:14 ) ;然而,後來,他的理解是,上帝不僅要求他透過他的恩典,但已使他之前他出生( gal. 1:15 ) ,事實上,那些是基督的人選擇了在他之前的基礎地位,世界(以弗所書1:4 ) 。

As creation was irresistibly effected through the all powerful word and will of God, so also the new creation in Christ is irresistibly effected through that same all powerful word and will.作為創作是勢不可擋地通過了所有強大的Word和上帝的意志,因此也是新的創造,在基督裡是勢不可擋地通過同所有強大的Word和意志。 The Creator God is one and the same with the Redeemer God.造物主上帝是同一個與救贖主神。 This in effect is what Paul is affirming when he writes: "It is the God who said, 'Let light shine out of darkness' (that is, at creation; Gen. 1:3 - 5), who has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ (that is, in the new creation)" (2 Cor. 4:6).這實際上是什麼是保羅肯定時,他寫道: "這是上帝的人說, '讓我們光照耀出黑暗' (即,在藝術創作;將軍1:3 -5 ) ,他們已經照耀在我們心中讓輕的知識,神的榮耀,在面對耶穌基督(即,在新的設定) " ( 2肺心病。 4:6 ) 。 The regenerating work of God in the believing heart, precisely again because it is God's work, can no more be resisted than it can come to nothing.再生的工作,上帝在信者的心,正是因為它是上帝的工作時,可以不予以抵制,比它可以願望落空。

Sufficient grace is grace that is adequate for the saving of the believer here and now and hereafter to all eternity. 充足的恩典 ,是恩典是足以拯救信徒在這裡,現在和今後所有永恆。 As with the other aspects of special grace, its sufficiency flows from the infinite power and goodness of God.至於其他方面的特殊恩典,其充足的流動,從無限權力和善良的上帝。 Those who draw near to him through Christ he saves "fully and completely" (Heb. 7:25, Phillips).凡是借助靠近他透過基督他節省了"全面和徹底" (希伯來書7時25分,菲利普斯) 。 The cross is the only place of forgiveness and reconciliation, and it is fully so; for the blood of Jesus shed there for us cleanses from all sin and from all unrighteousness (1 John 1:7, 9), and he is the propitiation not for our sins only but also "for the sins of the whole world" (1 John 2:2).十字架是唯一的寬恕與和解,這是完全如此;鮮血耶穌棚我們還有清潔,從一切罪惡和一切的不義( 1約翰1時07分, 9 ) ,以及他是不是propitiation為我們的罪只,而且還必須"為罪孽也符合整個世界的" ( 1約翰2:2 ) 。 Moreover, as we face the trials and afflictions of this present life the Lord's grace continues to be unfailingly sufficient for us (2 Cor. 12:9).此外,由於我們所面對的考驗和苦難的這本人生上帝的恩典繼續得到不斷足以讓我們( 2肺心病。 12時09分) 。 He has promised, "I will never fail you nor forsake you."他承諾, "我永遠不會失敗,你也不放棄你" 。 "Hence," as the author of the Letter to the Hebrews points out, "we can confidently say, 'The Lord is my helper, I will not be afraid; what can man do to me?'" (Heb. 13:5 - 6; Ps. 118:6). "因此, "由於作者的信中,以希伯來人指出, "我們可以有信心地說, 『耶和華是我的幫手,我不會怕什麼人可以做的到我嗎? ' " (希伯來書13時05分-六;聚苯乙烯。 1 18:6) 。

The fact that many who hear the call of the gospel fail to respond to it with repentance and faith, and continue in their unbelief, does not imply that there is any insufficiency in Christ's atoning sacrifice of himself on the cross.事實上,許多人聽到呼叫的福音,不回應,它與懺悔和信仰,並繼續在他們的不信者,但並不意味著有任何不足,在基督裡的atoning犧牲自己的十字架。 The fault rests entirely with them, and they are condemned because of their own unbelief (John 3:18. It is inappropriate to speak of divine grace in terms of quantity, as though it were sufficient only for those whom God justifies, or as though for its sufficiency to exceed these limits would mean a wastage of grace and to that extent an invalidation of Christ's self - offering. God's grace is boundless. How could it be anything else, seeing it is the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, God himself incarnate? That is why it is all - sufficient. No matter how much we draw from it, the river of divine grace is always full of water (Ps. 65:9). Quantitative notions of God's saving grace make the universal offer of the gospel unreal for those who reject it and leave them rejecting something that is not even there for them to reject.故障完全給他們,他們受到譴責,因為他們自己的不信者(約翰3點18分,這是不恰當的發言,神的恩典,無論在數量,好像這足以只為那些人,上帝的理由,或彷彿其自給越過這一界限就意味著浪費恩典,並認為在多大程度上失效基督的自我-提供。上帝的恩典是無窮的,怎麼可能是什麼都看,它是恩典,我們的主耶穌基督,上帝肉身?這就是為什麼人們都-足夠的,不管我們是多麼借鑒它,河神的恩典總是充滿水(詩篇6 5:9) 。定量的概念,上帝的恩典拯救,使全民提供的福音虛招對於那些不接受,並讓他們拒絕的東西,是不是即使在那裡,為他們崇尚科學,抵制。

And this in turn leaves no ground for their condemnation as unbelievers (John 3:18 again).而這種情況又反過來葉片沒有理由譴責,因為不信(約翰3點18分再次) 。 More biblical is the distinction that has been propounded between the sufficiency and the efficiency (or efficaciousness) of special grace (though it would be foolish to imagine that this dissolves the mystery of God's gracious dealings with his creatures), according to which this grace is sufficient for all but efficient (or efficacious) only for those whom God justifies by faith.更多的是聖經的區別已提出之間的充分性和效率(或efficaciousness )的特別恩典(雖然這將是愚蠢的設想,這個溶化天主的仁慈與他的動物) ,根據這個寬限期是足以讓所有的,但效率(或效用) ,且僅限於那些證明上帝的信仰。

It is important always to remember that the operation of God's grace is a deep mystery that is far beyond our limited human comprehension.這是很重要的,始終要記住,這次行動的上帝的恩典是一場深刻的奧秘是遠遠超出了我們有限的人力理解。 God does not treat men as though they were puppets with no mind or will of their own.上帝不治療男性好像他們的傀儡,沒有主意或將他們自己的。 Our human dignity as responsible persons under God is never violated or despised.我們的人的尊嚴,作為一個負責任的人,神,是從來沒有違反過或鄙視。 How could it be, since this dignity is itself given by God?怎麼可能不這樣,因為這尊嚴是自己給上帝嗎? By Christ's command the gospel of divine grace is freely proclaimed throughout the whole world (Acts 1:8; Matt. 28:19).由基督的指揮福音神的恩典是自由宣布在整個世界( 1:8行為;馬特。 28:19 ) 。 Those who turn away from it do so of their own choice and stand self condemned as lovers of darkness rather than light (John 3:19, 36).那些迴避的,它這樣做,他們自己選擇的立場,自我譴責,因為戀人的黑暗,而不是光(約翰3點19 , 36 ) 。 Those who thankfully receive it do so in full personal responsibility (John 1:12; 3:16), but then they give all the praise to God because their whole redemption is, in some wonderful way, due entirely to the grace of God and not at all to themselves.那些幸好得到它這樣做完全的個人責任(約翰1:12 ; 3:16 ) ,但隨後他們,讓所有讚美上帝,因為他們的整體贖回的是,一些優秀的方式,完全歸於天主的恩典和並非在所有對自己負責。

Confronted with this marvelous but mysterious reality, we can do no more than exclaim, with Paul: "O the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments and how inscrutable his ways! For from him and through him and to him are all things. To him be glory for ever. Amen" (Rom. 11:33, 36).面對這個奇特而神秘的現實,我們所能做的不超過驚呼,與保羅: "啊,這個深度的財富和智慧與知識的上帝!如何unsearchable是他的判斷能力和如何高深莫測,他的方法!對於他,並通過他和他的是一切事物,要被他的榮耀永遠阿門" (羅馬書11時33分, 36 ) 。

PE Hughes體育休斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
CR Smith, The Biblical Doctrine of Grace; J Moffatt, Grace in the NT; NP Williams, The Grace of God; HH Esser, NIDNTT, II; H Conzelmann and W Zimmerli, TDNT,IX; E Jauncey, The Doctrine of Grace; TF Torrance, The Doctrine of Grace in the Apostolic Fathers.鉻史密斯,聖經教義的寬限期; j moffatt ,雍容在新台幣; NP的威廉姆斯,天主的恩典;個HH esser , nidntt ,二; h conzelmann和W zimmerli , tdnt ,第九章;電子jauncey ,這個學說的恩典;托蘭斯的TF ,這個學說的寬限期,在教宗的父親。

Means of Grace指的恩典

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"Means of Grace" is an expression not used in Scripture, but employed (1) to denote those institutions ordained by God to be the ordinary channels of grace to the souls of men. "指的恩典"是一個表達而不是用來經文,但就業( 1 )是指那些機構受戒上帝成為普通渠道的寬限期,以亡靈的男人。 These are the Word, Sacraments, and Prayer.這些都是一句話,聖禮,並祈禱。 (2.) But in popular language the expression is used in a wider sense to denote those exercises in which we engage for the purpose of obtaining spiritual blessing; as hearing the gospel, reading the Word, meditation, self-examination, Christian conversation, etc. ( 2 ) ,但在流行的語言表達,是用在更廣泛的意義上是指那些演習中,我們從事為取得祈福;聽覺福音,讀字,冥想,自我檢查,基督教的交談中,等等。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)

Means of Grace指的恩典

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The means of grace, or media through which grace may be received, are various.手段的寬限期,或通過媒體,其中寬限期,可收到,是多方面的。 The primary means of grace is that of Holy Scripture, from which our whole knowledge of the Christian faith is derived and the chief purpose of which is to communicate to us the saving grace of the gospel of Jesus Christ (2 Tim. 3:15; John 20:31).主要手段的恩典,是神聖的經文,它是我們整個知識的基督教信仰是源自和行政的目的是為了溝通,讓我們拯救的恩典福音的耶穌基督( 2添。 3:15 ;約翰20時31分) 。 Preaching, which is the proclamation of the dynamic truth of the gospel, is, as the teaching and practice of Christ himself and his apostles show, a means of grace of the utmost importance (Luke 24:47; Acts 1:8; Rom. 1:16; 10:11 - 15; 1 Cor. 1:17 - 18, 23).說教,它宣布動態福音真理,是為教學和實踐基督本人和他的門徒表明,一種手段的恩典至關重要(路加福音24:47 ; 1:8行為;光碟。 1:16 ; 10:11 -1 51肺心病。 1時1 7- 18日, 2 3日) 。 Similarly, personal witness and evangelism are means for bringing the grace of the gospel to others.同樣,在個人見證和宣講福音,是指為使恩典福音給別人。

If the above are essentially means of saving grace, there are also means of continuing or strengthening grace.如果以上都是從本質意義上的節水恩典,也有一些手段,繼續或加強恩典。 The exposition of Holy Scripture for the instruction and edification of Christian believers is one such means, as also is the private study of the Bible.該博覽會的神聖的經文,為教學和教化的基督教信徒們就是這樣的一個手段,也就是私人研究聖經。 Another is prayer, in which the Christian communes with God, experiences his presence, and opens himself to his purpose and his power.另一個原因是,禱告,其中基督教公社與上帝,經驗他的存在,並開放自己,以他的目的和他的權力。 Another is fellowship with other Christians in worship and witness.另一個原因是,獎學金與其他基督徒在崇拜和證人。 And yet another is participation in the sacrament of the breaking of bread which Christ instituted and commanded his followers to observe (Acts 2:42).然而,另一種是參加在聖打破麵包基督提起和指揮他的追隨者觀察(使徒2時42分) 。

It is of particular importance that the means of grace should be rightly received, and to be rightly received they must be received with faith and gratitude; otherwise, instead of being means of grace they become means of condemnation.這是特別重要的是手段的寬限期應該正確地收到了,並可以正確地收到了,他們必須得到與信仰和感謝,否則就不是被手段的恩典,他們成為手段的譴責。 Thus the purpose of Christ's coming was not to judge but to save the world.因此,為了基督的未來不是法官,但為了拯救世界。 The person, however, who in unbelief rejects Christ and his teaching is not saved but judged by Christ (John 12:47 - 48).人,但是,世衛組織在信者拒絕基督和他的教學是不會被保存,但判斷基督(約翰12時47分-4 8) 。 The gospel must not only be heard; it must also be believed (John 5:24; I John 5:13; Rom. 10:9 - 14).福音不僅要被聽到,但也必須相信(約翰5點24分;約翰5點13分;光碟。 10時09分-1 4) 。

Similarly, the sacrament of the breaking of bread (known also as the Lord's Supper, Holy Communion, or the Eucharist) was instituted by Christ as a means of grace, and it is indeed such to all who thankfully receive it with faith in the Savior who died for sinners on the cross.同樣,聖餐的破麵包(也被稱為主的晚餐,領聖體,或聖體聖事) ,是由基督作為一種手段的恩典,事實上,這是一個這樣的所有的人,幸好得到它與信仰在救世主那些死去的罪人,在十字架上。 Such persons truly eat Christ's flesh and drink his blood (John 6:35, 52 - 58).這種人,真正吃基督的肉和喝他的血液(約翰6時35分, 52 -5 8) 。 But those who receive in an unworthy manner are "guilty of profaning the body and blood of the Lord," and to them the sacrament becomes a means of condemnation, so that, in receiving it, they eat and drink judgment upon themselves (1 Cor. 11:27 - 29).但那些接受在一個卑微的態度是"有罪的profaning身體和血液的主" ,向他們聖餐成為一種手段譴責,因此,在接收的話,他們吃的喝的判斷時,自己( 1肺心病11:27 -2 9) 。 Accordingly, it is erroneous to imagine that this sacrament, or for that matter, baptism, or the hearing of the gospel, or attendance at church, is automatically a means of grace to any who partake of it, without regard to their disposition of faith or unbelief, as though the mere reception sufficed to guarantee the imparting of grace.因此,它是有錯誤的想像,這聖餐,或就此,洗禮,或聽證會的福音,或出席教會,是自動的手段寬限期,任何人參與的,沒有考慮到它們的處置信仰或不信者,因為雖然僅僅接待足以保證傳授的恩典。

That is why Paul speaks of the ministers of the gospel as being, in their witness and in their suffering, those who spread the fragrance of the knowledge of Christ, fragrance, however, which to those who are perishing through unbelief is "fragrance from death to death," while to those who are being saved through faith it is "fragrance from life to life" (2 Cor. 2:14 - 16).這就是為什麼保羅說的部長們的福音,因為,在他們的見證,而且在他們的痛苦,那些散佈香水的知識基督,香水,不過,這對於那些亡透過不信者,是"香水免於死亡死刑" ,而那些被保存通過信仰,它是"香水從生活中的生命" ( 2肺心病。 2時14 -1 6) 。

PE Hughes體育休斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)


Advanced Information 先進的信息

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)

Sanctifying Grace sanctifying恩典

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

Grace (gratia, Charis), in general, is a supernatural gift of God to intellectual creatures (men, angels) for their eternal salvation, whether the latter be furthered and attained through salutary acts or a state of holiness.寬限期(特惠, charis ) ,在一般情況,是一個超自然的神的恩賜,智慧生物(男,天使) ,為他們永恆的救恩,後者是否推動,並取得了有益的,通過行為或一個國家的聖德。 Eternal salvation itself consists in heavenly bliss resulting from the intuitive knowledge of the Triune God, who to the one not endowed with grace "inhabiteth light inaccessible" (1 Timothy 6:16).永恆救贖本身在天國極樂世界造成的,從直觀的認識,三位一體的上帝,以一個沒有天賦的恩典" inhabiteth輕交通不便" ( 1提摩太後6:16 ) 。 Christian grace is a fundamental idea of the Christian religion, the pillar on which, by a special ordination of God, the majestic edifice of Christianity rests in its entirety.基督的恩典,是一個根本的理念,基督教宗教,支柱上,由一個特別統籌神,其雄偉壯觀的大廈基督教在於在其全貌。 Among the three fundamental ideas -- sin, redemption, and grace -- grace plays the part of the means, indispensable and Divinely ordained, to effect the redemption from sin through Christ and to lead men to their eternal destiny in heaven.三者之間的基本理念-單,贖回,並寬限期-恩典扮演的一部分,是手段,也是不可或缺的神受戒,效果贖回,從單透過基督,並帶領官兵,他們永恆的命運在天上。

Before the Council of Trent, the Schoolmen seldom used the term gratia actualis, preferring auxilium speciale, motio divina, and similar designations; nor did they formally distinguish actual grace from sanctifying grace.擺在安理會面前的遄達, schoolmen很少用了特惠actualis ,寧願auxilium speciale ,動議divina ,以及類似番號,也沒有正式區分實際的寬限期,從sanctifying恩典。 But, in consequence of modern controversies regarding grace, it has become usual and necessary in theology to draw a sharper distinction between the transient help to act (actual grace) and the permanent state of grace (sanctifying grace).不過,後果是現代的爭論就恩典,它已成為與平日一樣,有必要在神學得出一個更加銳利區分暫態有助於法(實際寬限期)和永恆的恩典( sanctifying寬限期) 。 For this reason we adopt this distinction as our principle of division in our exposition of the Catholic doctrine.為此,我們採取這種區別,因為我們的原則分工,在我們的論述,天主教的教義。 In this article, we shall treat only of sanctifying grace.在這篇文章中,我們將只對sanctifying恩典。 (See also ACTUAL GRACE.) (亦見實際寬限期) 。

Santifying grace santifying恩典

Since the end and aim of all efficacious grace is directed to the production of sanctifying grace where it does not already exist, or to retain and increase it where it is already present, its excellence, dignity, and importance become immediately apparent; for holiness and the sonship of God depend solely upon the possession of sanctifying grace, wherefore it is frequently called simply grace without any qualifying word to accompany it as, for instance, in the phrases "to live in grace" or "to fall from grace".自去年底和目標都是有效的恩典是針對生產sanctifying恩典,如果它確實已經不存在,或保留,並增加它的地方,它已經是目前,其傑出的成就,尊嚴和重要性,成為立竿見影;成聖和該sonship上帝單靠經藏sanctifying恩典,人哪,這是經常打電話簡單的寬限期,沒有任何修飾詞,伴隨它作為,例如,在句子" ,以住在寬限期" , "工人從恩典" 。

All pertinent questions group themselves around three points of view from which the subject may be considered:所有相關的問題,集團本身圍繞三個點看法,從這一主題,可以考慮:

I. The preparation for sanctifying grace, or the process of justification.一,準備sanctifying寬限期,或過程中的道理。

II.二。 The nature of sanctifying grace.性質sanctifying恩典。

III.三。 The characteristics of sanctifying grace.特點sanctifying恩典。


(For an exhaustive treatment of justification, see the article JUSTIFICATION). (詳盡待遇的理由,請參閱文章的理由) 。 The word justification (justificatio, from justum facere) derives its name from justice (justitia), by which is not merely meant the cardinal virtue in the sense of a contant purpose to respect the rights of others (suum cuique), nor is the term taken in the concept of all those virtues which go to make up the moral law, but connotes, especially, the whole inner relation of man to God as to his supernatural end.這個詞的理由( justificatio ,從justum facere )源於它的名字從司法( justitia ) ,其中並不僅僅意味著樞機美德,在感覺到一個介紹聯絡目的,以尊重他人的權利(他們的cuique )的,也不是任期採取的概念,所有這些美德哪去彌補道德律,但蘊含的,特別是整黨內關係的人向上帝,以他的超自然結束。 Every adult soul stained either with original sin or with actual mortal sin (children are of course excepted) must, in order to arrive at the state of justification, pass through a short or long process of justification, which may be likened to the gradual development of the child in its mother's womb.每一個成年人的靈魂,污損或者與原罪,或與實際凡人,單仲偕(兒童是當然例外) ,必須以達成國家的理由,經過了短期或長期的過程理由,可比喻為循序漸進地發展該子女在其母親的子宮內。 This development attains its fullness in the birth of the child, accompanied by the anguish and suffering with which this birth is invariably attended; our rebirth in God is likewise preceded by great spiritual sufferings of fear and contrition.這方面的發展達到了它的豐滿,在子女出生,伴隨著痛苦和苦難,這本誕生總是出席;重生,我們在上帝同樣先巨大的精神痛苦,恐懼和contrition 。

In the process of justification we must distinguish two periods: first, the preparatory acts or dispositions (faith, fear, hope, etc.); then the last, decisive moment of the transformation of the sinner from the state of sin to that of justification or sanctifying grace, which may be called the active justification (actus justificationis) with this the real process comes to an end, and the state of habitual holiness and sonship of God begins.在這個過程中的理由,我們必須區分兩個時期:第一,預備行為,或其處分權(信仰,恐懼,希望等) ,然後最後,決定性的時刻轉化的千古罪人,從國家的罪過就是理由或sanctifying恩典,這可能是所謂的積極理由( actus justificationis )這個真實的過程即將結束,與國家的慣常成聖和sonship上帝的開始。 Touching both of these periods there has existed, and still exists, in part, a great conflict of opinion between Catholicism and Protestantism.在談到上述兩個時期有存在,問題仍然存在,部分是一個偉大的衝突之間的意見分歧,天主教和基督教。

This conflict may be reduced to four differences of teaching.這次衝突可能縮短至四個不同的教學。 By a justifying faith the Church understands qualitatively the theoretical faith in the truths of Revelation, and demands over and above this faith other acts of preparation for justification.由一名辯護信仰教會的理解定性理論的信仰在真理的啟示,並要求超越這種信仰的其他行為的,準備的理由。 Protestantism, on the other hand, reduces the process of justification to merely a fiduciary faith; and maintains that this faith, exclusive even of good works, is all-sufficient for justification, laying great stress upon the scriptural statement sola fides justificat.基督新教,在另一方面,降低過程中的正當理由,只是受託信念,並認為這種信仰,甚至獨家的優秀作品,是全足夠的理由,奠定了很大的壓力後,聖經的聲明索拉惹人justificat 。 The Church teaches that justification consists of an actual obliteration of sin and an interior sanctification.教會教導我們的理由,構成一個實際的擦掉的單仲偕和內部成聖。 Protestantism, on the other hand, makes of the forgiveness of sin merely a concealment of it, so to speak; and of the sanctification a forensic declaration of justification, or an external imputation of the justice of Christ.基督新教,但另一方面,使得該赦罪的只是一個隱蔽的,所以發言;的成聖法醫宣言的理由,或外部歸責的,正義的喊聲。 In the presentation of the process of justification, we will everywhere note this fourfold confessional conflict.在介紹過程中的理由,我們會處處注意這點四倍教派衝突。

A. The Fiduciary Faith of the Protestants答:受託信仰的新教徒

The Council of Trent (Sess. VI, cap. vi, and can. xii) decrees that not the fiduciary faith, but a real mental act of faith, consisting of a firm belief in all revealed truths makes up the faith of justification and the "beginning, foundation, and source" (loc. cit., cap. viii) of justification.安理會的遄達( sess.第六章第六節,並能。十二)法令,而不是受託的信仰,而是一種真正的精神行事的信念,構成一個堅定的信念,在所有發現的真理,彌補了信仰的理由和"一開始,基金會和來源" ( loc.引文中,章第八節)的理由。 What did the Reformers with Luther understand by fiduciary faith?什麼叫改革者與路德了解,由受託信仰呢? They understood thereby not the first or fundamental deposition or preparation for the (active) justification, but merely the spiritual grasp (instrumentum) with which we seize and lay hold of the external justice of Christ and with it, as with a mantle of grace, cover our sins (which still continue to exist interiorly) in the infallible, certain belief (fiducia) that God, for the sake of Christ, will no longer hold our sin against us.他們明白,從而不是第一次或根本沉積或準備為(有源)的理由,而僅僅是精神把握(的文書) ,使我們抓住重點把握外部司法基督有了它,因為與地幔的恩典,包括我們的罪過(其中仍繼續存在interiorly )在犯錯,某些信念( fiducia ) ,神,為了基督的,將不再進行我們的罪過對我們不利。 Hereby the seat of justifying faith is transferred from the intellect to the will; and faith itself, in as far as it still abides in the intellect, is converted into a certain belief in one's own justification.特此所在地的信仰辯護,是從智力的意志和信仰本身,就因為它仍信守在智力,轉化為某種信仰,在自己的理由。 The main question is: "Is this conception Biblical?"主要問題是: "這是觀念的聖經" ? Murray (De gratia, disp. x, n. 18, Dublin, 1877) states in his statistics that the word fides (pistis) occurs eighty times in the Epistle to the Romans and in the synoptic Gospels, and in only six of these can it be construed to mean fiducia.默里(德特惠,位移的X , 12月18日,都柏林, 1877年)在他的統計說,這個詞惹人(皮斯蒂斯)出現80次,在書信中,羅馬人,並在天氣福音,並在只有6個,這些可它被視為是指fiducia 。 But neither here nor anywhere else does it ever mean the conviction of, or belief in, one's own justification, or the Lutheran fiduciary faith.但模棱兩可其他地方是否意味著永遠的信念,或信仰,對自己的理由,或路德受託信仰。 Even in the leading text (Romans 4:5) the justifying faith of St. Paul is identical with the mental act of faith or belief in Divine truth; for Abraham was justified not by faith in his own justification, but by faith in the truth of the Divine promise that he would be the "father of many nations" (cf. Romans 4:9 sqq.).即使在領先的內文(羅馬4時05分)正當信仰的聖保羅是一致的,與心理行為的宗教或信仰,在神的真理;亞伯拉罕是合理的而不是由信仰在他自己的理由,而是由信仰在真相的神聖諾言,他將之父"的許多國家" (見羅馬4時09 sqq ) 。 In strict accord with this is the Pauline teaching that the faith of justification, which we must profess "with heart and mouth", is identical with the mental act of faith in the Resurrection of Christ, the central dogma of Christianity (Romans 10:9 sq.) and that the minimum expressly necessary for justification is contained in the two dogmas: the existence of God, and the doctrine of eternal reward (Hebrews 11:6).在嚴格符合這是寶蓮教學信仰的理由,我們一定要自稱"患有心髒病和嘴巴" ,是完全相同的,與心理行為的信仰在復活的基督,中央教條的基督教(羅馬書10時09分平方) ,並認為起碼有必要明文規定為理由,是包含在這兩個教條:上帝存在,並中庸永恆的獎賞(希伯來書11時06分) 。

The Redeemer Himself made belief in the teaching of the gospel a necessary condition for salvation, when he solemnly commanded the Apostles to preach the Gospel to the whole world (Mark 16:15).該救贖自己的信念,取得了在教學中的福音的一個必要條件,為救贖時,他鄭重指揮使徒宣講福音到整個世界(標記16:15 ) 。 St. John the Evangelist declares his Gospel has been written for the purpose of exciting belief in the Divine Sonship of Christ, and links to this faith the possession of eternal life (John 20:31).聖若望福音宣布他的福音已經寫為目的的激動人心的信念,在神聖的sonship基督,並鏈接到這個信念,擁有永恆的生命(約翰20時31分) 。 Such was the mind of the Chritian Church from the beginning.這是心的chritian教會從一開始的。 To say nothing of the testimony of the Fathers (cf. Bellarmine, De justific., I, 9), Saint Fulgentius, a disciple of St. Augustine, in his precious booklet, "De vera fide ad Petrum", does not understand by true faith a fiduciary faith, but the firm belief in all the truths contained in the Apostles' Creed, and he calls this faith the "Foundation of all good things", and the "Beginning of human salvation" (loc. cit., Prolog.).更不用說作證的父親(參見bellarmine ,德justific 。來說,我和9 ) ,聖傅箴修,弟子的聖奧古斯丁,在他的珍貴的小冊子, "德維拉正當專案petrum " ,不明白的,由真正的信仰受信人的信仰,但堅信,在所有的真理包含在使徒們的信條,他稱這是信仰"的基礎,所有好的東西" ,並發表"從人的救贖" ( loc.引文中,用Prolog ) 。 The practice of the Church in the earliest ages, as shown by the ancient custom, going back to Apostolic times, of giving the catechumens (katechoumenoi from katechein, viva voce instruere) a verbal instruction in the articles of faith and of directing them, shortly before baptism, to make a public recitation of the Apostles' Creed, strengthens this view.實踐教會最早的年齡,因為所表現出的古老風俗,可以追溯到使徒時代,讓慕道者( katechoumenoi從katechein ,借助instruere )口頭指示,在文章的信仰和指揮他們,在短期內之前的洗禮,作出公開朗誦的使徒們的信條,強化了這一觀點。 After this they were called not fiduciales but fideles, in contra-distinction to infidels and haeretici (from aireisthai, to select, to proceed eclectically) who rejected Revelation as a whole or in part.經過這次,他們被所謂不fiduciales但fideles ,在對應式的區分,以異教徒和haeretici (從aireisthai ,如果要選擇,著手eclectically )因拒絕啟示作為一個整體或其中的一部分。 In answer to the theological question: How many truths of faith must one expressly (fide explicita) believe under command (necessitate praecepti)?在回答有關神學問題:究竟有多少真理的信念,必須明確一個(正當explicita )相信下指揮(需要praecepti ) ? theologians say that an ordinary Catholic must expressly know and believe the most important dogmas and the truths of the moral law, for instance, the Apostles' Creed, the Decalogue, the six precepts of the Church, the Seven Sacraments, the Our Father.神學家說,一個普通的天主教必須明確知道,並認為最重要的教條和真理的道德律,舉例來說,使徒們的信條,十誡,六個戒律的教會,這7個聖禮,我們的父親。 Greater things are, of course, expected from the educated, especially from catechists, confessors, preachers wherefore upon these the study of theology rests as an obligation.更大的事情,當然,期望從教育,特別是從講授,師,傳教士們哪,這些研究神學的休息,也是一種義務。 If the question be put: In how many truths as a means (necessitate medii) must one believe to be saved?如果問題被提出:在多少真理作為一種手段(必要medii )必須相信才能得救? many catechists answer Six things: God's existence; an eternal reward; the Trinity; the Incarnation; the immortality of the soul; the necessity of Grace.許多講授答案六件事:上帝的存在;一個永恆的獎勵;三位一體;化身;靈魂;必要性的恩典。 But according to St. Paul (Hebrews 11:6) we can only be certain of the necessity of the first two dogmas, while the belief in the Trinity and the Incarnation could not of course be exacted from ante-Christian Judaism or from Paganism.但據聖保羅(希伯來書11時06分) ,我們只能在一定的必要性首兩個教條,而信仰是在三一和化身,可當然不是付出,從前廳基督教或猶太教從paganism 。 Then, too, belief in the Trinity may be implicitly included in the dogma of God's existence, and belief in the Incarnation in the dogma of the Divine providence, just as the immortality of the soul is implicitly included in the dogma of an eternal reward.那麼,過於信仰,三位一體,可含蓄地包括在教條的上帝的存在和信念的化身,在教條的是神聖的,正如靈魂,是含蓄地包括在教條的一個永恆的獎賞。 However, there arises for any one baptized in the name of the Holy Trinity, and entering thus the Church of Christ, the necessity of making an act of explicit faith (fides explicita).但是,也存在著對任何一次的名受洗,叫聖三一,並冒險進入,因此基督的教會有必要使行為有明確的信仰(惹人explicita ) 。 This necessity (necessitas medii) arises per accidens, and is suspended only by a Divine dispention in cases of extreme necessity, where such an act of faith is either physically or morally impossible, as in the case of pagans or those dying in a state of unconsciousness.這種必要性( necessitas medii )出現百分之accidens ,並暫停只有神dispention在案件的極端必要性,而這種行為的信仰,是不是身體上或道德上變得不可能,因為在案件異教徒或那些在垂死狀態失去知覺。 For further matter on this point see Pohle, "Lehrbuch der Dogmatik", 4th ed., II, 488 sqq.為進一步件事就這一點看pohle , " lehrbuch明鏡dogmatik " ,第四版,二, 488 sqq 。 (Paderborn, 1909). (帕德博恩, 1909 ) 。

B. The "Sola Fides" Doctrine of the Protestants二, "索拉惹人"學說的新教徒

The Council of Trent (Sess. VI, can. ix) decrees that over and above the faith which formally dwells in the intellect, other acts of predisposition, arising from the will, such as fear, hope, love, contrition, and good resolution (loc. cit., cap. vi), are necessary for the reception of the grace of justification.安理會的遄達( sess.六,可以第九節)法令,超越信仰正式整篇都在智力,以其他行為的誘因,所引起的意願,如恐懼,希望,愛, contrition ,收到了良好的決議案( loc.引文中,章第六節) ,是必要的,為接收的恩典理由。 This definition was made by the council as against the second fundamental error of Protestantism, namely that "faith alone justifies" (sola fides justificat).這個定義是由安理會作為對第二基本誤差新教,即"誠信證明單" (索拉惹人justificat ) 。 Martin Luther stands as the originator of the doctrine of justification by faith alone, for he hoped that in this way he might be able to calm his own conscience, which was in a state of great perturbation, and consequently he took refuge behind the assertion that the necessity of good works over and above mere faith was altogether a pharisaical supposition.馬丁路德立場為發端的中庸之道,因信稱義,單人,因為他希望他這樣做或許能夠平息自己的良心,這是在一個國家的大擾動,因此他躲避後面的斷言必要性好的作品超越單純的信念是全然是pharisaical假設。 Manifestly this did not bring him the peace and comfort for which he had hoped, and at least it brought no conviction to his mind; for many times, in a spirit of honesty and sheer good nature, he applauded good works, but recognized them only as necessary concomitants, not as efficient dispositions, for justification.顯然這並沒有把他的和平與安慰,他曾希望,它至少帶來了不定罪,他的頭腦;多次,本著誠實和純粹性好,他熱烈鼓掌,好的作品,但承認他們是唯一必要時concomitants ,而不是有效率的處分權,為的理由。 This was also the tenor of Calvin's interpretation (Institute, III, 11, 19).這也是男高音的卡爾文的解釋(研究所,三, 11日, 19日) 。 Luther was surprised to find himself by his unprecedented doctrine in direct contradiction to the Bible, therefore he rejected the Epistle of St. James as "one of straw" and into the text of St. Paul to the Romans (3:28) he boldly inserted the word alone.路德卻驚奇地發現自己,他前所未有的學說直接違背了聖經,所以他拒絕了墳墓的聖雅各福群會為"一個稻草" ,並到文聖保羅以羅馬( 3時28分) ,他大膽插入字。 This falsification of the Bible was certainly not done in the spirit of the Apostle's teaching, for nowhere does St. Paul teach that faith alone (without charity) will bring justification, even though we should accept as also Pauline the text given in a different context, that supernatural faith alone justifies but the fruitless works of the Jewish Law do not.這個偽造的聖經是絕對不會做的精神,使徒保羅的教誨,為無處是否聖保祿教信仰單(不包括慈善機構)將帶來的理由,即使我們就應該接受,因為還寶蓮文給出了一個不同的背景,超自然的信仰,僅是合理的,但徒勞無功工程的猶太法律沒有這樣的規定。

In this statement St. Paul emphasizes the fact that grace is purely gratuitous; that no merely natural good works can merit grace; but he does not state that no other acts in their nature and purport predisposing are necessary for justification over and above the requisite faith.在該聲明中,聖保羅強調了這樣的事實Grace是純粹無償;不會僅僅是自然好的作品能優異文采,但他沒有說明任何其他行為,在其性質,宗旨和旨趣的誘發有必要為理由,超越必要的信仰。 Any other construction of the above passage would be violent and incorrect.任何其他施工以上通過,將暴力和不正確。 If Luther's interpretation were allowed to stand, then St. Paul would come into direct contradiction not only with St. James (ii, 24 sqq.), but also with himself; for, except St. John, the favourite Apostle, he is the most outspoken of all Apostles in proclaiming the necessity and excellence of charity over faith in the matter of justification (cf. 1 Corinthians 13:1 sqq.).如果路德的解釋被允許的立場,然後聖保祿接觸到直接矛盾不僅與聖雅各福群會(第二組, 24 sqq ) ,而且還與自己;除外聖約翰,最喜愛的使徒,他是最敢言的所有使徒在宣布必要性和卓越的慈善機構超過信仰在這件事的理由(見哥林多前書十三sqq ) 。 Whenever faith justifies it is not faith alone, but faith made operative and replenished by charity (cf. Galatians 5:6, "fides, quae per caritatem operatur").每當誠信所持的是,是不是信仰,而是信仰作了手術,並充實了由慈善機構(參見加拉太5時06分, "惹人, quae每caritatem operatur " ) 。 In the painest language the Apostle St. James says this: "ex operibus justificatur homo, et non ex fide tantum" (James 2:2); and here, by works, he does not understand the pagan good works to which St. Paul refers in the Epistle to the Romans, or the works done in fulfilment of the Jewish Law, but the-works of salvation made possible by the operation of supernatural grace, which was recognized by St. Augustine (lib. LXXXIII, Q. lxxvi n. 2).在painest語言使徒聖雅各福群會說: "當然operibus justificatur骨頭等非當然真正的唯一" (詹姆斯2:2 ) ;這裡,由工程,但他並不了解異教的優秀作品,其中以聖保羅是指在書信向羅馬人,或工程,做履行猶太法律,但該工程的救贖成為可能的運作有神靈的恩典,這是公認的聖奧古斯丁( lib. lxxxiii ,問: lxxvi n 2 ) 。 In conformity with this interpretation and with this only is the tenor of the Scriptural doctrine, namely, that over and above faith other acts are necessary for justification, such as fear (Ecclus., i, 28), and hope (Romans 8:24), charity (Luke 7:47), penance with contrition (Luke 13:3; Acts 2:38; 3:19), almsgiving (Dan., iv, 24; Tob., xii, 9).符合這一解釋,並與這不僅是男高音的聖經教義,也即是超越信仰等行為是必要的理由,例如擔心( ecclus. ,我, 28歲) ,並希望(羅馬書8時24分) ,慈善機構(路加福音7時47分) ,懺悔與contrition (盧克13時03分;行徑2時38分; 3:19 ) ,救濟( dan. ,四, 24歲;來的,第十二9 ) 。 Without charity and the works of charity faith is dead.未經慈善和工程慈善的信仰是死亡。 Faith receives life only from and through charity (James 2:2).信仰得到人生只有從,並通過慈善機構(詹姆斯2:2 ) 。 Only to dead faith (fides informis) is the doctrine applied: "Faith alone does not justify".只有以死信仰(惹人informis )是學說應用於: "信仰本身並不自圓其說" 。 On the other hand, faith informed by charity (fides formata) has the power of justification.另一方面,關於信仰通知慈善(惹人formata )有權力的理由。 St. Augustine (De Trinit., XV, 18) expresses it pithily thus: "Sine caritate quippe fides potest quidem esse, sed non et prodesse."聖奧古斯丁(德trinit , 15 , 18 )表示,它pithily因此: "正弦caritate quippe惹人potest quidem本質文,非等prodesse " 。 Hence we see that from the very beginning the Church has taught that not only faith but that a sincere conversion of heart effected by charity and contrition is also requisite for justification--witness the regular method of administering baptism and the discipline of penance in the early Church.因此,我們看到,從一開始就教會告訴我們,不僅是信仰,但真誠的轉化心臟的影響慈善和contrition也是必要為理由-見證定期法管理的洗禮和紀律的懺悔,在早期教堂。

The Council of Trent (Sess. VI, cap. viii) has, in the light of Revelation, assigned to faith the only correct status in the process of justification, inasmuch as the council, by declaring it to be the "beginning, the foundation, and the root", has placed faith at the very front in the whole process.安理會的遄達( sess.第六章第八節) ,在光的啟示,分配到信仰唯一正確的地位,在這個過程中的理由,因為安理會中,宣布它要成為"一開始,基金會,根" ,把信念,在很前面,在整個過程。 Faith is the beginning of salvation, because no one can be converted to God unless he recognize Him as his supernatural end and aim, just as a mariner without an objective and without a compass wanders aimlessly over the sea at the mercy of wind and wave.信仰是一開始的救贖,因為沒有人可以被轉換成上帝,除非他承認他為他的超自然的結束和目的,正如一位水手,沒有一個客觀的,並沒有一個指南針徘徊漫無目的地在海面上,任人擺佈的風場和波。 Faith is not only the initiatory act of justification, but the foundation as well, because upon it all the other predisposing acts rest securely, not in geometric regularity or inert as the stones of a building rest upon a foundation, but organically and imbued with life as the branches and blossoms spring from a root or stem.信仰不僅是首創的行為的理由,但由於基礎好,因為它的所有其他易感行為,穩妥地休息,而不是在幾何規律或惰性,因為石頭一所建築物的休息後,基金會,但有機地和充滿生活作為黨支部和開花紅艷艷春季從根或莖。 Thus there is preserved to faith in the Catholic system its fundamental and co-ordinating significance in the matter of justification.因此,保存著信仰天主教的制度,它的根本和統籌意義,在這件事的理由。 A masterly, psychological description of the whole process of justification, which even Ad.一練,心理描述的整個過程和理由的,其中甚至廣告。 Harnack styles "a magnificent work of art", will be found in the famous cap.的Harnack風格"的宏偉工程的藝術" ,會被發現在著名的上限。 vi, "Disponuntur" (Denzinger, n. 798).六, " disponuntur " (登青格, 12月31日798 ) 。 According to this the process of justification follows a regular order of progression in four stages: from faith to fear, from fear to hope, from hope to incipient charity, from incipient charity to contrition with purpose of amendment.根據這一過程的理由如下定期秩序的級數分四個階段進行:從信仰到恐懼,從恐懼到希望,從希望到初始慈善事業,從起初慈善contrition與目的的修正。 If the contrition be perfect (contritio caritate perfecta), then active justification results, that is, the soul is immediately placed in the state of grace even before the reception of the sacrament of baptism or penance, though not without the desire for the sacrament (votum sacramenti).如果contrition做到十全十美( contritio caritate perfecta ) ,然後積極的理由,結果,即是靈魂,是立即置於國家的寬限期,甚至前酒會的聖事的洗禮或懺悔,雖然不無慾望,為聖餐( votum sacramenti ) 。 If, on the other hand, the contrition be only an imperfect one (attritio), then the sanctifying grace can only be imparted by the actual reception of the sacrament (cf. Trent, Sess. VI, cc. iv and xiv).如果,在另一方面, contrition只是一個不完善的一個( attritio ) ,那麼sanctifying恩典只能傳授由實際接待的聖餐(參見遄, sess 。六,消委會四和十四) 。 The Council of Trent had no intention, however, of making the sequence of the various stages in the process of justification, given above, inflexible; nor of making any one of the stages indispensable.安理會的遄達並沒有打算,不過,使序列的各個階段在這個過程中的理由,鑑於上述情況,缺乏彈性,也沒有作出任何的一個階段不可缺少的。 Since a real conversion is inconceivable without faith and contrition, we naturally place faith at the beginning and contrition at the end of the process.因為一個真正的轉換,是不可想像的,沒有信仰和contrition ,當然,我們也真誠地發生在年初和contrition在去年底這一進程。 In exceptional cases, however, for example in sudden conversions, it is quite possible for the sinner to overlap the intervening stages between faith and charity, in which case fear, hope, and contrition are virtually included in charity.在特殊情況下,但是,舉例來說,在突如其來的轉換,它很可能為罪人重疊的中間階段,信仰與施捨,在這種情況下,恐懼,希望,而contrition幾乎包括慈善機構。

The "justification by faith alone" theory was by Luther styled the article of the standing and falling church (articulus stantis et cadentis ecclesiae), and by his followers was regarded as the material principle of Protestantism, just as the sufficiency of the Bible without tradition was considered its formal principle. "因信稱義單"的理論是由路德風格的文章代表大會常務委員會的下降堂( articulus stantis等cadentis ecclesiae ) ,並通過他的追隨者被視為材料的原則,基督教,正如有足夠的聖經,沒有傳統被認為是其正式的原則。 Both of these principles are un-Biblical and are not accepted anywhere today in their original severity, save only in the very small circle of orthodox Lutherans.這兩項原則是聯合國聖經,並沒有接受任何地方,今天在他們原來的嚴重性,僅保存在很小的圈子東正教lutherans 。

The Lutheran Church of Scandinavia has, according to the Swedish theologian Krogh-Tonningh, experienced a silent reformation which in the lapse of the several centuries has gradually brought it back to the Catholic view of justification, which view alone can be supported by Revelation and Christian experience (cf. Dorner, "Geschichte der protestantischen Theologie", 361 sqq., Munich, 1867; Möhler, "Symbolik", 16, Mainz, 1890; "Realencyk. fur prot. Theol.", sv "Rechtfertigung").路德教會的斯堪的納維亞,根據瑞典神學家krogh - tonningh ,經歷了一場無聲的變革,其中在事隔幾百年已逐漸帶回到天主教觀點的理由,即認為僅可支持的啟示和基督教經驗(參見dorner , "歷史館明鏡protestantischen theologie " , 361 sqq ,慕尼黑, 1867年; möhler , " symbolik " , 16 ,美因茨, 1890年" ; realencyk 。毛皮質子。 theol " , sv " rechtfertigung " ) 。

C. The Protestant Theory of Non-Imputation三,新教理論的非歸責

Embarrassed by the fatal notion that original sin wrought in man an utter destruction extending even to the annihilation of all moral freedom of election, and that it continues its existence even in the just man as sin in the shade of an ineradicable concupiscence, Martin Luther and Calvin taught very logically that a sinner is justified by fiduciary faith, in such a way, however, that sin is not absolutely removed or wiped out, but merely covered up or not held against the sinner.尷尬的致命概念,即原罪緊張得要命,在男子徹底銷毀延長,甚至湮滅所有道德的自由選舉,並表示,它繼續存在,甚至在剛剛過去的男子,因為單在陰涼處的一個不可磨滅的concupiscence ,馬丁路德和卡爾文教授很合乎邏輯認為,一個罪人是有正當理由的誠信信念,以這樣一種方式,不過,單是絕對不能拆除或摧毀,但僅僅掩蓋或不舉行反對罪人。 According to the teaching of the Catholic Church, however, in active justification an actual and real forgiveness of sins takes place so that the sin is really removed from the soul, not only original sin by baptism but also mortal sin by the sacrament of penance (Trent, Sess. V, can. v; Sess. VI, cap. xiv; Sess. XIV, cap. ii).根據教學的天主教會,不過,在活躍的理由,是一個實際的和真正的饒恕的罪孽發生,使該罪是真的取消了靈魂,不僅原罪所洗禮,但也是凡人,單由聖事的懺悔(遄達, sess第五卷,可以第五節; sess第六章第十四; sess 。第十四章第二節) 。 This view is entirely consonant with the teaching of Holy Scripture, for the Biblical expressions: "blotting out" as applied to sin (Psalm 1:3; Isaiah 43:25; 44:22; Acts 3:19), "exhausting" (Hebrews 9:28), "taking away" [2 Samuel 12:13; 1 Chronicles 21:8; Mich., vii, 18; Ps.這種看法是完全一致的,與教學的聖經,聖經詞句: "總結出"適用於單(詩篇1:3 ;以賽亞書43:25 ; 44:22 ;行徑3:19 ) , "累死" (希伯來9時28分) , "走" [ 2塞繆爾12時13分;歷代志上21時08分;密歇根州,七, 18歲;聚苯乙烯。 x (Heb.), 15; cii, 12], cannot be reconciled with the idea of a mere covering up of sin which is supposed to continue its existence in a covert manner. × (希伯來書) , 15人;聯合會, 12 ] ,不能調和的想法只是掩飾罪惡的,這是為了繼續生存在一個隱蔽的方式。 Other Biblical expressions are just as irreconcilable with this Lutheran idea, for instance, the expression of "cleansing" and "washing away" the mire of sin (Psalm 1:4, 9; Isaiah 1:18; Ezekiel 36:25; 1 Corinthians 6:11; Revelation 1:5), that of coming "from death to life" (Col. ii., 13; 1 John 3:14); the removal from darkness to light (Ephesians 5:9).其他聖經的表情就像不可調和與此路德理念,舉例來說,表達的"清洗"和"洗刷"的泥潭中單(詩篇1:4 , 9歲;以賽亞書1:18 ;以西結36:25 ;哥林多前書6時11分;啟示1:5 ) ,也就是未來" ,從死亡的生命" (歌二, 13歲;約翰3點14分) ;搬遷,從黑暗走向光明(以弗所5時09分) 。 Especially these latter expressions are significant, because they characterize the justification as a movement from one thing to another which is directly contrary or opposed to the thing from which the movement is made.尤其是後者的表現形式是顯著的,因為他們特有的理由,作為一個運動,從一件事,另一是直接違反或反對這件事從哪個運動。 The opposites, black and white, night and day, darkness and light, life and death, have this peculiarity, that the presence of one means the extinction of its opposite.對立面,黑人和白人,晚上白天,光明與黑暗,生命與死亡的,有這個特點,即存在一個手段滅絕,其對面。 Just as the sun dispels all darkness, so does the advent of justifying grace drive away sin, which ceases from that on to have an existence at least in the ethical order of things, though in the knowledge of God it may have a shadowy kind of existence as something which once was, but has ceased to be.正如太陽驅除一切黑暗,所以是否來臨的理由寬限期逼走單,而不再是來自於有一個存在的,至少在倫理秩序的事情,但在知識的上帝,它可能有一個影子種由於存在一些曾經是的,但已停止。 It becomes intelligible, therefore, that in him who is justified, though concupiscence remain, there is "no condemnation" (Romans 8:50); and why, according to James (i, 14 sqq.), concupiscence as such is really no sin; and it is apparent that St. Paul (Romans 7:17) is speaking only figuratively when he calls concupiscence sin, because it springs from sin and brings sin in its train.它變得理解,因此,在他的人是合理的,雖然concupiscence繼續存在,是"沒有譴責" (羅馬書8:50 ) ;以及為什麼,據詹姆斯(一, 14 sqq ) , concupiscence這樣,實在沒單仲偕;很明顯,聖保羅(羅馬書7時17分) ,是講只是打個比方,當他呼籲concupiscence單,因為它源自單,使單在其列車。 Where in the Bible the expressions "covering up" and "not imputing" sin occur, as for instance in Ps.凡在聖經中一再提到"掩飾" , "不歸咎於"罪惡發生,例如在PS 。 xxxi, 1 sq., they must be interpreted in accordance with the Divine perfections, for it is repugnant that God should declare any one free from sin to whom sin is still actually cleaving.三十一, 1平方,他們必須解釋,按照神的完善,因為這是令人厭惡的,神是要申報任何一個免費,從單人單仍然是實際上劈。 It is one of God's attributes always to substantiate His declarations; if He covers sin and does not impute it, this can only be effected by an utter extinction or blotting out of the sin.這是一個上帝的屬性,始終以充實他的宣示,如果他涵蓋單,不推諉,這只能是由一個完全滅絕或總結出的罪惡。 Tradition also has always taught this view of the forgiveness of sins.傳統也一直教導這一觀點的寬恕的罪孽。 (See Denifle, "Die abendländischen Schriftausleger bis Luther uber justitia Dei and justificatio", Mainz, 1905) (見德尼夫勒, "死abendländischen schriftausleger之二路德產品justitia dei和justificatio " ,美因茨, 1905 )

D. The Protestant Theory of Imputation四,新教理論的歸責

Calvin rested his theory with the negative moment, holding that justification ends with the mere forgiveness of sin, in the sense of not imputing the sin; but other Reformers (Luther and Melanchthon) demanded a positive moment as well, concerning the nature of which there was a very pronounced disagreement.卡爾文在於他的理論與消極的時刻,認為理由結束僅僅赦罪的,在某種意義上不是歸咎於罪惡,但其他改革者(路德和梅蘭希頓)要求積極時刻,而且,有關的性質,其中有是一個很明顯的分歧。 At the time of Osiander (d. 1552) there were from fourteen to twenty opinions on the matter, each differing from every other; but they had this in common that they all denied the interior holiness and the inherent justification of the Catholic idea of the process.在時間的osiander (四第1552 ) ,有從14到20的意見,對此事的,每個不同的,從每一個其他,但他們有一個共同點,即他們都否認內部成聖和內在的理由天主教的想法了過程。 Among the adherents of the Augsburg Confession the following view was rather generally accepted: The person to be justified seizes by means of the fiduciary faith the exterior justice of Christ, and therewith covers his sins; this exterior justice is imputed to him as if it were his own, and he stands before God as having an outward justification, but in his inner self he remains the same sinner as of old.其中遺民的奧格斯堡供認了以下看法是比較普遍接受的:人有理由奪取的方式受託信仰外觀正義的救世主,從而將覆蓋了他的罪過,這外觀正義是歸功於他因為如果它他自己,和他站在上帝面前,作為一個外向型的理由,但是在他內心的自我,他仍然是一樣的罪人,因為舊的。 This exterior, forensic declaration of justification was received with great acclaim by the frenzied, fanatical masses of that time, and was given wide and vociferous expression in the cry: "Justitia Christi extra nos".此外,法醫宣言的理由是接到同大獲好評,由瘋狂,瘋狂的群眾,那些日子裡,並獲得廣泛和強烈,體現在哭喊: " justitia基督教課外不" 。

The Catholic idea maintains that the formal cause of justification does not consist in an exterior imputation of the justice of Christ, but in a real, interior sanctification effected by grace, which abounds in the soul and makes it permanently holy before God (cf. Trent, Sess. VI, cap. vii; can. xi).天主教理念堅持認為,正式事業的理由並不在外部歸責的司法基督的,但在一個真實的,內部成聖的影響寬限期,其中充斥在靈魂,使之永遠神聖的上帝面前(參見遄, sess第六章第七節;可以。十一) 。 Although the sinner is justified by the justice of Christ, inasmuch as the Redeemer has merited for him the grace of justification (causa meritoria), nevertheless he is formally justified and made holy by his own personal justice and holiness (causa formalis), just as a philosopher by his own inherent learning becomes a scholar, not, however, by any exterior imputation of the wisdom of God (Trent, Sess. VI, can. x).雖然罪人是有正當理由的,正義的基督,因為該救贖已值得為他的恩典理由(理由來meritoria ) ,不過他是正式的理由,並取得了神聖的,由他個人的正義與聖德(病因formalis ) ,正如一位哲人由他自己的內在學習成為一名學者,但是,不能以任何外部歸責的上帝的智慧(遄, sess 。第六,可以第十節) 。 To this idea of inherent holiness which theologians call sanctifying grace are we safely conducted by the words of Holy Writ.這個構想的內在成聖其中神學家呼籲sanctifying恩典是我們安全地進行的話,神聖的令狀。

To prove this we may remark that the word justificare (Gr. dikaioun) in the Bible may have a fourfold meaning:為了證明這一點,我們可以說這個詞justificare ( gr. dikaioun )在聖經中可能有四倍的含義:

The forensic declaration of justice by a tribunal or court (cf. Isaiah 5:23; Proverbs 17:15).法醫宣言大法官所庭或法庭(參見以賽亞書5時23分;諺語17:15 ) 。

The interior growth in holiness (Revelation 22:11).內部增長成聖(啟示22時11分) 。

As a substantive, justificatio, the external law (Psalm 108:8, and elsewhere).作為一個實質性的, justificatio ,外部法(詩篇108:8 ,和其他地方) 。

The inner, immanent sanctification of the sinner.內在,內在成聖的罪人。

Only this last meaning can be intended where there is mention of passing to a new life (Ephesians 2:5; Colossians 2:13; 1 John 3:14); renovation in spirit (Ephesians 4:23 sq.); supernatural likeness to God (Romans 8:29; 2 Corinthians 3:18; 2 Peter 1:4) a new creation (2 Corinthians 5:17; Galatians 6:15); rebirth in God (John 3:5; Titus 3:5; James 1:18), etc., all of which designations not only imply a setting aside of sin, but express as well a permanent state of holiness.只有這個意義上可以用意有提到過一個新的生命(弗2:5 ;歌羅西書2時13分, 1約翰3點14分) ;翻新,在精神(以弗所4點23平方米) ;超自然的相似性,以神(羅馬書8時29分;哥林多後3時18分, 2彼得1:4 )的新創造( 2哥林多5時17分;加拉太書6:15 ) ;重生上帝(約翰3點05分;弟兄3時05分;詹姆斯1:18 ) ,等等,所有這些稱號不僅意味著預留單,但表示,以及一個永久國家的聖德。 All of these terms express not an aid to action, but rather a form of being; and this appears also from the fact that the grace of justification is described as being "poured forth in our hearts" (Romans 5:5); as "the spirit of adoption of sons" of God (Romans 8:15); as the "spirit, born of the spirit" (John 3:6); making us "conformable to the image of the Son" (Romans 8:28); as a participation in the Divine nature (2 Peter 1:4); the abiding seed in us (1 John 3:9), and so on.所有這些條款表達不是一個援助行動,而是一種形式的福利;這似乎也從一個事實,即恩典的理由是,被描述為"澆了,在我們的心中" (羅5:5 ) ; "的精神,通過兒子"的神(羅馬書8:15 ) ;作為"的精神,所生的精神" (約翰福音3時06分) ,使我們成為"符合形象的兒子" (羅馬書8時28分)我作為一個積極參與這項神聖的大自然( 2彼得1:4 ) ;守法的種子在我們( 1約翰3點09分) ,等等。 As regards the tradition of the Church, even Harnack admits that St. Augustine faithfully reproduces the teaching of St. Paul.至於傳統的教會,甚至的Harnack坦承,聖奧古斯丁,忠實地再現了教學聖保祿。 Hence the Council of Trent need not go back to St. Paul, but only to St. Augustine, for the purpose of demonstrating that the Protestant theory of imputation is at once against St. Paul and St. Augustine.因此安理會的遄不必回到聖保羅,但只有到聖奧古斯丁,為了證明新教理論歸責於一旦對聖保羅和聖奧古斯丁。

Moreover, this theory must be rejected as not being in accordance with reason.此外,這一理論也必須予以否決,因為沒有根據的理由。 For in a man who is at once sinful and just, half holy and half unholy, we cannot possibly recognize a masterpiece of God's omnipotence, but only a wretched caricature, the deformity of which is exaggerated all the more by the violent introduction of the justice of Christ.在一個人,是在一次罪惡的正義,神聖的一半,另一半非神聖,我們不可能承認一項傑作上帝的萬能,但只有可憐的諷刺漫畫,畸形的,這是一種誇張的全部,更受到暴力引入司法基督的復活。 The logical consequences which follow from this system, and which have been deduced by the Reformers themselves, are indeed appalling to Catholics.合乎邏輯的後果,後續從這個系統,並已推導出改革者自己的,的確是令人震驚的天主教徒。 It would follow that, since the justice of Christ is always and ever the same, every person justified, from the ordinary everyday person to the Blessed Virgin, the Mother of God, would possess precisely the same justification and would have, in degree and kind, the same holiness and justice.它會跟隨,由於司法的基督是永遠和以往一樣的,每個人都有道理,從普通的人,每天給小聖,天主之母,將具備恰恰相同的理由,並且會,在程度上和種類,同時成聖和正義。 This deduction was expressly made by Luther.這種扣除是明確作出路德。 Can any man of sound mind accept it?可任何人的心智健全接受呢? If this be so, then the justification of children by baptism is impossible, for, not having come to the age of reason, they cannot have the fiduciary faith wherewith they must seize the justice of Christ to cover up their original sin.如果這是這樣的話,那麼理兒童的洗禮,是不可能的,為的,不會來歲,因此,他們不可能有誠信的信仰裡,他們一定要抓住司法基督的,以掩蓋其原罪。 Very logically, therefore, the Anabaptists, Mennonites, and Baptists reject the validity of infant baptism.很合乎邏輯,因此, anabaptists ,門諾教派,浸禮會拒絕的有效性,嬰兒的洗禮。 It would likewise follow that the justification acquired by faith alone could be forfeited only by infidelity, a most awful consequence which Luther (De Wette, II, 37) clothed in the following words, though he could hardly have meant them seriously: "Pecca fortiter et crede fortius et nihil nocebunt centum homicidia et mille stupra."它同樣遵循這一理所獲得的信仰,僅可被充公,只有不忠,最可怕的後果,其中路德(德wette ,二, 37歲)在衣食以下的話,他雖然很難,這就意味著他們認真地說: " pecca fortiter等Crede ) fortius等nihil nocebunt 100 homicidia等千分stupra " 。 Luckily this inexorable logic falls powerless against the decency and good morals of the Lutherans of our time, and is, therefore, harmless now, though it was not so at the time of the Peasants' War in the Reformation.幸虧這必然邏輯瀑布無能為力大方和良好道德的lutherans我們的時間,並,因此,無害化,現在,雖然它並非如此,在時間的農民戰爭,在改革。

The Council of Trent (Sess. VI, cap. vii) defined that the inherent justice is not only the formal cause of justification, but as well the only formal cause (unica formalis causa); this was done as against the heretical teaching of the Reformer Bucer (d. 1551), who held that the inherent justice must be supplemented by the imputed justice of Christ.安理會的遄達( sess.第六章第七節)確定固有的正義不僅是正式事業的理由,但也是唯一正式的事業(總聯合會formalis病因) ,這顯然是在做對邪說的改革者布策爾(四1551 ) ,他認為,司法所固有的,必須輔之以歸於正義的喊聲。 A further object of this decree was to check the Catholic theologian Albert Pighius and others, who seemed to doubt that the inner justice could be ample for justification without being supplemented by another favour of God (favor Dei externus) (cf. Pallavacini, Hist. Conc. Trident., VIII, 11, 12).再反對這項法令,以遏制天主教神學家何俊仁pighius等人似乎相信,黨內正義的,可以充分為理由而不輔以另一贊成神(青睞dei externus ) (參見pallavacini ,歷史。濃度三叉戟,八,十一,十二) 。 This decree was well-founded, for the nature and operation of justification are determined by the infusion of sanctifying grace.這項法令是有充分依據的,為的性質和運作的理由,是由輸注sanctifying恩典。 In other words without the aid of other factors, sanctifying grace in itself possesses the power to effect the destruction of sin and the interior sanctification of the soul to be justified.或者換句話說,沒有借助其他方面的因素, sanctifying寬限期本身擁有的權力,對破壞罪和內部成聖的靈魂,是有道理的。 For since sin and grace are diametrically opposed to each other, the mere advent of grace is sufficient to drive sin away; and thus grace, in its positive operations, immediately brings about holiness, kinship of God, and a renovation of spirit, etc. From this it follows that in the present process of justification, the remission of sin, both original and mortal, is linked to the infusion of sanctifying grace as a conditio sine qua non, and therefore a remission of sin without a simultaneous interior sanctification is theologically impossible.因為自從罪惡和恩典是針鋒相對,互相切磋,僅僅來臨的恩典足以驅動單遠離;寬限期,因此,在它的積極行動,立即帶來聖德,親情的上帝,並翻新的精神,等等。從這個因此,在目前的過程中的理由,罪孽的赦免,無論是原件和致命的,是掛輸液的sanctifying恩典作為一個必要條件,因此,減刑,而不單同聲傳譯室內成聖是theologically不可能的。 As to the interesting controversy whether the incompatibility of grace and sin rests on merely moral, or physical, or metaphysical contrariety, refer to Pohle ("Lehrbuch der Dogmatik", II 511 sqq., Paderborn, 1909); Scheeben ("Die Myst. des Christentums", 543 sqq., Freiburg, 1898).以一個有趣的爭議是否不相容的恩典和單落在只是道義上,或身體上,或形而上的矛盾,是指pohle ( " lehrbuch明鏡dogmatik " ,二511 sqq ,帕德博恩, 1909年) ; scheeben ( "死神秘島。萬christentums " , 543 sqq ,弗賴堡, 1898 ) 。


The real nature of sanctifying grace is, by reason of its direct invisibility, veiled in mystery, so that we can learn its nature better by a study of its formal operations in the soul than by a study of the grace itself.真正本質sanctifying恩典,因為它是直接隱蔽,含蓄神秘,使我們能夠了解它的性質,更好地研究它的正式運作中的靈魂比由一個研究寬限期本身。 Indissolubly linked to the nature of this grace and to its formal operations are other manifestations of grace which are referable not to any intrinsic necessity but to the goodness of God; accordingly three questions present themselves for consideration:不可分割地聯繫在一起的性質,此寬限期,並正式運作,是其它表現形式的恩典,這是參考不能由任何內在的必要,但為善神;據此三個問題需要加以考慮:

(a) The inner nature of sanctifying grace. (一)內在性質sanctifying恩典。

(b) Its formal operations. (二)正式運作。

(c) Its supernatural retinue. (三) ,其超自然的侍從。

A. The Inner Nature答:黨內性質

1. 1 。 As we have seen that sanctifying grace designates a grace producing a permanent condition, it follows that it must not be confounded with a particular actual grace nor with a series of actual graces, as some ante-Tridentine theologians seem to have held.正如我們已經看到sanctifying恩典指定寬限期製作一個永久性的條件,因此它絕不能混淆了一個特別實際的恩典,也推出了一系列實際的青睞,由於部分前廳德律但丁的神學家似乎都舉行。 This view is confirmed by the fact that the grace imparted to children in baptism does not differ essentially from the sanctifying grace imparted to adults, an opinion which was not considered as altogether certain under Pope Innocent III (1201), was regarded as having a high degree of probability by Pope Clement V (1311), and was defined as certain by the Council of Trent (Sess. V, can. iii-v).這一觀點也證實了這一事實,即寬限期傳授給孩子的洗禮沒有什麼不同,基本上從sanctifying恩典傳授給成年人,民意,因為這是不被視為完全按照一定的教宗無辜第三期( 1201年) ,被視為具有高程度的概率由羅馬教皇克萊門特五( 1311 ) ,並定義為某些由理事會的遄達( sess.五,可三-五) 。 Baptized infants cannot be justified by the use of actual grace, but only by a grace which effects or produces a certain condition in the recipient.受洗嬰兒是沒有道理的,由使用實際的寬限期,但只由一個寬限期,其中影響,或會產生一定的條件,在收件人。 Is this grace of condition or state, as Peter Lombard (Sent., I, dist. xvii, 18) held, identical with the Holy Spirit, whom we may call the permanent, uncreated grace (gratia increata)?這是恩典的條件或狀態,正如彼得倫巴第( sent.來說,我區十七,十八日)舉行,與聖靈的人,我們可以稱之為永久性的, uncreated恩典(特惠increata ) ? It is quite impossible.這是相當不可能的。 For the person of the Holy Ghost cannot be poured out into our hearts (Romans 5:5), nor does it cleave to the soul as inherent justice (Trent, sess. VI, can. xi), nor can it be increased by good works (loc. cit., can. xxiv), and all this is apart from the fact that the justifying grace in Holy Writ is expressly termed a "gift [or grace] of the Holy Ghost" (Acts 2:38; 10:45), and as the abiding seed of God (1 John 3:9).對於人的聖靈不能傾注到我們心中(羅5:5 ) ,也沒有cleave以靈魂作為固有司法(遄, sess 。第六,可以的。十一) ,也不能被上升良好工程( loc.引文中,可以的。二十四) ,而所有這一切,是除了事實,那就是正當的寬限期,在神聖的令狀是明確被稱為是一份"禮物[或寬限期]的聖靈" (使徒2時38分, 10 : 45 ) ,並作為守法的種子上帝( 1約翰3點09分) 。 From this it follows that the grace must be as distinct from the Holy Ghost as the gift from the giver and the seed from the sower; consequently the Holy Spirit is our holiness, not by the holiness by which He Himself is holy, but by that holiness by which He makes us holy.從這個這意味著恩典必須有別於聖靈作為禮物從賜予者和種子從播種;因此聖靈是我們的聖潔,而不是由聖德由他自己是聖潔的,但到那個成聖,據此,他使我們神聖的。 He is not, therefore, the causa formalis, but merely the causa efficiens, of our holiness.他是沒有,因此,根本原因formalis ,而僅僅是個原因efficiens ,我們的聖潔。

Moreover, sanctifying grace as an active reality, and not a merely external relation, must be philosophically either substance or accident.此外, sanctifying恩典作為一個積極的現實,而不是僅僅是外部關係的,必須在理論上無論物質或發生意外。 Now, it is certainty not a substance which exists by itself, or apart from the soul, therefore it is a physical accident inhering in the soul, so that the soul becomes the subject in which grace inheres; but such an accident is in metaphysics called quality (qualitas, poiotes) therefore sanctifying grace may be philosophically termed a "permanent, supernatural quality of the soul", or, as the Roman Catechism (P. II, cap. ii, de bap., n. 50) says "divina qualitas in anima inhaerens".現在,它肯定不是一個物質,它存在的本身,還是除了靈魂,因此,它是一種物理意外inhering在靈魂,讓靈魂成為議題,其中寬限期inheres ,但發生這樣的事故,是在所謂的形而上學質量( qualitas , poiotes ) ,因此sanctifying寬限期,可哲理稱為一個"永久性的,超自然的高質量的靈魂" ,或者像羅馬問答(第16頁,第二章第二節,德BaP的, 12月31日50 )說: " divina qualitas在動物inhaerens " 。

2. 2 。 Sanctifying grace cannot be termed a habit (habitus) with the same precision as it is called a quality. sanctifying恩典,不能稱之為一種習慣(體質)與上年精確,因為它是所謂的質量。 Metaphysicians enumerate four kinds of quality: metaphysicians列舉四種品質:

habit and disposition;習慣和處置;

power and want of power;權力和希望的力量;

passion and passible quality, for example, to blush, pale with wrath;激情與passible品質,例如,乍看之下,蒼白與憤怒;

form and figure (cf. Aristotle, Categ. VI).表和圖(參見亞里士多德, categ第六節) 。

Manifestly sanctifying grace must be placed in the first of these four classes, namely habit or disposition; but as dispositions are fleeting things, and habit has a permanency theologians agree that sanctifying grace is undoubtedly a habit, hence the name: Habitual Grace (gratia habitualis).顯然sanctifying寬限期,必須擺在第一的這四個班,即習慣或處置,但由於處分權是稍縱即逝的東西,和習慣,有一個常任神學家同意sanctifying寬限期,無疑是一種習慣,因此得名:慣性恩典(特惠habitualis ) 。 Habitus is subdivided into habitus entitativus and habitus operativus.體質分為體質entitativus和體質operativus 。 A habitus entitativus is a quality or condition added to a substance by which condition or quality the substance is found permanently good or bad, for instance: sickness or health, beauty, deformity, etc. Habitus operativus is a disposition to produce certain operations or acts, for instance, moderation or extravagance; this habitus is called either virtue or vice just as the soul is inclined thereby to a moral good or to a moral evil. 1體質entitativus是一個質量或條件加入某種物質是由哪些條件或質量的實質是發現永久好的或壞的,比如:生病或健康,美容,畸形等,體質operativus是處置產生一定的行動或行為,例如,中庸或奢侈;這種習性是或者叫做美德或副正如靈魂傾向,從而在道義上的好或一個道德上的邪惡。 Now, since sanctifying grace does not of itself impart any such readiness, celerity, or facility in action, we must consider it primarily as a habitus entitativus, not as a habitus operativus.現在,既然sanctifying寬限期本身並不能帶來任何這種準備, celerity ,或設施,在行動上,我們必須考慮到它主要是作為一個社會習性entitativus ,而不是作為一個社會習性operativus 。 Therefore, since the popular concept of habitus, which usually designates a readiness, does not accurately express the idea of sanctifying grace, another term is employed, ie a quality after the manner of a habit (qualitas per modum habitus), and this term is applied with Bellarmine (De grat. et lib. arbit., I, iii).因此,自廣受歡迎的概念,習性,通常指定一個準備,並沒有準確地表達想法的sanctifying恩典,另一個詞是就業,即一個新的質量後,態度一種習慣( qualitas每modum體質) ,這個名詞適用bellarmine (德大。鋰離子電池等。仲裁,一,三) 。 Grace, however, preserves an inner relation to a supernatural activity, because it does not impart to the soul the act but rather the disposition to perform supernatural and meritorious acts therefore grace is remotely and mediately a disposition to act (habitus remote operativus).寬限期,但保留了一種內在聯繫,以神靈的活動,因為它不傳授給靈魂的行為,而是處分演出超自然和立功行為,因此, Grace是遠程和治療中的處置,以法(體質偏遠operativus ) 。 On account of this and other metaphysical subtleties the Council of Trent has refrained from applying the term habitus to sanctifying grace.關於戶口本和其他形而上的微妙關係理事會遄已不適用,任期習性,以sanctifying恩典。

In the order of nature a distinction is made between natural and acquired habits (habitus innatus, and habitus acquisitus), to distinguish between natural instincts, such, for instance, as are common to the brute creation, and acquired habits such as we develop by practice, for instance skill in playing a musical instrument etc. But grace is supernatural, and cannot, therefore, be classed either as a natural or an acquired habit; it can only be received, accordingly, by infusion from above, therefore it is a supernatural infused habit (habitus infusus).在該命令的性質區分天然和後天習慣(體質innatus ,體質acquisitus ) ,以區分自然的本能,這樣的,舉例來說,由於是常見的以簡單粗暴的創作,和後天的習慣,例如我們發展實踐中,例如技能,在彈奏樂器等,但Grace是超自然的,並不能因此,被歸類無論是作為一個自然人或後天的習慣,它只能收到,因此,由輸液從以上,因此這是一個超自然注入習慣(體質infusus ) 。

3. 3 。 If theologians could succeed in establishing the identity sometimes maintained between the nature of grace and charity, a great step forward would be taken in the examination of the nature of grace, for we are more familiar with the infused virtue of charity than with the hidden mysterious nature of sanctifying grace.如果神學家能成功地建立起身份,有時兩者之間保持大自然的恩典和慈善事業,跨出了一大步,會在考試的性質,恩典,因為我們更熟悉了,充滿了道德的慈善比起與隱藏的神秘性質sanctifying恩典。 For the identity of grace and charity some of the older theologians have contended--Peter Lombard, Scotus, Bellarmine, Lessius, and others--declaring that, according to the Bible and the teaching of the Fathers, the process of justification may be at times attributable to sanctifying grace and at other times to the virtue of charity.該身分的恩典和慈善一些舊的神學家有爭辯-彼得倫巴第, s cotus, b ellarmine, l essius,及其他-宣布說,根據聖經和教學的父親,這一過程的理由,可在倍所致sanctifying寬限期,並在其他時間以德治國的慈善機構。 Similar effects demand a similar cause; therefore there exists, in this view, merely a virtual distinction between the two, inasmuch as one and the same reality appears under one aspect as grace, and under another as charity.類似效果的需求類似的原因,所以有存在的,在這種觀點看來,只是一個虛擬的區分兩種,因為是同一個現實下出現的一個方面,作為寬限期,而根據另一項作為慈善用途。 This similarity is confirmed by the further fact that the life or death of the soul is occasioned respectively by the presence in, or absence from, the soul of charity.這種相似性也證實了進一步事實,即生命或死亡的靈魂,是由於分別由駐留在,或不在,靈魂的慈善機構。 Nevertheless, all these arguments may tend to establish a similarity, but do not prove a case of identity.不過,所有這些論點可能傾向於建立一個相似,但並不證明案件的身份。 Probably the correct view is that which sees a real distinction between grace and charity, and this view is held by most theologians, including St. Thomas Aquinas and Francisco Suárez.大概是正確的看法是,它認為一個真正的區別恩典和慈善事業,以及這種觀點的是一所最神學家,其中包括聖托馬斯阿奎那和弗朗西斯蘇亞雷斯。 Many passages in Scripture and patrology and in the enactments of synods confirm this view.許多段落的經文和patrology並在成文法的主教會議確認這個觀點。 Often, indeed, grace and charity are placed side by side, which could not be done without a pleonasm if they were identical.很多時候,而事實上,寬限期及慈善活動置於並列在一起,這不可能做到沒有一個pleonasm如果他們都是相同的。 Lastly, sanctifying grace is a habitus entitativus, and theological charity a habitus operativus: the former, namely sanctifying grace, being a habitus entitativus, informs and transforms the substance of the soul; the latter, namely charity, being a habitus operativus, supernaturally informs and influences the will (cf. Ripalda, "De ente sup.", disp. cxxiii; Billuart, "De gratia", disp. iv, 4).最後, sanctifying Grace是體質entitativus ,與神學慈善一習性operativus :前,即sanctifying恩典,作為一個社會習性entitativus ,通知和改造物質的靈魂;後者,即慈善機構,作為一個社會習性operativus , supernaturally通知和影響到會(參見裡帕爾達, "德ente副刊" ,分散。 cxxiii ; billuart , "德特惠" ,分散第四節, 4 ) 。

4. 4 。 The climax of the presentation of the nature of sanctifying grace is found in its character as a participation in the Divine nature, which in a measure indicates its specific difference.高潮介紹的性質sanctifying Grace是發現它的性質作為一個參與在神聖的性質,而這一項措施,也表明其具體差異。 To this undeniable fact of the supernatural participation in the Divine nature is our attention directed not only by the express words of Holy Writ: ut efficiamini divinae consortes naturae (2 Peter 1:4), but also by the Biblical concept of "the issue and birth from God", since the begotten must receive of the nature of the progenitor, though in this case it only holds in an accidental and analogical sense.這個不可否認的事實超自然參與,在神聖的性質,是我們關注的不僅是所表達的話神聖令狀:當efficiamini divinae consortes naturae ( 2彼得1:4 ) ,但同時也受聖經"的概念,這個問題,並從出生上帝" ,因為造物主必須接受的性質為何, progenitor ,雖然在這種情況下,只有在一個偶然的類比意義。 Since this same idea has been found in the writings of the Fathers, and is incorporated in the liturgy of the Mass, to dispute or reject it would be nothing short of temerity.由於這一想法已被發現在著述的父親,並納入禮儀中的傳播,引起爭議或否決,將絕對不會缺少竟然。 It is difficult to excogitate a manner (modus) in which this participation of the Divine nature is effected.這是很難excogitate方式(模式) ,其中這種參與的神性,是影響。 Two extremes must be avoided, so that the truth will be found.兩個極端的,必須迴避,讓真相會被發現。

An exaggerated theory was taught by certain mystics and quietists, a theory not free from pantheiotic taint.誇大了理論講授一些神秘主義者和quietists ,理論沒有擺脫pantheiotic污點。 In this view the soul is formally changed into God, an altogether untenable and impossible hypothesis, since concupiscence remains even after justification, and the presence of concupiscence is, of course, absolutely repugnant to the Divine nature.在這種看法的靈魂,是正式轉變為神,是一個完全站不住腳的,並且是不可能的假設,因為concupiscence仍然即使理由的,以及存在concupiscence是的,當然,我們絕對有令人憎惡的,以神聖的性質。

Another theory, held by the Scotists, teaches that the participation is merely of a moral-juridical nature, and not in the least a physical participation.另一種理論,由scotists ,教導我們的參與只不過是一個有道德的法律性質,而不是在至少一個實際參與。 But since sanctifying grace is a physical accident in the soul, one cannot help referring such participation in the Divine nature to a physical and interior assimilation with God, by virtue of which we are permitted to share those goods of the Divine order to which God alone by His own nature can lay claim.但由於sanctifying Grace是身體意外的靈魂,不能幫助指這種參與在神聖的性質,以體能和內部同化與神,以德治國,而我們已被允許分享這些商品的神聖的,以其中只有上帝由他自己的性質,才能奠定索賠。 In any event the "participatio divinae naturae" is not in any sense to be considered a deification, but only a making of the soul "like unto God".無論如何, " participatio divinae naturae " ,是不會在任何意義上被視為一個神化,但僅僅是決策的靈魂, "如同所不欲,以神之名" 。 To the difficult question: Of which special attribute of God does this participation partake?向困難的問題:其中有特殊屬性的上帝,這是否參與參與? Theologians can answer only by conjectures.神學家能回答,只有猜測。 Manifestly only the communicable attributes can at all be considered in the matter, wherefore Gonet (Clyp. thomist., IV, ii, x) was clearly wrong when he said that the attribute of participation was the aseitas, absolutely the most incommunicable of all the Divine attributes.顯然,只有常見的屬性,可以在所有被認為在這件事的,哪戈內特( clyp. thomist ,四,二,十)顯然是錯誤的時候,他表示,該屬性的參與是aseitas ,絕對是最incommunicable所有神聖的屬性。 Ripalda (loc. cit., disp. xx; sect. 14) is probably nearer the truth when he suggests Divine sanctity as the attribute, for the very idea of sanctifying grace brings the sanctity of God into the foreground.裡帕爾達( loc.引文中,位移。某某;第一節14 )很可能接近真理時,他建議神的神聖性,因為屬性,為極的構想sanctifying恩典帶來神聖不可侵犯的神入前景。

The theory of Francisco Suárez (De grat., VII, i, xxx), which is also favoured by Scripture and the Fathers, is perhaps the most plausible.理論弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯(德大,七,我和xxx ) ,它也是喜歡的經文和父親,也許是最合理的。 In this theory sanctifying grace imparts to the soul a participation in the Divine spirituality, which no rational creature can by its own unaided powers penetrate or comprehend.在這一理論sanctifying恩典imparts以靈魂的參與在神聖的靈性,而沒有理性的動物,可以按自己的權力,無外援的滲透或理解。 It is, therefore, the office of grace to impart to the soul, in a supernatural way, that degree of spirituality which is absolutely necessary to give us an idea of God and His spirit, either here below in the shadows of earthly existence, or there above in the unveiled splendour of Heaven.因此,這是該辦事處的寬限期,以傳授給了靈魂,在神靈的方式,即程度的靈性,這是絕對有必要讓我們知道上帝和他的精神,無論是在這裡,在下面的陰影俗世存在,或有上述在揭幕輝煌的天堂。 If we were asked to condense all that we have thus far been considering into a definition, we would formulate the following: Sanctifying grace is "a quality strictly supernatural, inherent in the soul as a habitus, by which we are made to participate in the divine nature".如果有人問我們凝聚一切我們迄今一直在考慮成為一個定義,我們會制訂如下: sanctifying恩典,是"質量,嚴格超自然的,內在的靈魂,作為一個社會習性,使我們取得了參加在神性" 。

B. Formal Operations乙正式運作

Sanctifying Grace has its formal operations, which are fundamentally nothing else than the formal cause considered in its various moments. sanctifying宏力半導體目前已經正式運作,這是從根本上就什麼都沒有較正式的事業考慮,在其不同時刻。 These operations are made known by Revelation; therefore to children and to the faithful can the splendour of grace best be presented by a vivid description of its operations.這些行動取得了眾所周知的啟示,因此,以兒童,並教友們可以冠冕堂皇的恩典,最好由一個生動的描述,其運作。

These are: sanctity, beauty, friendship, and sonship of God.這些國家是:神聖性,美容,友誼與sonship的上帝。

1. 1 。 Sanctity神聖不可侵犯

The sanctity of the soul, as its first formal operation, is contained in the idea itself of sanctifying grace, inasmuch as the infusion of it makes the subject holy and inaugurates the state or condition of sanctity.神聖不可侵犯的靈魂,作為其首個正式運作,是包含在理念本身的sanctifying恩典,因為輸液的,它使得受神聖和隆重揭幕國家或條件的神聖性。 So far it is, as to its nature, a physical adornment of the soul; it is also a moral form of sanctification, which of itself makes baptized children just and holy in the sight of God.到目前為止,它是作為政協的性質,身體裝飾的靈魂,它也是一個道德的形式成聖,這本身就是洗禮,使孩子公正與神聖,在神看。 This first operation is thrown into relief by the fact that the "new man", created injustice and holiness (Ephesians 4:24), was preceded by the "old man" of sin, and that grace changed the sinner into a saint (Trent, Sess. VI, cap. vii: ex injusto fit justus).這第一次手術是扔進救濟品的事實,即"新好男人" ,創造正義和成聖(以弗所4點24分) ,之前的"老男人"的罪過,並恩典改變了罪人變成聖人(遄, sess第六章第七節:當然injusto適合是Justus ) 。 The two moments of actual justification, namely the remission of sin and the sanctification, are at the same time moments of habitual justification, and become the formal operations of grace.這兩個時刻的實際理由,即罪孽的赦免和成聖,是在同一時間,瞬間慣性理由,並成為正式運作的恩典。 The mere infusion of the grace effects at once the remission of original and mortal sin, and inaugurates the condition or state of holiness.僅僅輸液的恩典的影響,在一度緩解的原件和致命的罪過,並推出條件或者國家的聖德。 (See Pohle, Lehrb. der Dogm., 527 sq.) (見pohle , lehrb 。明鏡dogm , 527平方)

2. 2 。 Beauty美容

Although the beauty of the soul is not mentioned by the teaching office of the Church as one of the operations of grace, nevertheless the Roman Catechism refers to it (P. II, cap. ii, de bap., n. 50).雖然美麗的靈魂,是沒有提及的,由教師辦公室的教堂之一,該業務的寬限期,不過羅馬講授指它(第16頁,第二章第二節,德BaP的, 12月31日50 ) 。 If it be permissible to understand by the spouse in the Canticle of Canticles a symbol of the soul decked in grace, then all the passages touching the ravishing beauty of the spouse may find a fitting application to the soul.如果它被允許的了解,由配偶在canticle的canticles象徵靈魂加蓋在寬限期,則所有的通道,觸摸ravishing美麗的配偶可以找到一個最合適的應用,以靈魂。 Hence it is that the Fathers express the supernatural beauty of a soul in grace by the most splendid comparisons and figures of speech, for instance: "a divine picture" (Ambrose); "a golden statue" (Chrysostom); "a streaming light" (Basil), etc. Assuming that, apart from the material beauty expressed in the fine arts, there exists a purely spiritual beauty, we can safely state that grace as the participation in the Divine nature, calls forth in the soul a physical reflection of the uncreated beauty of God, which is not to be compared with the soul's natural likeness to God.因此,那就是父親,表達了超自然的美,一個民族的靈魂,在寬限期由最燦爛的對比和人物的言論,例如: "神畫" (劉漢銓) , "金色的雕像" (金口) , "流輕" (羅勒)等假設,即除了物質之美表現在美術,存在著一種純粹的精神之美,我們可以安全地說,國家的寬限期作為參與在神聖的性質,來電提出的靈魂物理反射該uncreated美容上帝的,這是不以與靈魂的自然似的上帝。 We can attain to a more intimate idea of the Divine likeness in the soul adorned with grace, if we refer the picture not merely to the absolute Divine nature, as the prototype of all beauty, but more especially to the Trinity whose glorious nature is so charmingly mirrored in the soul by the Divine adoption and the inhabitation of the Holy Ghost (cf. H. Krug, De pulchritudine divina, Freiburg, 1902).我們可以實現一個更親密的想法神聖似的在靈魂貼著恩典,如果我們參考的圖片,並非單單是為了絕對的神性,作為原型的所有美容,但更特別是三位一體的光榮大自然是如此特色,反映在靈魂受到神的通過和居住的聖靈(參見每小時krug ,德pulchritudine divina ,弗賴堡, 1902 ) 。

3. 3 。 Friendship友誼

The friendship of God is consequently, one of the most excellent of the effects of grace; Aristotle denied the possibility of such a friendship by reason of the great disparity between God and man.友誼上帝的,其中最出色的影響,有文采,亞里士多德否認的可能性這種友誼是由理由的巨大差距上帝的人。 As a matter of fact man is, inasmuch as he is God's creature, His servant, and by reason of sin (original and mortal) he is God's enemy.作為一個問題,事實上男子,因為他是上帝的造物,他的僕人,並為理由單(正本及凡人) ,他是上帝的敵人。 This relation of service and enmity is transformed by sanctifying grace into one of friendship (Trent, Sess. VI, cap. vii: ex inimico amicus).這種關係的服務與敵意,是轉化sanctifying寬限期成一種友誼(遄, sess第六章第七節:當然inimico法庭) 。 According to the Scriptural concept (Wisdom 7:14; John 15:15) this friendship resembles a mystical matrimonial union between the soul and its Divine spouse (Matthew 9:15; Revelation 19:7).根據聖經概念(智慧7時14分;約翰15:15 ) ,這種友誼是類似於一個神秘婚姻聯盟之間的靈魂和其神聖的配偶(馬太9:15 ;啟示19時07分) 。 Friendship consists in the mutual love and esteem of two persons based upon an exchange of service or good office (Aristot., "Eth. Nicom.", VIII sq.).友誼存在於相互愛戴,兩個人,根據交易所的服務或商品辦事處( aristot. "字樣。 nicom " ,八平方) 。 True friendship resting only on virtue (amicitia honesta) demands undeniably a love of benevolence, which seeks only the happiness and well-being of the friend, whereas the friendly exchange of benefits rests upon a utilitarian basis (amicitia utilis) or one of pleasure (amicitia delectabilis), which presupposes a selfish love; still the benevolent love of friendship must be mutual, because an unrequited love becomes merely one of silent admiration, which is not friendship by any means.真正的友誼,只有休息時就憑藉(的朋友honesta )的要求,但無可否認的熱愛善,旨在只有快樂和幸福的朋友,而友好交流的好處在於功利主義基礎上(的朋友有用) ,或其中一項很高興(的朋友delectabilis ) ,它預示著一個自私的愛;仍然仁者愛的友誼必須是相互的,因為一個單戀變成僅僅是一個沉默的欽佩,這不是友誼,以任何手段。 But the strong bond of union lies undeniably in the fact of a mutual benefit, by reason of which friend regards friend as his other self (alter ego).但強烈的認同感為紐帶的聯盟是無可否認的事實,一個互惠互利的,因她的朋友,這方面的朋友,因為他的其他自我(另一個自我) 。 Finally, between friends an equality of position or station is demanded, and where this does not exit an elevation of the inferior's status (amicitia excellentie), as, for example, in the case of a friendship between a king and noble subject.最後,朋友之間的一個平等的地位,或站,是要求,而這並不出境海拔劣勢的地位(的朋友excellentie ) ,因為,例如,在一個案件中友誼一個國王和崇高的主題。 It is easy to perceive that all these conditions are fulfilled in the friendship between God and man effected by grace.這是很容易察覺,所有這些條件得到滿足,在友誼,人與上帝的影響恩典。 For, just as God regards the just man with the pure love of benevolence, He likewise prepares him by the infusion of theological charity for the reception of a correspondingly pure and unselfish affection.為,正如上帝對於剛剛男子與純潔的愛善,他同樣準備在他所灌注的神學思想建設,為慈善酒會的相對純潔和無私的愛心。 Again, although man's knowledge of the love of God is very limited, while God's knowledge of love in man is perfect, this conjecture is sufficient--indeed in human friendships it alone is possible--to form the basis of a friendly relation.再次,雖然人類的知識是上帝的愛是非常有限的,而上帝的知識,愛在人是十全十美的,這個猜想是足夠的-而事實上,在人類的友誼,它僅是可能的-形成的基礎上的友好關係。 The exchange of gifts consists, on the part of God, in the bestowal of supernatural benefits, on the part of man, in the promotion of God's glory, and partly in the performance of works of fraternal charity.交換禮物選區,對部分上帝,在贈與的超自然的好處,對一部分人,在促進上帝的榮耀,而部分中的表現,作品的兄弟般的慈善機構。 There is, indeed, in the first instance, a vast difference in the respective positions of God and man; but by the infusion of grace man receives a patent of nobility, and thus a friendship of excellency (amicitia excellentiae) is established between God and the just.有爭論,但實際上,在初審階段時,一個龐大的差異,在各自的崗位的人與上帝,但所輸液的恩典男子收到專利貴族化的,因此友誼閣下(的朋友excellentiae )之間建立上帝和正義。 (See Schiffini, "De gratia divina", 305 sqq., Freiburg, 1901.) (見斯基菲尼, "德特惠divina " , 305 sqq ,弗賴堡, 1901年) 。

4. 4 。 Sonship sonship

In the Divine filiation of the soul the formal workings of sanctifying grace reach their culminating point; by it man is entitled to a share in the paternal inheritance, which consists in the beatific vision.在神聖的父子關係的靈魂,正式運作sanctifying恩典到達最終點,由它人是有權分享在父系繼承,其中包括在beatific視野。 This excellence of grace is not only mentioned countless times in Holy Writ (Romans 8:15 sq.; 1 John 3:1 sq., etc.), but is included in the Scriptural idea of a re-birth in God (cf. John 1:12 sq.; 3:5; Titus 3:5; James 1:18, etc.).這個卓越的寬限期,是不是只提了無數次,在神聖的令狀(羅馬書8:15平方米;約翰一3:1平方等) ,但也包括在聖經的想法重新出生在上帝(參見約翰1:12平方米; 3時05分;弟兄3時05分;詹姆斯1:18 ,等等) 。 Since the re-birth in God is not effected by a substantial issuance from the substance of God, as in the case of the Son of God or Logos (Christus), but is merely an analogical or accidental coming forth from God, our sonship of God is only of an adoptive kind, as we find it expressed in Scripture (Romans 8:15; Galatians 4:5).自從重新出生在上帝不是由大量發行,從物質神的存在,因為在案件上帝的兒子或徽標(基督) ,但只是一個類比或意外湧現出來,由上帝,我們的sonship上帝是唯一的一個領養樣,因為我們覺得它表示,在經文(羅馬書8:15 ;加拉太4時05分) 。 This adoption was defined by St. Thomas (III:23:1): personae extraneae in filium et heredem gratuita assumptio.這是通過確定的聖托馬斯(三: 23時01分) :人extraneae在filium等heredem免費assumptio 。 To the nature of this adoption there are four requisites;以這種特性,通過有四個必要條件;

the original unrelatedness of the adopted person;原unrelatedness所通過的人;

fatherly love on the part of the adopting parent for the person adopted;慈父般的愛對部分收養父母,為的人通過;

the absolute gratuity of the choice to sonship and heirship;絕對酬金選擇sonship和繼承;

the consent of the adopted child to the act of adoption.徵得被收養兒童的,以該法案的通過。

Applying these conditions to the adoption of man by God, we find that God's adoption exceeds man's in every point, for the sinner is not merely a stranger to God but is as one who has cast off His friendship and become an enemy.運用這些條件,以通過男子上帝,我們發現上帝的收養超過男子的每一個點,為罪人的不單單是一個陌生的上帝,但,是指一個人已經擺脫了他的友誼,並成為敵人。 In the case of human adoption the mutual love is presumed as existing, in the case of God's adoption the love of God effects the requisite deposition in the soul to be adopted.在案件人類通過互愛,即推定為現有的,在案件上帝的通過上帝的愛效果所需沉積在靈魂才能通過。 The great and unfathomable love of God at once bestows the adoption and the consequent heirship to the kingdom of heaven, and the value of this inheritance is not diminished by the number of coheirs, as in the case of worldly inheritance.偉大而高深莫測,上帝的愛,在一旦賦予通過和相應繼承權向天國,和價值的傳承,這是不能被削弱的人數coheirs ,情況一如世間繼承。

God does not impose His favours upon any one, therefore a consent is expected from adult adopted sons of God (Trent, Sess. VI, cap. vii, per voluntariam susceptionem gratiae et donorum).上帝並沒有對他的偏袒任何一個,因此同意,預計從成人通過神的兒子(遄, sess第六章,第七章,每voluntariam susceptionem感謝等donorum ) 。 It is quite in keeping with the excellence of the heavenly Father that He should supply for His children during the pilgrimage a fitting sustenance which will sustain the dignity of their position, and be to them a pledge of resurrection and eternal life; and this is the Bread of the Holy Eucharist (see EUCHARIST).這是很符合卓越的天父,他應該供給他的孩子們在朝拜一個最合適的寄託,將維持尊嚴的立場,並給他們承諾的復活與永生,這是麵包的聖體聖事(見聖體聖事) 。

The Supernatural Retinue超自然侍從

This expression is derived from the Roman Catechism (P. II., c. i, n. 51), which teaches: "Huic (gratiae sanctificanti) additur nobilissimus omnium virtutum comitatus".這句話是來自羅馬問答(第二,三, 12月31日51 ) ,其中教授說: "在這個(感謝sanctificanti ) additur nobilissimus omnium virtutum comitatus " 。 As the concomitants of sanctifying grace, these infused virtues are not formal operations, but gifts really distinct from this grace, connected nevertheless with it by a physical, or rather a moral, indissoluble link--relationship.作為concomitants的sanctifying恩典,這些充滿了美德都是沒有正式運作,但是禮物真的有別於此寬限期,連接不過與它的身體,或者更確切地說,是道德,不可分割的聯繫-關係。 Therefore the Council of Vienne (1311) speaks of informans gratia et virtutes, and the Council of Trent, in a more general way, of gratia et dona.因此,安理會的維埃納省( 1311 )談到informans特惠等virtutes ,以及安理會的遄達,在一個更普遍的方式,特惠等多納。 The three theological virtues, the moral virtues, the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost, and the personal indwelling of the Holy Spirit in the soul are all considered.三個神學美德,道德,由七名禮物的聖靈,和個人留置的聖靈在靈魂都是考慮的。 The Council of Trent (Sess. VI, c. vii) teaches that the theological virtues of faith, hope, and charity are in the process of justification infused into the soul as supernatural habits.安理會的遄達( sess.六,長七)教導我們,神學的美德,信仰,希望,而慈善事業是在這個過程中的理由,融入靈魂作為超自然的習慣。 Concerning the time of infusion, it is an article of faith (Sess. VI, can. xi) that the virtue of charity is infused immediately with sanctifying grace, so that throughout the whole term of existence sanctifying grace and charity are found as inseparable companions.關於時間的輸液,它是一篇文章的信仰( sess.六,可以的。璽)表示,憑藉慈善貫穿立即與sanctifying恩典,使在整個任期內的存在sanctifying恩典和慈善機構發現,作為不可分割的同伴。 Concerning the habitus of faith and hope, Francisco Suárez is of the opinion (as against St. Thomas and St. Bonaventure) that, assuming a favourable disposition in the recipient, they are infused earlier in the process of justification.關於體質的信念和希望,弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯正的意見(對聖托馬斯和聖文德)表示,假設一個有利的配置在受贈人,他們是充滿了早些時候在這個過程中的道理。 Universally known is the expression of St. Paul (1 Corinthians 13:13), "And now there remain faith, hope, and charity, these three: but the greatest of these is charity."舉世皆知的是表達的聖保羅(哥林多前書13時13分) , "現在仍然有信心,希望,而慈善事業,這3個:但最大的是這些慈善機構" 。 Since, here, faith and hope are placed on a par with charity, but charity is considered as diffused in the soul (Romans 5:5), conveying thus the idea of an infused habit, it will be seen that the doctrine of the Church so consonant with the teaching of the Fathers is also supported by Scripture.因為,在這裡,信仰和希望都放在等同於慈善,但慈善機構被認為是瀰漫在靈魂(羅5:5 ) ,傳達這樣的理念貫穿了一個習慣,它可以看出,中庸教會所以輔音與教學的父親還得到了經文。 The theological virtues have God directly as their formal object, but the moral virtues are directed in their exercise to created things in their moral relations.神學美德,有上帝直接作為其正式的反對,但道義美德都是針對他們的工作,以創造的東西,在他們的道德關係。 All the special moral virtues can be reduced to the four cardinal virtues: prudence (prudentia), justice (justitia), fortitude (fortitudo), temperance (temperantia).所有的特殊道德可降低至四項基本原則的美德:謹慎( prudentia ) ,公正( justitia ) ,毅力( fortitudo ) ,禁酒運動( temperantia ) 。 The Church favours the opinion that along with grace and charity the four cardinal virtues (and, according to many theologians, their subsidiary virtues also) are communicated to the souls of the just as supernatural habitus, whose office it is to give to the intellect and the will, in their moral relations with created things, a supernatural direction and inclination.教會的恩惠認為,隨著寬限期及慈善堅持四項基本原則,品德(據許多神學家,其附屬的美德,也) ,是傳達到心靈的,正如超自然的習性,他的辦公室,這是給智力和意志,在他們的道德關係,創造了東西,有神靈的方向和傾角。 By reason of the opposition of the Scotists this view enjoys only a degree of probability, which, however, is supported by passages in Scripture (Proverbs 8:7; Ezekiel 11:19; 2 Peter 1:3 sqq.) as well as the teaching of the Fathers (Augustine, Gregory the Great, and others).原因反對黨的scotists這種觀點只享有某種程度的概率,卻是支持的通道,在經文(諺語8時07分;以西結11時19分, 2彼得1:3 sqq ) ,以及為教學中的父親(奧古斯丁,格里高利大,和其他) 。 Some theologians add to the infusion of the theological and moral virtues also that of the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost, though this view cannot be called anything more than a mere opinion.某些神學家放入輸液的神學和道德也表示,該七個禮品的聖靈,雖然這個觀點根本不能稱為什麼更不僅僅是一種意見。 There are difficulties in the way of the acceptance of this opinion which cannot be here discussed.有困難的方式接受這個意見,不能在這裡討論。

The article of faith goes only to this extent, that Christ as man possessed the seven gifts (cf. Isaiah 11:1 sqq.; 61:1; Luke 4:18).這篇文章的信仰只有在這個意義上,即以基督為男子被發現擁有七個禮物(參見以賽亞書11時01 sqq ; 61:1 ;路加福音4時18分) 。 Remembering, however, that St. Paul (Romans 8:9 sqq.) considers Christ, as man, the mystical head of mankind, and the August exemplar of our own justification, we may possibly assume that God gives in the process of justification also the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost.記住,但是,聖保羅(羅馬書8時09 sqq )認為基督,作為人,是神秘的頭部人類,並在8月的表表自己的理由,我們可能以為上帝給了在這一過程中的理由,也七個禮品的聖靈。

The crowning point of justification is found in the personal indwelling of the Holy Spirit.至高無上點的理由是,發現在個人留置的聖靈。 It is the perfection and the supreme adornment of the justified soul.這是完善和最高人民法院裝飾品的理由靈魂。 Adequately considered, the personal indwelling of the Holy Spirit consists of a twofold grace, the created accidental grace (gratia creata accidentalis) and the uncreated substantial grace (gratia increata substantialis).充分地考慮,個人留置的聖靈構成雙重恩典,造成意外的恩典(特惠克雷婭察accidentalis )和uncreated可觀的恩典(特惠increata substantialis ) 。 The former is the basis and the indispensable assumption for the latter; for where God Himself erects His throne, there must be found a fitting and becoming adornment.前者是基礎和必不可少的假設,對於後者,因為那裡天主自己的屏障,他的寶座,就必須找到一個最合適,並成為裝飾品。 The indwelling of the Holy Spirit in the soul must not be confounded with God's presence in all created things, by virtue of the Divine attribute of Omnipresence.該留置的聖靈在靈魂絕不能混淆與上帝的存在,在所有創造的東西,憑藉的神聖屬性無處不在。 The personal indwelling of the Holy Ghost in the soul rests so securely upon the teaching of Holy Writ and of the Fathers that to deny it would constitute a grave error.個人留置的聖靈在靈魂在於使安全後,教學的神聖令狀和父親說,以否認將構成一個嚴重的錯誤。 In fact, St. Paul (Romans 5:5) says: "The charity of God is poured forth in our hearts, by the Holy Ghost, who is given to us".事實上,聖保祿(羅5:5 )說: "慈善的上帝是傾注了留在我們心中,聖靈,他們是給我們" 。 In this passage the Apostle distinguishes clearly between the accidental grace of theological charity and the Person of the Giver.在這段話使徒區別於明確區分偶然的恩典神學慈善機構和網站負責人的賜予。 From this it follows that the Holy Spirit has been given to us, and dwells within us (Romans 8:11), so that we really become temples of the Holy Ghost (1 Corinthians 3:16 sq.; 6:19).從這個接著聖靈已經給我們,整篇都在我們心裡(羅馬書8時11分) ,使自己真正成為一個寺廟的聖靈(哥林多前書3:16平方米; 6時19分) 。 Among all the Fathers of the Church (excepting, perhaps, St. Augustine) it is the Greeks who are more especially noteworthy for their rapturous uttertances touching the infusion of the Holy Ghost.各教會的神父(除也許,聖奧古斯丁) ,是希臘人,他們是較特別值得注意,為他們欣喜。 uttertances觸摸輸液的聖靈。 Note the expressions: "The replenishing of the soul with balsamic odours", "a glow permeating the soul", "a gilding and refining of the soul".注意詞句: "充實的靈魂與balsamic氣味" , "輝光滲靈魂" , "鍍金和精煉的靈魂" 。 Against the Pneumatomachians they strive to prove the real Divinity of the Holy Spirit from His indwelling, maintaining that only God can establish Himself in the soul; surely no creature can inhabit any other creatures.針對pneumatomachians他們努力證明真正的神的聖靈從他留置,認為只有上帝才能建立自己的靈魂;肯定沒有動物可以棲息的任何其他海洋生物。 But clear and undeniable as the fact of the indwelling is, equally difficult and perplexing is it in degree to explain the method and manner (modus) of this indwelling.但明確的和不可否認的,因為實際上的留置是,同樣困難和困惑的是,它在程度上解釋的方法和方式(模式) ,這留置。

Theologians offer two explanations.神學家提供了兩種解釋。 The greater number hold that the indweling must not be considered a substantial information, nor a hypostatic union, but that it really means an indwelling of the Trinity (John 14:23), but is more specifically appropriated to the Holy Ghost by reason of His notional character as the Hypostatic Holiness and Personal Love.較多認為indweling要不會被認為是一個實質性的信息,也不是一個本質的聯盟,但它真的是指留置的三位一體(約翰14時23分) ,但更具體的撥款,以聖靈的理由,他的名義上的品格作為本質的成聖和個人的愛情。

Another small group of theologians (Petavius, Scheeben, Hurter, etc.), basing their opinion upon the teaching of the Fathers, especially the Greek, distinguish between the inhabitatio totius Trinitatis, and the inhabitatio Spiritus Sancti, and decide that this latter must be regarded as a union (unio, enosis) pertaining to the Holy Ghost alone, from which the other two Persons are excluded.另一小群神學家( petavius , scheeben , hurter等) ,根據他們的意見後,教學的父親,尤其是希臘語,區分inhabitatio totius trinitatis和inhabitatio spiritus sancti ,並決定把這個後者必須被視為聯盟( unio ,希塞統一) ,涉及到聖靈單中,從這些其他兩個人都被排除在外。 It would be difficult, if not impossible to reconcile this theory, in spite of its deep mystical significance, with the recognized principles of the doctrine of the Trinity, namely the law of appropriation and Divine mission.這將是困難的,如果不是不可能調和這一理論,儘管有其深厚神秘的意義,與公認的學說的原則三位一體,即法律的撥款和神聖使命。 Hence this theory is almost universally rejected (see Franzelin, "De Deo trino", thes. xliii-xlviii, Rome, 1881).因此這個理論,這是幾乎普遍拒絕(見franzelin , "德迪奧特里諾" , thes 。四十三- 48 ,羅馬, 1881年) 。


The Protestant conception of justification boasts of three characteristics: absolute certainty (certitudo), complete uniformity in all the justified (aequalitas), unforfeitableness (inamissibilitas).新教的概念,理由有三個特點:絕對的確定性( certitudo ) ,完整均勻,在各有道理( aequalitas ) , unforfeitableness ( inamissibilitas ) 。 According to the teaching of the Church, sanctifying grace has the opposite characteristics: uncertainty (incertitudo), inequality (inaequalitas), and amissibility (amissibilitas).據該教的教堂, sanctifying恩典有相反的特點:不確定性( incertitudo ) ,不等式( inaequalitas ) ,並amissibility ( amissibilitas ) 。

A. Uncertainty答:不確定性

The heretical doctrine of the Reformers, that man by a fiduciary faith knows with absolute certainty that he is justified, received the attention of the Council of Trent (Sess. VI, cap. ix), in one entire chapter (De inani fiducia haereticorum), three canons (loc. cit., can. xiii-xv) condemning the necessity, the alleged power, and the function of fiduciary faith.邪教教義的改革者,這名男子由受託信仰知道絕對肯定地說,他是合理的,得到了安理會注意的遄達( sess.第六章第九節) ,在整整一章(德inani fiducia haereticorum )三大砲( loc.引文中,可以第十三- XV )號決議,譴責的必要性,聲稱權力和功能的受信人的信仰。 The object of the Church in defining the dogma was not to shatter the trust in God (certitudo spei) in the matter of personal salvation, but to repel the misleading assumptions of an unwarranted certainty of salvation (certitudo fidei).對象教會在界定的教條,不是為了打破信任神( certitudo spei )在這件事的個人救贖,但以擊退誤導假設的一個莫須有確定性的救贖( certitudo信) 。 In doing this the Church is altogether obedient to the instruction of Holy Writ, for, since Scripture declares that we must work out our salvation "with fear and trembling" (Phil., ii, 12), it is impossible to regard our individual salvation as something fixed antd certain.在這樣做的,教會是完全服從指示神聖令狀,為的,因為經文宣稱,我們必須設計出我們的救贖"與恐懼和顫抖" ( phil. ,二, 12 ) ,這是不可能把我們個人的救贖作為固定antd肯定的。 Why did St. Paul (1 Corinthians 9:27) chastise his body if not afraid lest, having preached to others, he might himself "become a castaway"?為什麼聖保羅(哥林多前書9時27分)斥責他的身體,如果不害怕,以免因傳福音給別人,他可能在自己"成為卡斯特羅" ? He says expressly (1 Corinthians 4:4): "For I am not conscious to myself of any thing, yet am I not hereby justified; but he that judgeth me, is the Lord."他說,明文(哥林多前書4時04分)說: "因為我沒有意識到自己的任何東西,但我不能在此有道理,但他認為裁判對我,是上主" 。 Tradition also rejects the Lutheran idea of certainty of justification.傳統也駁斥路德的想法確定性的理由。 Pope Gregory the Great (lib. VII, ep. xxv) was asked by a pious lady of the court, named Gregoria, to say what was the state of her soul.教皇格里高利大( lib.第七的EP 。二十五)被要求由一個虔誠的夫人法院,命名gregoria ,說什麼是國家的,她的靈魂。 He replied that she was putting to him a difficult and useless question, which he could not answer, because God had not vouchsafed to him any revelation concerning the state of her soul, and only after her death could she have any certain knowledge as to the forgiveness of her sins.他回答說,她是把他的一個困難和無用的問題,他不能回答,因為上帝沒有vouchsafed給他的啟示,任何關於國家的,她的靈魂,也只有她死後,她有沒有一定的知識作為向原諒她的罪孽。 No one can be absolutely certain of his or her salvation unless--as to Magdalen, to the man with the palsy, or to the penitent thief--a special revelation be given (Trent, Sess. VI, can. xvi).沒有人可以絕對肯定他或她的救恩,除非-以m agdalen,該男子與麻痺,或向懺悔小偷-一種特殊的啟示給予(遄, s e ss。第六,可以的。十六)。 Nor can a theological certainty, any more than an absolute certainty of belief, be claimed regarding the matter of salvation, for the spirit of the Gospel is strongly opposed to anything like an unwarranted certainty of salvation.也不能神學確定性,任何一個多絕對的確定性的信仰,聲稱有關此事的救贖,為精神上來,把福音堅決反對任何像一個莫須有確定性的救贖。 Therefore the rather hostile attitude to the Gospel spirit advanced by Ambrosius Catherinus (d. 1553), in his little work: "De certitudine gratiae", received such general opposition from other theologians.因此,而不是敵對的態度,以福音的精神,先進的,由安布羅修斯catherinus (四1553 ) ,在他小的工作: "去certitudine謝謝" ,收到這樣的普遍反對,從其他神學家。 Since no metaphysical certainty can be cherished in the matter of justification in any particular case, we must content ourselves with a moral certainty, which, of course, is but warranted in the case of baptized children, and which, in the case of adults diminishes more or less, just as all the conditions of, salvation are complied with--not an easy matter to determine.由於沒有形而上的確定性,能夠珍惜在這件事的理由,在任何特定案件中,我們一定要內容與自己在道義上的肯定,這當然是必要,但在案件洗禮的孩子,其中,在案件成人減退更多或更少,正如所有的條件,救恩是遵守了-不是一件容易的事情,以確定。 Nevertheless any excessive anxiety and disturbance may be allayed (Romans 8:16, 38 sq.) by the subjective conviction that we are probably in the state of grace.但任何過分的焦慮和干擾,可心安(羅馬書8時16分, 38平方) ,以人們的主觀信念,即我們可能在該國的恩典。

B. Inequality乙不等式

If man, as the Protestant theory of justification teaches, is justified by faith alone, by the external justice of Christ, or God, the conclusion which Martin Luther (Sermo de nat. Maria) drew must follow, namely that "we are all equal to Mary the Mother of God and just as holy as she".如果男子,因為新教理論的理由教導說,是有正當理由的信念,僅由外部司法基督的,還是神,其結論馬丁路德( sermo德NAT的瑪麗亞)提請必須遵循的,那就是, "大家都是平等以瑪利亞天主之母,正如聖地,因為她" 。 But if on the other hand, according to the teaching of the Church, we are justifed by the justice and merits of Christ in such fashion that this becomes formally our own justice and holiness, then there must result an inequality of grace in individuals, and for two reasons: first, because according to the generosity of God or the receptive condition of the soul an unequal amount of grace is infused; then, also, because the grace originally received can be increased by the performance of good works (Trent, Sess. VI, cap. vii, can. xxiv).但是,如果在另一方面,根據教學的教會,我們正justifed由司法部和優點的基督在這樣的口吻表示,這成為正式我們自己的正義與聖潔,那麼必須有結果的一個不等式的寬限期,在個人,並原因有兩點:第一,因為根據慷慨的上帝或接受條件的靈魂,一個不平等的金額Grace是充滿了,緊接著,又由於寬限期本來收到可提高性能的好作品(遄, sess第六章,第七章,可以的。二十四) 。 This possibility of increase in grace by good works, whence would follow its inequality in individuals, find its warrant in those Scriptural texts in which an increase of grace is either expressed or implied (Proverbs 4:18; Sirach 18:22; 2 Corinthians 9:10; Ephesians 4:7; 2 Peter 3:18; Revelation 22:11).這種可能性的增加,由恩典的優秀作品,何時會按照不平等的個人,找到自己需要在那些聖經文本中,增加了Grace是不論明示或暗示(諺語4時18分;西拉奇18時22分;哥林多九日: 10歲;以弗所4點07分, 2彼得3時18分;啟示22時11分) 。 Tradition had occasion, as early as the close of the fourth century, to defend the old Faith of the Church against the heretic Jovinian, who strove to introduce into the Church the Stoic doctrine of the equality of all virtue and all vice.傳統,有機會,因為早在公元密切的第四個世紀,來維護舊的信仰教會反對邪教jovinian ,他們力圖引入教會斯多葛主義的人人平等的美德和所有的缺點。 St. Jerome (Con. Jovin., II, xxiii) was the chief defender of orthodoxy in this instance.聖杰羅姆( con. jovin 。第一,二,二十三) ,是行政的維護者,正統以此為例。 The Church never recognized any other teaching than that laid down by St. Augustine (Tract. in Jo., vi, 8): "Ipsi sancti in ecclesia sunt alii aliis sanctiores, alii aliis meliores."教會從來不承認任何其他教學比所定的聖奧古斯丁( tract.然後,六,八日)說: "同側sancti在教會必須遵守alii aliis sanctiores , alii aliis meliores " 。

Indeed, this view should commend itself to every thinking man.事實上,這種看法應該讚揚自己的每一個思想的人。

The increase of grace is by theologians justly called a second justification (justificatio secunda), as distinct from the first justification (justificatio prima), which is coupled with a remission of sin; for, though there be in the second justification no transit from sin to grace, there is an advance from grace to a more perfect sharing therein.增加Grace是由神學家理直氣壯地稱為第二個理由( justificatio塞康達) ,以區別於第一個理由( justificatio表面) ,這是加上減刑罪;為說,儘管在第二個理由,沒有過境,從單以優雅,有一種與時俱進,從寬限期,以一個更完美的交流。 If inquiry be made as to the mode of this increase, it can only be explained by the philosophical maxim: "Qualities are susceptible of increase and decrease"; for instance, light and heat by the varying degree of intensity increase or diminish.如果調查取得的,以該模式,這增加了,那只能解釋哲學的格言: "素質是容易的增加和減少" ;舉例來說,光,熱,由不同程度的強度增加或減少。 The question is not a theological but a philosophical one to decide whether the increase be effected by an addition of grade to grade (additio gradus ad gradum), as most theologians believe; or whether it be by a deeper and firmer taking of root in the soul (major radicatio in subjecto), as many Thomists claim.問題是,不是神學,而是哲學之一,以決定是否增加,是通過將增設級至一級( additio gradus專案gradum ) ,因為大部分的神學家相信,或無論是由一個更深和更穩固的錄取紮根於靈魂(主要radicatio在subjecto ) ,因為有很多thomists索賠。 This question has a special connection with that concerning the multiplication of the habitual act.這個問題,有一種特殊的聯繫,與有關乘法的習慣行為。 But the last question that arises has decidedly a theological phase, namely, can the infusion of sanctifying grace be increased infinitely?但最近出現的問題已斷然神學階段,即可以注入sanctifying恩典增加無限? Or is there a limit, a point at which it must be arrested?還是有極限,而這一點上,它必須被拘捕? To maintain that the increase can go on to infinity, ie that man by successive advances in holiness can finally enter into the possession of an infinite endowment involves a manifest contradiction, for such a grade is as impossible as an infinite temperature in physics.保持這一增幅可以繼續至無限遠,即男子歷屆進展成聖,終於可以進入藏有無限養老涉及艙單矛盾的,為這樣一個等級是不可能的,作為一個無限溫度在物理學。

Theoretically, therefore, we can consider only an increase without any real limit (in indefinitum).所以,從理論上講,我們可以考慮只增加了,沒有任何真正的極限(在indefinitum ) 。 Practically however, two ideals of unattained and unattainable holiness have been determined, which nevertheless, are finite.實際上不過,有兩個理想的達成和高不可攀的聖潔已經確定,其中,但都有限。 The one is the inconceivably great holiness of the human soul of Christ, the other the fullness of grace which dwelt in the soul of the Virgin Mary.一個是inconceivably偉大聖潔的人類靈魂的基督,其他的豐滿的恩典住在靈魂的聖母瑪利亞。

C. Amissibility長amissibility

In consonance with his doctrine of justification by faith alone, Luther made the loss or forfeiture of justification depend solely upon infidelity, while Calvin maintained that the predestined could not possibly lose their justification; as to those not predestined, he said, God merely aroused in them a deceitful show of faith and justification.在符合他的學說的因信稱義,就有路德了損失或沒收的理由,單靠經不忠,而卡爾文認為命中註定是不可能輸的理由,至於那些沒有命中註定,他說,上帝只是引起他們騙人顯示的信念和理由。 On account of the grave moral dangers which lurked in the assertion that outside of unbelief there can be no serious sin destructive of Divine grace in the soul, the Council of Trent was obliged to condemn (Sess. VI, can. xxiii, xxvii) both these views.就交代了嚴重的道德危機是lurked在斷言之外的不信者不可能有任何嚴重的破壞性單神的恩典在靈魂,是立法會的遄達有義務譴責( sess.六,可以的。二十三,二十七)均這些意見。 The lax principles of "evangelical liberty", the favourite catchword of the budding Reformation, were simply repudiated (Trent Sess. VI, can. xix-xxi).渙散的原則, "傳播福音的自由" ,喜愛時髦的萌芽改造,根本否定(遄sess 。第六,可以。 19 - 21 ) 。 But the synod (Sess. VI cap. xi) added that not venial but only mortal sin involved the loss of grace.但主教( sess.第六章十一)補充說,不venial而只是凡人,單是涉及損失的恩典。 In this declaration there was a perfect accord with Scripture and Tradition.在這個宣言有一個完美的,符合經文和傳統。 Even in the Old Testament the prophet Ezechiel (Ezekiel 18:24) says of the godless: "All his justices which he hath done, shall not be remembered: in the prevarication, by which he hath prevaricated, and in his sin, which he hath committed, in them he shall die."即使在舊約中的先知ezechiel (以西結書18時24分)說的無神論: "他的所有大法官,他蹈,不得記住:在推諉責任,其中祂所prevaricated ,並在他的罪過,這是他祂所承諾,在他們,他會死" 。 Not in vain does St. Paul (1 Corinthians 10:12) warn the just: "Wherefore he that thinketh himself to stand, let him take heed lest he fall"; and state uncompromisingly: "The unjust shall not possess the kingdom of God...neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers.... nor covetouss, nor drunkards...shall possess the kingdom of God" (1 Corinthians 6:9 sq.).沒有白費是否聖保祿(哥林多前書10:12 )警告,只是說: "人哪,他說, thinketh自己的立場,讓他注意,以免落" ,以及國家毫不妥協: "不公正,不具備神的國度...既不fornicators ,又寫信,也沒有姦淫....也不covetouss ,也不drunkards ...應具備神的國度" (哥林多前書6時09平方) 。 Hence it is not by infidelity alone that the Kingdom of Heaven will be lost.因此,它是不是由不忠,僅這天國的就會喪失殆盡。 Tradition shows that the discipline of confessors in the early Church proclaims the belief that grace and justification are lost by mortal sin.傳統顯示的紀律confessors在早期教會宣告相信恩典和理由都失去了由凡人單。 The principle of justification by faith alone is unknown to the Fathers.的原則,因信稱義,僅是陌生的父親。 The fact that mortal sin takes the soul out of the state of grace is due to the very nature of mortal sin.事實凡人單需靈魂脫離該國的恩典,這是由於該性質的大罪。 Mortal sin is an absolute turning away from God, the supernatural end of the soul, and is an absolute turning to creatures; therefore, habitual mortal sin cannot exist with habitual grace any more than fire and water can co-exist in the same subject.凡人,單是一個絕對的契機遠離神,神完的靈魂,而且是一個絕對的契機,以動物,因此,慣性大罪就不能存在與慣常的寬限期,任何超過防火和防水是可以並存於同一主題。 But as venial sin does not constitute such an open rupture with God, and does not destroy the friendship of God, therefore venial sin does not expel sanctifying grace from the soul.但正如venial單並不構成這種開放的破裂與上帝,不破壞友誼的上帝,因此venial單不驅逐sanctifying寬限期,從靈魂。 Hence, St. Augustine says (De spir. et lit., xxviii, 48): "Non impediunt a vita Aeterna justum quaedam peccata venialia, sine quibus haec vita non ducitur."因此,聖奧古斯丁說: (德spir 。等亮著, 28 , 48 )說: "非impediunt一履歷表依特鈉justum quaedam peccata venialia ,正弦quibus haec履歷表非ducitur " 。 But does venial sin, without extinguishing grace, nevertheless diminish it, just as good works give an increase of grace?但是否venial單,但無滅火寬限期,但削弱它,就像好的作品,讓增加的恩典? Denys the Carthusian (d. 1471) was of the opinion that it does, though St. Thomas rejects it (II-II:24:10). denys該carthusian (四第1471 ) ,他認為這樣做,雖然聖托馬斯拒絕它(二-二: 2 4:10) 。 A gradual decrease of grace would only be possible on the supposition that either a definite number of venial sins amounted to a mortal sin, or that the supply of grace might be diminished, grade by grade, down to ultimate extinction.逐步減少的寬限期,只會盡可能就假定要么一個明確的數目venial罪孽達一個致命的罪過,或者說,供應的恩典可能被削弱,職等職等,到最終滅絕。 The first hypothesis is contrary to the nature of venial sin; the second leads to the heretical view that grace may be lost without the commission of mortal sin.第一種假說是相反的性質venial單;第二導致邪教認為寬限期可能會丟失,沒有犯下大罪。 Nevertheless, venial sins have an indirect influence on the state of grace, for they make a relapse into mortal sin easy (cf. Ecclus., xix, 1).不過, venial罪孽有間接的影響,對國家的恩典,因為他們使復發成凡人單容易(參見ecclus , 19 , 1 ) 。 Does the loss of sanctifying grace bring with it the forfeiture of the supernatural retinue of infused virtues?是否喪失sanctifying恩典,使與它沒收超自然侍從的,充滿了美德嗎? Since the theological virtue of charity, though not identical, nevertheless is inseparably connected with grace, it is clear that both must stand or fall together, hence the expressions "to fall from grace" and "to lose charity" are equivalent.由於神學美德的慈善機構,雖然不是完全相同,不過是密不可分的關連風度,但顯然都必須站在或跌倒在一起,因此表現形式" ,以減少來自恩典" , "失去了慈善服務"的等價性。 It is an article of faith (Trent, Sess. VI, can. xxviii, cap. xv) that theological faith may survive the Commission of mortal sin, and can be extinguished only by its diametrical opposite, namely, infidelity.這是一篇文章的信仰(遄, sess 。第六,可以的。第二十八章XV )號決議說,神學信仰可能生存犯下大罪,可被撲滅,只有通過其針鋒相對的對面,即不忠。 It may be regarded as a matter of Church teaching that theological hope also survives mortal sin, unless this hope should be utterly killed by its extreme opposite, namely despair, though probably it is not destroyed by it second opposite, presumption.它可被視為一個問題,教會教學神學還希望生存的大罪,除非這個希望應徹底殺死其極端相反的,即絕望,雖然可能是不摧毀它的第二對面,推定。 With regard to the moral virtues, the seven gifts and the indwelling of the Holy Ghost, which invariably accompany grace and charity, it is clear that when mortal sin enters into the soul they cease to exist (cf. Francisco Suárez, "De gratia", IX, 3 sqq.).對於道德的美德,這7個禮物和留置的聖靈,它總是伴隨著恩典和慈善事業,它清楚的是,當大罪也進入了靈魂,他們不再存在(參見弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯, "德特惠" ,九, 3 sqq ) 。 As to the fruits of sanctifying grace, see MERIT.至於果實sanctifying恩典,見好處。

Publication information Written by J. Pohle.出版信息寫了J. pohle 。 Transcribed by Scott Anthony Hibbs & Wendy Lorraine Hoffman.轉錄斯科特安東尼hibbs &溫蒂洛林霍夫曼。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.天主教百科全書,第六卷。 Published 1909. 1909年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. nihil obstat , 1909年9月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約

"Saying Grace" "的說法,寬限期"

Additional Information 補充資料

(Editor's Note: We received the following essay, which we think includes some worthwhile insights.) (編者的話:我們收到了以下的文章,我們認為包含了一些有價值的見解) 。

And when he had thus spoken, he took bread, and gave thanks to God in presence of them all: and when he had broken it, he began to eat. Acts 27:35 當他就此發言後,他拿起餅來,並對此表示感謝,向上帝的存在,他們都:當他打破了它,他開始吃。 行為27:35

Don't Ask the Blessing, Offer One不要問祝福,提供一

In your mind's eye I want you to picture Jesus at the Feeding of the Five Thousand.在您心目中的眼睛我要你圖片耶穌在餵養的5000 。 Hungry multitudes cover the hillside.餓了眾多覆蓋在山坡上。 Jesus takes the little boy's lunch, lifts it up, and says the familiar prayer: "Bless this food to the nourishing and strengthening of our bodies. Amen."耶穌把小男孩的午餐,升降機起來講,並說,熟悉的祈禱: "保佑這食物,以滋養和加強我們的身體。阿民" 。 I'm here to tell you that it just didn't happen like that.我在這裡要告訴大家,這只是都沒有發生一樣。 No way!沒有辦法!

Since when did we begin to bless our food, anyway?自那時我們開始保佑我們的食物呢? Frankly, our food's been blessed to the point that most of us -- how shall I say this -- are "overnourished."坦率地講,我們的糧食的幸運到如此地步,我們大多數人-我該如何說,這- "o v ernourished"。

You find two words in the New Testament used in connection with praying before meals.你找到兩個詞,在新約聖經中使用涉嫌與祈禱前的飯菜。

Offering Praise提供讚譽

Here's what really happened at the Feeding of the Five Thousand.這裡的到底發生了什麼,在餵養的5000 。 "Taking the five loaves and the two fish and looking up to heaven, he gave thanks and broke the loaves" (Mark 6:41). "五個麵包和兩個魚和展望了天堂,他對此表示感謝,並打破了麵包" (馬克6時41分) 。 The Greek word for "gave thanks" (NIV) or "blessed" (KJV) is "eulogeo," from which we get our English word "eulogy."在希臘語意為"對此表示感謝, " (你們)或"祝福" ( kjv ) ,是" eulogeo " ,從其中我們把自己的英文單詞"歌功頌德" It means "speak well of, praise, extol."這意味著"好說話的,讚美,歌頌" 。 The word commonly translates the Hebrew word, "barak," "to bless."這個詞常見的翻譯希伯來語詞, "巴拉克 " , "保佑" 。 But it wasn't the food Jesus was "speaking well of" or "blessing," it was his Father.但不是被食品耶穌是"講好"或"祝福" , 這是他的父親。

Every faithful Jew would offer this blessing before partaking of bread: "Blessed are you, Lord our God, King of the world, who has caused bread to come forth out of the earth."每一個忠實的猶太人將提供這祝福之前partaking麵包說: "祝福你,耶和華我們的神,國王的世界,是誰令麵包站出來脫離了地球" Before partaking of wine, the blessing was said this way: "Blessed are you, Lord our God, King of the world, who has created the fruit of the vine."前partaking酒,祝福是說,這樣說: "祝福你,耶和華我們的神,國王的世界,誰創造了果實的葡萄" 。 The first word, "eulogeo," reminds us to eulogize or praise God before we eat.第一句話, " eulogeo , "提醒我們要歌頌或讚美上帝面前,我們吃的了。

Offering Thanks提供感謝

The second praying-before-meals word is the Greek word "eucharisteo," from which we get our English word "Eucharist," often used as the name of Holy Communion.第二祈禱先吃飯字是希臘字" eucharisteo " ,從其中我們把自己的英文單詞"聖體聖事" ,常常用來作為名字的聖餐。 "Eucharisteo" means, "be thankful, offer thanks," and was used at the Last Supper. " eucharisteo "手段" ,心存感激,感謝提供的" ,是用在最後的晚餐。

"While they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks (eulogeo) and broke it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, 'Take and eat; this is my body.' " ,而他們吃的時候,耶穌拿起餅來,祝謝了,遞給( eulogeo ) ,並打破了它,並給它以他的弟子,說,以及進食,這是我的身體。 Then he took the cup, gave thanks (eucharisteo) and offered it to them, saying, 'Drink from it, all of you' " (Matthew 26:26-27, NIV). 然後他拿起杯來,祝謝了,遞給( eucharisteo ) ,並提供給他們,說,喝,大家都' " (馬太26:26-27證) 。

What Jesus was doing at this Passover meal was offering to his Father the traditional blessings when bread and wine were eaten.什麼耶穌所做的這逾越節為吃飽肚子而提供給他的父親的傳統祝福的時候,麵包和酒被吃掉。 It was common for Jews to offer a blessing for each food served during a meal.它是常見的猶太人提供一大福音,每一個食品期間,一餐。

The Bless Me Club該保佑我的俱樂部

So how did we Christians end up blessing the food instead of God? Tradition? 那麼我們是怎麼基督徒最後祝福食物而不是上帝嗎?傳統? Habit?習慣嗎? Some of the confusion may have come from a mistranslation of the passage I just quoted.有些混亂,可能來自一個誤導通過,我只是引用。 In the King James Version, Matthew 26:26 reads: "And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, 'Take, eat; this is my body.'在國王詹姆斯版,馬修26:26寫著: "因為他們吃的時候,耶穌拿起餅來,祝福,並制動,並給弟子,並說, '考慮,吃的,這是我的身體' " Notice how the tiny word "it" was added after the word "blessed"? "通知如何微小字"它"之後增加了"有福" ? The word "it" isn't part of the Greek text -- that's why it's in italics in the King James Version.字, "它"是不是部分的希臘文字-這就是為什麼它的楷體字在國王詹姆斯版。 But "bless it" implies something far different than "bless God."但"保佑" ,就意味著有很大的不同,比"上帝保佑" 。 That addition of one little word may have twisted the way we pray before meals into something Jesus didn't intend at all.添加一個小詞可能已扭曲了我們的祈禱,然後吃飯成了耶穌並不打算在所有。

Not that there's anything wrong in asking a blessing from God.不是有什麼不妥,在叫一個祝福來自上帝。 There's not.還有的不是。 Jesus taught us to pray, "Give us this day our daily bread" -- but only after praise: "Our Father, which art in heaven, hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come, thy will be done...."耶穌教導我們禱告, "讓我們在這一天,我們每天的麵包" -但這只是讚美說: "我們的父親,而在藝術的天堂,神聖被你的名字。祢英國來,你會做的… … 。 No, asking favors from God isn't wrong, but it shouldn't be the primary part of our prayers, or we become like greedy little children: "Gimme this! Gimme that!".沒有,問人情案,由上帝是沒有錯,但是它不應該是主要的一部分,我們的祈禱,或者我們是否變得像貪婪的孩子說: " gimme ! gimme ! " 。 Those prayers are essentially selfish rather than self-giving.那些祈禱基本上是自私的,而不是自我奉獻。 They don't fulfill either the First Commandment, to love God with all our heart, or the Second, to love our neighbor as ourselves.他們不履行或者第一誡命,愛上帝與我們所有的心,還是第二,要熱愛我們的鄰邦,作為我們自己。

How Should We Pray?我們應如何禱告?

The Apostle Paul put it in this perspective.使徒保羅把它放在這個角度來看。 "Do not be anxious about anything, but in everything, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God" (Philippians 4:6). "你們不要著急什麼,但在一切,祈禱和請願,與感恩,現在你們的要求,以神之名" ( philippians 4:6 ) 。 Notice the phrase "with thanksgiving" tucked in there with "present your requests to God." It's essential to keep prayer God-centered rather than self-centered. It's also the key to praying with real faith.公告短語"與感恩"藏在那裡" ,目前您的請求上帝, " 這是必須維持在祈禱上帝為中心而非以自我為中心,它的核心,也是以祈求真正的信仰。

So when you pray, remember that your food doesn't deserve a blessing nearly so much as God who gave it. You can bless like Jesus did, "Blessed are you, Lord our God, King of the world, who has caused bread to come forth out of the earth." 所以當你祈禱,請記住,你的食物不值得祝福近了這麼多,因為神的人了,你能保佑像耶穌那樣, "祝福你,耶和華我們的神,國王的世界,是誰令麵包站出來脫離了地球" Or offer a simple prayer of thanks to God for the food.或提供一個簡單的禱告感謝神,為食物。 Next time, don't "ask the blessing," but offer one to your Father.下一次,不"問福" ,但推出一到你的父親。

Dr. Ralph F. Wilson博士拉爾夫F威爾遜

(We chose to highlight certain phrases of Dr. Wilson) (我們選擇了突出某些詞句的Wilson博士)

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