Divine Immanence神聖的內在

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In philosophy and theology, divine immanence refers to the omnipresence of God in the universe.在哲學和神學,神的內在性是指無處不在的上帝在宇宙中。 The theory in its extreme form is Pantheism, in which God and the world are virtually identical. Proponents of Monotheism, however, have tempered the concept of immanence by positing the parallel doctrine of divine Transcendence. Thus, in Judaism and Christianity, God is considered omnipresent and active in human affairs as creator, sustainer, judge, and redeemer, but is also considered elevated above and distinguished from the universe.該理論在其極端的形式是泛神論,其中神和世界都幾乎相同。 倡議者神,不過,有鍛煉的概念,內涵,由定位平行學說神聖的超越性,因此,在猶太教和基督教的上帝被認為是無所不在地活躍在人類事務中,作為創作者, sustainer ,法官,和救贖主,但也被認為是高架以上及傑出從宇宙中。

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Immanence is a conception in philosophy and theology that the intelligent and creative force or being that governs the universe pervades the natural world.內在性是一個概念,在哲學和神學認為,聰明而富有創造力的力量還是被執政的宇宙中瀰漫的自然世界。 Immanence is a fundamental doctrine of pantheism and can be contrasted with transcendence, which conceives of the intelligent and creative force as existing outside the natural world. In pantheistic systems of thought, for example, all material objects in the universe are pervaded with the infinite divine presence.內在性,是一個根本教義的泛神論和可對比與超越,而構思的智慧和創造力量,因為現有外部的自然世界。 pantheistic系統的思考,例如,所有材料的物體在宇宙中瀰漫,與無限神州在場。

In Judeo-Christian religions, however, God both participates in the universe, that is, is present and active in the natural world; and at the same time, transcends, that is, figuratively, rises above, the universe he created.在猶太教和基督教的宗教,不過,上帝都參與宇宙的,那就是,是當前和活躍在世界自然和在同一時間內,超越,那就是形象,海隆以上,宇宙中,他創造的。


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(Lat. in manere , to remain in) ( lat. 在manere ,留在)

Immanence is the quality of any action which begins and ends within the agent.內在性,是優質的任何行動開始和結束內部的代理人。 Thus, vital action, as well in the physiological as in the intellectual and moral order, is called immanent, because it proceeds from that spontaneity which is essential to the living subject and has for its term the unfolding of the subject's constituent energies.因此,重要的行動,以及在生理上,在智力和道德秩序,是與所謂的內在的,因為它的收益,從這個自發性,這是至為重要的生活課題,並已為它的任期,開展主題的制憲精力。 It is initiated and is consummated in the interior of the same being, which may be considered as a closed system.這是發起並委託開發,是在建築物內部,同時,它可被視為一個封閉的系統。 But is this system so shut in as to be self-sufficient and incapable of receiving anything from without?但這個制度,使關閉,以達到自給自足,而且無法接受任何未經? -- or can it enrich itself by taking up elements which its environment offers and which are at times even necessary, as nourishment is to the immanent activity of the body? -或者可以充實自己,採取了哪些元素及其環境的優惠,這是在時代的,甚至是必要的,作為養料,是內在活動的身體? This is the problem which the philosophies of immanence propose and attempt to solve, not only in respect to man considered as a particular being, but also in respect to the universe considered as a whole.這就是問題所在,其中哲學的內在性建議,並試圖解決,而不是只有在尊重人視為一個特別正,而且在尊重宇宙作為一個整體來考慮。 It is, indeed, with reference to this latter aspect that the controversy arose in ancient times.它確實是參考了這後一方面表示,爭議發生在遠古時代。


The doctrine of immanence came into existence simultaneously with philosophical speculation.該學說的內涵也開始存在,同時與哲學的投機活動。 This was inevitable, since man first conceived all things after his own likeness.這是不可避免的,自從人類第一次提出的一切事情後,他自己似的。 He regarded the universe, then, as a living thing, endowed with immanent activity, and working for the full unfolding of its being.他認為,宇宙中,那麼,作為一個有生命的事物,賦有內在的經濟活動,並工作,為全面開展其福祉。 Under the veil of poetic fictions, we find this view among the Hindus, and again among the sages of Greece.根據面紗詩意的小說中,我們發現這種觀點之間的印度教徒,並再次證明了先哲的希臘。 The latter hold a somewhat confused Hylozoism: as they see it, the cosmos results from the evolution of a single principle (water, air, fire, unity), which develops like an animal organism.後者持有有點困惑hylozoism :在他們看來,宇宙的結果,從進化的一個單一的原則(水,空氣,火,大團結) ,其中開發像動物的有機體。 But Socrates, coming back to the study "of things human", refuses to look upon himself as merely part and parcel of the Great All.但是,蘇格拉底,回來學習"的東西,人的" ,不肯視自己為純粹的重要組成部分,偉大的。 He asserts his independence and declares himself distinct from the universe; and thus he shifts the pivotal problem of philosophy.他斷言,他的獨立性,並宣布自己獨特的從宇宙中;因而他更關鍵的問題,哲學。 What he professes is, indeed, the immanence of the subject, but that immanence he does not conceive as absolute, for he recognizes the fact that man is subject to external influences.他自稱是,事實上,內在的主題,但內在性,他不隱瞞,因為絕對的,因為他認識到一個事實,這名男子是受外來因素影響。 Thenceforward, these two conceptions of immanence are to alternate in ascendancy and decline. thenceforward ,這兩個概念的內涵是候補中崛起和沒落。 After Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, absolute immanence regains its sway through Zeno of Cittium, who gives it its clearest expression.之後,蘇格拉底,柏拉圖,亞里士多德,絕對的內在性恢復其擺動通過芝諾的cittium ,誰給它最清晰的表達。 In turn it falls back before the preaching of Christianity, which sets forth clearly the personality of man and the distinction between God and the world.反過來,這將落後於前鼓吹的是基督教,其中提出了明確的個性男子,並區分上帝和世界的福音。 The Alexandrians, in the wake of Philo, impart a new lustre to the doctrine of absolute immanence; but St. Augustine, borrowing from Plotinus the Stoic notion of "seminal principles", contends for relative immanence which in the Middle Ages triumphs with St. Thomas.該alexandrians ,隨著斐洛,傳授新的光澤,以中庸的絕對內在性,但聖奧古斯丁,借款從普羅提諾的斯多葛提出的"開創性的原則" ,合同規定,為相對內在,它在中世紀的輝煌,與聖托馬斯。 With the Renaissance comes a renewal of life for the theory of absolute immanence.與文藝復興來延續生命,為理論的絕對內在性。 In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, on the contrary, Descartes and Kant maintain the transcendency of God, though recognizing the relative immanence of man.在十七世紀和十八世紀,與此相反,笛卡爾和康德保持超越性的上帝,雖然認識的相對內在的男子。 But their disciples exaggerate this latter fact and thus fall into subjective monism: the ego is shut up in its absolute immanence; it posits the non-ego.但他們的弟子誇大後者事實,並從而陷入主觀的一元論:我是關閉了在其絕對內在性; posits非自我。 After Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel, the same path is taken by Cousin, Vacherot, Bergson, and many others.經過費希特,謝林,黑格爾,也走這條路是由堂兄,瓦舍羅,柏格森等,不勝枚舉。 The principle of absolute immanence becomes a dogma which they seek to impose upon contemporary philosophy.的原則,絕對的內在性成為一種教條,他們尋求強加於當代哲學。 It confronts revealed religion, and appears as one of the sources of modernism, which it thus brings into close proximity with liberal Protestantism.它面對著透露,宗教,而且看來作為來源之一,現代主義,因此,它使人們近距離與自由新教。 The notion of immanence is at the present day one of the centres around which the battle is being fought between the Catholic religion and monism.概念的內涵是在現今社會的一個中心周圍的戰鬥正在爭取與天主教宗教和一元論。

Before passing on to larger development, we note that;結業前,就以較大的發展,我們注意到;

(1) under its various aspects, the conception of immanence is the interpretation and extension of a fact observed in the living subject; ( 1 )根據其各個方面,概念內涵,是詮釋與擴展的一個事實,在觀察生活的主題;

(2) in every age it takes on two parallel and opposite forms, which the Encyclical "Pascendi gregis" defines in an eminently philosophical way, as follows: "Etenim hoc quærimus; an ejusmodi 'immanentia' Deum ab homine distinguat necne? Si distinguit, quid tum a catholica doctrina differt aut doctrinam de revelatione cur rejicit? Si non distinguit, pantheismum habemus. Atqui immanentia haec modernistarum vult atque admittit omne conscientiæ phenomenon ab homine, ut homo est, proficisci" (For, we ask, does this "immanence" make God and man distinct or not? If it does, then in what does it differ from the Catholic doctrine? or why does it reject what is taught in regard to revelation? If it does not make God and man distinct, it is Pantheism. But this immanence of the Modernists would claim that every phenomenon of consciousness proceeds from man as man). ( 2 )在每個時代都需要在兩個平行和對立形式,其中通諭" pascendi收聽廣播節目和收看"的界定在一個遙不可及的哲學方法,內容如下: " etenim責quærimus ; ejusmodi ' immanentia ' deum抗體homine distinguat necne ?矽distinguit ,塊腫瘤一catholica doctrina differt奧地利doctrinam德revelatione當前rejicit ? Si無distinguit , pantheismum habemus 。 atqui immanentia haec modernistarum vult atque admittit omne conscientiæ現象抗體homine , UT斯達康同質預測, proficisci " (時,我們會問,這是否"內涵"人與上帝鮮明與否?若確實如此,那麼在它的內涵是什麼不同,從天主教教義,又或為何不拒絕什麼內容方面的啟示呢?如果它不使神與人不同,它是泛神論但這種內在的現代派聲稱,每一個現象的意識收益人當人) 。


From this general consideration of the subject the following division arises.從這個一般性審議的議題如下分工出現。

A. The doctrine of immanence,答:該學說的內涵,

(1) absolute, ( 1 )絕對的,

(2) relative. ( 2 )相對的。

And, as this doctrine has of late years given birth to a new method in apologetics, we shall next consider:而且,正如這一學說已晚幾年誕生的一種新方法,在護教學,我們會在未來考慮:

B. The employment of the method of immanence,二,就業的方法,內在性,

(1) absolute, ( 1 )絕對的,

(2) relative. ( 2 )相對的。

A. The Doctrine of Immanence答:該學說的內在

(1) Absolute Immanence ( 1 )絕對內在

(a) Its Historical Evolution (一) ,它的歷史演變

At its outset the doctrine of immanence, properly so called, was concerned with solving the problem of the world's origin and organization: the universe was the resultant of an absolutely necessary, immanent evolution of one only principle.在一開始的教義內涵,妥善所謂,關注與解決的問題,世界的起源和組織結構:宇宙是由此產生的一個絕對必要的,內在的演變,只有一個原則。 The Stoics, who gave it its first exact formula, virtually revived the pre-Socratic cosmogonies.該stoics ,誰給了它的第一個確切的公式,幾乎恢復了前蘇格拉底宇宙。 But they shut up in matter first the "Demiurgic Word", in which Plato saw the efficient cause of the cosmos; and, then, the transcendently lovable and desirable "Supreme Intelligence", postulated by Aristotle as the final cause of universal activity.但他們閉嘴,在第一件事" demiurgic字" ,在這種柏拉圖看到了高效率的原因,宇宙,以及其後, transcendently可愛和可取的"無上智慧" ,假設由亞里士多德作為最後的事業在普及活動。 There existed, then, but one principle under a seeming duality; it was corporeal, though it expressed itself sometimes in terms of passivity, when it was called matter, and sometimes in terms of activity, when it was called force, or cause.有存在的話,那麼,但一個原則下,似乎有兩重性,它是有形的,但它表示自己有時候會在職權被動,當它是所謂的事情,有時候會在活動條款,當它被稱為武力,或事業。 It was the technic fire presiding over the genesis of the world; it was the Divine seminal principle from which all things were born (pyr technikon, Logos spermatikos).這是技術消防主持成因探討世界,這是神聖的開創性的原則,使所有事物誕生( pyr technikon ,標識spermatikos ) 。 This principle, which is the first to move, is also the first to be moved, since nothing is outside of it; all beings find in it their origin and their end, they are but successive moments in its evolution, they are born and they die through its perpetual becoming.在這個原則下,這是第一個動起來,也是第一次被提出,因為沒有什麼會外,它都被找到,它在其原籍,並為此目的,他們不過是歷屆矩在它的演變,他們的誕生和他們模具通過其成為永久的。 The fiery spirit seems to move the chaotic mass as the soul moves the body, and this is why it is called the "soul of the world".火熱的精神似乎動議混沌群眾作為靈魂的動作身體的,這就是為什麼它被稱為"靈魂的世界" 。 Human souls are but sparks from it, or rather its phenomena, which vanish at death and are re-absorbed into the bosom of nature.人的心靈,是火花,但由它,或者更確切地說,它的現象,消失在死亡和重吸收到胸的性質。 This is Hylozoism carried to its ultimate expression.這是hylozoism進行,其最終體現。

The Greek and Roman Stoics changed nothing in this conception.希臘羅馬stoics改變什麼,在這個構想。 Philo alone, before Christianity, attempted to transform it.斐洛,僅前基督教,企圖改造它。 Pursuing the syncretic method which he brought into repute in the School of Alexandria, he undertook to harmonize Moses, Plato, and Zeno.追求融合方法,其中他帶進享負盛名,在學校的亞歷山德里亞,他答應協調摩西,柏拉圖,芝諾。 Thus he was led into a sort of inverted Stoicism, setting up at the origin of all things no longer a corporeal seminal principle, but a spiritual God, perfect, anterior to matter, from whom everything is derived by a process of outflow and downflow continued without limit.就這樣,他被帶入了一種倒生活儉樸,成立於原產地的所有東西不再是一個有形的精液原則,但一種精神神,完善它,前方的事,從誰,一切都源自一個過程的流出,並繼續下行無極限。 Proclus, Porphyry, Jamblicus, and Plotinus adopted this emanationist Pantheism, which formed the basis of their neo-Platonism. proclus ,斑岩型, jamblicus ,普羅提諾通過這emanationist泛神論,形成按他們的新柏拉圖主義。 From Egypt the Alexandrian ideas spread over the West through two channels.來自埃及的亞歷山大理念傳播西方通過兩個渠道。 First, in the fourth century, they entered Spain with a certain Mark, who had lived at Memphis; in Spain they developed by amalgamating with Manichæism under the influence of Priscillian, and after the German conquest of Spain they passed into Gaul.首先,在四世紀時,他們進入西班牙與某商標,誰曾住在孟菲斯,在西班牙他們研製的由合併與manichæism的影響下普里西利安,並在德國征服西班牙,他們通過成為高盧。 In the latter country, moreover, they were propagated by the Latin translations of Boethius.在後者的國家,而且,他們所宣揚的是由拉丁語翻譯論波愛修斯。 Later on, we find traces of them in Scotus Eriugena (ninth century), then in Abelard (twelfth century), Amaury of Bêne, and David of Dinant (twelfth and thirteenth centuries), and especially in the celebrated Meister Eckhart (fourteenth century).後來,我們找到痕跡,他們在scotus eriugena (第九世紀) ,然後在阿貝拉爾( 12世紀) , amaury的bêne ,和大衛的dinant (第十二和第十三世紀)以後,特別是在慶祝大師艾克哈( 14世紀) 。 Soon after this the Renaissance restores the ancient doctrines to honourable consideration, and the philosophy of immanence reappears in the commentaries of Pomponatius on Aristotle and those of Marsilio Ficino on Plotinus.此後不久,文藝復興運動,恢復古代的學說向各位考慮後,和哲學的內在再現,在評論pomponatius亞里士多德和那些他資助費奇諾對普羅提諾。 Giordano Bruno saw in God the monad of monads, who by an inward necessity produces a material creation which is inseparable from Himself.布魯諾認為,在上帝的Monad的Monad的,他們由一個內向的必要性產生了物質創造是分不開的,由本人。 Vanini made God immanent in the forces of nature, while, according to Jacob Böhme, God acquires reality only through the evolution of the world.瓦尼尼取得上帝上蒼,在自然的力量,同時,據雅各布böhme ,上帝收購的現實,只有通過世界局勢的演變。 By an unbroken tradition, then, the doctrine of immanence comes down to modern times.由一個綿延不絕的傳統,那麼,這個學說的內涵可以歸結為現代倍。 The Cartesian revolution seems even to favour its development.笛卡爾革命似乎更喜歡它的發展。 Exaggerating the distinction between soul and body, the former of which moves the latter by means of the pineal gland, the mechanical theories prepared the way for Malebranche's occasionalism: God alone acts; "there is but one true cause, because there is but one true God."誇大區分靈魂與身體,前,其中的動作,後者指的松果腺,力學理論準備了道路馬勒伯朗士的occasionalism :上帝單獨行為; " ,只能有一個真正的原因,是因為有一個真實上帝" 。 Spinoza, too, admits only one cause.斯賓諾莎,也承認只有一個原因。 A disciple of Descartes in the geometrical rigour of his deductive processes, but still more a disciple of the rabbis and of Giordano Bruno in the spirit of his system, he sets up his natura naturans unfolding its attributes by an immanent progression.弟子笛卡爾在幾何的嚴謹作風,他的演繹過程,但更是一場大弟子的猶太教士和布魯諾在精神,他的系統,他列出了他的Natura naturans展現它的屬性由一個內在的進展。 This is all but the revival of Alexandrian thought.這是所有的,但復興亞歷山大思想。

True Cartesianism, however, was not favourable to theories of this sort, for it is based on personal evidence, and it distinguishes sharply between the world and its transcendent cause.真正cartesianism ,不過,這也不利於理論這一類的,因為這是基於個人的證據,它區別於急劇世界之間及其超然的事業。 With its vivid realization of the importance and independence of the individual, it follows, rather, the Socratic tradition.其生動的實現的重要性和獨立的個體,它如下,相反,蘇格拉底傳統。 That insight, defined and purified by Christianity, had all along served as a barrier against the encroachment of the doctrine of absolute immanence.有識之士認為,界定和純化,基督教,卻一直充當屏障對侵占的學說絕對內在性。 It could not but derive fresh strength from the philosophy of Cogito, ergo sum, and it was indeed strengthened even to excess.它不能,但衍生的新鮮力量,從哲學,我思,號ETM總之,它確實是加強了,甚至過剩。 Jealous of its own immanence, which it had learned to know better than ever, the human mind overshot its first intention and turned the doctrine of absolute immanence to its own profit.嫉妒它自己的內在性,它已經學會了更好地了解比以往任何時候,人的心智超越了它的第一個意向,並轉中庸絕對內在性,以自己的利潤。 At first it sought only to solve the problem of knowledge, while keeping entirely clear of empiricism.起初,它只是試圖解決這個問題的知識,同時保持完全清楚的經驗主義。 In the Kantian epoch it still claimed for itself only a relative immanence, for it believed in the existence of a transcendent Creator and admitted the existence of noumena, unknowable, to be sure, but with which we maintain relations.在康德的時代,它仍然宣稱它只是一個相對的內在性,因為它相信存在著一個超越性的創造者,並承認存在的本體,不可知性,可以肯定的,但與我們保持關係。 Soon the temptation becomes stronger; having hitherto pretended to impose its own laws on knowable reality, thought now credits itself with the power of creating that reality.不久誘惑變得更強;過迄今佯稱要把它自己的法律,就可知的實際出發,思考現在學分自己的力量創造了這一現實。 For Fichte, in fact, the ego not only posits knowledge, it also posits the non-ego.為費希特,事實上,我不僅posits知識,它也posits非自我。 It is the pre-eminent form of the Absolute (Schelling).這是前著名的形式絕對(謝林) 。 No longer is it the Substance that, as natura naturans, produces the world by a process of derivation and degradation without limit; it is an obscure germ, which in its ceaseless becoming, rises to the point of becoming man, and at that point becomes conscious of itself.不再是它的實質內容,由於自然naturans ,生產世界上的過程,推導和退化無極限,它是一個晦澀的胚芽,在其不懈成為上升到如此地步,成為男子,在這一點上變得自覺管好自己。 The absolute becomes Hegel's "idea", Schopenhauer's "will", Hartmann's "unconscious", Renan's "time joined to the onward tendency" (le Temps joint à la tendance au progrès), Taine's "eternal axiom", Nietzsche's "superman", Bergson's "conscience".絕對成為黑格爾的"理念" ,叔本華的"意志" ,哈特曼的"無意識" , , Renan的"時間一起向前進"的傾向(樂氣溫聯合à香格里拉趨勢坳進步) , taine的"永恆公理" ,尼采的"超人" ,柏格森的"良知" 。 Under all the forms of evolutionistic monism, lies the doctrine of absolute immanence.根據所有形式的evolutionistic一元論,就在於該學說的絕對內在性。

Considering the religious tendencies of our age, it was inevitable that this doctrine should have its corresponding effect in theology.考慮到宗教的傾向,我們的時代,這是必然的這一學說也應該有相應的影響,在神學。 The monism which it preaches, setting aside the idea of separateness between God and the world, also removes entirely the distinction between the natural order and the supernatural.這個一元論,它宣揚了,撇開的想法是分開的神和世界之間,也完全消除了兩者之間的區別自然秩序與超自然。 It denies anything transcendent in the supernatural, which, according to this theory, is only a conception springing from an irresistible need of the soul, or "the ceaseless palpitation of the soul panting for the infinite" (Buisson).它否定了任何超越於超自然的,其中,根據這一理論,只是一個概念如雨後春筍,從一個不可阻擋的需要,靈魂,或"不懈心悸的靈魂喘氣為無窮" ( buisson ) 。 The supernatural is but the product of our interior evolution; it is of immanent origin, for "it is in the heart of mankind that the Divine resides".超自然的,不過是產品的,我們內部的演變,它是內在的原產地,因為"它是在心裡的人類神聖的居住地" 。 "I am a man, and nothing Divine is foreign to me" (Buisson). "我是一名男子,並沒有什麼神聖的,是國外對我" ( buisson ) 。 Such is the origin of religion in this view.這就是原產地的宗教在這方面的看法。 And herein we recognize the thesis of liberal Protestantism as well as that of the Modernists.並在此我們承認論文的自由新教以及是現代派。

(b) The actual content of the doctrine of Absolute Immanence (二)實際內容的中庸之道,絕對內在

As it is nowadays presented, the doctrine of absolute immanence is the resultant of the two great currents of contemporary thought.因為它是現今介紹,這個學說的絕對的內在性,是由此產生的對兩個偉大電流當代思想。 Kant, reducing everything to the individual consciousness, and declaring all metaphysical investigation to be illusory, locks the human soul in its own immanence and condemns it thenceforth to agnosticism in regard to transcendent realities.康德,減少一切向個體意識,並宣布所有形而上的調查,是一種假象,鎖人的心靈,在自己的內在性,並譴責它此後,以不可知論方面超越現實。 The Positivist movement reaches the same terminus.實證主義運動達到相同的終點站。 Through mistrust of that reason which Kant had exalted to such a degree, Comte rejects as worthless every conclusion that goes beyond the range of experience.通過不信任的原因,其中康德曾開天闢地到這種程度,伯爵拒絕,因為不值錢,每一個結論,即超越了各種經驗。 Thus the two systems, setting out from opposite exaggerations, arrive at one and the same theory of the unknowable: nothing is left us now but to fall back upon ourselves and contemplate the phenomena which emerge from the depths of our own ego.因此,這兩種制度,制定了從對面誇張,到達同一個理論的不可知性:沒有什麼,給我們留下了,現在如此,依傍自己和沉思的現象出現,從我們深處的自己的自我。 We have no other means of information, and it is from this inner source that all knowledge, all faith, and all rules of conduct flow out by the immanent evolution of our life, or rather of the Divine which thus manifests itself through us.我們沒有任何其他信息的手段,它是由這個心靈的來源,所有的知識,所有信仰,以及所有的行為規則流所固有的演變,我們的生命,或者更確切地說,對神聖的,因而表現我們。 This initial position determines the solutions which the doctrine of immanence furnishes for the problems concerning God and Man.這個初始位置決定設法解決這些問題的理論內涵提供了有關問題涉及人與上帝。

(i) God (一)神

The problems of the Divine life and action are among the foremost to interest the partisans of absolute immanence.問題的神聖生命和行動是其中首要的,以興趣黨派的絕對內在性。 They talk incessantly of Trinity, Incarnation, and Redemption, but only, as they claim, to do away with the mysteries and to see in these theological terms merely the symbols that express the evolution of the first principle.他們不停地交談三位一體,化身,以及贖回,但只是作為他們宣稱,要取消的奧秘,並看看在這些神學而言,只是符號表達的演變,第一個原則。 Philo's Trinity, like that of neo-Platonism, was an attempt to describe this evolution, and the moderns have only resuscitated the Alexandrian allegory.斐洛的三位一體一樣,是新柏拉圖主義,是企圖來形容這個過程,對現代人只恢復了亞歷山大的比喻。 The great being, the great fetish, and the great medium (Comte), the evolving idea, the evolved idea, and their relation (Hegel), unity, variety and their relation (Cousin) -- all these, in the thought of their originators, are but so many revivals of the Oriental myths.偉大的,偉大的戀物癖,偉大的中等(伯爵) ,演變中的概念,演變的概念,及其關係(黑格爾) ,統一品種及其關係(堂弟) -所有這些,想到自己的原創,但有這麼多復甦的東方神話。 But conscience now demands the abolition of all such symbols.但良心,現在要求取消所有此類符號。 "The religious soul is in fact forever interpreting and transforming the traditional dogmas" (Sabatier), because the progress of the absolute reveals to us new meanings as it makes us more fully conscious of the Divinity that is immanent in us. "宗教的靈魂,其實是永遠詮釋和改造傳統教條" ( sabatier ) ,因為進度絕對揭示給我們帶來了新的含義,因為它使我們更充分地認識到神的是內在美。 Through this progress the incarnation of God in humanity goes on without ceasing, and the Christian mystery (they make the blasphemous assertion) has no other meaning.通過這一進展的化身,上帝在人類下去,沒有停止的,與基督教之謎(它們使褻瀆斷言) ,沒有別的意思。 There can be no further question of a redemption; nor could there have been an original fall, since in this view, disobedient Adam would have been God Himself.不可能有任何進一步的問題是贖回,也可以有一個原來秋天,因為按照這種觀點,不聽話,亞當已天主自己。 At most the pessimists admit that the Supreme will, or the unconscious, which blundered into the production of the world, will recognize its blunder as it rises to consciousness in individuals, and will repair that blunder by annihilating the universe.在最悲觀論承認最高意志,或昏迷,其中失誤到生產的世界上,將承認其失誤,因為它上升到意識的個人,並會彌補這項失誤所消滅宇宙。 In that hour of cosmic suicide, according to Hartmann, the Great Crucified will have come down from his cross.在這一小時的宇宙自殺,據哈特曼,大釘在十字架上會有所下調,從他的十字架。 Thus is Christian terminology incessantly subjected to new interpretations.因此,是基督教用語,並不斷受到新的詮釋。 "We still speak of the Trinity . . ., of the Divinity of Christ, but with a meaning more or less different from that of our forefathers". "我們還是講三位一體… … 。 ,基督的神,但其意義更多或更少有別於我們的祖先" 。 Buisson, in his "La Religion, la Morale et la Science", thus explains the influence of the doctrine of immanence upon the interpretation of dogmas in liberal Protestantism. buisson ,在他的"香格里拉宗教,香格里拉士氣等香格里拉科學" ,從而解釋的影響,中庸內在經解釋經文,在自由新教。

(ii) The World, Life, and the Soul (二)世界觀,人生觀,和靈魂

To explain the origin of the world, the evolution of the Divine principle is put forward.解釋世界起源,演化的神聖原則,提出了。 This hypothesis would also account for the organization of the cosmos.這一假說也佔了該組織的宇宙。 Hence the universal order is considered as the outcome of the action of blind energies, and no longer as the realization of a plan conceived and executed by a providence.因此,世界秩序被視為成果的行動,盲目的精力,而不再是為了實現一個沒有計劃的構思和執行,由普羅維登斯。 From the physico-chemical forces life issues; the absolute slumbers in the plant, begins to dream in the animal, and at last awakens to full consciousness in man.從理化部隊生活問題;絕對slumbers在植物,就開始夢想,在動物,而且最後警醒,以充分意識的人。 Between the stages of this progress there is no breach of continuity; it is one and the same principle which clothes itself in more and more perfect forms, yet never withdraws from any of them.之間的階段,各方面的進展有沒有違反延續性,它是同一個原則,即衣服本身在更多和更完善的形式,但從來沒有退出他們任何人。 Evolutionism and transformism, therefore, are but parts of that vast system of absolute immanence in which all beings enfold one another, and none is distinct from the universal substance.進化論與transformism ,因此,不過是部分的龐大系統的絕對內在性,使每個人enfold ,又沒有一個有別於普遍物質。 Consequently, there is no longer any abyss between matter and the human soul; the alleged spirituality of the soul is a fable, its personality an illusion, its individual immortality an error.因此,不再存在任何的深淵之間的事和人的靈魂;所稱靈性的靈魂,是一則寓言,其個性是一種幻想,其個別不死的一個錯誤。

(iii) Dogma and Moral (三)教條與道德

When the Absolute reaches its highest form in the human soul, it acquires self-consciousness.當絕對達到其最高表現形式,在人的靈魂,是它收購了自我意識。 This means that the soul discovers the action of the Divine principle, which is immanent in it as constituting its essential nature.這意味著靈魂,發現行動的神聖原則,這是上蒼在它視為它的本質。 But the perception of this relation with the Divine -- or, rather, of this "withinness" of the Divine -- is what we are to call Revelation itself (Loisy).但觀感這種關係與神-或者說,而這個" w ithinness"的神聖-就是我們正在呼籲啟示本身(盧瓦西)。 At first confused, perceptible only as a vague religious feeling, it develops by means of religious experience (James), it becomes clearer through reflexion, and asserts itself in the conceptions of the religious consciousness.在第一次混亂的,感覺到的只有一個模糊的宗教感情,它的發展方式的宗教體驗(詹姆斯) ,它變得更清晰,通過反思,並堅稱自己在觀念的宗教意識。 These conceptions formulate dogmas -- "admirable creations of human thought" (Buisson) -- or rather of the Divine principle immanent in human thought.這些觀念制定的教條-"令人欽佩的創作人的思想" ( b uisson) -或者更確切地說,對神的內在原則,在人的思維。 But the expression of dogmas is always inadequate, for it marks but one moment in the religious development; it is a vesture which the progress of Christian faith and especially of Christian life will soon cast off.但其表達的教條,是永遠不夠,因為它標誌著而是一個時刻,在宗教的發展,它是一種者或其中的進度基督教信仰,尤其是基督信徒生活將很快擺脫了。 In a word all religion wells up from the depths of the sub-conscious (Myers, Prince) by vital immanence; hence the "religious immanence" and the more or less agnostic "symbolism" with which the Encyclical "Pascendi gregis" reproaches the Modernists.總的來說,所有宗教井從深處小組意識到(邁爾斯,王子)的重要內涵,因此, "宗教內涵"和較多或較少限制的"象徵" ,其中通諭" pascendi收聽廣播節目和收看"責備現代派。

The human soul, creator of dogmas, is also the creator of moral precepts, and that by an absolutely autonomous act.人的靈魂,是造物主的教條,也是創作者的道德戒律,即由一個完全自主的行為。 Its will is the living and sovereign law, for in it is definitively expressed the will of the God immanent in us.它的意志,是生活和主權的法律,在它確切地表達了意願,神的內在美。 The Divine flame, which warms the atmosphere of our life, will enevitably cause those hidden germs of morality to develop which the absolute has implanted.神聖的火焰,這寬慰的氣氛中,我們的生命,將enevitably事業那些隱藏病菌道德的發展,這絕對有植入。 Hence, there can be no longer any question of effort, of virtue, or of responsibility; these words have lost their meaning, since there is neither original sin nor actual and freely willed transgression.因此,可以不再有任何問題的努力,以德治國,或承擔責任;這些字眼已失去其意義,因為既不存在原罪,也沒有實際性和自由意志不侵。 There is no longer any blameworthy concupiscence; all our instincts are impregnated with Divinity, all our desires are just, good, and holy.因此,不再有任何責備concupiscence ;我們所有的本能,是浸漬與神,我們所有的慾望卻是剛剛好,和神聖的。 To follow the impulse of passion, to rehabilitate the flesh (Saint-Simon, Leroux, Fourrier), which is one form under which the Divinity manifests itself (Heine), this is duty.跟隨衝動的激情,給他們改過自新的廬山真面目(聖-西蒙, leroux , fourrier ) ,這是一種形式,根據該神艙單本身(海涅) ,這是責任。 In this way, indeed, we cooperate in the redemption which is being accomplished day by day, and which will be consummated when the absolute shall have completed its incarnation in humanity.這樣,事實上,我們合作,在贖回權,現正完成了,一天一天地,將委託開發時,絕對會已經完成了它的化身,在人類的。 The part which moral science has to play consists in discovering the laws which govern this evolution, so that man in his conduct may conform to them (Berthelot) and thus ensure the collective happiness of humanity; social utility is to be hence-forward the principle of all morality; solidarity (Bourgeois), which procures it, is the most scientific form of immanent morality, and of this man is, in the universe, the beginning and the end.這個部分,就是道德科學,以發揮綜合在發現法律管轄這一演變,因此,該名男子在他的行為可能符合他們( berthelot ) ,從而確保集體幸福,為人類社會公用事業是要因此向前原則一切道德;團結(資產階級) ,其中勾引它,是迄今為止最科學的形式,內在的道德風尚,這名男子是,在宇宙中,開始和結束。

(2) Relative Immanence ( 2 )相對內在

(a) Its Historical Evolution (一) ,它的歷史演變

Since the day when Socrates, abandoning the useless cosmogonic hypotheses of his predecessors, brought philosophy back to the study of the human soul, whose limits and whose independence he defined -- since that time the doctrine of relative immanence has held its ground in conflict with the doctrine of absolute immanence.那一天起,當蘇格拉底,放棄無用cosmogonic假說他的前任所帶來的哲學回到研究人的靈魂,是其限制,其獨立性,他的定義-自那時起,該學說的相對內在舉行了地面相衝突該學說的絕對內在性。 Relative immanence recognizes the existence of a transcendant God, but it also recognizes, and with remarkable precision, the immanence of Psychical life.相對內在確認存在一個超然上帝,但它也承認,並以出色的精度,內在的心理生活。 It is upon the evidence of this fact, indeed, that the admirable pedagogical method, known as maieutic, is founded.這是出示的證據這個事實,的確,這令人欽佩的教學方法,被稱為maieutic ,是創立。 Socrates thoroughly understood that knowledge does not enter our minds ready made from without; that it is a vital function, and therefore immanent.蘇格拉底深切認識到知識沒有進入到我們的頭腦和現成的,從沒有;這是一個很重要的功能,因此上蒼。 He understood that a cognition is not really ours until we have accepted it, lived it, and in some sort made it over for ourselves.據他了解,認知,是不是真的我們,直到我們都接受了,住了,並且在某種使得超過自己。 This certainly attributes to the life of thought a real immanence, not, however, an absolute immanence; for the soul of the disciple remains open to the master's influence.當然,這歸因於生活的思想真正內涵,但是,不能絕對的內在性;靈魂的弟子仍然開放,以大師的影響力。

Again we find this conception of relative immanence in Plato.再次,我們覺得這個概念的相對內在,在柏拉圖。 He transports it, in a rather confused manner, into the cosmological order.他運輸機,它在一個相當困惑的方式,進入宇宙秩序。 He thinks, in fact, that, if there are things great and good and beautiful, they are such through a certain participation in the ideas of greatness, goodness, and beauty.他認為,其實,說,如果有一些事情偉大而善,美,他們是這種通過一定的參與,在思想的偉大,善良,美麗。 But this participation does not result from an emanation, an outflowing from the Divinity into finite beings; it is only a reflection of the ideas, a resemblance, which the reasonable being is in duty bound to perfect, as far as possible, by his own energy.但是,這種參與不會導致從一個洩漏,排放,從神變成有限;它僅僅是一個思考的想法,一個極為相似,而合理的,是在責無旁貸完美的,盡量由自己能源。 With Aristotle this notion of an immanent energy in individuals acquires a new definiteness.與亞里士多德這一概念的一個內在的能量,在個人獲得一種新的定性。 The very exaggeration with which he refuses to admit in God any efficient causality, as something unworthy of His beatitude, leads him to place at the heart of finite being the principle of the action which it puts forth with a view to that which is supremely lovable and desirable.非常誇張,使他不肯承認,在上帝的任何有效的因果關係,作為辜負他的beatitude ,導致他在心臟的有限作為原則的行動,其中提出,以期說,這是重千鈞可愛和可取的。 Now, according to him, these principles are individualized; their development is limited; their orientation determined to a definite aim; and they act upon one another.現在,據他說,這些原則是個性化,其發展是有限的,它們的定位確定一個明確的目標,以及他們的行為一經對方。 It is, therefore, a doctrine of relative immanence which he maintains.因此,這是一種理論的相對內在,他保持著。 After him the Stoics, reviving the physics of Heraclitus, came back to a system of absolute immanence with their theory of germinal capacities.之後,他stoics ,振興物理學的赫拉克利特,回來後,以制度的絕對內在性與理論的生髮能力。 The Alexandrian Fathers borrowed this term from them, taking out of it, however, its pantheistic sense, when they set themselves to search in the writings of the pagans for "the sparks of the light of the Word" (St. Justin), and, in human souls, for the innate capacities which render the knowledge of God so easy and so natural.在亞歷山大的父親借來這個詞從他們的,同時考慮了它,但其pantheistic意義上說,當他們成立自己在搜索的著作是異教徒"火花參照字" (聖的Justin ) ,並在人類靈魂,為先天能力,以致未能認識上帝那麼容易,所以很自然的。 St. Augustine, in his turn defines these capacities as "the active and passive potentialities from which flow all the natural effects of beings", and this theory he employs to demonstrate the real, but relative, immanence of our intellectual and moral life.聖奧古斯丁,在輪到他界定這些能力,為"主動與被動的潛力,從其中流所有自然的影響"的,並在這一理論,他僱用了,以展示真實的,但相對的,內在的,我們的知識和道德的生活。 Our natural desire to know and our spontaneous sympathies do not germinate in us unless their seeds are in our soul.我們自然渴望知道和我們自發的同情,不發芽,在我們的,除非他們的種子,在我們的靈魂。 These are the first principles of reason, the universal precepts of the moral consciousness.這是第一原則,因此,普遍戒律的道德意識。 St. Thomas calls them "habitus principiorum", "seminalia virtutum" "dispositiones naturales", "inchoationes naturales".聖托馬斯稱他們為"體質principiorum " , " seminalia virtutum " , " dispositiones自然資源" , " inchoationes自然資源" 。 He sees in them the beginnings of all our physiological, intellectual, and moral progress, and, following the course of their development, he carries to the highest degree of precision the concept of relative immanence.他認為,在他們開始我們所有的生理,智力和道德進步,並在之後的過程中他們的發展,他實行以最高程度的精確的概念,相對的內涵。 The Thomist tradition -- continuing after him the struggle against empiricism and positivism on the one side and, on the other, against rationalism carried to the extreme of monism -- has always defended the same position.該thomist傳統-繼續他的鬥爭經驗主義和實證主義問題的一個方面,另一方面,對理性主義進行了極端的一元論-始終捍衛了同樣的立場。 It recognizes the fact of immanence, but rejects every exaggeration on either side.它承認事實的內在性,但拒絕一切浮誇對雙方均不利。

(b) Actual Content of the Doctrine of Relative Immanence (二)實際內容的學說相對內在

This doctrine rests upon that innermost experience which reveals to man his individuality, that is to say his inward unity, his distinctness from his environment, and which makes him conscious of his personality, that is to say, of his essential independence with respect to the beings with which he is in relation.這種學說的休息後,即內心體驗,從而揭示了人類自己的個性,那就是說他的外來團結,他的區別,從他的環境,這使他意識到他的個性,這就是說,他的必不可少的獨立性與敬意,向而與他有關係。 It, moreover, avoids all imputation of monism, and the manner in which it conceives of immanence harmonizes excellently with Catholic teaching.它,而且能夠避免所有歸責的一元論,並以何種方式重新構思的內在協調好與天主教教學。 "An ejusmodi immanentia Deum ab homine distinguat, necne? Si distinguit, quid tum a catholica doctrina differt?" " ejusmodi immanentia deum抗體homine distinguat , necne ?矽distinguit ,塊腫瘤一catholica doctrina differt " ? (Encycl. "Pascendi"). ( encycl. " pascendi " ) 。

(i) God (一)神

God, then, transcends the world which He has created, and in which He manifests His power.上帝的話,那麼,是超越世界,這不僅創造了,和他在其中,體現了他的權力。 We know His works; through them we can demonstrate His existence and find out many of His attributes.我們知道他的作品,透過他們,我們能證明自己的存在,並找到了他的許多屬性。 But the mysteries of His inner life escape us; Trinity, Incarnation, Redemption are known to us only by revelation, to which revelation the immanence of our rational and moral life presents no obstacle whatever.但奧秘他的黨內生活中逃生;三位一體,化身,贖回是眾所周知的,我們只有通過啟示,而啟示的內在理性和道德生活並不妨礙什麼。

(ii) The World, Life, and the Soul (二)世界觀,人生觀,和靈魂

The organization of the world is governed by Divine Providence, whose ordering action can be conceived in diverse ways, whether we suppose successive interventions for the formation of various beings, or whether, following St. Augustine, we prefer to maintain that God created all things at the same time -- "Deus simul omnia creavit" (De Genesi ad lit.).該組織的世界是由神的眷顧,他們的訂購行動,可被設想多種手段,無論我們假設連續干預形成的各種人,還是之後,聖奧古斯丁的,我們寧願保持上帝創造了一切事物在同一時間內-" d eus模擬O MNIA公司c reavit" (德g enesi專案亮著) 。 In the latter case we should invoke the hypothesis of germinal capacities, according to which hypothesis God must have deposited in nature energies of a determinate sort -- "Mundus gravidus est causis nascentium" (ibid.) -- the evolution of which at favourable junctures of time would organize the universe.在後一種情況下,我們應該引用假說的生髮能力,根據這種假說上帝必須存放在性質上的精力確定排序-" M undus的g ravidus預測c ausisn ascentium" (同上) -的演變,其中以優惠的關頭時間,將舉辦宇宙。 This organization would be due to an immanent development, indeed, but one proceeding under external influences.這個組織將因為一種內在的發展,確實的,但其中一個程序中,根據外部影響。 Thus did plants, animals, and men appear in succession, though there could be no question of attributing to them a common nature; on the contrary, the doctrine of relative immanence draws a sharp line of demarcation between the various substances, and particularly between matter and soul; it is extremely careful to maintain the independence of the human person.因此,沒有植物,動物,和男人出現在繼承的,雖然不可能有任何的問題,歸結到他們有一個共同的性質;反過來說,這個學說的相對內在,描繪了尖銳的分界線之間的各種物質,特別是物質與精神和靈魂,這是極為小心,要保持獨立的人。 Not only does this doctrine, joining issue with sensualism, demonstrate that the mind is a living energy, which, far from letting itself be absorbed by influences from without, forms its necessary and universal principles by its own action under the pressure of experience -- not only this, but it also safeguards the autonomy of human reason against that encroachment of the Divine which the ontologists maintained.這不但學說,加入問題與感覺,證明心中是一個有生命的能量,這非但沒有讓自己吸收的影響力,如果沒有,形式,其必要的普遍原則,由它自己的行動的壓力下,經驗-不僅如此,但它也有保障的自主權,人類理性反對侵略的神聖其中ontologists保持下去。

(iii) Dogma and Moral (三)教條與道德

The human soul, then, enjoys an immanence and an autonomy which are relative indeed but real, and which Divine Revelation itself respects.人的靈魂,那麼,具有內在性和自主性,這是相對的,但確實是真實的,而神的啟示本身的敬意。 Supernatural truth is, in fact, offered to an intelligence in full possession of its resources, and the reasonable assent which we give to revealed dogmas is by no means "a bondage" or "a limitation of the rights of thought".超自然的真理,實際上就是提供了一個情報完全擁有其資源,並且合理的贊同,我們會以揭示教條是,絕不是什麼"束縛"或"限制權利的思想" 。 To oppose Revelation with "a preliminary and comprehensive demurrer" ("une fin de non-recevoir préliminaire et globale" -- Le Roy) in the name of the principle of immanence, is to misinterpret that principle, which, rightly understood, involves no such exigencies (see below, "The Method of Immanence").反對與啟示"的初步結果,並全面抗辯" (下稱" une鰭德非recevoir préliminaire等全球" -樂羅伊)的名字,這一原則的內涵,是誤解了這一原則,其中,正確地理解,不涉及這種嚴格要求(見下文, "這個方法的內在性" ) 。 Nor does the fact of relative immanence stand in the way of progress in the understanding of dogmas "in eodem sensu eademque sententia" (Conc. Vatic., sess. III).也沒有事實的相對內在站在路的進展情況,在了解經文" ,在eodem意義eademque想法" ( conc. vatic , sess第三節) 。 The human soul, then, receives the Divine verities as the disciple receives his master's teaching; it does not create those verities.人的靈魂,那麼,接受神的verities作為弟子得到他的主人對他的教誨,它不是創造者verities 。 Neither does it create principles of moral conduct.也沒有創造原則的道德行為。 The natural law is certainly not foreign to it, being graven upon the very foundation of man's constitution.自然法則是一定不會陌生,它作為graven後非常基礎,以人的憲法。 It lives in the heart of man.它生活在心髒病的男子。 This law is immanent to the human person, which consequently enjoys a certain autonomy.這部法律是上蒼給人類的人,因此享有一定的自主權。 No doubt it recognizes its relation to a transcendent legislator, but none the less true is it that no prescription coming from another authority would be accepted by the conscience if it was in opposition to the primordial law, the requirements of which are only extended and clearly defined by positive laws.毫無疑問,它認識到它關係到一個超越立委,但沒有一個較低的事實是,它沒有任何處方來自另一個權力機構將接受良心的,如果有人反對,以原始的法律,規定,其中只有延長,並明確界定明確的法律。 In this sense the human will preserves its autonomy when, in obeying a Divine law, it acts with a fundamentally inviolable liberty.在這個意義上的人類將保留其自主性時,在服從一項神聖的法律,它的行為與一個從根本上都是不可侵犯的自由。 This liberty, however, may be aided by natural and supernatural helps.這個自由,但是,可以借助自然和超自然的幫助。 Conscious of its weakness, it seeks and obtains the assistance of grace, but grace does not absorb nature; it only adds to nature, and in no way infringes upon our essential immanence.意識到自己的弱點,它的目的和獲得援助的寬限期,但寬限期,不吸收性質,它只會加劇性質,而絕不能損害我們的基本內涵。

B. Employment of the Method of Immanence B.就業的方法,內在

The notion of immanence occupies so large a place in contemporary philosophy that many make an axiom of it.概念的內涵中佔有如此大的一個地方,在當代哲學的許多作公理的。 It is held to be a directing principle of thought and Le Roy makes bold to write that "to have acquired a clear consciousness of the principle of immanence is the essential result of modern philosophy" (Dogme et Critique, 9).它認為是一指導方針的思路和樂羅伊使得大膽地寫上"已獲得一個明確的意識的原則,內在性是必要的結果,近代哲學" ( dogme等批判, 9 ) 。 Now it is in the name of this principle that "a preliminary and comprehensive demurrer" (ibid.) is presented in bar of all Revelation, for in the light of it "a dogma has the appearance of a subjection to bondage, a limitation of the rights of thought, a menace of intellectual tyranny" (ibid.).現在是在名稱的這一原則說: "一個初步結果,並全面抗辯" (同上) ,是在酒吧的所有啟示,在考慮到這是"一個教條已出現一個遭受枷鎖,限制權利的思想,一種威脅的智力暴政" (同上) 。 And this creates a religious situation with which apologetics is deeply concerned, and with good reason.這創造了一個宗教情況與護教學是深切關注,並有很好的原因。 All the efforts of this science will be vain, all its arguments inconclusive, if it cannot, first of all, compel minds imbued with the prejudice of absolute immanence to take under consideration the problem of the transcendent.所有的努力,而這個科學,將會白費,所有其論據有定論,如果不能,首先,迫使心中充滿偏見的絕對內在採取審議中的問題,超越。 Without this precaution, antinomy is inevitable: on the one hand, it is claimed, the mind cannot receive a heterogeneous truth; on the other, revealed religion proposes to us truths which go beyond the range of any finite intelligence.沒有這些預防措施,悖論是不可避免的:一方面,它聲稱,考慮到不能接受的異構真理;另一方面,揭示了宗教的建議,給我們的真理,它超越了範圍有限的任何情報。 To solve this difficulty we have recourse to the method of immanence.為了解決這個困難,我們已訴諸法內涵。 But this method has been understood in two different ways which lead to diametrically opposite results.但這一方法已被理解為兩種不同方式會導致截然相反的結果。

(1) Method Based on the Idea of Absolute Immanence ( 1 )法的思想基礎上的絕對內在

This is the positivist and subjectivist method.這是實證主義和主觀主義的方法。 It consists in accepting off-hand the postulate of an absolute immanence of the rational and moral life.具體做法是在接受過親身體驗到公設的一個絕對內在的理性和道德生活。 It is therefore obliged to lower revealed truth to the level of scientific truths which the mind attains solely by its own energy.因此,這是不得不降低透露真相,以水平的科學真理,其中記達到完全由自己的力量。 Thus, some, like Lechartier, have proposed to modify dogmatic formulæ and "dissolve the symbols" of them in order to harmonize both with the aspirations of the soul which thinks them.因此,一些像勒沙爾捷,已建議修改教條化formulæ和"解散符號" ,他們為了協調雙方有願望的靈魂,該機構認為,他們的。 By this means "the higher realities, which religious myths have for so many centuries striven to express, will be found identical with those which positive science has just established".這意味著"更高的現實情況,其中宗教神話有這麼多個世紀以來,力求快,會被發現,與那些實證科學剛剛成立的" 。 Revealed truth will then appear as coming from us; it will present itself as the reflexion of our soul, which changes its formulæ according as it can or cannot find itself in them.揭示真相就會出現為來自美,它會自己看成是反思我們的靈魂,改變了其formulæ根據,因為它可以或不可以發現自己置身於他們。 In this way there will no longer be any antinomy, since human reason will be the principle of dogmas.這樣,將不再會有任何反的,因為人類理性,將原則的教條。 Others following Loisy, hope to find in themselves, through a psychological analysis, the expression of revelation.另以下盧瓦西,希望找出對自己的,通過心理分析,該表達的啟示。 This would be the outcome of an immanent progress, "the consciousness which man has acquired of his relations with God".這將是成果的一個內在的進展, "意識,這名男子已經收購了他的關係,以神之名" 。 Revelation is realized in man, but it is "the work of God in him, with him, and by him".啟示是實現人,但它是"上帝做事,在他的,與他和他" 。 Thus the difficulty arising out of the opposition between the natural order and the supernatural would disappear -- but at the price of a return to the doctrine of absolute immanence.因此難以引起的對立,自然秩序與超自然就會消失-但要付出的回報,以中庸的絕對內在性。 It seems, too, that Laberthonnière, though in spite of his principles, ends by accepting this very same doctrine which he had undertaken to combat, when he writes that "since our action is at once ours and God's, we must find in it the supernatural element which enters into its constitution".看來,相信laberthonnière ,但儘管如此,他的原則,截止接受也是這家學說,他曾承諾打擊時,他寫道: "由於我們的行動,是一次我們和上帝的,我們必須找到在該段超自然元素進入其憲法" 。 According to this view, psychological analysis will discover the Divine element immanent in our action, the inward God "more present to us than we ourselves".根據這種觀點,心理分析就會發現這神聖的內在因素在我們的行動中,外來神" ,更向我們比我們自己" 。 Now this "living God of conscience" can be discerned only through an intuition which we get by a sort of moral and dynamic ontologism.現在,這個"活著的上帝的良心" ,可以分辨,只有通過一種直覺,我們得到的是一種道德和動態ontologism 。 But how will this presence of the Divine manifest itself in us?但如何將這種存在的神的顯現在我們嗎? By the true and imperative demand of our nature which calls for the supernatural.由真實而迫切的需求,我們的天性,這就要求超自然。 -- Such is the abuse of the method of immanence which the Encyclical "Pascendi gregis" points out and deplores: "And here again we have reason for grievous complaint, because among Catholics there are to be found men who, while repudiating the doctrine of immanence as a doctrine, make use of it nevertheless for apologetic purposes, and do this so recklessly that they seem to admit in human nature a genuine exigency properly so called in regard to the supernatural order." -這就是濫用該法的內涵,其中通諭" p ascendi收聽廣播節目和收看"的文章指出,和痛惜: "在這裡我們再一次有理由為他人投訴,因為天主教徒有被發現的男人,而批判主義內在性作為學說,利用它,但為表歉意目的,並做到這一點如此猖狂,他們似乎不得不承認,在人類本質上是一個真正的緊急情況,妥善所謂對於超自然的秩序" 。 With still tess reserve, those whom the Encyclical calls inteqralistœ boast of showing the unbeliever the supernatural germ which has been transmitted to humanity from the consciousness of Christ, and hidden in the heart of every man.與仍在苔絲儲備,這些人的通諭中呼籲inteqralistœ誇耀顯示異教徒超自然胚芽已轉發給人類擺脫意識基督,並隱藏在心臟的每一個男人。 This is the thought of Sabatier and of Buisson, theologians of the liberal Protestant school -- "I am a man, and nothing Divine is foreign to me" (Buisson).這是思想的sabatier和buisson ,神學家的自由新教學校-"我是一名男子,並沒有什麼神聖的,是國外對我" ( b uisson) 。

(2) Method Based on the Idea of Relative Immanence ( 2 )法的思想基礎上的相對內在

There is another application of the method of immanence much more reserved than the one just described since it keeps within the natural order and confines itself to stating a philosophic problem, viz.: Is man sufficient for himself?也有另一種方法的應用的內涵更為預留一個比剛才所描述的,因為它不斷與自然秩序,並僅限於說明的哲學問題,即:是男子足以為自己嗎? or is he aware of his insufficiency in such a way as to realize his need of some help from without?抑或是他知道他的不足,以這樣一種方式來實現他需要一些幫助,從沒有? Here we are not at all concerned -- as the Encyclical "Pascendi gregis" reproaches the Modernists -- "with inducing the unbeliever to make trial of the Catholic religion"; we are concerned only with;在這裡,我們不是在任何地方都能關注-視通諭" p ascendi收聽廣播節目和收看"責備現代派- "誘使他人異教徒,使審判的天主教宗教",我們只關心;

(1) compelling a man who analyzes his own being to break through the circle within which, supposedly, the doctrine of immanence confines him, and which makes him reject a priori, as out of the question, the whole argument of objective apologetics; and then ( 1 )強迫一個人,分析他自己正在衝破圓圈內,據說,這個學說的內在禁錮他,並使得他拒絕先驗,由於出了問題,整個論點的客觀護;然後

(2) with bringing him to recognize in his soul "a capacity and fitness for the supernatural order which Catholic apologists, using the proper reservations, have demonstrated" (Encycl. "Pascendi gregis"). ( 2 )把他承認在他的靈魂"的能力和健身為超自然秩序天主教辯護士,以妥善保留,已證明" ( encycl. " pascendi收聽廣播節目和收看" ) 。

In other words, this method has in itself nothing that calls for condemnation.或者換句話說,這種方法本身沒有什麼要求譴責。 It consists, says Maurice Blondel, its inventor, "in equating within our own consciousness, what we seem to think, to wish, and to do with what we really do, wish and think, in such a way that in the fictitious negations, or the ends artificially desired, those profound affirmations and irrepressible needs which they imply shall still be found" (Lettre sur les exigences).它說,莫里斯blondel ,它的發明人, "在等同於我們自己的意識中,我們似乎認為,祝愿,並與我們真的這樣做,希望和相信,在這樣一種方式,在虛構的否定,或完人為理想,這些深刻的誓詞及擋不住的需求,他們暗示仍發現" ( lettre sur就業輔導組exigences ) 。 This method endeavours to prove that man cannot shut himself up in himself, as in a little world which suffices unto itself.這種方法的努力,以證明人不能關閉了自己對自己,因為在一個小世界,這就夠了祂自己。 To prove this, it takes an inventory of our immanent resources; it brings to light, on the one hand, our irresistible aspirations towards the infinitely True, Good, and Beautiful, and, on the other hand, the insufficiency of our means to attain these ends.為了證實這一點,需清點我們的固有資源,它帶來了光明,對美國,一方面,我們的不可抗拒的願望實現無限真,善,美,和,但另一方面,功能不全我們的手段,來達到這些目的。 This comparison shows that our nature, left to itself, is not in a state of equilibrium; that, to achieve its destiny, it needs a help which is essentially beyond it -- a transcendent help.這比較表明,我們的性質,留給自己,是不是在一個平衡狀態,也就是說,為達到其命運的,它需要一種幫助本質上也就是超越了它-一個超然的幫助。 Thus, "a method of immanence developed in its integrity becomes exclusive of a doctrine of immanence".因此, "一種方法的內在發展,它的完整性,成為專屬的一個理論的內在" 。 In fact, the internal analysis which it prescribes brings the human soul to recognize itself as relative to a transcendent being, thereby setting before us the problem of God.事實上,在內部分析,其中明帶來了人的心靈認識到自己相對於一個超越,從而建立擺在我們面前的問題,上帝。 Nothing more is needed to make it evident that the "preliminary and comprehensive demurrer", which it sought to set up against Revelation in the name of the principle of immanence, is an unwarranted and arrogant exaggeration.沒有什麼更重要的是需要,使之自明說, "初步結果,並全面抗辯" ,它試圖建立對啟示的名字,這一原則的內涵,是一種無理蠻橫的誇張。 The psychologic examination of conscience which is just now being made, far from ruling out the traditional apologetic, rather appeals to it, opens the way for it, and demonstrates its necessity.心理學考試的良心,這是剛才正在取得進展,到目前為止,從排除傳統的歉意,而不是上訴,因此,開闢了道路,並顯示出其必要性。

To this preliminary clearing of the ground the method adds a subjective preparation which shall dispose the individual for the act of faith by exciting in him the desire to enter into relations with the transcendent God.這一初步結算的地面方法,增加了一個主觀的製備應處置個人為法的信念令人興奮,在他的慾望進入與超越神。 And the result of this preparation will be not only intellectual and theoretical, but also moral and practical.與結果的準備,將不僅是知識和理論,而且道德和實用性。 Arousing in him a more vivid consciousness of his weakness and his need of help, the method will impel a man to acts of humility which inspire prayer and attract grace.喚起他的一個更生動的意識,他的弱點和他的需要幫助的,該法將推動一個人的行為,謙卑而激發祈禱,並吸引恩典。

Such is the twofold service which the method based on the idea of relative immanence can render.這是兩方面的服務,該方法的思想基礎上的相對內在的能力。 Within these limits, it is rigorous.這些限度內,它是嚴肅的。 But could it not go farther, and open to us a view of the nature of this transcendent being whose existence it compels us to recognize?但它並沒有走得更遠,並開放給我們的性質來看,這種超越性被其存在,它迫使我們必須承認嗎? Might it not, for example, bring the unbeliever to hear and heed "the appeal of preventive or sanctifying grace" which would then express itself in psychologic facts discernible by observation and philosophical analysis (Cardinal Dechamps)?也許它沒有,舉例來說,把異教徒聽取和重視"的呼籲,預防或sanctifying恩典" ,然後表示自己在心理事實可辨,由觀察和哲學分析(紅衣主教德尚) ? Would it not enable us to experience God, or at least "to find in our action the supernatural element which is said to enter into His Constitution" (Père Laberthonnière)?會不會使我們體驗到上帝的,或者至少是" ,以了解在我們的行動中超自然的元素,是說,進入他的憲法" ( père laberthonnière ) ? Would it not, finally, justify us in affirming with certainty that the object of our "irrepressible aspirations" is a "supernatural Unnamed" (Blondel), an object which is "beyond and above the natural order" (Ligeard)?會不會,最後,證明我們在肯定肯定,違背了我們的"擋不住的期望" ,是一種"超自然無名" ( blondel ) ,一個對象就是"超越和凌駕於自然秩序" (利雅爾) ?

At this point the method of immanence stirs the delicate problem of the relation between nature and the supernatural; but it is doubtful whether the method can solve this problem by its immanent analysis.在這一點上的方法,激發內在微妙的問題,關係自然和超自然的,但它是有疑問的方法可以解決這個問題,其內在的分析。 All the attempts referred to above when they lead to anything, seem to do so only at the price of confounding the notion of the transcendent with that of the preternatural, or even of the supernatural -- or, again, at the price of confounding the Divine co-operation and Divine grace.所有嘗試上面提到的時候,他們會導致什麼,似乎這樣做不僅在價格混淆的概念超越同表示,在該preternatural ,甚至超自然-或者,同樣,在價格混淆了神州合作與神的恩典。 In a word, if the psychologic analysis of the tendencies of human nature ends in "showing, without recourse to what Revelation gives us, that man desires infinitely more than the natural order can give him" (Ligeard), it does not follow that we can say with any certainty that this "desired increase" is a supernatural Unnamed.總的來說,如果心理分析傾向的人的本性完"顯示,無追索權,以什麼啟示給我們,那人的慾望無窮,比自然秩序可以給他" (利雅爾) ,它並不代表我們可以肯定地說,任何確定性,這個"理想的提高" ,是一種超自然的無名。 As a matter of fact,作為一個問題,事實上,

(1) the natural order far exceeds in vastness the object of my analysis; ( 1 )自然秩序,遠遠超過在浩瀚的目的,我的分析;

(2) between my nature and the supernatural there is the preternatural; ( 2 )與我的自然和超自然的存在是preternatural ;

(3) the aids to which my nature aspires, and which God gives me, are not necessarily of the supernatural order. ( 3 )艾滋病而我的性渴望,而上帝給了我的,不一定是對超自然秩序。

Besides, even if a supernatural action does in fact manifest itself under these religious aspirations, immanent analysis, apprehending only psychological phenomena, cannot detect it.再者,即使有神靈行動,並在事實上顯現下,這些宗教訴求,內在分析,逮捕只是心理現象,無法檢測到它。 But the question is still under consideration; it is not for us to solve the mystery of the transcendent in a definitive manner and from the point of view of the method of immanence.但問題是仍在考慮中,它是不會為我們解決了神秘的超越性,在一個明確的態度,並從該角度來看,該方法的內在性。

Publication information Written by E. Thamiry.出版信息撰稿體育thamiry 。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯j.波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.奉獻給聖心耶穌基督天主教百科全書,體積七。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. nihil obstat , 1910年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


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Also, an entirely different concept is:同時,一個完全不同的概念是:
Imminence 急迫性

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