General Information 一般資料

Jehovah is another name given to God or YAHWEH .耶和華是另一個名字交給上帝或雅威

Many religious scholars believe that the word Jehovah was originally created in ancient times from a combining of YHWH (the original name for God) and the vowels from Adonai (a variant form of ancient reference to God as "the Father").許多宗教學者認為,從這個詞耶和華原本創造了在遠古時代,從結合的yhwh (原來的名稱為上帝) ,以及元音從adonai (一變異形式的古代參考,以神為"父" ) 。 This "Yahowahi" would apparently be pronounced like the modern name Jehovah.這個" yahowahi "顯然會被宣判一樣,現代的名字耶和華。 Please see our entry on the Names of God .請參閱我們對入境的名字神

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目

Jeho'vah jeho'vah

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Jehovah is the special and significant name (not merely an appellative title such as Lord) by which God revealed himself to the ancient Hebrews (Ex. 6:2, 3).耶和華是特別重大的名稱(不僅是一個稱謂的名稱,如上帝) ,其中神啟示自己古代希伯來人(如中以3 ) 。 This name, the Tetragrammaton of the Greeks, was held by the later Jews to be so sacred that it was never pronounced except by the high priest on the great Day of Atonement, when he entered into the most holy place.這個名字,耶和華的希臘人,是由後來的猶太人被如此神聖的,這是從來沒有宣判,除由高級神職人員於偉大的贖罪日,當他進入了最神聖的地方。 Whenever this name occurred in the sacred books they pronounced it, as they still do, "Adonai" (ie, Lord), thus using another word in its stead.每當這個名字出現在神聖的書籍,他們突出的,因為他們仍然這樣做, " adonai " (即上帝) ,因此用另一個詞,在其而起。 The Massorets gave to it the vowel-points appropriate to this word.該massorets了它的元音點適當這兩個字。 This Jewish practice was founded on a false interpretation of Lev.這個猶太人的做法是建立在一種虛假的詮釋列弗。 24:16. 24:16 。 The meaning of the word appears from Ex.一詞的含義似乎是由前。 3:14 to be "the unchanging, eternal, self-existent God," the "I am that I am," a convenant-keeping God. 3時14分,以"不變的,永恆的,自我存在的上帝" , "我是我"據我所知, convenant保存神。 (Comp. Mal. 3:6; Hos. 12: 5; Rev. 1:4, 8.) ( comp.仲裁法。 3時06分;居屋12 : 5人;牧師1:4 , 8 ) 。

The Hebrew name "Jehovah" is generally translated in the Authorized Version (and the Revised Version has not departed from this rule) by the word LORD printed in small capitals, to distinguish it from the rendering of the Hebrew Adonai and the Greek Kurios, which are also rendered Lord, but printed in the usual type. The Hebrew word is translated "Jehovah" only in Ex. 希伯萊名字"耶和華" ,一般翻譯在授權版(修訂版本,並沒有背離這條規則,由主字印在小資本,以區別於從繪製的希伯來語adonai和希臘kurios ,是也做成主,但印在正常類型。希伯萊詞譯為"耶和華"只存在於異地。 6:3; Ps.選手;聚苯乙烯。 83:18; Isa. 83:18 ;伊薩。 12:2; 26:4, and in the compound names mentioned below. 12:2 ; 26:4 ,而在化合物名稱下面提到。 It is worthy of notice that this name is never used in the LXX., the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Apocrypha, or in the New Testament.它是值得的公告說,這個名字是永遠不會用在lxx ,撒瑪利亞pentateuch , apocrypha ,還是在新約聖經。 It is found, however, on the "Moabite stone" (qv), and consequently it must have been in the days of Mesba so commonly pronounced by the Hebrews as to be familiar to their heathen neighbours.它是發現,但是,對"摩押石碑石" (請參閱) ,因此它必須已在天梅斯巴如此普遍而遽希伯來人,以熟悉他們的異教徒鄰居。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)

Jehovah (Yahweh)耶和華(雅威)

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

The proper name of God in the Old Testament; hence the Jews called it the name by excellence, the great name, the only name, the glorious and terrible name, the hidden and mysterious name, the name of the substance, the proper name, and most frequently shem hammephorash, ie the explicit or the separated name, though the precise meaning of this last expression is a matter of discussion (cf. Buxtorf, "Lexicon", Basle, 1639, col. 2432 sqq.).正當以真主的名義在舊約,因此猶太人,稱它的名字是由卓越的,偉大的名字,唯一的名字,肩負起光榮而可怕的名字,隱藏和神秘的名稱,所用物質的名稱,正確的名稱,和最頻繁的SHEM後hammephorash ,即明確或失散的名字,雖然確切含義,這在過去的表達,是一個有待討論(參見布克斯托夫, "詞彙" ,巴塞爾, 1639中校2432 sqq ) 。

Jehovah occurs more frequently than any other Divine name.耶和華發生的次數最多,其他任何神聖的名義。 The Concordances of Furst ("Vet. Test. Concordantiae", Leipzig, 1840) and Mandelkern ("Vet. Test. Concordantiae", Leipzig, 1896) do not exactly agree as to the number of its occurrences; but in round numbers it is found in the Old Testament 6000 times, either alone or in conjunction with another Divine name.該concordances的furst (下稱"審核。考驗。 concordantiae " ,萊比錫, 1840年)和mandelkern (下稱"審核。考驗。 concordantiae " ,萊比錫, 1896年) ,不完全同意,至於有多少,其發生,但在第三輪中的數字,它是發現在舊約六千倍,以及單獨或聯同另一種神聖的名字。 The Septuagint and the Vulgate render the name generally by "Lord" (Kyrios, Dominus), a translation of Adonai - usually substituted for Jehovah in reading.該septuagint和vulgate令姓名一般由"主" ( kyrios ,主) ,一個翻譯adonai -通常是用以替代耶和華在讀。


The Fathers and the Rabbinic writers agree in representing Jehovah as an ineffable name.父親和rabbinic作家同意在代表耶和華作為一種無法形容的名字。 As to the Fathers, we only need draw attention to the following expressions: onoma arreton, aphraston, alekton, aphthegkton, anekphoneton, aporreton kai hrethenai me dynamenon, mystikon.至於父親,我們只需要提請注意以下詞句: onoma阿里頓, aphraston , alekton , aphthegkton , anekphoneton , aporreton啟hrethenai我dynamenon , mystikon 。 Leusden could not induce a certain Jew, in spite of his poverty, to pronounce the real name of God, though he held out the most alluring promises. leusden不能誘導某一個猶太人,儘管他的貧窮,以字正腔圓的真正上帝的名義,但他舉行了最誘人的承諾。 The Jew's compliance with Leusden's wishes would not indeed have been of any real advantage to the latter; for the modern Jews are as uncertain of the real pronunciation of the Sacred name as their Christian contemporaries.猶太人遵守leusden的意願不會的確已經到任何實質的好處,後者;為現代猶太人是作為不確定的真正發音的神聖的名字作為他們的基督教同時代的。 According to a Rabbinic tradition the real pronunciation of Jehovah ceased to be used at the time of Simeon the Just, who was, according to Maimonides, a contemporary of Alexander the Great.根據一項rabbinic傳統的真正發音的耶和華不再被用在當時的西麥正義,他們是根據邁蒙尼德,一個當代的亞歷山大大帝。 At any rate, it appears that the name was no longer pronounced after the destruction of the Temple.無論如何,看來這個名字已不再明顯後,破壞了該廟。 The Mishna refers to our question more than once: Berachoth, ix, 5, allows the use of the Divine name by way of salutation; in Sanhedrin, x, 1, Abba Shaul refuses any share in the future world to those who pronounce it as it is written; according to Thamid, vii, 2, the priests in the Temple (or perhaps in Jerusalem) might employ the true Divine name, while the priests in the country (outside Jerusalem) had to be contented with the name Adonai; according to Maimonides ("More Neb.", i, 61, and "Yad chasaka", xiv, 10) the true Divine name was used only by the priests in the sanctuary who imparted the blessing, and by the high-priest on the Day of Atonement.該mishna是指我們的問題多過一次: berachoth ,九,五,允許使用的神聖名稱的方式稱呼;公會, X ,黑1 ,雅伯金曲巴拒絕任何股份,在未來的世界對於那些宣告它作為這是書面據thamid ,七,二,祭司在聖殿中(或者在耶路撒冷)可能聘用真正神聖的名字,而祭司在該國(耶路撒冷以外的)要知足該人的姓名adonai ;據以邁蒙尼德( "更多的內布拉斯加州的" ,我想, 61 ,和"亞得chasaka " ,第十四條, 10 )真神的名字是僅由祭司在聖殿的人傳授的祝福,以及由高神父對天贖罪。 Phil ["De mut. nom.", n.菲爾[ "德物。化名" , 12月31日 2 (ed. Marg., i, 580); "Vita Mos.", iii, 25 (ii, 166)] seems to maintain that even on these occasions the priests had to speak in a low voice. 2 (編馬格,我, 580 ) ; "履歷表馬鞍山" ,第三章, 25條(二166 ) ]看來,要保持,即使在這些場合祭司不得不發言在一個低的聲音。 Thus far we have followed the post-Christian Jewish tradition concerning the attitude of the Jews before Simeon the Just.迄今為止,我們已跟隨後基督教猶太傳統中關於態度的猶太人才西麥正義。

As to the earlier tradition, Josephus (Antiq., II, xii, 4) declares that he is not allowed to treat of the Divine name; in another place (Antiq., XII, v, 5) he says that the Samaritans erected on Mt. Garizim an anonymon ieron.至於較早的傳統,約瑟夫( antiq. ,二,十二, 4 )宣稱,他是不容許治療的神聖名義,在另一個地方( antiq. ,第十二章,第五章, 5 ) ,他說,撒瑪利亞會豎立山garizim一個anonymon ieron 。 This extreme veneration for the Divine name must have generally prevailed at the time when the Septuagint version was made, for the translators always substitute Kyrios (Lord) for Jehovah.這個極端尊為神聖的名稱必須有普遍盛行的時候,該septuagint版了,翻譯總是以kyrios (主) ,為耶和華。 Ecclesiasticus 23:10, appears to prohibit only a wanton use of the Divine name, though it cannot be denied that Jehovah is not employed as frequently in the more recent canonical books of the Old Testament as in the older books. ecclesiasticus 23:10 ,似乎只禁止肆意使用神聖的名字,但不能否認,耶和華是沒有受聘為經常在較近期的典型圖書的舊約,因為在較舊的書籍。

It would be hard to determine at what time this reverence for the Divine name originated among the Hebrews.這會是艱苦的,以決定在什麼時候,這崇敬神的名字源於其中希伯來人。 Rabbinic writers derive the prohibition of pronouncing the Tetragrammaton, as the name of Jehovah is called, from Leviticus 24:16: "And he that blasphemeth the name of the Lord, dying let him die". rabbinic作家衍生禁止宣告耶和華,正如其名的,耶和華是叫,從利未記24:16說: "他說, blasphemeth主的名字,被泯滅的,讓他死" 。 The Hebrew participle noqedh, here rendered "blasphemeth", is translated honomazon in the Septuagint, and appears to have the meaning "to determine", "to denote" (by means of its proper vowels) in Genesis 30:28; Numbers 1:17; Isaiah 62:2.希伯來participle noqedh ,在這裡變成" blasphemeth " ,我以為是翻譯honomazon在septuagint ,似乎已意" ,以確定" , "指" (指其適當的元音) ,在成因30:28 ;號碼1 : 17 ;以賽亞書62:2 。 Still, the context of Leviticus 24:16 (cf. verses 11 and 15), favours the meaning "to blaspheme".還有,背景利未記24:16 (參見小詩11和15 ) ,是優待,意思是"褻瀆" 。 Rabbinic exegetes derive the prohibition also from Exodus 3:15; but this argument cannot stand the test of the laws of sober hermeneutics (cf. Drusius, "Tetragrammaton", 8-10, in "Critici Sacri", Amsterdam, 1698, I, p. ii, col. 339-42; "De nomine divino", ibid., 512-16; Drach, "Harmonic entre l'Eglise et la Synagogue", I, Paris, 1844, pp. 350-53, and Note 30, pp. 512-16). rabbinic exegetes推導禁令也從出埃及記3:15 ,但這種說法不能經得起任何風浪的考驗的法律清醒的詮釋學(參見drusius , "耶和華" , 8-10 ,在" critici sacri " ,阿姆斯特丹, 1698年,我,第二,中校。 339-42 ; "德nomine divino " ,同上, 512-16 ;德勞奇, "諧登入l' eglise等香格里拉猶太教堂" ,我想,巴黎, 1844年,第350-53 ,並注30 ,第512-16 ) 。

What has been said explains the so-called qeri perpetuum, according to which the consonants of Jehovah are always accompanied in the Hebrew text by the vowels of Adonai except in the cases in which Adonai stands in apposition to Jehovah: in these cases the vowels of Elohim are substituted.什麼有人說,解釋了所謂qeri perpetuum ,根據該條輔音的耶和華是始終伴隨在希伯來文,由元音adonai除在個案中, adonai站在apposition向耶和華:在這些情況下,元音耶洛因是取代。 The use of a simple shewa in the first syllable of Jehovah, instead of the compound shewa in the corresponding syllable of Adonai and Elohim, is required by the rules of Hebrew grammar governing the use of shewa.用一個簡單的shewa在第一音節的耶和華,而不是複合shewa在相應的音節adonai和耶洛因,是規則所規定的希伯來語語法管使用shewa 。 Hence the question: What are the true vowels of the word Jehovah?因此,問:什麼是真正的韻母字耶和華?

It has been maintained by some recent scholars that the word Jehovah dates only from the year 1520 (cf. Hastings, "Dictionary of the Bible", II, 1899, p. 199: Gesenius-Buhl, "Handwörterbuch", 13th ed., 1899, p. 311).它一直保持著由最近的一些學者認為,這個詞耶和華日期,只是從今年1520 (參見黑斯廷斯, "字典的聖經" ,第二章, 1899年,第199頁:格澤紐斯- buhl , " handwörterbuch " ,第13版, 1899年, 311頁) 。 Drusius (loc. cit., 344) represents Peter Galatinus as the inventor of the word Jehovah, and Fagius as it propagator in the world of scholars and commentators. drusius ( loc.引文中, 344人) ,代表彼得galatinus作為發明人的字耶和華,並fagius因為它的傳播,在世界上的學者和評論家。 But the writers of the sixteenth century, Catholic and Protestant (eg Cajetan and Théodore de Bèze), are perfectly familiar with the word.但作家的16世紀,天主教和基督教(如cajetan和théodore德bèze ) ,是完全熟悉的字眼。 Galatinus himself ("Areana cathol. veritatis", I, Bari, 1516, a, p. 77) represents the form as known and received in his time. galatinus自己( " areana cathol 。 veritatis " ,我想,巴里, 1516年, ,第77頁)代表的形式,眾所周知,並在收到他的時候。 Besides, Drusius (loc. cit., 351) discovered it in Porchetus, a theologian of the fourteenth century.此外, drusius ( loc.引文中, 351 ) ,發現它在porchetus ,一個神學家的14世紀。 Finally, the word is found even in the "Pugio fidei" of Raymund Martin, a work written about 1270 (ed. Paris, 1651, pt. III, dist. ii, cap. iii, p. 448, and Note, p. 745).最後,這個詞是發現即使在" pugio信"的raymund馬丁,著作約1270 (編巴黎, 1651年,鉑第三節,區,第二章第三節,第448條,並注,頁745頁) 。 Probably the introduction of the name Jehovah antedates even R. Martin.可能引入的名字耶和華antedates甚至傳譯馬丁。

No wonder then that this form has been regarded as the true pronunciation of the Divine name by such scholars as Michaelis ("Supplementa ad lexica hebraica", I, 1792, p. 524), Drach (loc. cit., I, 469-98), Stier (Lehrgebäude der hebr. Sprache, 327), and others.怪不得那麼這種形式一直被視為真正的讀音神聖的名字,例如學者稱米氏( " supplementa專案lexica hebraica " ,我想, 1792年,頁524 ) ,德勞奇( loc.引文中,我469 - 98 ) , stier ( lehrgebäude明鏡黑布爾。 sprache , 327 )等。

Jehovah is composed of the abbreviated forms of the imperfect, the participle, and the perfect of the Hebrew verb "to be" (ye=yehi; ho=howeh; wa=hawah).耶和華是組成的縮寫形式的不完善, participle ,以及完善的希伯來語動詞" ,以" (葉= yehi ;何= howeh ;佤= hawah ) 。 According to this explanation, the meaning of Jehovah would be "he who will be, is, and has been".根據這一解釋,意思是耶和華會" ,他的人將會如何,現在是,而且已" 。 But such a word-formation has no analogy in the Hebrew language.但這種構詞法沒有比喻,在希伯萊語。

The abbreviated form Jeho supposes the full form Jehovah.簡稱形式jeho支撐全面形成耶和華。 But the form Jehovah cannot account for the abbreviations Jahu and Jah, while the abbreviation Jeho may be derived from another word.但形式耶和華不能佔縮寫jahu和jah ,而縮寫jeho可來自另一個詞。

The Divine name is said to be paraphrased in Apocalypse 1:4, and 4:8, by the expression ho on kai ho en kai ho erchomenos, in which ho erchomenos is regard as equivalent to ho eromenos, "the one that will be"; but it really means "the coming one", so that after the coming of the Lord, Apocalypse 11:17, retains only ho on kai ho en.神聖的名字據說是paraphrased在啟示錄1:4和4時08分,由何表達對啟何恩啟何erchomenos ,其中何erchomenos方面是等同何eromenos " ,一個將"但它真正的意思是"在未來一" ,使後,未來的主啟示錄11:17 ,只保留了對何啟何恩。

the comparison of Jehovah with the Latin Jupiter, Jovis.比較耶和華與拉丁語木星, jovis 。 But it wholly neglects the fuller forms of the Latin names Diespiter, Diovis.但它完全忽視了詳盡的形式的拉丁語名稱diespiter , diovis 。 Any connection of Jehovah with the Egyptian Divine name consisting of the seven Greek vowels has been rejected by Hengstenberg (Beitrage zur Einleiung ins Alte Testament, II, 204 sqq.) and Tholuck (Vermischte Schriften, I, 349 sqq.).任何方面的耶和華與埃及神的名字,其中七個希臘語元音一直拒絕韓斯坦堡( beitrage zur einleiung移民局更改及遺囑,二, 204 sqq ) ,並tholuck ( vermischte schriften ,我, 349 sqq ) 。

To take up the ancient writers:採取了古代作家:

Diodorus Siculus writes Jao (I, 94); Irenaeus ("Adv. Haer.", II, xxxv, 3, in PG, VII, col. 840), Jaoth; the Valentinian heretics (Irenaeus, "Adv. Haer.", I, iv, 1, in PG, VII, col. 481), Jao; Clement of Alexandria ("Strom.", V, 6, in PG, IX, col. 60), Jaou; Origen ("in Joh.", II, 1, in PG, XIV, col. 105), Jao; Porphyry (Eusebius, "Praep. evang", I, ix, in PG, XXI, col. 72), Jeuo; Epiphanius ("Adv. Haer.", I, iii, 40, in PG, XLI, col. 685), Ja or Jabe; Pseudo-Jerome ("Breviarium in Pss.", in PL, XXVI, 828), Jaho; the Samaritans (Theodoret, in "Ex. quaest.", xv, in PG, LXXX, col. 244), Jabe; James of Edessa (cf. Lamy, "La science catholique", 1891, p. 196), Jehjeh; Jerome ("Ep. xxv ad Marcell.", in PL, XXII, col. 429) speaks of certain ignorant Greek writers who transcribed the Hebrew Divine name II I II I.歷史學家西古流斯寫道:饒(一, 94 ) ;愛任紐( "副haer 。 " ,第二章,第三十五卷, 3 ,在編號,七,中校840 ) , jaoth ; valentinian異教徒(愛任紐, "副haer 。 "第一,四, 1 ,在編號,七,中校481 ) ,饒;克萊門特亞歷山大( " strom " ,第五,六,在編號,第九,西一60 ) , jaou ;淵源( " joh " 。第一,二,一,在編號,第十四條,中校105 ) ,饒;斑岩(尤西比烏斯" , praep 。埃旺" ,我想,第九,在編號, 21 ,西一72 ) , jeuo ; epiphanius ( "副haer 。 " ,一,三,四十歲,在編號,四十一,中校685 ) ,司法機構政務長或jabe ;偽杰羅姆( " breviarium在PSS的" ,在公共圖書館, 26 , 828 ) , jaho ;撒瑪利亞( theodoret ,在"當然。 quaest " ,第十五,在編號, lxxx ,中校244 ) , jabe ;詹姆斯edessa (參見拉米, "香格里拉科學天主教" , 1891年,第196頁) , jehjeh ;杰羅姆(下稱"的EP 。第二十五專案marcell " ,在公共圖書館, 22 ,中校429 )談起某些無知的希臘作家轉錄希伯來神的名字二i二,一。

The judicious reader will perceive that the Samaritan pronunciation Jabe probably approaches the real sound of the Divine name closest; the other early writers transmit only abbreviations or corruptions of the sacred name.明智的讀者會察覺到這撒瑪利亞發音jabe可能接近真實的聲音神聖的名字最親密的人;其它早期作家傳輸只縮寫或貪污的神聖的名字。 Inserting the vowels of Jabe into the original Hebrew consonant text, we obtain the form Jahveh (Yahweh), which has been generally accepted by modern scholars as the true pronunciation of the Divine name.插入元音jabe到原來的希伯來輔音文本中,我們得到的形式jahveh (雅威) ,它已被普遍接受的現代學者,因為真正的讀音神聖的名字。 It is not merely closely connected with the pronunciation of the ancient synagogue by means of the Samaritan tradition, but it also allows the legitimate derivation of all the abbreviations of the sacred name in the Old Testament.它不僅僅是緊密相連,與發音的古猶太教堂的方式撒瑪利亞傳統,但它也使合法的推導所有的縮寫神聖的名字在舊約。


Jahveh (Yahweh) is one of the archaic Hebrew nouns, such as Jacob, Joseph, Israel, etc. (cf. Ewald, "Lehrbuch der hebr. Sprache", 7th ed., 1863, p. 664), derived from the third person imperfect in such a way as to attribute to a person or a thing the action of the quality expressed by the verb after the manner of a verbal adjective or a participle. jahveh (雅威)是其中的過時希伯來語名詞,如雅各,約瑟,以色列等(參見埃瓦爾德, " lehrbuch明鏡黑布爾。 sprache " ,第七版, 1863年,頁664 ) ,所得的,由第三人的不完善,在這樣一種方式,以屬性,以一個人或一件事情的行動質量所表示的動詞後的方式口頭形容詞或participle 。 Furst has collected most of these nouns, and calls the form forma participialis imperfectiva. furst收集了大部分這些名詞,並呼籲形式形式上participialis imperfectiva 。 As the Divine name is an imperfect form of the archaic Hebrew verb "to be", Jahveh means "He Who is", Whose characteristic note consists in being, or The Being simply.作為神的名字是一個不完美的形式對已經過時的希伯來語動詞"能" , jahveh手段" ,他的人是" ,其特徵說明,在構成正,或小富即安。 Here we are confronted with the question, whether Jahveh is the imperfect hiphil or the imperfect qal.在這裡,我們所面臨的問題,無論是jahveh是不完善役式或不完善堡。 Calmet and Le Clere believe that the Divine name is a hiphil form; hence it signifies, according to Schrader (Die Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament, 2nd ed., p. 25), He Who brings into existence, the Creator; and according to Lagarde (Psalterium Hieronymi, 153), He Who causes to arrive, Who realizes His promises, the God of Providence. calmet和Le clere相信神的名字是役式的形式,因此它標誌,根據schrader (模具keilinschriften und之更改及遺囑,第2版,第25頁) ,他的人帶來的存在,造物主;據lagarde ( psalterium hieronymi , 153 ) ,他的事業到達,他們實現了自己的諾言,上帝的眷顧。 But this opinion is not in keeping with Exodus 3:14, nor is there any trace in Hebrew of a hiphil form of the verb meaning "to be"; moreover, this hiphil form is supplied in the cognate languages by the pi'el form, except in Syriac where the hiphil is rare and of late occurrence.但這種看法是不符合逃亡3時14分,也沒有任何痕跡希伯來語一個役式的形式動詞,意思是"必須" ,而且,這一役式的形式供應,在相同的語言,由pi'el形式除了在敘利亞文凡役式是罕見的晚再次發生。

On the other hand, Jehveh may be an imperfect qal from a grammatical point of view, and the traditional exegesis of Exodus 3:6-16, seems to necessitate the form Jahveh.另一方面,關於jehveh可能是一個不完善堡,從語法的角度來看,與傳統訓詁學出埃及記3:6-16 ,似乎是有必要的形式jahveh 。 Moses asks God: "If they should say to me: What is his [God's] name? What shall I say to them?"摩西問上帝: "如果他們要我說:什麼是他的[神]的名字嗎?我應怎樣對他們說" ? In reply, God returns three times to the determination of His name.在答复中,上帝回報3倍來確定他的名字。

First, He uses the first person imperfect of the Hebrew verb "to be"; here the Vulgate, the Septuagint, Aquila, Theodotion, and the Arabic version suppose that God uses the imperfect qal; only the Targums of Jonathan and of Jerusalem imply the imperfect hiphil.首先,他以第一人稱的不完善的希伯來語動詞"做" ;這裡vulgate , septuagint ,雕, theodotion ,阿拉伯文版的假設上帝用途不完善堡只有targums的喬納森和耶路撒冷意味著不完善役式。 Hence we have the renderings: "I am who am" (Vulgate), "I am who is" (Septuagint), "I shall be {who] shall be" (Aquila, Theodotion), "the Eternal who does not cease" (Ar.); only the above-mentioned Targums see any reference to the creation of the world.因此,我們有透視: "我是誰時" ( vulgate ) , "我是誰" ( septuagint ) , "我會(人]應" (雕, theodotion ) , "永恆的,他們不停止" ( ar. ) ;只有上述提到targums見任何提及創造了世界。

The second time, God uses again the first person imperfect of the Hebrew verb "to be"; here the Syriac, the Samaritan, the Persian versions, and the Targums of Onkelos and Jerusalem retain the Hebrew, so that one cannot tell whether they regard the imperfect as a qal or a hiphil form; the Arabic version omits the whole clause; but the Septuagint, the Vulgate, and the Targum of Jonathan suppose here the imperfect qal: "He Who Is, hath sent me to you" instead of "I Am, hath sent me to you: (Vulgate); "ho on sent me to you" (Septuagint); "I am who am, and who shall be, hath sent me to you" (Targ. Jon.).第二個時間,上帝再次使用第一人稱不完善的希伯來語動詞"做" ;這裡,敘利亞文,撒瑪利亞,波斯語版,並targums的昂克羅斯和耶路撒冷保留希伯來語,所以人們不知道他們把不完善的,作為堡或役式的形式;阿拉伯文版略去了整個條款,但septuagint , vulgate ,以及targum的喬納森假設這裡不完善堡說: "他是誰,差遣我到你們這裡來" ,而不是"我相信,差遣我到你們這裡來: ( vulgate ) , "何派我到你們這裡來" ( septuagint ) ; "我的人時,以及誰應,差遣我到你們這裡來" ( targ.瓊) 。

Finally, the third time, God uses the third person of the imperfect, or the form of the sacred name itself; here the Samaritan version and the Targum of Onkelos retain the Hebrew form; the Septuagint, the Vulgate, and the Syriac version render "Lord", though, according to the analogy of the former two passages, they should have translated, "He Is, the God of your fathers, . . . hath sent me to you"; the Arabic version substitutes "God".最後,第三次的時候,上帝用第三人稱的不完善,還是形式的神聖名稱本身;這裡撒瑪利亞版本和targum的昂克羅斯保留希伯來語形式; septuagint , vulgate ,以及敘利亞文版渲染"主" ,但根據有關的比喻,前兩個通道,他們應該有翻譯, "他就是上帝,你的父親, … … 。差遣我到你們這裡來" ;阿拉伯文版的代用品"上帝" 。 Classical exegesis, therefore, regards Jahveh as the imperfect qal of the Hebrew verb "to be".經典註釋,因此,對於jahveh作為不完善堡的希伯來語動詞"能" 。 Here another question presents itself: Is the being predicated of God in His name, the metaphysical being denoting nothing but existence itself, or is it an historical being, a passing manifestation of God in time?這裡的另一個問題提出了自己:是被預言上帝在他的名字,形而上正指無關,但存在本身,還是一個歷史,目前,及格的表現神的時候?

Most Protestant writers regard the being implied in the name Jahveh as an historical one, though some do not wholly exclude such metaphysical ideas as God's independence, absolute constancy, and fidelity to His promises, and immutability in His plans (cf. Driver, "Hebrew Tenses", 1892, p. 17).最新教作家把被隱含在名稱jahveh作為一個歷史性的,雖然有些人並不完全排除這樣的形而上的想法,因為神的獨立,絕對是不間斷的,並忠實於自己的諾言,並不得變通,在他的計劃(參見司機, "希伯來語態" , 1892年,第17頁) 。 The following are the reasons alleged for the historical meaning of the "being" implied in the Divine name:以下是訪問的原因,據稱,為歷史"的含義是"隱含在神聖的名字:

The metaphysical sense of being was too abstruse a concept for the primitive times.形而上意義上的正太艱澀的概念,為原始時代。 Still, some of the Egyptian speculations of the early times are almost as abstruse; besides, it was not necessary that the Jews of the time of Moses should fully understand the meaning implied in God's name.儘管如此,一些埃及揣測的早期幾乎一樣艱澀,而且中,所以沒有必要認為,猶太人的時候,摩西,要充分認識意義,隱含在上帝的名字。 The scientific development of its sense might be left to the future Christian theologians.科學發展的意識普遍增強,可以留待日後的基督教神學家。 The Hebrew verb hayah means rather "to become" than "to be" permanently.希伯來文的動詞hayah手段,而不是"成為"比"做"永遠。 But good authorities deny that the Hebrew verb denotes being in motion rather than being in a permanent condition.不過,好當局否認說,希伯來文的動詞是指在運動,而不是被一個常任理事國的條件。 It is true that the participle would have expressed a permanent state more clearly; but then, the participle of the verb hayah is found only in Exodus 9:3, and few proper names in Hebrew are derived from the participle.這是事實的participle會,表達了一個永久性的國家更清楚,但屆時, participle的動詞hayah發現只有在逃亡9時03分,而很少專有名詞,在希伯來語是來自participle 。

The imperfect mainly expresses the action of one who enters anew on the scene.不完善的,主要體現行動的人進入重新提上現場。 But this is not always the case; the Hebrew imperfect is a true aorist, prescinding from time and, therefore, best adapted for general principles (Driver, p. 38).但這種情況並非總是如此;希伯來語不完善,是一個真正的aorist , prescinding從時間,因此,最佳改編為一般原則(司機,第38頁) 。

"I am who am" appears to refer to "I will be with thee" of verse 12; both texts seems to be alluded to in Hosea 1:9, "I will not be yours". "我是誰時, "似乎是指"我將與你"的詩, 12歲;兩種文本似乎是暗示在何西阿1時09分, "我不會因為你的" 。 But if this be true, "I am who am" must be considered as an ellipse: "I am who am with you", or "I am who am faithful to my promises".但如果這是真的, "我是誰時" ,都必須被視為一個橢圓時說: "我的人感到與你" ,或"我的人很忠於我的諾言" 。 This is harsh enough; but it becomes quite inadmissible in the clause, "I am who am, hath sent me".這是嚴酷不夠,但它變得相當不允許在該條文中, "我是誰時,差遣我" 。

Since then the Hebrew imperfect is admittedly not to be considered as a future, and since the nature of the language does not force us to see in it the expression of transition or of becoming, and since, moreover, early tradition is quite fixed and the absolute character of the verb hayah has induced even the most ardent patrons of its historical sense to admit in the texts a description of God's nature, the rules of hermeneutics urge us to take the expressions in Exodus 3:13-15, for what they are worth.自那時以來,希伯來語不完善的,是無可不被視為一個未來,而由於性質的語言,並不強迫我們看不到它的表達過渡或成為,因為,不僅如此,早期的傳統,是相當固定和絕對性的動詞hayah有致,即使是最殷切的食客其歷史意義的承認,在文本的描述上帝的性質,規則的詮釋學敦促我們採取的表達出埃及記3:13-15 ,為他們所值得。 Jahveh is He Who Is, ie, His nature is best characterized by Being, if indeed it must be designated by a personal proper name distinct from the term God (Revue biblique, 1893, p. 338). jahveh是他的人,也就是說,其本質是最根本的特徵是由正,如果確實必須指定一個個人名稱有別於任期神( biblique雜誌, 1893年,第338頁) 。 The scholastic theories as to the depth of meaning latent in Yahveh (Yahweh) rest, therefore, on a solid foundation.學術理論,以深度含義潛伏在耶和華(雅威)休息,因此,在牢固的基礎之上。 Finite beings are defined by their essence: God can be defined only by being, pure and simple, nothing less and nothing more; not be abstract being common to everything, and characteristic of nothing in particular, but by concrete being, absolute being, the ocean of all substantial being, independent of any cause, incapable of change, exceeding all duration, because He is infinite: "Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, . . . who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty" (Revelation 1:8).有限的人的定義是由它們的本質:上帝可以被界定只有正,純粹和簡單,沒有什麼不足,並沒有什麼更多;不會摘要正在共同一切,和特點,從無到有,特別是,但以具體的作為,絕對的正,海洋的一切重大福祉,獨立於任何事業,沒有能力改變,超過了所有的時間,因為他是無限的: " Alpha和歐米茄,開始時和結束時, … … 。誰是,誰是,誰是來,無所不能的" (啟示1:8 ) 。 Cf.比照。 St. Thomas, I, qu.聖托馬斯來說,我和曲。 xiii, a.十三,甲 14; Franzelin, "De Deo Uno" (3rd ed., 1883, thesis XXIII, pp. 279-86. 14個; franzelin , "德迪奧起UNO " (第3版, 1883年,發表論文二十三,頁279-86 。


The opinion that the name Jahveh was adopted by the Jews from the Chanaanites, has been defended by von Bohlen (Genesis, 1835, p. civ), Von der Alm (Theol. Briefe, I, 1862, pp. 524-27), Colenso (The Pentateuch, V, 1865, pp. 269-84), Goldziher (Der Mythus bei den Hebräern, 1867, p. 327), but has been rejected by Kuenen ("De Godsdienst van Israel", I, Haarlem, 1869, pp. 379-401) and Baudissin (Studien, I, pp. 213-18).認為名稱jahveh通過了猶太人從chanaanites ,一直捍衛的馮波倫(成因, 1835年,第civ ) ,馮明鏡的ALM ( theol. briefe ,我, 1862年,第524-27 ) ,科倫索( pentateuch ,五, 1865年,第269-84 ) , goldziher (明鏡mythus鼻書齋hebräern , 1867年,第327頁) ,但被拒絕了kuenen ( "時點godsdienst範以色列" ,我想,哈萊姆, 1869年,頁379-401 )和鮑迪辛(研究會,我,第213-18 ) 。 It is antecedently improbable that Jahveh, the irreconcilable enemy of the Chanaanites, should be originally a Chanaanite god.這是先行琢磨這jahveh ,不可調和的敵人的chanaanites ,應該本來是一個chanaanite上帝。 It has been said by Vatke (Die Religion des Alten Test., 1835, p. 672) and JG Müller (Die Semiten in ihrem Verhältniss zu Chamiten und Japhetiten, 1872, p. 163) that the name Jahveh is of Indo-European origin.有人曾經說,由vatke (死於宗教萬alten試驗, 1835年,頁672 )和jg穆勒(模具semiten在ihrem verhältniss祖chamiten und japhetiten , 1872年,頁163 )說,該名稱jahveh是印歐語的起源。 But the transition of the Sanscrit root, div-the Latin Jupiter-Jovis (Diovis), the Greek Zeus-Dios, the Indo-European Dyaus into the Hebrew form Jahveh has never been satisfactorily explained.但過渡的sanscrit根,理學系-拉美木星- jovis ( diovis ) ,希臘宙斯-迪奧斯,印歐dyaus進入希伯來語形式jahveh一直沒有得到很好的解釋。 Hitzig's contention (Vorlesungen über bibl. Theol., p. 38) that the Indo-Europeans furnished at least the idea contained in the name Jahveh, even if they did not originate the name itself, is without any value.希齊格的爭論( vorlesungen黚er bibl 。 theol ,第38頁)表示,印歐家具至少想法包含在名稱jahveh ,即使他們並非源自這一車型的名字本身,是沒有任何價值。

The theory that Jahveh is of Egyptian origin may have a certain amount of a priori probability, as Moses was educated in Egypt.該理論認為, jahveh是埃及的起源可能有一定量的先驗概率,因為摩西曾就讀於埃及。 Still, the proofs are not convincing:儘管如此,實證是沒有說服力的:

Röth (Die Aegypt. und die Zoroastr. Glaubenslehre, 1846, p. 175) derives the Hebrew name from the ancient moon-god Ih or Ioh. röth (模具aegypt 。 und模具zoroastr 。 glaubenslehre , 1846年,第175頁)源於希伯萊名字從古代月亮神中轉房屋或ioh 。 But there is no connection between the Hebrew Jahveh and the moon (cf. Pierret, "Vocabul. Hiérogl.", 1875, p. 44).但兩者之間沒有聯繫,希伯萊jahveh和月亮(參見pierret , " vocabul 。 hiérogl " , 1875年,第44頁) 。

Plutarch (De Iside, 9) tells us that a statue of Athene (Neith) in Sais bore the inscription: "I am all that has been, is, and will be".普魯塔克(德iside , 9 )告訴我們,一個雕像雅典娜(尼思)在高等膛題詞時說: "我都已經是過去,現在和將來都是" 。 But Tholuck (op. cit., 1867, pp. 189-205) shows that the meaning of this inscription is wholly different from that of the name Jahveh.但tholuck (同前, 1867年,第189-205 )顯示的意義,這題詞是完全不同這一名稱jahveh 。

The patrons of the Egyptian origin of the sacred name appeal to the common Egyptian formula, Nuk pu nuk but though its literal signification is "I am I", its real meaning is "It is I who" (cf. Le Page Renouf, "Hibbert Lectures for 1879", p. 244).食客的埃及出身的神聖名義呼籲共同埃及公式, nuk浦nuk但儘管其字面意義是"我是我" ,其真正意義是: "這是我的人" (見樂一頁renouf " hibbert講座,為1879年" ,第244條) 。

As to the theory that Jahveh has a Chaldean or an Accadian origin, its foundation is not very solid:至於理論jahveh有加爾丁或亞加底亞出身,它的基礎還不很穩固:

Jahveh is said to be a merely artificial form introduced to put meaning into the name of the national god (Delitzsch, "Wo lag das Paradies", 1881, pp. 158-64); the common and popular name of God is said to have been Yahu or Yah, the letter I being the essential Divine element in the name. jahveh是說是一個純粹人為的形式介紹了把意義的名字全國神( delitzsch , "禾滯後之paradies " , 1881年,頁158-64 ) ;普遍而且受歡迎的真主的名義,據說已被yahu或閻,我在信中,作為必不可少的神聖元素的名稱。 The contention, if true, does not prove the Chaldean or Accadian origin of the Hebrew Divine name; besides the form Yah is rare and exclusively poetic; Yahu never appears in the Bible, while the ordinary full form of the Divine name is found even in the inscription of Mesa (line 18) dating from the ninth century BC Yahu and Yah were known outside Israel; the forms enter into the composition of foreign proper names; besides, the variation of the name of a certain King of Hammath shows that Ilu is equivalent to Yau, and that Yau is the name of a god (Schrader, "Bibl. Bl.", II, p. 42, 56; Sargon, "Cylinder", xxv; Keil, "Fastes", I. 33).引起爭論的,如果屬實,這並不證明加爾丁或亞加底亞原產地的希伯來語神聖的名字,而且形式閻是罕見且專門詩意; yahu從未出現在聖經,而普通的全職形式對神的名字是發現,即使在碑文的梅薩( 18線) ,可以追溯到公元前9世紀yahu和閻被外界稱為以色列;形式進入組合的外國專有名詞;此外,變異的名義在某國王hammath表明ilu是相當於油,那油是名字的神( schrader , " bibl 。基本法"的第一,第二,第42頁, 56項; sargon , "缸" ,二十五; Keil公司, " fastes " ,一33 ) 。 But foreign proper names containing Yah or Yahu are extremely rare and doubtful, and may be explained without admitting gods in foreign nations, bearing the sacred name.但外國專有名詞含有閻或yahu極為罕見,疑點,並可能被解釋不必承認神在外國,軸承神聖的名字。 Again, the Babylonian pantheon is fairly well known at present, but the god Yau does not appear in it.再次,巴比倫神殿差不多是人所共知的,目前,但神油沒有出現在它的。

Among the pre-Semitic Babylonians, I is a synonym of Ilu, the supreme god; now I with the Assyrian nominative ending added becomes Yau (cf. Delitzsch, "Lesestücke", 3rd ed., 1885, p. 42, Syllab. A, col. I, 13-16).其中前反猶巴比倫人,我是一個別名的ilu ,至高無上的神,現在我將與亞述人的記名結束補充變成油(參見delitzsch , " lesestücke " ,第3版, 1885年,第42頁, syllab 。 ,中校,我, 13-16 ) 。 Hommel (Altisrael. Ueberlieferung, 1897, pp. 144, 225) feels sure that he has discovered this Chaldean god Yau. hommel ( altisrael. ueberlieferung , 1897年,第144 , 225 )感覺肯定他發現這加爾丁神油。 It is the god who is represented ideographically (ilu) Aa, but ordinarily pronounced Malik, though the expression should be read Ai or Ia (Ya).這是上帝的人,是代表ideographically ( ilu )機管局的,但通常宣判馬利克,雖然表達應改為愛或IA (亞) 。 The patriarchal family employed this name, and Moses borrowed and transformed it.父權家庭僱用這個名字,和摩西借來的轉化。 But Lagrange points out that the Jews did not believe that they offered their children to Jahveh, when they sacrificed them to Malik (Religion semitique, 1905, pp. 100 sqq.).但拉格朗日指出,猶太人不相信,他們提供他們的子女jahveh ,當他們犧牲了他們馬利克(宗教semitique , 1905年,第100 sqq ) 。 Jeremiah 32:35, and Zephaniah 1:5, distinguish between Malik and the Hebrew God.耶利米32:35 ,並zephaniah 1:5 ,區分馬利克和希伯來文的上帝。

Cheyne (Traditions and Beliefs of Ancient Israel, 1907, pp. 63 sqq.) connects the origin of Jahveh with his Yerahme'el theory; but even the most advanced critics regard Cheyne's theory as a discredit to modern criticism.進益(傳統和信仰的古代以色列, 1907年,第63 sqq )連接的起源jahveh與他的yerahme'el理論,但即使是最先進的批評家認為進益的理論作為抹黑,以現代的批評。 Other singular opinions as to the origin of the sacred name may be safely omitted.其他奇異的意見,以起源的神聖名稱可以安全地省略。 The view that Jahveh is of Hebrew origin is the most satisfactory.認為jahveh是希伯來語原產地是最令人滿意的。 Arguing from Exodus 6:2-8, such commentators as Nicholas of Lyra, Tostatus, Cajetan, Bonfrère, etc., maintain that the name was revealed for the first time to Moses on Mount Horeb.爭論從出埃及記6:2-8 ,如評論家作為尼古拉斯的lyra , tostatus , cajetan , bonfrère等,保持這一名稱是第一次透露了摩西對何烈山。 God declares in this vision that he "appeared to Abraham . . . by the name of God Almighty; and my name Adonai [Jahveh] I did not shew them".上帝在此聲明,遠見,他"似乎亞伯拉罕… … 。所以真主的名義全能和我的名字adonai [ jahveh ]我沒有shew他們" 。 But the phrase "to appear by a name" does not necessarily imply the first revelation of that name; it rather signifies the explanation of the name, or a manner of acting conformable to the meaning of the name (cf. Robion in "la Science cathol.", 1888, pp. 618-24; Delattre, ibid., 1892, pp. 673-87; van Kasteren, ibid., 1894, pp. 296-315; Robert in "Revue biblique", 1894, pp. 161-81).但一語" ,似乎是由一個名稱" ,並不一定意味著首次揭示這名字,它,而不是意味的解釋,姓名,或搞代理符合含義的名字(參見羅比翁在"香格里拉科學cathol " , 1888年,頁618-24 ; delattre ,同上, 1892年,第673-87 ;貨車kasteren ,同上, 1894年,第296-315 ;羅伯特在" biblique雜誌" , 1894年,頁。 161-81 ) 。 On Mt. Horeb God told Moses that He had not acted with the Patriarchs as the God of the Covenant, Jahveh, but as God Almighty.山何烈上帝告訴摩西說,他沒有採取行動,與patriarchs為上帝的盟約, jahveh ,但由於萬能的真主。

Perhaps it is preferable to say that the sacred name, though perhaps in a somewhat modified form, had been in use in the patriarchal family before the time of Moses.也許這是最好是說神聖的名字,雖然也許在略加修改的形式,已使用在父權家庭面前的時候,摩西。 On Mt. Horeb God revealed and explained the accurate form of His name, Jahveh.山何烈上帝發現並解釋了準確的形式,他的名字, jahveh 。

The sacred name occurs in Genesis about 156 times; this frequent occurrence can hardly be a mere prolepsis.神聖的名字出現在成因約156倍;這種頻繁發生,也難以僅僅是一個prolepsis 。 Genesis 4:26, states that Enos "began to call upon the name of the Lord [Jahveh]", or as the Hebrew text suggests, "began to call himself after the name of Jahveh".成因4時26分,國eNOS的"開始呼籲主的名字[ jahveh ] " ,或者像希伯來文意思, "開始要求後,自己的名字jahveh " 。

Jochabed, the mother of Moses, has in her name an abbreviated form Jo (Yo) of Jahveh. jochabed ,母親的摩西,曾在她名下的一個縮寫形式,城(搖搖)的jahveh 。 The pre-Mosaic existence of the Divine name among the Hebrews accounts for this fact more easily than the supposition that the Divine element was introduced after the revelation of the name.前馬賽克的存在,神聖的名字,希伯來人,佔這個事實,更容易比假定神聖的元素引入後的啟示真實姓名。

Among the 163 proper names which bear an element of the sacred name in their composition, 48 have yeho or yo at the beginning, and 115 have yahu or yah and the end, while the form Jahveh never occurs in any such composition.其中163個適當的名稱,其中承擔的一個要素神聖的名字,在其組成,其中有48 yeho或搖搖在開始時,和115 yahu或閻和歸宿,而形成jahveh從未出現在任何這種成分。 Perhaps it might be assumed that these shortened forms yeho, yo, yahu, yah, represent the Divine name as it existed among the Israelites before the full name Jahveh was revealed on Mt. Horeb.或許可以假定這些縮短形式yeho ,協青社, yahu ,閻,代表著神聖的名字,因為它存在以色列人面前全稱jahveh被揭發山何烈。 On the other hand, Driver (Studia biblica, I, 5) has shown that these short forms are the regular abbreviations of the full name.另一方面,關於司機( studia biblica ,我, 5 )表明,這些短期的形式是經常縮寫的全稱。 At any rate, while it is not certain that God revealed His sacred name to Moses for the first time, He surely revealed on Mt. Horeb that Jahveh is His incommunicable name, and explained its meaning.無論如何,雖然現在不能肯定上帝透露他的神聖名義,以摩西為第一次,他一定發現山何烈說jahveh是他的incommunicable名字,並解釋其含義。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息所作的AJ馬斯。 Transcribed by Thomas M. Barrett.轉錄由托馬斯米巴雷特。 Dedicated to Mary Kathryn French Barrett The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.致力於瑪麗的Kathryn法語貝瑞特天主教百科全書,音量八。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. nihil obstat , 1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


Besides the works referred to in the text, the reader may consult: RELAND, Deeds Excreitationum (Utrecht, 1707); SCHRADER in SCHENKEL'S Bibel Lexicon, sv Jahve; PHAT, Dict.除了工程案文所提到的,讀者可諮詢: reland ,事蹟excreitationum (烏得勒支, 1707年) ; schrader在schenkel的bibel詞庫, sv jahve ;譯音,字典。 de la Bible, sv Jehovah; ROBERTSON SMITH in Brit.德香格里拉聖經sv耶和華;羅伯遜史密斯在英國。 and Foreign Evan.中外旻佑。 Review (January, 1876), gives a summary of recent discussion of the subject; OEHLER, Real-Encyclopadie, SV Jehova.回顧( 1月, 1876年) ,給出了簡要的最近一次討論的主題; oehler ,實時encyclopadie , sv jehova 。

This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文

Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在