General Information 一般資料

The term messiah comes from the Hebrew meshiach, meaning "anointed one."任期彌賽亞來自希伯來語meshiach ,意思是"不信任的一次" 。 In the Old Testament it was used of historical personages such as the anointed kings and priests of Israel.在舊約,它是用於歷史人物,如不信任國王和祭司的以色列。 During the Babylonian Captivity (587 - 540 BC), Israelite hopes for a restored monarchy and priesthood flourished.在巴比倫囚禁( 587 -5 40B C)的, i sraelite,希望有一個恢復君主立憲制和神職人員蓬勃發展。 With the return of the exiles to Jerusalem and the emergence of Zerubbabel and Joshua ben Jehozadak as political ruler and high priest, respectively, these hopes were to some extent realized.隨著回歸的流亡者,以耶路撒冷和出現所羅巴伯和約書亞賁jehozadak作為政治統治者和高級神職人員,分別這些希望都在一定程度上實現了。

The later fortunes of Israel, especially under the Seleucids of Syria, kept alive the hope for a future and final deliverance, sometimes with and sometimes without a messianic figure.後來的命運,以色列,尤其是下塞留西士的敘利亞,維持生命,希望為未來的和最後的解脫,有時有時沒有救世主式的數字。 The revolt of the Maccabees briefly kindled the hope that in the Hasmonean line an ideal priest - king had emerged.叛變的馬加比簡單地點燃了希望在hasmonean線是一個理想的神父-國王已經出現。 But the corruption of the later Hasmoneans led to the secession of part of the priestly caste to Qumram, where various forms of messianic hope were entertained, sometimes involving two messiahs - one from the house of Aaron (a priest) and one from the house of Israel (a king) together with a prophet.但腐敗的後期哈斯摩年王朝"導致分裂的一部分,該司鐸種姓,以qumram ,如各種形式的救世主,希望獲得受理,有時會涉及兩個救星-一出家門的亞倫(牧師) ,以及一個由眾議院以色列(國王) ,連同先知。 The so called Psalms of Solomon, which expressed the piety of the Pharisees, looked only for a messiah descended from David.所謂詩篇所羅門,其中表示虔誠的法利,期待只有一個彌賽亞的後裔,從大衛。

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After the death of Herod the Great (AD 4) and the incorporation of Judea into the Roman Empire, a nationalist resistance movement, the Zealots, hailed various leaders as the Messiah, the last being Bar Kochba during the great revolt of AD 132 - 35.去世後,被希律偉大(公元4 ) ,並納入朱迪亞進入羅馬帝國,一個民族抵抗運動,狂熱者,被譽為各領導人為救世主,而最近的酒吧kochba在大起義的專案132個-3 5 。

In the Books of Enoch, the figure of the Messiah coalesced with the apocalyptic "Son of Man," a supernatural judge and savior appearing at the end.在書籍的伊諾克,這一數字彌賽亞合併與世界末日"人子" ,有神靈,法官和救世主出現在去年底。

Whether Jesus Christ claimed to be the Messiah is disputed, though the Gospels affirm that he did (Mark 14:62).是否耶穌基督自稱為彌賽亞,是有爭議的,雖然福音申明他(馬克14:62 ) 。 The post Easter Christian community clearly ascribed the title Messiah to him (Acts 2:36) in a sense redefined by the crucifixion and resurrection faith.郵政復活節基督教社區顯然得益於標題彌賽亞向他(使徒2時36分)在一定意義上重新界定和受難和復活的信念。 Translated into Greek, the title became Christos (Christ), which, improperly understood, became a proper name.翻譯成希臘文,標題成了克里斯托(基督) ,其中,不當的理解,成了一個適當的名稱。

Reginald H Fuller ( Reginald h更充分

Bibliography 參考書目
O Cullmann, The Christology of the New Testament (1959); RH Fuller, The Foundations of New Testament Christology (1965); M Hengel, The Son of God: The Origin of Christology and the History of Jewish - Hellenistic Religion (1976); S Mowinckel, He That Cometh (1954); G Scholem, The Messianic Idea in Judaism (1972). o cullmann , christology的新約聖經( 1959年) ;銠更充分,基礎新約聖經christology ( 1965 ) ;米亨格爾,上帝的兒子:起源christology和歷史的猶太-希臘宗教( 1 976年) ; s莫溫克爾,他說,人來了( 1954 ) 100 scholem ,救世主的思想在猶太教( 1972 ) 。


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Messiah (Heb. mashiah), in all the thirty-nine instances of its occurring in the Old Testament, is rendered by the LXX.彌賽亞(希伯來書mashiah ) ,在所有39事例,其發生在舊約,是提供由lxx 。 "Christos." "克里斯托" 。 It means anointed.它意味著不信任。 Thus priests (Ex. 28:41; 40:15; Num. 3:3), prophets (1 Kings 19:16), and kings (1 Sam. 9:16; 16:3; 2 Sam. 12:7) were anointed with oil, and so consecrated to their respective offices.因此,司鐸(例如: 28:41 ; 40:15 ;序號。 3時03分) ,先知( 1國王19時16分) ,國王( 1薩姆。 9時16分; 16時03分, 2薩姆。 12時07分)被選定的,與石油等consecrated向各自的辦公室。 The great Messiah is anointed "above his fellows" (Ps. 45:7); ie, he embraces in himself all the three offices.偉大的救世主,是不信任" ,他的上述研究員" (詩篇45:7 ) ,即他擁抱在自己的全部3個辦事處。 The Greek form "Messias" is only twice used in the New Testament, in John 1:41 and 4:25 (RV, "Messiah"), and in the Old Testament the word Messiah, as the rendering of the Hebrew, occurs only twice (Dan 9:25, 26; RV, "the anointed one").希臘形式" messias " ,是唯一兩次使用,在新約聖經,在約翰1時41分和4時25分(風疹病毒, "彌賽亞" ) ,並在舊約字彌賽亞,作為繪製的希伯來語,僅發生兩次(丹9時25分, 26個;風疹病毒, "不信任" ) 。 The first great promise (Gen. 3:15) contains in it the germ of all the prophecies recorded in the Old Testament regarding the coming of the Messiah and the great work he was to accomplish on earth.第一個偉大的諾言(創3:15 )包含在該細菌的所有預言記錄在舊約關於未來的彌賽亞和偉大的工作,他是為了完成對地球。

The prophecies became more definite and fuller as the ages rolled on; the light shone more and more unto the perfect day.預言變得更為明確和詳盡的,因為年齡軋製;輕照耀著越來越多的祂完美的一天。 Different periods of prophetic revelation have been pointed out, (1) the patriarchal; (2) the Mosaic; (3) the period of David; (4) the period of prophetism, ie, of those prophets whose works form a part of the Old Testament canon.不同時期的先知性的啟示已經指出, ( 1 )父權; ( 2 )花葉; (三)期間的國寶; (四)期prophetism ,即那些先知,其工程的一個組成部分了舊約佳能。 The expectations of the Jews were thus kept alive from generation to generation, till the "fulness of the times," when Messiah came, "made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were under the law." In him all these ancient prophecies have their fulfilment.期望猶太人因此得以保持一代一代傳下去,直至" fulness的時代, "當救世主來了, "取得了一名女子,根據該法,以挽救他們都是根據法律規定, "他所有這些古老的預言有自己的滿足。 Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah, the great Deliverer who was to come. (Comp. Matt. 26:54; Mark 9:12; Luke 18:31; 22:37; John 5:39; Acts 2; 16:31; 26:22, 23.) 拿撒勒的耶穌是彌賽亞,大送他來。 ( comp.馬特。 26:54 ;馬克9時12分;盧克18時31分; 22時37分;約翰5點39分;行徑2 ; 16時31分; 26:22 , 23 ) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


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The study of the rise and development of the figure of the Messiah is primarily historical, and then theological.這項研究的興起和發展,數字彌賽亞主要是歷史,然後神學。 Confusion arises when specifically Christian ideas about the Messiah invade the OT data. Jesus' concept of his messianic mission did not accord with contemporary popular Jewish expectation.出現混亂時,專門基督教思想彌賽亞入侵城市旅遊局的數據。 耶穌'的概念,他的彌賽亞使命,不符合當代流行猶太人的期望。

In the OT在城市旅遊局

"Messiah" is the hellenized transliteration of the Aramaic mesiha'. "彌賽亞"是hellenized譯音的阿拉姆語mesiha ' 。 The underlying Hebrew word masiah is derived from masah, "to anoint, smear with oil."底層希伯來語字masiah來自馬薩赫" ,以傅油,抹黑與石油" 。 This title was used sometimes of non-Israelite figures eg, Cyrus in Isa.這個稱號是用來有時非israelite數字,例如,居魯士在伊薩。 45:1 sometimes of the altar as in Exod. 45:1有時走下神壇,因為在exod 。 29:36, sometimes of the prophet as in I Kings 19:16. 29:36 ,有時的先知,因為在I國王19時16分。 But most frequently it referred to the king of Israel as in I Sam.但最常見的,它所指的,以色列的國王,因為在I薩姆。 26:11 and Ps. 26:11和PS 。 89:20. 89:20 。 It is noteworthy that the word "messiah" does not appear at all in the OT (the AV of Dan. 9:25 is incorrect; it ought to read "an anointed one"), and only rarely in the intertestamental literature.值得注意的是,用"救世主" ,似乎並未在所有在催產素(房室丹。 9時25分,是不正確;則應改為"不信任" ) ,而且只有很少在intertestamental文學。 The primary sense of the title is "king," as the anointed man of God, but it also suggests election, ie, the king was chosen, elect, and therefore honored.小學常識的標題是"國王" ,為選定的人的上帝,但它也表明,選舉,即國王的選擇,選出的,因此榮幸。 It could scarcely be otherwise than that it referred to a political leader, for in its early stages Israel sought only a ruler, visible and powerful, who would reign here and now.它可以幾乎沒有別的比它提到政治領袖,因為在早期階段,以色列只要求直尺,可見光和強大,他們將統治現在在這裡。 But the entire evidence of later Judaism points to a Messiah not only as king but as eschatological king, a ruler who would appear at the end time.但整的證據,後來猶太教點至彌賽亞不僅為國王,但由於eschatological國王,統治者將出現在年底的時候。 David was the ideal king of Israel, and as such he had a "sacral" character, and this sacral characteristic came to be applied to the eschatological king who was to be like David.大衛是理想的,以色列的國王,正因為如此,他有一個"薦"字,而這骶特徵後來被應用到eschatological國王的人是像國寶。

How did the national Messiah come to be a future ideal king?怎麼國家彌賽亞來是一個未來的理想君王? After the death of David, Israel began to hope for another like him who would maintain the power and prestige of the country.去世後,大衛,以色列開始向希望再和他一樣,他們將維持權力和威望的國家。 But Israel came into hard times with the rupture of the kingdom, and with this event there arose a disillusionment concerning the hope for a king like David.但以色列誕生的艱難歲月與破裂的王國,並與這一事件有出現幻滅有關寄望於一個國王一樣,大衛。 Then after the Exile, Zerubbabel, a descendant of David, took the leadership of Judah, but it developed that he was not another David.那麼,後流放,所羅巴伯,子孫的國寶,代行領導的猶大,但它開發的,他是不是另一次大衛。 Gradually the hope was projected into the future, and eventually into the very remote future, so that the Messiah was expected at the end of the age.漸漸的希望,預計到未來,並最終成為非常遙遠的未來,使彌賽亞預計在去年底的年齡。

This is the mood of the messianic expectations in the latter part of the OT. 這是情緒的救世主的期望,在後者的一部分職能治療。 Such prophecies are common. 這種預言是常見的。 For example, Jer. 舉例來說,張哲。 33 promises a continuation of the Davidic line; Isa. 33承諾的延續,該davidic線;伊薩。 9 and 11 foresee the regal splendor of the coming king; Mic. 第9和第11預見富豪輝煌的未來國王;麥克風。 5:2 looks forward to the birth of the Davidic king in Bethlehem; and Zech. 5時02分期待著誕生了davidic國王在伯利恆;撒加利亞。 9 and 12 describe the character of the messianic kingdom and reign. 第9和第12形容性格的救世主,英國和統治。

The Son of man figure in Daniel is not to be identified with the Messiah; it is later in the history of Judaism that the two figures were seen to be one.人子人物丹尼爾是不被認定與彌賽亞,它是後來在歷史上的猶太教,這兩個數字被認為是其中一個。 The suffering servant of Isaiah by reason of his role is yet another figure. So the Messiah, or future ideal king of Israel, the Son of man, and the suffering servant were three distinct representations in the OT.痛苦的僕人以賽亞書的理由,他的角色是又一個數字, 所以彌賽亞,或未來的理想,以色列的國王,人子,和痛苦的僕人被三個不同意見書,在城市旅遊局。

In Intertestamental Writings在intertestamental著作

The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha are the literary remains of the evolution of messianic hopes within Judah between the testaments.該apocrypha和pseudepigrapha是文學的遺骸演變救世主希望與猶大之間的見證。 As in the OT the formal use of "Messiah" is rare.如在城市旅遊局正式使用的"彌賽亞" ,是罕見的。 It is well to remember that in this literature there is a distinction between Messiah and messianic; a book may have a messianic theme but lack a Messiah.它是要記住,在這文學是有區別彌賽亞和彌賽亞;一本書,可能有一個救世主式的主題,但缺乏一個彌賽亞。 The book of Enoch is best known for its doctrine of the Son of man, which has many messianic overtones.這本書的伊諾克是最出名的,其學說的人子,有許多救世主的色彩。 Yet he is not the Messiah, but a person much like Daniel's Son of man.但他不是救世主,但是一個人很像丹尼爾的兒子的男子。 It remained to the Psalms of Solomon (ca.48 BC) to provide the one confirmed and repeated evidence of the technical use of the term in the intertestamental literature.它仍然以詩篇所羅門( ca.48公元前) ,以提供一個確認和反复證明了的技術術語的使用在intertestamental文學。 This literature demonstrates, therefore, a diffuse expectation about the Messiah.這表明,文學,因此,一個瀰漫期望彌賽亞。 It speaks of a Messiah of David, of Levi, of Joseph, and of Ephraim.它講一個彌賽亞的國寶,利維,約瑟夫和艾弗冷。 The Dead Sea Scrolls add to the confusion by referring to a Messiah of Aaron and Israel.死海古卷放入混亂時提到了彌賽亞的亞倫和以色列。

Out of the welter of messianic hopes in this period there emerges a pattern: two kinds of Messiah came to be expected.出於複雜的救世主,希望在此期間呈現出一種格局: 2種彌賽亞來到意料中事。 On one hand, there arose an expectation of a purely national Messiah, one who would appear as a man and assume the kingship over Judah to deliver it from its oppressors.一方面,因而產生了一種期望,一種純粹的國家彌賽亞,一個人會出現一名男子,並承擔王位超過猶大來提供從壓迫者。 On the other hand, there was a hope for a transcendent Messiah from heaven, part human, part divine, who would establish the kingdom of God on earth.在另一方面,有一個希望,一個超越救世主從天而降,一部分人,一部分神,他們將建立神的國度地球上。 To the popular Jewish mind of the first two centuries before and after Christ these two concepts were not mutually hostile, but tended rather to modify each other.以廣受歡迎的猶太人心目中的首兩百年前,後基督這兩個概念並不相互敵對,但傾向,而不是改變對方。 It has been argued by some scholars that the conflation of the concepts of Messiah and suffering servant took place in the intertestamental period, but the sole evidence for this is from the Targums, which are post-Christian.它一直辯稱,有學者認為, conflation的概念,彌賽亞和痛苦的僕人發生在intertestamental時期,但唯一的證據就是從targums ,這是後基督徒。

In the NT在新台幣

It remained for Jesus to fuse the three great eschatological representations of the OT, Messiah, suffering servant, and Son of man, into one messianic person. Apart from this truth there is no explanation for the confusion of the disciples when he told them he must suffer and die (Matt. 16:21ff.). 它仍然為耶穌融合三大eschatological交涉,職能治療,彌賽亞,痛苦的僕人,和人子,成為一個救世主的人 ,除了這個真理是沒有解釋為何在混亂的弟子時,他告訴他們,他要蒙受痛苦和死亡。 ( 16時21分幾段) 。 That Christ knew himself to be the Messiah is seen best in his use of the title Son of man; in Mark 14:61-62 he equates the Christ and the Son of man.基督知道自己被彌賽亞被認為是最好的,在他的名銜的使用人子;馬克14:61-62他等同於基督和人子。 "Christ" is simply the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew "messiah." "基督" ,只不過是希臘語相當於希伯來文"彌賽亞" 。 John 1:41 and 4:25 preserve the Semitic idea by transliterating the word "messiah."約翰1時41分和4時25分,保留猶太人的想法transliterating字, "彌賽亞" 。 Jesus willingly accepted the appellation Son of David, a distinct messianic title, on several occasions, the cry of blind Bartimaeus (Mark 10:47ff.), the children in the temple (Matt. 21:15), and the triumphal entry (Matt. 21:9), to name but a few.耶穌心甘情願地接受了稱謂的兒子大衛,一個獨特的救世主的稱號,有幾次,哭瞎bartimaeus (馬克10:47幾段) ,孩子們在寺廟中。 ( 21:15 ) ,和凱旋門進入(馬特。 21時09分) ,是名副其實的少數人。 It has long been wondered why Jesus did not appropriate the title Messiah to himself instead of the less clear title of Son of man.一直以來,不知道為什麼耶穌沒有適當的名稱彌賽亞自己而不是向較不明確的標題人子。 The former was probably avoided out of political considerations, for if Jesus had publicly used "Messiah" of himself it would have ignited political aspirations in his hearers to appoint him as king, principally a nationalistic figure, and to seek to drive out the Roman occupiers.前者可能是避免出於政治上的考慮,因為如果耶穌曾公開用"救世主" ,他自己將點燃的政治訴求,在他的hearers任命他為國王,主要是一個民族的數目,並設法趕走羅馬佔領者。 This is precisely the import of the Jews' action at the triumphal entry.而這也正是進口的猶太人行動,在凱旋門進入。 Jesus seized on the title Son of man to veil to his hearers his messianic mission but to reveal that mission to his disciples.耶穌抓住標題人子,以面紗,以他的hearers他彌賽亞使命,但揭示這一使命,以他的弟子。

The first generation of the church did not hesitate to refer to Jesus as the Christ, and thereby designate him as the greater Son of David, the King.第一代的教會沒有猶豫提及耶穌是基督,從而指定他為大的兒子大衛,國王。 The word was used first as a title of Jesus (Matt. 16:16) and later as part of the personal name (eg, Eph. 1:1).這個詞是用來第一次作為一種所有權的耶穌。 ( 16:16 ) ,後來由於部分個人名義(例如,以弗所書1:1 ) 。 Peter's sermon at Pentecost acknowledged Jesus not only as the Christ, but also as Lord, and so the fulfillment of the messianic office is integrally linked to the essential deity of Jesus.彼得的講道,在聖神降臨承認耶穌不僅為基督,而且作為主,並因此完成了救世主的辦公室是緊密聯繫在一起的基本神耶穌的。 Acts 2:36 affirms that Jesus was "made" Christ, the sense of the verb being that by the resurrection Jesus was confirmed as the Christ, the Messiah of God.行為2時36申明耶穌" , "基督,有責任感的動詞被認為是由復活的耶穌被確認為基督,是彌賽亞的神。 Rom.光盤。 1:4 and Phil. 1:4和菲爾。 2:9-11 contain the same thought. 2:9-11含有相同的思想。 Other messianic titles attributed to Jesus include Servant, Lord, Son of God, the King, the Holy One, the Righteous One, and the Judge.其他救世主職稱歸功於耶穌包括僕人,主啊,上帝的兒子,國王,神聖的,正義的一個,而且法官。

DH Wallace衛生署華萊士

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
S. Mowinckel, He That Cometh; V. Taylor, The Names of Jesus; TW Manson, Jesus the Messiah and The Servant-Messiah; F. Hahn, The Titles of Jesus in Christology; RN Longenecker, The Christology of Early Jewish Christianity; H. Ringgren, The Messiah in the OT; HL Ellison, The Centrality of the Messianic Idea for the OT; HH Rowley, The Servant of the Lord; BB Warfield, "The Divine Messiah in the OT," in Biblical and Theological Studies; J. Klausner, The Messianic Idea in Israel; E. Schurer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ, vol.美國莫溫克爾,他說,人來了;訴泰勒的名字耶穌;星期日曼森,耶穌彌賽亞和僕人-彌賽亞;樓哈恩,職稱耶穌在christology ;氡朗格內克, christology早期猶太基督教;每小時ringgren ,彌賽亞在城市旅遊局;的HL埃利森的中心救世主的理念,為城市旅遊局;個HH rowley ,僕人的主BB心跳沃菲爾德, "神聖的救世主,在城市旅遊局" ,在聖經和神學研究; j.克勞斯內爾,救世主的想法,在以色列;體育schurer ,猶太人歷史的人的年齡耶穌基督,第一卷。 2 (rev.). 2 (修訂版) 。


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Messiah (noun), "anointed one; Messiah."彌賽亞(名詞) , "選定一個;彌賽亞" 。 Of the 39 occurrences of masiah, none occurs in the wisdom literature.對39個發生masiah ,都不是發生在智慧文學。 They are scattered throughout the rest of biblical literary types and periods.他們分散在全國各地,其餘的聖經文學類型和時期。

First, masiah refers to one who is anointed with oil, symbolizing the reception of the Holy Spirit, enabling him to do an assigned task.首先, masiah是指一個人不信任與石油,象徵著接待的聖靈,使他能夠做一個指派的任務。 Kings (1 Sam. 24:6), high priests, and some prophets (1 Kings 19:16) were so anointed: "If the priest that is anointed do sin according to the sin of the people..."國王隊( 1薩姆。 24:6 ) ,高神父,和一些先知( 1國王19時16分) ,所以不信任: "如果神父是選定做單據罪惡的人… … " (Lev. 4:3, the first biblical appearance). ( lev. 4:3 ,第一聖經外觀) 。 In the case of Cyrus, he was anointed with God's Spirit only and commissioned an "anointed deliverer" of Israel (Isa. 45:1).在案件居魯士,他被選定與上帝的精神,只與委託"選定為投遞"的以色列(以賽亞書45:1 ) 。 The patriarchs, too, are called "anointed ones": "Touch not mine anointed, and do my prophets no harm" (Ps. 105:15).該長者,也有所謂的"不信任" : "摸不礦井選定,並盡我的先知,沒有任何傷害" (詩篇105:15 ) 。

Second, the word is sometimes transliterated "Messiah."其次,字是有時譯音"彌賽亞" 。 After the promise to David (2 Sam. 7:13) masiah refers immediately to the Davidic dynasty, but ultimately it points to the "messiah," Jesus the Christ: "The kings of the earth [take their stand], and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against his Anointed..."之後,許大衛( 2薩姆。 7時13分) masiah指立即向davidic王朝,但最終點,以"救世主"耶穌基督說: "國王的地球[考慮他們的立場,而統治者採取律師一起,對主,對他的不信任… … " (Ps. 2:2). (雅歌2:2 ) 。 In Dan.在丹。 9:25 the word is transliterated: "Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince..." 9時25分,語譯音: "知道,所以和了解,從去提出的誡命,以恢復和建立耶路撒冷祂彌賽亞王子… … " The New Testament also attests the word in this latter meaning (John 1:41).新約聖經也證明了這個詞在這後一種含義(約翰1時41分) 。 Most frequently in the New Testament the word is translated ("Christ") rather than transliterated ("Messiah").最常見的,在新約聖經一詞是翻譯( "基督受難記" ) ,而非譯音( "救世主" ) 。


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Messiah (noun), "anointment."彌賽亞(名詞) , " anointment " 。 This noun occurs 21 times and only in Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers.這個名詞出現了21倍,只有在出埃及記,利未記,號碼。 It always follows the Hebrew word for oil.它始終遵循希伯來語意為石油。 The first occurrence is Exod.第一次出現是exod 。 25:6: "Oil for the light, spices for anointing oil, and for sweet incense." 25:6 : "石油換光,香料anointing油,甜,香" 。


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Messiah (verb), to smear with oil or paint, anoint." This verb, which appears 69 times in biblical Hebrew, has cognates in Ugaritic, Akkadian, Aramaic, and Arabic. The objects of this verb are people, sacrificial victims, and objects of this verb in Exod. 30:30: "And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons, and consecrate them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office."彌賽亞(動詞) ,抹黑與油或油漆,傅油"這個動詞,這似乎是69倍,在希伯來語聖經中,有cognates在烏加里特文,阿卡德文,阿拉姆語和阿拉伯語。對象,這個發音的是人作殉葬品,並物體的這一動詞exod 。 30:30 : "你傅油亞倫和他的兒子,並consecrate他們,希望他們可能大臣所不欲,我在牧師的辦公室"主任。


Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

The Name.真實姓名。

The name or title of the ideal king of the Messianic age; used also without the article as a proper name-"Mashiaḥ" (in the Babylonian Talmud and in the midrash literature), like Χριστός in the Gospels.該人的姓名或名稱的理想國王的救世主的時代;使用,也無文章,作為一個適當的名稱-" m ashiaḥ" (在巴比倫猶太法典,並在m idrash文學) ,如χ ριστός在福音。 The Grecized Μεσσιας of the New Testament (John i. 41, iv. 25) is a transliteration of the Aramaic form, Aramaic being the spoken language of Palestine in the time of Jesus.該grecized μεσσιας的新約聖經(約翰一41 ,四25 )是一個音譯的阿拉姆語形式,阿拉姆語作為口語的,在巴勒斯坦的時候,耶穌。 "The Messiah" (with the article and not in apposition with another word) is, however, not an Old Testament expression, but occurs for the first time in apocalyptic literature. "彌賽亞" (即文章,並沒有在apposition與另一詞) ,但不是一個舊約表達,但出現的第一時間,在世界末日的文學作品。 Similarly, in all probability the use of the word "Mashiaḥ" to denote the Messianic king is not found earlier than the apocalyptic literature.同樣,在所有的概率一詞的使用" mashiaḥ " ,是指具有救世主國王是沒有發現早於世界末日文學。 In the Old Testament the earliest use of the word is with Yhwh (or with a pronominal suffix referring to Yhwh) as a title of the ruling sovereign Meshiaḥ Yhwh ("God's anointed one"; I Sam. ii. 10, 35; xii. 3, 5; xvi. 6; xxvi. 9, 11, 16, 23; II Sam. i. 14, 16; xix. 21; II Chron. vi. 42; Ps. xviii. 51 [AV 50]; xx. 7 [AV 6]; cxxxii. 17 [applying to David]; Lam. iv. 20).在舊約中最早使用這個詞是與yhwh (或以代詞後綴指yhwh )作為一種所有權的執政黨主權meshiaḥ yhwh ( "上帝的不信任之一" ,我心二。 10 ,第35條;十二。三,五;第十六6段;二十六。 9 , 11 ,第16 ,第23條;二,三:一, 14 , 16 ;十九。 21 ;二,慢性六。 42 ;聚苯乙烯。十八。 51 [視聽50 〕 ;二十。 7 [影音6 ] ; cxxxii 17條[適用於大衛] ;欖第四節20條) 。 In post-exilic times, the high priest, filling the place formerly occupied by the king, is spoken of as "ha-Kohen ha-Mashiaḥ" (the anointed priest; Lev. iv. 3, 5, 16; vi. 5), also (Dan. ix. 25, 26) as "Mashiaḥ Nagid" (an anointed one, a ruler) and simply "Mashiaḥ" (an anointed one), referring to Onias III.在後exilic倍,大祭司,灌裝地點前身由國王,是口語的"夏kohen夏mashiaḥ " (即選定的神父;列弗。四,三,五, 16歲;六。 5 ) ,也( dan.九, 25日, 26日)作為" mashiaḥ nagid " (一個選定一,由統治者)和簡單的" mashiaḥ " (一種不信任的一個) ,是指阿尼亞三。 As the anointing of the high priest consecrated him above all his brethren to God's service and gave him immediate access to God (comp. Lev. viii. 12, xxi. 10-12; Zech. iii. 7), so the anointing of the king made him Meshiaḥ Yhwh, placed him in a special relationship to God, and established him as the one chosen by God to represent His rulership in Israel and to bear witness to His glory before the nations (comp. II Sam. vii. 8-11, 14; Isa. lv. 4; Ps. lxxxix. 4, 21-29).作為anointing的高級神職人員consecrated他上述所有他的弟兄,以上帝的服務,並讓他立即查閱神( comp.列弗。八,十二,二十一, 10日至12日;撒加利亞三7 ) ,所以anointing的國王,使他meshiaḥ yhwh ,放在他的特殊關係,向上帝,並確立他作為一個選擇的上帝,以代表他的統治在以色列,並見證他的榮耀之前,聯合國( comp.二薩姆七。八日- 11日, 14日;伊薩。呂4段;聚苯乙烯。 lxxxix 。 4 , 21-29 ) 。 As "God's anointed one" the king was sacrosanct and inviolable (comp. I Sam. xxvi. 9). "上帝的選定一個"國王是神聖不可侵犯和不可侵犯( comp. i山姆。二十六。 9 ) 。 Hence the later applications of the title "Meshiaḥ Yhwh" in the Old Testament.因此,後來申請的題目是" meshiaḥ yhwh " ,在舊約。

In Isa.在伊薩。 xlv.四十五。 1 Cyrus is called "God's anointed one," because God has called him and given him victory after victory for the distinct purpose of putting an end to the Babylonian kingdom and the worship of idols, of setting free exiled Israel, and thus introducing the new era of God's universal dominion.居魯士一日,是所謂"上帝的選定一" ,因為上帝已經叫他,並給了他的勝利,勝利後,為鮮明的目的,從而結束了巴比倫王國和崇拜的偶像,設置免費流亡以色列,因此,引進新時代上帝的普遍統治。 In Ps.在PS 。 cv.簡歷。 15 the Patriarchs are called "God's anointed ones" because they are under the special protection of God and therefore inviolable. 15 patriarchs被稱為"上帝的不信任"的,因為他們都受到特別的保護神,因此,不可侵犯的。 Finally, in Hab.最後,在民政事務局。 iii.三。 13, Ps. 13 ,聚苯乙烯。 xxviii.二十八。 8, lxxxiv. 8 , lxxxiv 。 10 (AV9), and possibly in lxxxix. 10 ( av9 ) ,並也有可能在lxxxix 。 39, 52 (AV 38, 51), the title is applied to Israel, God's chosen people. 39 , 52 (房室38 , 51 ) ,題目是適用於以色列,上帝的子民。 See Anointing.見anointing 。

"Mashiaḥ" (anointed one of God) in Ps. " mashiaḥ " (選定的一個神)在PS 。 ii.二。 2, which was formerly thought to have Messianic reference, is now taken as referring either to a Hasmonean king or to Israel. 2 ,它的前身是被認為有救世主參考,現在採取的是指無論是一個hasmonean國王或以色列。 The latter interpretation is that prevailing in the Midrash (comp. Midr. Rabbah and Tanḥuma, Emor; Yalḳuṭ, Toledot, near end; Midr. Shoḥer Ṭob, ad loc.), though the Messianic interpretation occurs in the eschatological description (Pesiḳ. Zuṭarta, Balaḳ).後者的解釋是盛行於midrash ( comp. midr 。 rabbah和tanḥuma , emor ; yalḳuṭ , toledot ,近底; midr 。 shoḥer ṭob ,專案同上) ,雖然救世主的解釋是發生在eschatological描述( pesiḳ. zuṭarta , balaḳ ) 。

The Ideal in Isaiah.理想在以賽亞書。

But though the name is of later origin, the idea of a personal Messiah runs through the Old Testament.不過,雖然名字是後來的原產地,構思一個個人彌賽亞貫穿舊約。 It is the natural outcome of the prophetic future hope.這是自然的結果,預言未來的希望。 The first prophet to give a detailed picture of the future ideal king was Isaiah (ix. 1-6, xi. 1-10, xxxii. 1-5).第一先知作出詳細勾劃了未來的理想國王以賽亞書( ix. 1-6 ,十一1-10 ,三十二1-5 ) 。 Of late the authenticity of these passages, and also of those passages in Jeremiah and Ezekiel which give expression to the hope in a Messiah, has been disputed by various Biblical scholars (comp. Hackmann, "Die Zukunftserwartung des Jesaiah"; Volz, "Die Vorexilische Jahweprophetie und der Messias"; Marti, "Gesch. der Israelitischen Religion," pp. 190 et seq.; idem, "Das Buch Jesaia"; Cheyne, "Introduction to Isaiah," and edition and transl. of Isaiah in "SBOT").晚期的真實性,這些通道的,也是這些通道耶利米和以西結書,其中表達了希望在彌賽亞,一直有爭議的,由各種聖經學者( comp. hackmann , "死zukunftserwartung萬jesaiah " ; volz , "死vorexilische jahweprophetie und明鏡messias " ;馬蒂, " gesch 。明鏡israelitischen宗教" ,第190頁起;同上, "之buch jesaia " ;進益, "引進來,以以賽亞書" ,並版和譯的。以賽亞書" sbot " ) 。

The objections of these scholars, however, rest principally on the hypothesis that the idea of the Messiah is inseparably bound up with the desire for universal dominion, whereas, in reality, this feature is not a characteristic of the Messianic hope until a later stage of its development.反對的這些學者,但是,其餘主要是關於假說,這一構想的彌賽亞,是相輔相成的約束與慾望普遍統治,而在現實中,這個功能是沒有的一個特點救世主的希望,直到後期它的發展。 The ideal king to whom Isaiah looks forward will be a scion of the stock of Jesse, on whom will rest the spirit of God as a spirit of wisdom, valor, and religion, and who will rule in the fear of God, his loins girt with righteousness and faithfulness (xi. 1-3a, 5).理想國王向誰以賽亞期待將是一個接穗的存量傑西,誰將會休息上帝的精神,作為精神的智慧,勇氣,信仰和宗教,會由誰來統治的恐懼上帝,他loins girt與正義和忠信( xi. 1 -第3 A , 5 ) 。 He will not engage in war or in the conquest of nations; the paraphernalia of war will be destroyed (ix. 4); his sole concern will be to establish justice among his people (ix. 6b; xi. 3b, 4).他將不得從事戰爭或征服的國家;用具的戰爭將被銷毀( ix. 4 ) ,他唯一關心的將是建立正義,他的人( ix. 6B型;十一。 3B室4 ) 。 The fruit of his righteous government will be peace and order throughout the land.水果的他的正義,政府將和平與秩序的土地。 The lamb will not dread the wolf, nor will the leopard harm the kid (xi. 8); that is, as the following verse explains, tyranny and violence will no longer be practised on God's holy mountain, for the land will be full of the knowledge of God as the water covers the sea (comp. xxxii. 1, 2, 16).羔羊不會害怕狼,也將雲豹傷害流星語( xi. 8 ) ,即是由於下列詩句解釋說,專制和暴力將不再實行上帝的聖山,為使土地將充滿認識上帝作為水涵蓋海( comp.三十二, 1 , 2 , 16 ) 。 The people will not aspire to political greatness, but will lead a pastoral life (xxxii. 18, 20).人民不會渴望政治偉大,但將率領一個田園生活( xxxii. 18日, 20日) 。 Under such ideal conditions the country can not but prosper, nor need it fear attack from outside nations (ix. 6a, xxxii. 15).在這種理想條件下,國家不能不繁榮,也需要它害怕攻擊來自境外國家( ix. 6A條三十二, 15 ) 。 The newly risen scion of Jesse will stand forth as a beacon to other nations, and they will come to him for guidance and arbitration (xi. 10).新增加接穗的傑西會站出來作為一個燈塔,給其它國家,他們會來,他指導和仲裁( xi. 10 ) 。 He will rightly be called "Wonderful Counselor," "Godlike Hero," "Constant Father," "Prince of Peace" (ix. 5).他將正確地被稱為"美妙的輔導員" , "神聖的英雄" , "恆父親" , "和平王子" ( ix. 5 ) 。

The "Immanuel" Passage. "沐"通道。

This picture of the future fully accords with Isaiah's view, that the judgment will lead to a spiritual regeneration and bring about a state of moral and religious perfection; and it agrees also with the doctrine, which, in his bitter opposition to the alliances with Assyria and Egypt, he preached to his people-the doctrine, namely, that their sole concern should be God and their sole reliance be on Him, for thus, and thus only, might they endure (vii. 9; comp. also v. 4, viii. 13, xxx. 15).這一幅未來完全符合以賽亞書的觀點,他們的判斷,將導致一種精神的再生和實現一個國家的道德和宗教的完善;而且還同意與學說,其中,在他的痛苦,反對以合縱assyria和埃及之後,他鼓吹說,以他的人本主義,即,他們唯一關心的,應該上帝和他們唯一的依賴於他,因此,因此,只可能是他們忍受( vii. 9 ;可比,而且訴四日,八,十三,三十。 15 ) 。 The prophets advocated a government which would be in conformity with God's will and be regulated by His laws of righteousness.先知們主張政府將在符合上帝的意志和調節他的法律是正義的。 In connection with Isaiah's Messianic hope it remains to be observed that the "Immanuel" passage, Isa.涉嫌與以賽亞書的救世主,希望它仍然有待觀察,認為"沐"通道,伊薩。 vii.七。 14, which is interpreted in Matt. 14 ,這是詮釋馬特。 i.一。 23 as referring to the birth of Jesus, has, as Robertson Smith ("The Prophets of Israel," pp. 271 et seq., 426 et seq.) and others have pointed out, no Messianic import whatever. 23指耶穌誕生的,正如羅伯遜史密斯(以下簡稱"以色列的先知" ,頁271頁起, 426頁起)和其他人所指出的那樣,沒有救世主,進口什麼。 The name has reference merely to events of the immediate present.名稱參考只是事件立即出席。 He means to give a token by which the truth of his prophetic word may be tested, saying that any young woman giving birth to a son in the near future will call him "Immanuel" (= "God with us"), in remembrance of the withdrawal of the Syrian-Ephraimitic armies from the country (v. 16).他的意思給予一個道理,其中的真相,他的預言果然字,可測試,說什麼年輕女子,生下一個兒子,在不久的將來會稱呼他為"沐" ( = "神與我們" ) ,以紀念撤回敘ephraimitic軍隊從該國(五16 ) 。 "'Almah" does not mean "virgin" (as given in AV and other versions; the only word meaning this is "betulah"), but "a young woman sexually mature," whether married or unmarried; the article "ha-" of "ha-'almah" is the generic article. " ' almah "並不等於"處女" (因為在AV與其他版本;唯一的詞義,這就是" betulah " ) ,而"一名年輕女性性成熟" ,不論已婚或未婚;文章稱"房委會" "夏'almah "是通用的文章。

In Jeremiah and Ezekiel.在耶利米和以西結。

The idea of a personal Messiah is not met with again until the time of Jeremiah and Ezekiel (the Messianic picture of Micah v. 1, 3-8, as is proved by the fact that in it Israel and the Messiah hold dominion over the nations, according to this view can not be a pre-exilic product of prophecy; in fact, it must have originated late in post-exilic times).構思一個個人的救世主,是不是見了再次到的時候,耶利米和以西結(救世主圖片的彌迦五1 , 3-8 ,為的是證明了一個事實,即它在以色列和彌賽亞舉行統治該國根據這種看法,不能算是一個預exilic產品的預言;事實上,它必須源自已故後exilic倍) 。 Jeremiah's picture of the Messiah is not a detailed one; but, like his future hope in general, it agrees in all essentials with that of Isaiah.耶利米的圖片的彌賽亞,是不是一個詳細的一個,但像他的未來的希望,一般來說,它同意在所有必需品的事實以賽亞書。 The Messiah will be "a righteous sprout of David," who will establish just judgment and wise government in the country, and whose name will be (= "God is our salvation"; xxiii. 5, 6; these two verses recur in almost the same form in xxxiii. 15, 16, but in the latter verse the name is applied to Jerusalem, an application which did not originate with Jeremiah. Ch. xxx. 9 et seq., 21 does not claim consideration here, as it is of later origin).彌賽亞將是"正義的萌芽國寶" ,他們將建立公正的判斷和明智的政府在該國,其名稱後,將( = "上帝是我們的救贖" ;二十三, 5日, 6日,這兩個小詩重現差不多同樣的形式,在三十三。 15 , 16 ,但在後者的詩的名字是適用於耶路撒冷,申請並非源於與耶利米。甲烷XXX計劃9段及以下各段,有21人未考慮,在這裡,因為這是後來出身) 。

In Ezekiel, the Messiah is a purely passive figure, the only personal reference to him being in xvii.在以西結書,彌賽亞是一個純粹被動的數字中,只有個人參考,以他在十七。 23-"he will become a mighty cedar" (Hebr.). 23 -"他將成為一支強大的杉樹" ( h ebr.) 。 The regeneration of the people, like their restoration, is exclusively the work of God.再生的人,如同他們的修復工作,完全是天主的工程。

But in xxxiv.但在三十四。 23 et seq., xxxvii. 23段及以下各段,三十七。 24 et seq., which passages date from exilic times, there is an entirely new feature-the prophecy that David will be the king of the future state. 24段及以下各段,其中機票,日期從exilic時代,有一個完全新的特徵預言國寶將成為國王的未來狀態。 As after the decline of the Holy Roman Empire the saga arose of the return of the emperor-hero Barbarossa, so, after the fall of the nation, the Jews of the Exile dreamed of the coming of a second David, who would reestablish them as a glorious nation.作為後下降的神聖羅馬帝國的傳奇產生了歸還天皇英雄巴巴羅薩,所以淪陷後,對民族,猶太人的流亡夢見未來的第二個大衛,他們將重塑他們作為一項光榮的民族。 So Ezekiel lays emphasis on the fact that the future Israel is to be a united nation as it was under David of old.所以以西結書,重點放在對事實,即今後以色列將是一個團結的民族,因為它是根據大衛歲。 The hope in the return of David is expressed also in the spurious passage mentioned above (Jer. xxx. 9) and in the gloss to Hos.希望在返回的是國寶也表示,在雜散通過上述( jer.三十。九日) ,並在光澤,以居者有其屋。 iii.三。 5 ("and David their king"), and ismet with sporadically also in Neo-Hebraic apocalyptic literature (see below). 5 ( "大衛國王" ) ,並與伊斯梅特塞茲還斷斷續續地在新hebraic世界末日文學(見下文) 。 In post-exilic prophetic literature the hope in a Messiah is found only in the first two prophets of the post-exilic community, Haggai and Zechariah, and in Deutero-Zechariah, ch.在後exilic先知性的文獻,希望在一個彌賽亞發現只有在首兩年的先知後exilic社區,哈該書和zechariah ,並在deutero - zechariah ,甲烷。 ix., which, probably, dates from the time of the Seleucids.九,其中,大概日期,從當時的塞留西士。 Haggai and Zechariah see in Zerubbabel the promised "sprout of David"; but they state merely that he will rebuild the Temple and attain great eminence as a ruler (Hag. ii. 23; Zech. iii. 8, vi. 12).哈該書和zechariah看到,在所羅巴伯所承諾的"萌芽的國寶" ,但他們的狀態,只是說,他將重建廟宇,並實現偉大隆起作為一個統治者( hag.二, 23歲;撒加利亞三,八,六, 12 ) 。

Deutero-Zechariah's Messiah has much in common with Isaiah's. deutero - zechariah的彌賽亞有很多共同之處,與以賽亞書的。 He is described (Zech. ix. 9, 10) as a righteous Prince of Peace, who will rise from the ranks of the pious and oppressed, who will ride into Jerusalem not in military splendor, but on an ass (comp. Jesus' entry into Jerusalem on an ass, and also Ibn Ḳuṭaibah's account of Salman, the governor of Medina at the time of the dissensions of the califs, who rode upon an ass in order to show his advocacy of peace).他描述了( zech.九,九,十)作為一個正義和平王子,他們將崛起,從職級的虔誠和壓迫,他們將乘坐到耶路撒冷不是軍事的輝煌,但將其作為一種驢( comp.耶穌'進入耶路撒冷的一個驢,也伊本ḳuṭaibah的帳戶薩勒曼,省長麥迪在的時候,該糾紛的califs ,他們騎上後,是愚蠢的事物,以示其倡導的和平) 。 For, unlike worldly rulers, he will not maintain his dominion by the sword-he will destroy all the instruments of war (if, instead of , is read in accordance with the LXX. , 3d sm); but, by his jurisdiction, which will extend to the ends of the earth, he will establish peace among the nations.為有別於世俗的統治者,他將不會維持他的統治,由劍-他會摧毀所有的戰爭工具(如果不是,是讀遵照l xx,三維S M)的,但他的管轄權,這將延伸至兩端的地球,他將建立各國之間的和平。 Thus Deutero-Zechariah's conception of the Messiah combines Isaiah's conception with the hope of world-dominion cherished by his own age.因此deutero - zechariah的構想彌賽亞結合以賽亞書的構想與希望的世界統治所珍視自己的年齡。

Ideal of the Second Isaiah.理想的第二以賽亞。

The personal Messiah does not figure at all in the future hope of Deutero-Isaiah, whose lofty universalism marks the final step in the development of the religious ideas of the Prophets.個人彌賽亞不圖所有,在未來的希望deutero -以賽亞書,其崇高的普遍性,標誌著最後一步,在發展的宗教思想的先知。 The salvation of mankind is the goal of history, and Israel's prerogative becomes but the privilege of suffering for the good of the whole world.人類的拯救,是目標的歷史和以色列的特權,而是成為特權的痛苦,為促進整個世界。 God has called Israel for the realization of His purpose toward man.上帝已要求以色列為實現他的目的,對男子。 Israel, and not an individual, is "the servant of God" (Isa. xlii. 1-6, xlix. 1-6, l. 4-9, lii. 13-liii. 12), through whom the regeneration of mankind will be accomplished, who will spread the true religion among all nations, convert all men into willing servants of God, and lead all tongues to confess Him (xlv. 23).以色列,而不是一個單獨的,是"僕人,以神之名" (以賽亞四十二, 1-6 , xlix 1-6 , 4-9的影響,第五十二13 - liii 12 ) ,並通過再生的全人類將完成的,他們將散佈真實的宗教所有國家之間,將所有男人願意到公務員的上帝,並帶領所有舌頭供認他( xlv. 23 ) 。 Naturally, not the actual Israel of the present is meant, but the ideal Israel of the future, risen to spiritual heights in consequence of his wonderful deliverance by God.當然,並非實際的以色列的本意思,但理想以色列的未來,上升到精神的高度,因此他的奇妙的解脫都是神安排的。 For this high destiny Israel has been especially fitted by reason of the religious experience which God has stored up in him in the course of his history; and, by submitting, in accordance with God's will, to suffering and ignominy, he fulfils his mission and advances toward his final goal.對於如此高的命運,以色列一直是擬合原因的宗教經驗,其中神積蓄了,在他在這個過程中他的歷史,並提交了,按照上帝的意志,苦難和屈辱,他履行自己的使命與進步對他的最終目標。 In Isa.在伊薩。 ii.二。 1-4 and Micah iv. 1-4和彌迦四。 1-4 there is the same picture of the Messianic future as in Deutero-Isaiah-Jerusalem as the religious center of the world, whence salvation will radiate to all men-but contain the additional promise that universal peace will ensue in consequence thereof. 1-4有同一圖片的救世主未來在deutero -以賽亞-耶路撒冷為宗教世界的中心,何時救國會輻射到所有男性,但含有額外承諾,世界和平將接踵而至,在後果。 In like manner the post-exilic prophets Trito-Isaiah, Malachi, and Joel, and the post-exilic Apocalypse of Isaiah, xxiv.-xxvii., have no personal Messiah.在地後exilic先知trito -以賽亞書,瑪拉基書,和Joel ,與後exilic啟示以賽亞書, xxiv. -二十七,沒有個人的救世主。 According to them, God Himself, without the instrumentality of a man, will redeem Israel from his present misery and bring about the new era of salvation.據他們說,上帝本身,如果沒有工具的一名男子,將贖回以色列從他目前的苦難和帶來新的時代的救贖。 The conclusion, however, of Malachi (the authorship of which is doubtful) speaks of a messenger, Elijah, whom God will send to convert men and thus pave the way for His own coming.得出這樣的結論,然而,在瑪拉基書(作者是疑問)講一個信使,以利亞人,上帝將派遣轉換成男性,從而鋪平道路,他自己的未來。

In the Apocrypha.在apocrypha 。

As in the prophetic writings just enumerated, so in the Apocrypha of the Old Testament the figure of the Messiah has no prominence whatever.在先知性著作剛才列舉的,所以在apocrypha的舊約的數字彌賽亞沒有突出什麼。 In I Maccabees there is a brief general reference to the promise given to David, that his throne would be reestablished (ii. 57), but Ecclesiasticus, Judith, Tobit, Baruch, II Maccabees, and the Wisdom of Solomon contain no mention of the Davidic hope.在I馬加比有一個簡短的一般性參考,以許諾給大衛,他的寶座,將重新確立( ii. 57 ) ,但ecclesiasticus ,朱迪思,以Tobit , baruch ,二馬加比,和智慧的所羅門含有沒有提及該davidic希望。 The Hellenistic author of the Wisdom of Solomon is so thoroughly universalistic that the idea of a Messiah is precluded.希臘作者的智慧,所羅門是如此徹底帶有普遍性,這一構想一彌賽亞排除。 His eschatological picture shows no nationalistic feature whatever.他eschatological圖示,沒有民族特色,諸如此類。

Alexander as Messiah.亞歷山大作為彌賽亞。

The natural deduction from the facts thus far outlined is that while from the time of the Prophets the belief in an ideal future determined the character and tendency of Jewish religious life and thought to such an extent that this belief may be called the special characteristic of the Jewish genius, still, in the periods thus far covered, the idea of a personal Messiah is far from having that general prominence which one would, at first, be inclined to assume.自然剋扣事實迄今為止所概述的是,雖然從時間的先知們相信,在一個理想的未來,決定了性質和發展趨勢的猶太宗教生活和思想到如此地步,這信仰可以被稱為特殊特徵之一猶太人的天才,但是,在這段時期,所以到目前為止,有蓋,重新認識個人彌賽亞是遠遠沒有一般突出哪一個會,首先會傾向於承擔。 Further, it has been seen how Deutero-Isaiah heralded Cyrus as the favorite of God, the hero called by God to introduce the new era of universal bliss.此外,它一直被外界如何deutero -以賽亞書推崇居魯士為喜愛的神,英雄,所謂的上帝,以引進新的時代的普遍幸福。 In like manner, no doubt, as Kampers has shown in his "Alexander der Grosse und die Idee des Weltimperiums in Prophetie und Sage," the Jewish contemporaries of Alexander the Great, dazzled by his glorious achievements, hailed him as the divinely appointed deliverer, the inaugurator of the period of universal peace promised by the Prophets.同樣,毫無疑問,作為坎佩斯顯示,在他的"亞歷山大明鏡grosse und模具idee萬weltimperiums在prophetie und賢者, "猶太同時代的亞歷山大大帝,沖昏了頭腦他的光輝業績,稱讚他為神任命為投遞,該inaugurator的期限普遍和平的承諾,由先知。 Proof of this is: (1) The legend related in Josephus ("Ant." xi. 8) and in the Talmud (Yoma 67b) of the audience of the high priest Jaddua (in the Talmud it is Simon the Just) with Alexander the Great in Gaza.這方面的證據是: ( 1 )有關的傳說,在約瑟夫(下稱"螞蟻" 。十一, 8 )和在猶太法典( yoma 67b )的觀眾的最高祭司jaddua (在猶太法典,它是西蒙公正)與亞歷山大偉大在加沙。 Alexander recognizes in the high priest the man who had appeared to him in a dream, urging him to the conquest of Asia and promising him that he himself would lead his army and deliver the Persian kingdom into his hands; he prostrates himself to worship God, whose name he sees inscribed on the plate of gold on the high priest's cidaris, accompanies the high priest to Jerusalem to sacrifice to God in His Temple, and is there shown the Book of Daniel, in which it is written that the Persian kingdom will be conquered by a Greek-a prophecy which Alexander applies to himself.亞歷山大承認,在大祭司該名男子曾出現在他面前一個夢想,希望他征服亞洲和大有希望的,他表示,他本人將帶領他的軍隊,並提供波斯王國進他的手中,他prostrates自己崇拜上帝,他的名字,他看到名單上標示的黃金最高祭司的cidaris ,伴隨著高神父,以耶路撒冷為犧牲向上帝在他的廟宇,並有證明這本書的丹尼爾,它是寫說波斯語英國將征服希臘的一個預言,其中亞歷山大適用於自己。 (2) The various sagas which sprang up about Alexander, chiefly among the Jews in Alexandria, and out of which the Alexander romance of pseudo-Callisthenes grew, the only explanation of which is that Alexander had once been the central figure in their future hope. ( 2 )各種傳奇故事,其中擺出來,大約亞歷山大,其中主要是猶太人,在亞歷山德里亞,出於何種亞歷山大演義偽callisthenes成長,唯一的解釋就是亞歷山大曾經一直是焦點人物,在他們未來的希望。 (3) The apocalyptic traditions about Alexander the Great in medieval apocalyptic literature and also in the midrashic literature-for example, the tradition (mentioned by Josephus) of Alexander imprisoning Gog and Magog behind the mountains of darkness in the far north. ( 3 )世界末日傳統,對亞歷山大大帝於中世紀世界末日文學也應在米大示解經文學-舉例來說,傳統(提到約瑟夫)的亞歷山大囚禁gog和瑪後面山上的黑暗,在遙遠的北方。 The version of this legend given by Jacob of Serug (521 CE) and in the Koran, sura 18 (comp.Kampers, lc pp. 73, 76 et seq.) leaves no doubt that it was purely of apocalyptic origin.該版的傳說賦予雅各布的serug ( 521行政長官)和可蘭經,蘇拉18 ( comp.kampers ,立法會第73 , 76 ,等等)毫無疑問,這是純粹的世界末日的原產地。

But while all these hopes centering in Alexander the Great bear witness to the liberality and broad-mindedness of the Jews of that time, they, on the other hand, corroborate the conclusion, expressed above, that the hope in the Messiah had, as yet, no definite form and can not have been commonly an article of faith.不過,雖然所有這些希望圍繞在亞歷山大大帝見證了自由精神和廣闊的胸襟的猶太人的那些日子裡,他們,但另一方面,佐證,得出這樣的結論,表達了以上的表示,希望在彌賽亞了,但是,至今尚未,沒有明確的形式,不能得到普遍的一個信條。 This is true, not only of the time of Alexander the Great, but even as late as the first period of apocalyptic literature, and is proved by the absence of a personal Messiah in the oldest apocalyptic writing, the Book of Daniel, as well as in the oldest part of the Book of Enoch ("The Apocalypse of the Ten Weeks") and in the Book of Jubilees, which also date from the Maccabean period, apart from the fact, pointed out above, that in the contemporaneous apocrypha there is but vague reference to the Messiah.這是事實,而不是只的時候,亞歷山大大帝,但即使是深夜,第一期的世界末日文學,並證明沒有一個個人彌賽亞在最古老的世界末日的寫作,這本書的丹尼爾,以及在最古老的一部分,這本書的伊諾克(以下簡稱"啟示十個星期" ) ,並在書中的jubilees ,其中還日期從maccabean期間,除了來自這樣一個事實,上文指出,在當代apocrypha有但含糊提到彌賽亞。 The "one of the likeness of man" ("ke-bar enash") of Dan. "其中一個最相似的人" (簡稱"克酒吧enash " )的丹。 vii.七。 13 (Hebr.), to whom the rulership in the divine world-monarchy will be entrusted, is, according to the author's own explanation (vii. 18, 22, 27), the nation of God's holy ones (ie, the faithful Jews). 13 ( hebr. ) ,向誰統治在神聖的世界-君主制將委託,是根據作者自己的解釋( vii. 18 , 22 , 27 ) ,對民族,上帝的神聖性(即,忠實猶太人) 。 These constitute the earthly representatives of God in the "civitas Dei," and in contrast to the other nations of the world, who are represented under the figures of animals, they are represented under the figure of a man in order to signify that in them the divine ideal of manhood has preserved itself most faithfully.這些構成了人間的代表神,在"公民以dei , "與此相反,向世界其他國家,他們是根據代表的數字動物,他們是根據代表的數字一名男子為了表示對他們的神聖的理想的男子氣概保留了自己最忠實的。

Rise of Popular Belief in a Personal Messiah.崛起的民間信仰,在個人彌賽亞。

Not until after the fall of the Maccabean dynasty, when the despotic government of Herod the Great and his family, and the increasing tyranny of the Roman empire had made their condition ever more unbearable, did the Jews seek refuge in the hope of a personal Messiah.直到淪陷後,該maccabean清朝時,專制的政府希律偉大和他的家人,以及日益專制的羅馬帝國取得了他們的情況以往任何時候都更加難以忍受時,有沒有猶太人尋求庇護,希望能以個人的救世主。 They yearned for the promised deliverer of the house of David, who would free them from the yoke of the hated foreign usurper, would put an end to the impious Roman rule, and would establish His own reign of peace and justice in its place.他們渴望已承諾的投遞眾議院大衛,他們將免除他們的枷鎖所仇視外國篡權,將結束該impious羅馬統治,將建立自己的統治和平與正義代行其職務。 In this way their hopes became gradually centered in the Messiah.這樣,他們的希望逐漸集中在彌賽亞。 As evidence that in the Roman period the Messianic hope had become universal among the Jews may be adduced: (1) Jesus' conviction that he was the Messiah, a conviction inspired in him by the current belief in a Messiah, as is shown by the fact that on his entry into Jerusalem the populace hailed him as such; (2) the testimony of Josephus ("BJ" vi. 5, § 4), Tacitus ("Hist." v. 13), and Suetonius (Vespasian, iv.) regarding the Messianic belief of the Jewish people at that time; (3) the fact that even in Philo's picture of the future, in spite of its moralistic tendency, the Messianic king has a place (comp. "De Præmiis et Pœnis," § 16).作為證據,在古羅馬時期救世主的希望已成為普遍其中猶太人可提出: ( 1 )耶穌的信念,即他是救世主,一個信念在激勵著他,由現行的信仰在一個救世主,因為已經呈現出來事實是,他進入耶路撒冷民眾稱讚他為這樣的, ( 2 )的證詞,約瑟夫( " BJ的"六。 5 , § 4 ) ,塔西佗( " 250 "五13 ) ,蘇埃托尼烏斯( vespasian ,四)關於救世主的信念,猶太人民在那個時間; ( 3 )事實上,即使在斐洛的勾劃了未來的,儘管它的道德傾向,在救世主的國王有一個地方( comp. "德præmiis等pœnis , " § 16 ) 。 It may be noted in this connection that the "Prayer for the Coming of the Messiah," as the version of it given both in the Babylonian and in the Palestinian recensions of the Shemoneh 'Esreh shows (see Nos. 14 and 15 respectively), can not have become an integral part of the daily prayers later than the time immediately following the destruction of the Temple, for in that period the "Shemoneh 'Esreh" received its present form.可以指出,在這方面說, "祈禱,為未來的彌賽亞, "由於版本的,它給雙方在巴比倫,並在巴勒斯坦recensions的shemoneh ' esreh顯示(見第14及15條) ;不能成為不可分割的一部分,每天禱告不遲時間後立即銷毀廟,因為在這期間, " shemoneh ' esreh "收到它目前的形式。 Hillel's assertion (Sanh. 98b) that there would be no future Messiah for Israel since the latter had had its Messiah in the days of Hezekiah, can have no weight as a contrary argument, as Hillel lived in the reign of Herod the Great, at the beginning of the period which marks the development of the popular belief in the Messiah. hillel的斷言( sanh. 98b )表示,將不會有未來的彌賽亞,為以色列,因為後者有其彌賽亞在天hezekiah ,不可能有任何的重量作為一個相反的意見,作為hillel住在腥風血雨的希律偉大的,在期開始,標誌著發展的民間信仰中的救世主。

Development of Conception.的發展構想。

As the future hopes of the Jews became Messianic in character the figure of the Messiah assumed a central and permanent place in apocalyptic literature; and as apocalyptic literature in general, so the Messiah-concept in particular, embodies a multitude of bizarre fantasies which can not possibly be reconciled or woven into anything like a connected picture.作為未來的希望的,猶太人成了救世主,在性格的數字彌賽亞擺出中央常設發生在世界末日的文獻,並且隨著世界末日的文獻一般,所以彌賽亞概念,尤其是體現了眾多的離奇幻想,而不能可能調和或編織成什麼關連圖片。 There are many factors which contributed to this manifold and variegated imagery.有許多因素促成了這種流形和雜色意象。 Not only was all the Messianic and quasi-Messianic material of the Scriptures collected, and out of it, by means of subtle combinations, after the manner of the Midrash, a picture of the Messiah sedulously drawn, but everything poetical or figurative in the Prophets' descriptions of the future was taken in a literal sense and expounded and dogmatized accordingly.不僅是所有的救世主和準救世主材料的發展經文收集,並利用它,即通過微妙的組合,當地的midrash ,圖片的彌賽亞刻意繪就,但一切詩意或圖形在先知'說明了未來的是在考慮字面意義,並闡述了與dogmatized 。 Many foreign elements, moreover, crept in at this time and became part of the general potpourri of imagery relating to the Messiah.很多外國元素,而且,形勢急轉直下,在這個時候,並成為部分一般文摘的意象有關彌賽亞。 This being the case, an exceedingly complex and difficult question arises-where, in the Messiah-pictures, and, indeed, in the pictures of the future in general, presented by apocalyptic literature, has one to deal with organic development from prophetic ideas, and where with foreign religious elements?在這種情況下,是一個極其複雜和困難的問題是哪裡,在彌賽亞-圖片, ,而事實上,在照片上的未來,一般由世界末日文學,有一個處理有機的發展,從先知性的想法,而與外國宗教分子? At present it is not possible to form a final judgment in regard to the place of origin of these foreign ideas.目前,它是不可能形成一個最終的判斷,對於產地來源的,這些外來的觀念。 The material from the Assyro-Babylonian religion and mythology which has been offered in recent years by Assyriologists shows what an involved question is presented in this one point, and that a series of preliminary and exhaustive studies is necessary before a final decision can be reached regarding it or the various questions bound up with it.材料從assyro -巴比倫的宗教和神話中,這一直是近年來assyriologists說明什麼是一個複雜的問題是在這一點,並推出一系列的初步結果,並詳盡的研究是必要的,然後才作出最後決定才能達成關於它還是各種問題,約束了它。 The one thing safe to maintain in this connection is, perhaps, that, according to the time at which the heterogeneous character of the conceptions becomes noticeable in the literature, Alexandria must have had a prominent part in the fusion of the native and foreign elements, since that city had been from the time of Alexander the Great the seat of religious syncretism as well as the intellectual metropolis of the civilized world.一件事情的安全,以維持在這方面,也許說,根據時間,在該異構性質的概念,成為引人注目的,在文獻上,亞歷山大必須有一個突出的部分,在融合本土與外來分子,由於該城已被從時間的亞歷山大大帝所在地的宗教融合以及為智力大都市的文明世界。

For the better understanding of the Messianic pictures in apocalyptic literature it is important to point out that, although frequently interlaced, two distinct sets of ideas may be traced-the one set concerned with this world, hence realistic and national; the other directed to the world to come, hence transcendent and universalistic.為更好地了解救世主的照片在世界末日的文學,它是重要的是必須指出的是,雖然經常交錯,兩個截然不同的理念最早可追溯到-一套關心這個世界,因此,現實和民族;另向世界來,從而超越性和普遍性。 The Messiah presents a correspondingly double character.彌賽亞提出了相應的雙重性格。 Side by side with the traditional idea of an earthly king of the house of David is the new conception of a heavenly preexistent Messiah, from which it follows that in regard to the question of the Messiah the older apocalyptic literature, as well as the younger rabbinical branch, falls naturally into two groups.並排與傳統觀念的一個俗世國王的眾院國寶,是新的構想天賜preexistent彌賽亞,從哪個因此,在考慮到問題的彌賽亞老世界末日的文獻,以及為年輕的猶太教科,屬於自然分成兩組。

In the Older Apocalyptic Literature.在較舊的世界末日的文學作品。

In the older apocalyptic literature the first book to be mentioned in which the Messiah figures as an earthly king is "The Vision of the Seventy Shepherds of the Book of Enoch" (ch. lxxxv.-xc.) of the time of John Hyrcanus (135-105 BC).在老世界末日文學中的第一本書被提及,其中彌賽亞的數字作為一個俗世的國王"的遠景第七十一牧羊人的這本書的伊諾克" (章lxxxv. -越野)的時候,約翰hyrcanus (公元前135-105 ) 。 The Messiah appears under the figure of a white bull at the conclusion of the world-drama (xc. 37 et seq.) and commands the respect and fear of all the heathen, who eventually become converted to God.彌賽亞出現下圖的白色公牛在總結該次世界戲劇( xc. 37頁起)和指令的尊重和恐懼的所有異教徒,誰最終將成為轉換成神。 Yet he does not take any actual rôle.可是,他不採取任何實際rôle 。 It is God Himself who wards off the last attack of the heathen against Israel, gives judgment, and establishes the world-dominion of Israel.這是上帝的人病房過上次攻擊的異教徒對以色列,給人判斷,並建立了世界-統治以色列。 Second in this group come those parts of the Sibylline Books whose date, as Geffken's recent critical analysis has established ("Komposition und Entstehungszeit der Oracula Sibyllina," pp. 7-13), is about the year 83 BC The Messiah is pictured (verses 652-666) as a king sent by God from the rising of the sun, who will put an end to war all over the earth, inasmuch as he will destroy some peoples and make permanent treaties with the others; in all his actions he will be solicitous not to follow his own counsel, but to obey the commands of God.第二,在這個小組來那些部分的知未來的書籍,其日期, geffken最近的批判性分析已成立(下稱" komposition und entstehungszeit明鏡oracula sibyllina , "聚丙烯7-13 ) ,是關於今年83公元前彌賽亞是圖(小詩652-666 ) ,作為國王派出的上帝,從上升的太陽,他們將結束所有戰爭超過地球,因為他會破壞一些民族和長期措施,使條約與他人在他的所有行動,他將被solicitous不跟隨他自己的律師,但必須絕對服從命令的上帝。 The writer then describes at length the attack by the heathen nations on the magnificent Temple of God and on the Holy Land, and the annihilation of the nations by God; the Last Judgment, with the ensuing conversion of the heathen to God; the establishment of God's eternal kingdom over all men and the reign of universal peace; but, strange to say, throughout the description there is no mention of the Messiah.作者敘述了大量篇幅攻擊由異教徒國家的宏偉廟宇的神和對聖地和消滅該國神;最後的審判,隨後轉換的異教徒上帝;成立上帝的永恆英國所有男人和腥風血雨的普遍和平,但說也奇怪,在整個描述,完全沒有提及彌賽亞。 In fact, in verses 781 et seq.事實上,在小詩781頁起。 the Israelites are spoken of as the prophets of God, the judges of mankind, and the just kings who will put an end to the sway of the sword upon earth.以色列人正在發言的,因為先知的上帝,法官的人類,以及剛剛國王,他們將結束晃動的劍一經地球。

In the Psalms of Solomon.在詩篇的所羅門。

"The Vision of the Seventy Shepherds" and Sibyllines, iii. "的遠景第七十一牧羊人" ,並sibyllines ,三。 652 et seq. 652頁起。 say nothing whatever about the lineage of the earthly Messiah, but in the Psalms of Solomon (xvii.), which were called forth by the conquest of Jerusalem by Pompey (63 BC), he is designated as the "son of David," who will appear at a time known only to God.更何況,無論對宗族的俗世的彌賽亞,但在詩篇所羅門( xvii. ) ,其中,被稱為所征服耶路撒冷pompey ( 63 BC )的,他是被指定為"大衛之子"是誰明天將在已知的時間只有上帝。 These Psalms (lc) contain a more detailed description of his personality and of his reign than any other writing of that period.這些詩篇(立法會)載有更詳細的描述他的個性和他的統治比其他任何書面的這一時期。 The Messiah will first crush the unjust rulers and rid Jerusalem of, and destroy, the impious heathen.彌賽亞會先粉碎不公正的統治者和擺脫耶路撒冷,並銷毀, impious異教徒。 Then he will gather the scattered ones of Israel, distribute them through the land according to their tribes, and found his own kingdom of peace and justice.然後,他將蒐集散落的以色列,派發給他們經由陸路根據自己的部落,並發現他自己的王國,和平與正義。 No wicked person will be tolerated in his kindgom nor will foreigners be allowed to dwell there.沒有十惡不赦的人都會容忍他的kindgom也將外國人不准多言。 He will subject the heathen nations to his rule, glorify the Lord before the whole world, and make Jerusalem pure and holy as of old, so that the nations will come from the ends of the earth to witness God's glory.他將受到異教徒國家,以他的統治下,榮耀上帝在世人面前,使耶路撒冷的純潔和神聖的,因為舊,因此該國將來自兩端的地球,見證上帝的榮耀。 The description which follows of his righteous reign shows the influence of Isa.描述這是繼他的正義統治顯示的影響,伊薩。 xi.十一。 1 et seq.一日頁起。 Free from sin, strong in the divine fear, and filled with the spirit of God, of valor, and of justice, he will tend the flock of the Lord faithfully, hold the higher officers in check, and make sinners cease by the power of his word, so that injustice and tyranny will not be practised in the land.不受單,強在神聖的恐懼,並充滿了上帝的精神,英勇和正義,他將傾向於此地的主忠實地,蘊藏著較高的人員在檢查,並作出停止罪人,由權力他所說的話,那麼這種不公正和暴政不會實行土地。 He will not rely upon horses and warriors, nor heap up gold and silver to wage war, nor keep armies.他不會依靠馬匹和勇士,也堆了黃金和白銀,以發動戰爭,也不是保持軍隊。 In God alone will he place his trust, and his strength will be in Him.在只有上帝將他的地方,他的信任,他的實力將他的。

In the Apocalypse of Baruch (70-100 CE) the earthly Messiah will appear at the close of the fourth (ie, the Roman) world-empire and destroy it.在啟示baruch ( 70-100行政長官)俗世的彌賽亞將出現在關閉的第四個(即羅馬)世界帝國,並摧毀它。 The last ruler of the empire will, after his hosts have been destroyed, be brought in chains before the Messiah on Mount Zion, and there, after the impiousness of his rule has been pointed out to him, he will be put to death by the Messiah's own hand.過去的統治者帝國後,將他的主機已被銷毀,帶來連鎖前彌賽亞對錫安山,並在那裡,後impiousness對他的統治已有人指出他,但他將被處決所彌賽亞的自己手上。 Of the other nations, those hostile to Israel will be put to the sword and the remainder subjected to the rule of the Messiah, who will establish himself on the throne of his kingdom, inaugurate the reign of morality and bliss, and hold dominion until the end of time, that is, until the consummation of the present world (xxix. 3, xxxix. 5-xl. 3, lxxii.-lxxiii. 4. Ch. xxx. 1 is to be taken, with Volz ["Jüdische Eschatologie," pp. 37, 203], as Christian interpolation).至於其他國家,那些敵視以色列將會向劍與其餘受到法治的救世主,他將建立自己的寶座,他的王國,開創了執政的道德和極樂世界,並舉行統治,直到年底的時候,也就是直到圓滿的當今世界( xxix. 3 ,第39屆5 - XL的。 3 , lxxii. - lxxiii 4 。章三十。一日,是將要採取的,與volz [ " jüdische eschatologie " ,頁37 , 203 ] ,作為基督教插值) 。

In the Testaments of the Patriarchs.在約所有的patriarchs 。

The Testament of Levi (ch. viii. and xviii.) shows a unique conception of the Messiah.遺囑的利維(章八和十八) ,顯示了獨特的構想彌賽亞。 He is not, as in the Testament of Judah (see below) and according to the popular belief, a descendant of David, but a priestly king of the tribe of Levi.他不是,因為在聖經的猶大(見下文) ,並根據有關的民間信仰,子孫的國寶,但司鐸王部落的利維。 His character and activity are altogether spiritual.他的性格和活動總共有精神。 The pouring out of the spirit and knowledge of the Lord over all mankind and the cessation of sin and evil will be the fruit of his ideal priesthood, which will last for all eternity.澆注出來的精神和知識的主所有的人類,並停止罪惡和邪惡的,將成為果他的理想,成為神職人員,將持續為所有的永恆。 He himself will open the doors of paradise, cast aside the sword threatening Adam, and give the saints to eat of the tree of life.他本人也將打開大門的天堂,拋開劍威脅亞當,並給予聖人吃的生命樹。 He will chain up Belial and will give his children power to trample on the evil spirits.他將連鎖起來belial ,並會給予他的子女的權力,踐踏了邪靈。 The picture of the Messiah in the Testament of Judah (ch. xxiv.), although far more brief, resembles, in its spiritual character and in its universalistic tendency, that in the Testament of Levi.該圖片的彌賽亞在聖經的猶大(第二十四章) ,雖然來得短暫,極為相似,在其精神品格,並在其帶有普遍性的傾向,即在全書的利維。 The sole mission of the Messiah will be the regeneration of mankind, and his kingdom will be one of justice and salvation for the whole world.唯一使命彌賽亞將成為再生的人類,他的王國將是一個正義和拯救整個世界。 If, as Bousset sought to prove ("Zeitschrift für die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft," i. 193 et seq.), the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs date mainly from the time of the Maccabees, then the Messiahconception of the Testament of Levi is easily accounted for; the author expects that the future Savior will be a prince of the reigning priestly house of the Maccabees.如果象bousset試圖證明( " : Zeitschrift f黵die neutestamentliche wissenschaft " ,一193等等) ,約所有的十二個patriarchs日期,主要是從時間的馬加比,那麼messiahconception的遺囑的利維是很容易佔為;筆者預計,未來救世主,將是一個王子的執政聖府的馬加比。

The Heavenly Messiah.天上的彌賽亞。

The oldest apocalypse in which the conception of a preexistent heavenly Messiah is met with is the Messiological section of the Book of Enoch (xxxvii.-lxxi.) of the first century BC The Messiah is called "the Son of Man," and is described as an angelic being, his countenance resembling a man's, and as occupying a seat in heaven beside the Ancient of Days (xlvi. 1), or, as it is expressed in ch.最古老的啟示,其中關於建立preexistent天朝彌賽亞是會見是messiological科書中的伊諾克( xxxvii. - lxxi )的公元前一世紀彌賽亞是所謂的"人子" ,是形容作為一個天使,他的國家進行相似的一名男子的,並作為佔座位,在天堂旁邊古代的天( xlvi. 1 ) ,或者,因為這是表示,在CH 。 xxxix.第39屆。 7, "under the wings of the Lord of spirits." 7 , "機翼下的主神" 。 In ch.在CH 。 xlviii. 48 。 3, 6, xlix. 3日, 6日, xlix 。 2b it is stated that "His name was called before the Lord of spirits before the sun and the signs of the zodiac were created, and before the stars of heaven weremade"; that "He was chosen and hidden with God before the world was created, and will remain in His presence forevermore" (comp. also lxii. 6); and that "His glory will last from eternity unto eternity and his might from generation unto generation" (that "his name" in xlviii. 3 means really "son of man" is evident from verse 6; comp. the similar use of "Shem Yhwh" for "Yhwh" in Isa. xxx. 27). 2B衛星是說, "他的名字叫耶和華面前的烈酒之前,太陽和標誌的十二生肖創造了,而且沒星星的天堂weremade " ,即: "他被選定和隱患,與上帝在世界面前創造,並會留在他的存在永遠" ( comp.也lxii 6 ) ,並認為"他的榮耀,將過去由永恆祂永恆的,他可能會從一代人所不欲的一代" (即"他的名字"在四十八3手段,真正做到了"人子" ,是顯而易見的,由韻文6 ;可比。類似使用" SHEM後yhwh " , " yhwh "伊薩XXX計劃27段) 。 He is represented as the embodiment of justice and wisdom and as the medium of all God's revelations to men (xlvi. 3; xlix. 1, 2a, 3).他的代表作為體現正義和智慧,作為中所有上帝的啟示,以男性( xlvi. 3 ; xlix 1 ,甲3 ) 。 At the end of time the Lord will reveal him to the world and will place him on the throne of His glory in order that he may judge all creatures in accordance with the end to which God had chosen him from the beginning.在去年底的時候,耶和華必揭示了他的世界,並會放他的寶座,他的榮耀,以便他可以判斷,所有的動物,依照本月底向真主選擇了他,從一開始的。 When he rises for the judgment all the world will fall down before him, and adore and extol him, and give praise to the Lord of spirits.當他上升為判斷,世界上所有會塌下來了他面前,崇拜和歌頌他,並給予讚美耶和華的烈酒。 The angels in heaven also, and the elect in the Garden of Life, will join in his praise and will glorify the Lord.天上的天使也和選舉在花園裡的生活,將加入他的讚美與頌揚,將主。 "He will judge all hidden things, and no one will be able to make vain excuses to him"; he will judge also Azazel, with all his associates and all his hosts. "他將判斷所有隱藏的東西,沒有人能作徒勞的藉口向他" ,他會作出判斷還阿撒瀉勒,與所有他的同夥和他的所有主機。 The wicked ones of the earth, especially all kings and potentates, he will give over to damnation, but for the just and chosen ones he will prepare eternal bliss, and he will dwell in their midst for all eternity (xlv. 3, 4; xlvi. 4-6; xlviii. 4-10; xlix. 4; li. 3; lv. 4; lxi. 7-lxii. 14).惡人者的地球,特別是一切國王和potentates ,他會向damnation ,但為公正和選民,他將準備永恆的極樂世界,他將住在他們中間,為所有永恆( xlv. 3日, 4日;四十六4-6 ;四十八。 4-10 ; xlix 。四日;李3款;呂4段; LXI的7 - lxii 14段) 。

It is worthy of special note that in the appendix to the Messiological section of Enoch, the latter himself is the Son of Man = Messiah (lxxi. 14), and, as in the Slavonic Book of Enoch and the Hebrew Book of Enoch (see Jew. Encyc. i. 676, sv Apocalyptic Literature), as well as throughout rabbinical literature, Enoch is identical with Meṭaṭron = Μετάθρονος or Μετατύρανος (ie, the highest, ministering spirit, who stands next to God and represents His rulership over the universe), so there is an important connecting-link between the conception of the Son of Man = Messiah, and the Logos, which appears repeatedly in Philo in place of the earthly future king (comp., eg, his interpretation of "ẓemaḥ," Zech. vi. 12, in "De Confess." § 14; see Memra).這是值得我們特別注意,在附錄中向messiological一段伊諾克,後者就是他的兒子,男子=彌賽亞( lxxi. 14 ) ,而且,正如在斯拉夫書伊諾克和希伯來書的伊諾克(見猶太人。 encyc一676 , sv世界末日文學) ,以及整個猶太教文學,伊諾克是完全相同的meṭaṭron = μετάθρονος或μετατύρανος (即最高,服事的精神,站在旁邊的神,代表著他的統治超過宇宙) ,所以是一個重要的連接環節之間的概念人子=彌賽亞和標識,其中多次出現在斐洛到位的俗世的未來國王( comp. ,例如,他解釋" ẓemaḥ "撒加利亞六, 12 ,在"德招供" ,第14條;見為門拉) 。 The Fourth Book of Ezra (about 100 CE) presents both the pre-existent and the earthly Messiah.第四冊以斯拉(約100個行政長官) ,既前不復存在,而俗世的彌賽亞。 The latter is seen in ch.後者被認為是在CH 。 vii.七。 28, xi. 28日,十一。 37-46, xii. 37-46 ,十二。 31-34, where the Messiah is represented as the Lion "who will spring from the seed of David," will destroy the fourth (ie, the Roman) world-monarchy, will rule 400 years till the end of the Messianic interim, and then will die, together with all men. 31-34 ,如果彌賽亞是派獅子" ,他們會從春天的種子國寶" ,將摧毀第四次(即羅馬)世界-君主立憲制,將統治400多年,直到去年底救世主臨時,然後就會死亡,連同所有男性。 The former appears in the vision of the man rising from the sea (ch. xiii.).前者出現在視野中,該名男子從海(第十三章) 。 Here, as in the Messiological section, the Messiah is described as "one resembling a man" and is called "ille homo" or "ipse homo" (verses 3, 12).在這裡,如同在messiological節中,彌賽亞被描述為"一個相似的一名男子" ,是所謂的" ille同質"或" ipse骨頭" (小詩3 , 12 ) 。 The statement is made also (under the influence of Dan. vii. 13) that he "flew with the clouds of heaven."該聲明是絕對也是(的影響下,丹七。十三日)表示,他的"飛與雲中的天堂" 。 Other points of contact with the Messiological Book are: the statement that "he is the one whom the Most High has reserved for many ages to deliver creation" (verse 26); the reference to his being hidden with God (verse 52)-"Even as no one can fathom nor learn what is in the depths of the sea, so none of the inhabitants of earth can see My son nor his escort [ie, the host of angels who will accompany him when he appears upon earth], unless it be at the appointed hour"; and, finally, the obvious reference to his preexistence in heaven, where the promise is given to Ezra, "Thou wilt be taken from among men [to heaven] and wilt dwell with My son and with thy comrades until the end of time" (xiv. 9).其他的接觸點與messiological書是:聲明說: "他是一個人最高級預留了許多不同年齡人士提供創世紀" (新詩26 ) ;提及他的隱藏與神(新詩52 ) -"即使沒有人可以量度,也不了解什麼是深處海中,所以沒有一個居民的地球,可以看到我的兒子也不是他的護送[即,東道國的天使,他們將陪伴他,當他出現時,地球] ,除非它可在指定時間" ,以及最後的明顯提及他的preexistence在天上,那裡允諾給予以斯拉, "祢將採取由男人[天堂]和枯萎病糾纏我的兒子,你用你的同志們,到年底的時間" ( xiv. 9 ) 。

In Rabbinic Literature.在rabbinic文學。

Whether the Messiah in Sibyllines v. 415-430, where he is called "a blessed man coming from heaven," is the preexistent or the earthly Messiah can not be determined.是否彌賽亞在sibyllines訴415-430 ,而他被稱為"有福男子來自天堂" ,是preexistent或俗世的彌賽亞不能確定。 In the Assumptio Mosis, however (c. 4 BC), it may be concluded, on the ground of the identification of the Son of Man = Messiah with Enoch = Meṭaṭron in Enoch lxxi.在assumptio mosis ,但是, (丙公元前四) ,可以得出結論,在地面上的識別人子=彌賽亞與伊諾克= meṭaṭron在伊諾克lxxi 。 14, that it is the preexistent Messiah who is referred to (x. 2), for it is stated that, at the end of the last tribulation, when God's dominion will be established over all creation, "the hands of the angel who stands in the highest place will be filled, and he will immediately avenge them [Israel] on their enemies." 14 ,它是一個preexistent彌賽亞的人被稱為(十二) ,因為這是表示,在去年底最後一個磨難時,上帝的Dominion將建立超過所有的創造物" ,手中的天使站在在最高將被用完,他將立即報仇,他們[以色列]對自己的敵人" 。 As the author of the Fourth Book of Ezra (xiii.), as well as the author of the Messiological Book, evidently had Dan.如作者的第四本書的以斯拉( xiii. ) ,以及作者的messiological書,顯然曾經丹。 vii.七。 13 in mind when he described the preexistent Messiah, it may be mentioned here that, while the Messianic interpretation of this passage prevails in the rabbinic literature (the oldest example is the Messianic tradition in Sanh. 98a, for which Joshua b. Levi is mentioned as authority), the Greek text of Dan. 13記時,他形容preexistent救世主,它可能在此提及,而救世主詮釋這段文字表現在rabbinic文學(最古老的例子是救世主傳統sanh 。第98 A ,而約書亞乙利維是提到作為管理局) ,希臘文丹。 vii.七。 13 presents not only the Messianic interpretation of "Bar Nash," but unmistakably also, in καὶ ὡς παλαιὸς ἡμερῶν παρῆυ added after ὡς υἱὸς ἀνϑρώπου ἥρχετο, the conception of the preexistent Messiah. 13禮物不僅救世主詮釋"酒吧納什" ,但也明白無誤地,在καὶ ὡς παλαιὸς ἡμερῶν παρῆυ補充後ὡς υἱὸς ἀνϑρώπου ἥρχετο ,構想的preexistent彌賽亞。 Moreover, contrary to the view held by many that all the passages concerning the Son of Man = Messiah in the Book of Enoch and IV Ezra are of Christian origin, it may be pointed out that the phrase "Bar Nash" (= "Son of Man") must have been a common name for an angel of the highest order among the Palestinian Jews of the first Christian centuries.此外,相反的觀點被許多的所有通道,關於人子=救世主,在這本書的伊諾克和第四以斯拉是基督教的起源,它可能需要指出的是,一語"酒吧納什" ( = "的兒子男子" ) ,必須是被一個共同的名字,為一個天使的最高秩序巴勒斯坦猶太人的第一基督教百年。 Yer.也門里亞爾。 Yoma v. relates that, when reference was made in the bet ha-midrash to Simon the Just's having, every year of the forty during which he was high priest, been accompanied into the Holy of Holies on the Day of Atonement by an "aged one," veiled and garbed in linen (ie, by a heavenly being; comp. the "labush ha-badim" in Ezek. ix. 1, 3 et al.), R. Abbahu objected: "Does not the prohibition, 'No man shall be present in the Tabernacle when the high priest enters the sanctuary,' extend to those of whom it is said, 'the appearance of their countenance was that of a man's countenance'?" yoma五表示,當有人提到在打賭夏midrash至西門正義的考慮,每年的第四十四其間,他是大祭司,伴隨著進入神聖之神聖就在贖罪日是一個"年齡一" ,含蓄,並在瑞拉亞麻(即由一個天朝;可比。 " labush哈華丁姆" ezek第九。 1 , 3等) ,傳譯abbahu反對: "不禁止, '任何人都不應出席在帳幕當大祭司進入避難所, '延伸到那些人,這是說, '的出現,他們的國家進行的是一個人的國家進行" ? (Lev. xvi. 17; Ezek. i. 10). ( lev.十六,十七日; ezek一10 ) 。 Whereupon the rejoinder was made, "Who says that that being was Bar Nash? It was the All Holy Himself."車內答辯,取得了, "誰說這是正在酒吧納什?這是所有神聖的自己" 。 It may be noted in passing that this haggadah is of importance for the Greek text of Dan.可以注意到,在通過這haggadah是具有重要意義的希臘文丹。 vii.七。 13 as well as for the identification of the Son of Man = Messiah with Enoch = Meṭaṭron. 13 ,也為確定人子=彌賽亞與伊諾克= meṭaṭron 。

In the rabbinical apocalyptic literature the conception of an earthly Messiah is the prevailing one, and from the end of the first century of the common era it is also the one officially accepted by Judaism.在猶太教世界末日的文學觀,是一個人間的救世主,是一個普遍存在的,由去年底的第一個世紀的共同時代,又是一個正式接受猶太教。 As proof of this may be given: (1) "The Prayer for the Coming of the Messiah," mentioned above, inwhich the Messiah is called "descendant of David."為證明這一點,可考慮: ( 1 ) "的祈禱,為未來的彌賽亞" ,如上所述, inwhich彌賽亞,是所謂"後裔大衛" 。 (2) The information given in the second century by Justin ("Dialogus cum Tryphone," ch. xlix.) and by the author of "Philosophumena" (ix. 30). ( 2 )提供的資料,在公元二世紀由Justin ( " dialogus暨tryphone , "你的。 xlix ) ,並經"的作者philosophumena " ( ix. 30 ) 。 Both writers state expressly that, contrary to the belief of the Christians, the Jews emphasize the human origin of the Messiah, and the author of "Philosophumena" adds that they expect him to be descended from David.都是作家,國家明文規定,違反了信仰的基督徒,猶太人強調人類起源的彌賽亞,與作者的" philosophumena "補充說,他們預計他會後裔大衛。 (3) The liturgy of later times, which, like the Daily Prayer, calls him the descendant of David throughout. ( 3 )禮儀中的稍後的時間,其中,像每天祈禱,呼籲他的後裔大衛各地。 His mission is, in all essential respects, the same as in the apocalypses of the older period: he is to free Israel from the power of the heathen world, kill its ruler and destroy his hosts, and set up his own kingdom of peace (comp. the descriptions of him in Jew. Encyc. i. 675, sv Apocalyptic Literature, Neo-Hebraic).他的使命是,在所有重要方面,同時在啟示舊時期:他是免費以色列從權力的異教徒世界,殺死其統治者,並摧毀其宿主,並成立了自己的和平的國度(可比。描述他在猶太人。 encyc一675 , sv世界末日文學,理學hebraic ) 。

Heavenly Preexistence.天朝preexistence 。

The conception of the preexistent Messiah is met with in Pesiḳ.觀的preexistent彌賽亞是會見在pesiḳ 。 R. xxxiii., xxxvi.傳譯三十三,三十六。 (pp. 152b, 162, ed. Friedmann; comp. Yalḳ. i. 339). (第152b , 162 ,教育署。弗里德曼;可比。 yalḳ一339 ) 。 In accordance with the Messiological section of Enoch the former of these two passages says: "At the beginning of the creation of the world was born the King Messiah, who mounted into God's thoughts before the world was made"; and in the latter passage it is related that God contemplated the Messiah and his works before the creation of the world and concealed him under His throne; that Satan, having asked God who the Light was under His throne, was told it was the one who would bring him to shame in the future, and, being then allowed, at his request, to see the Messiah, he trembled and sank to the ground, crying out, "Truly this is the Messiah who will deliver me and all heathen kings over to hell."按照該messiological一段伊諾克前的這兩個段落說: "在剛開始創立的世界誕生了國王的救世主,誰裝成上帝的思想,在世界面前作出" ;而在後者,它通過是與神爭議彌賽亞和他的作品,才創造了世界和隱蔽他根據他的寶座;撒旦,問上帝光線下他的寶座,被告知這是一個人把他羞恥未來,並正在然後允許,在他的要求下,看到彌賽亞,他顫抖下沉到地面,哭出來" ,真正這是彌賽亞的人會救我和所有異教徒國王到地獄" 。 God calls the Messiah "Ephraim, my righteous Messiah."上帝召喚彌賽亞"艾弗冷,我的正義彌賽亞" 。

The preexistent Messiah is presented also in the Haggadah (Pes. 54a; Ned. 39a; Yalḳ. i. 20; et al.), where the name of the Messiah is included among the seven things created before the world was made, and where he is called "Yinnon," reference being made to Ps.該preexistent彌賽亞是還表現在haggadah ( pes. 54A條;非執行董事。 39A條; yalḳ :一,第20條;等人) ,在那裡的名字彌賽亞列入其中7件事情創造了在世界面前了,並在他是所謂的" yinnon " ,同時提到了聚苯乙烯。 lxxii. lxxii 。 17 (which passage probably was in the mind of the author of the Messiological section of Enoch when writing xlviii. 3). 17 (其中通過,大概在他心中的作者的messiological一段伊諾克寫作時四十八3款) 。 That, contrary to the view of Weber ("Jüdische Theologie," 2d ed., p. 355) and others, it is actual preexistence which is meant here, and not predestination, is evident from the additional remark-"According to another view, only the Torah and the Throne of Glory were [actually] created; as to the other [five] things the intention was formed to create them" (Yalḳ., lc; in regard to "the name of the Messiah" compare the comment above to Enoch, xlviii. 3).說,相反的看法,韋伯( " jüdische theologie , "第2版,第355頁)和其他人來說,這是實際preexistence這就是在這裡,而不是宿命,是顯而易見的,從新增的一句話-"根據另一種看法中,只有律法和王位的榮耀被[其實]創造了,至於其他的[五]事物的用意是形成了以創建" ( yalḳ. ,立法會;方面"的名字,這一彌賽亞"比較評論以上伊諾克, 48 。 3 ) 。 Finally, the preexistence of the Messiah in paradise is minutely described in "The Revelation of R. Joshua b. Levi" (see Jew. Encyc. i. 680), in Midrash Konen (Jellinek, "BH" ii. 29), and in "Seder Gan Eden" (ib. iii. 132 et seq., 195).最後, preexistence的彌賽亞在天堂,是minutely描述"的啟示傳譯約書亞乙利維" (見猶太人。 encyc一680 ) ,在midrash konen ( jellinek , "波黑"二29 ) ,以及在" seder甘伊甸園" ( ib.三, 132頁起, 195人) 。 In the first two, regardless of the apparent anomaly, the preexistent Messiah is called "Messiah ben David."在首兩年,不論顯然不合常理, preexistent彌賽亞是所謂的"彌賽亞賁國寶" 。

Earthly Preexistence.俗世preexistence 。

The conception met with in the rabbinical literature of an earthly preexistence of the Messiah must be distinguished from that of his heavenly preexistence.觀會見了在猶太教文學的一個俗世preexistence的彌賽亞必須區別於認為他的天朝preexistence 。 It occurs in various forms, representing, probably, different stages of development.它發生在各種形式,是代表,也許不同的發展階段。 First, he is expected to lead a hidden life and then to step forth suddenly.首先,他預料將導致一個隱藏的生命,然後再一步提出驟然降溫。 (On this conception of the sudden, unexpected appearance of the Messiah comp. Matt. xxiv. 27, 43-44, where it is said that the Messiah will come like a thief in the night or like a flash of lightning.) This is the conception of him in Ex. (關於這個構想突然,意想不到的外觀彌賽亞可比。馬特。二十四, 27 , 43-44 ,它是說,彌賽亞會像一個小偷在深夜或像一個閃光的閃電)這就是傳說觀,在他前。 R. i.傳譯一。 and in Tan., Shemot, both of which say that as Moses, the first deliverer, was reared at the court of Pharaoh, so the future deliverer will grow up in the Roman capital; in agreement with this, in the Agadat ha-Mashiaḥ (Jellinek, lc iii. 142) it is said that the Messiah will suddenly be revealed to Israel in Rome.並在火炭, shemot ,這兩項研究人士表示,隨著摩西,第一次送料,是飼養在法庭上的法老王,所以將來送料將成長起來,在羅馬的資本;同意這一點,在agadat夏mashiaḥ ( jellinek ,立法會三142 ) ,這是說,彌賽亞會突然透露給以色列在羅馬。 Then, again, the Messiah is represented as born, but not yet revealed.那麼,讓我們再彌賽亞是派誕生了,但尚未透露。 This conception appears as early as the second century in Justin Martyr's "Dialogus cum Tryphone" (ch. viii.), and in accordance with it is the passage Sanh.這種觀念似乎早在公元二世紀的Justin烈士的" dialogus暨tryphone " (第八章) ,並依照它是通過sanh 。 98b, where R. Joshua ben Levi is quoted as saying that the Messiah is already born and is living in concealment at the gates of Rome. 98b ,而傳譯約書亞賁利維是引述他的話說:這彌賽亞已經出生和生活在隱蔽在家門口羅馬。 In Targ.在targ 。 Yer.也門里亞爾。 to Micah iv.以彌迦四。 8 the Messiah is on the earth, but because of the sins of the people he is still in hiding. 8彌賽亞,是對地球,但由於罪孽的人,他仍然躲藏起來。 Finally, the Messiah is thought of as born at a certain time in the past.最後,彌賽亞,是思想的,因為出生在某一個時間,在過去的。 This is the case in Yer.在這種情況下,在也門里亞爾。 Ber.誤碼率。 ii., which states that the Messiah was born at Bethlehem on the day the Temple was destroyed, and in the Apocalypse of Zerubbabel (see Jew. Encyc. i. 682), which declares he was born in the days of King David and is dwelling in Rome.二,其中指出彌賽亞出生於伯利恆的那天,聖殿被毀,而在啟示所羅巴伯(見猶太人。 encyc一682 ) ,宣稱他出生在今後幾天的大衛王,是住在羅馬。

The notion, traceable to Ezek.概念,可追溯至ezek 。 xxxiv.三十四。 23 et al., that David himself is the Messiah, is another variation of the conception of earthly preexistence. 23等人,認為大衛自己是彌賽亞,是另一種變異的概念俗世preexistence 。 It occurs in the apocalyptic fragment of the "Siddur" of R. Amram (see Jew. Encyc. i. 678, sv Apocalyptic Literature, 2) and in Yer.它發生在世界末日片段的" siddur "鋼筋混凝土阿姆拉姆(見猶太人。 encyc一678 , sv世界末日文學, 2 ) ,並在也門里亞爾。 Ber.誤碼率。 ii.二。 The latter states that whether the King Messiah belongs to the living or to the dead, his name is David.大陸法系國家,無論國王彌賽亞屬於居住或向死了,他的名字是大衛。

Messiah ben Joseph.彌賽亞賁約瑟夫。

Finally, there must be mentioned a Messianic figure peculiar to the rabbinical apocalyptic literature-that of Messiah ben Joseph.最後,必須提到一個救世主式人物特有的猶太教世界末日文學-即彌賽亞賁約瑟夫。 The earliest mention of him is in Suk.最早提的是他在淑。 52a, b, where three statements occur in regard to him, for the first of which R. Dosa (c. 250) is given as authority. 52 ,乙,有三間報表出現關於他的,其中第一項傳譯劑量(長250 ) ,是由於作為權威。 In the last of these statements only his name is mentioned, but the first two speak of the fate which he is to meet, namely, to fall in battle (as if alluding to a well-known tradition).在過去的這些言論只是他的名字提到的,但前兩個發言的命運,而他是為了滿足,即要在秋季戰役(好像暗指某知名傳統) 。 Details about him are not found until much later, but he has an established place in the apocalypses of later centuries and in the midrash literature-in Saadia's description of the future ("Emunot we-De'ot," ch. viii.) and in that of Hai Gaon ("Ṭa'am Zeḳenim," p. 59).細節,對他都沒有出現,直到晚得多,但他已建立了一套發生在啟示後來幾百年,並在midrash文學-在saadia描述的未來( " emunot我們- de'ot , "章第八節) ,並在這海gaon ( " ṭa'am zeḳenim " ,第59頁) 。 According to these, Messiah b.根據這些,彌賽亞乙 Joseph will appear prior to the coming of Messiah b.約瑟夫將出現之前,未來的彌賽亞乙 David; he will gather the children of Israel around him, march to Jerusalem, and there, after overcoming the hostile powers, reestablish the Temple-worship and set up his own dominion.大衛,他將蒐集的兒童以色列在他的周圍, 3月至耶路撒冷,並在那裡,在克服敵對的權力,重建廟宇崇拜,並成立自己的統治。 Thereupon Armilus, according to one group of sources, or Gog and Magog, according to the other, will appear with their hosts before Jerusalem, wage war against Messiah b.於是armilus ,根據一組的消息來源,或gog和瑪,據,另一方面也會出現與它們的寄主耶路撒冷之前,發動戰爭的彌賽亞乙 Joseph, and slay him.約瑟夫,斬他。 His corpse, according to one group, will lie unburied in the streets of Jerusalem; according to theother, it will be hidden by the angels with the bodies of the Patriarchs, until Messiah b.他的屍體,據一組,將躺在未掩埋在街道上的耶路撒冷;據theother ,將隱藏的,由天使與有關機構的長者,直到彌賽亞乙 David comes and resurrects him (comp. Jew. Encyc. i. 682, 684 [§§ 8 and 13]; comp. also Midr. Wayosha' and Agadat ha-Mashiaḥ in Jellinek, "BH" i. 55 et seq., iii. 141 et seq.).朱來去resurrects他( comp.猶太人。 encyc一, 682 , 684 [ § § 8日和13 〕 ;可比,而且midr 。 wayosha ' agadat夏mashiaḥ在jellinek , "波黑"一, 55段及以下各段,三, 141頁起) 。

When and how this Messiah-conception originated is a question that has not yet been answered satisfactorily.何時及如何彌賽亞概念起源是一個問題尚未得到令人滿意的答复。 It is not possible to consider Messiah b.它是不是有可能考慮彌賽亞乙 Joseph the Messiah of the Ten Tribes.約瑟夫彌賽亞的十個部落。 He is nowhere represented as such; though twice it is mentioned that a part of the Ten Tribes will be found among those who will gather about his standard.他是行不通的代表等,雖然兩度提到的一部份十個部落,會被發現的人士當中,將聚集對他的標準。 There is a possibility, however, as has been repeatedly maintained, that there is some connection between the Alexander saga and the Messiah b.是有這個可能,不過,由於已多次維修,是有一定的聯繫與亞歷山大佐賀和彌賽亞乙 Joseph tradition, for, in the Midrash, on the strength of Deut.約瑟夫傳統,為中,在midrash ,對強度deut 。 xxxiii.三十三。 17, a pair of horns, with which he will "strike in all directions," is the emblem of Messiah b. 17日,一對牛角,而他將"嚴打四面八方" ,這是會徽彌賽亞乙 Joseph (comp. Pirḳe R. El. xix.; Gen. R. lxxv.; Num. R. xiv.; et al.), just as in the apocalyptic Alexander tradition in the Koran (referred to above) the latter is called "The Double-Horned" ("Dhu al-Ḳarnain").約瑟夫( comp. pirḳe傳譯下午第十九;將軍傳譯lxxv ;序號。傳譯十四;等) ,就如同世界末日亞歷山大傳統,在可蘭經(上文提到的) ,後者是所謂的"雙角" (下稱" dhu基地ḳarnain " ) 。 See also Eschatology; Jesus; Judaism.也見末世;耶穌;猶太教。

Joseph Jacobs, Moses Buttenwieser約瑟夫雅各布斯,摩西buttenwieser
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版1901年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
R. Smend, Alttestamentliche Religionsgesch.; W. Nowack, Die Zukunftshoffnung Israels in der Assyrischen Zeit; Hühn, Die Messianischen Weissagungen; Fr.傳譯斯門德, alttestamentliche religionsgesch ;總統nowack ,模具zukunftshoffnung israels在明鏡assyrischen塞特; hühn ,模具messianischen weissagungen ;神父。 Giesebrecht, Der Knecht Jahwe's in Deutero-Jesaia; Schürer, Gesch.吉澤布雷希特,明鏡克內希特jahwe的在deutero - jesaia ; schürer , gesch 。 3d ed., ii.三維版,二。 29; W. Bousset, Die Religion des Judentums im Neutestamentlichen Zeitalter, part 3, ch. 29小bousset ,死於宗教萬judentums的IM neutestamentlichen時代下,第3部分,甲烷。 ii.-v.; part 6, pp. ii.-v. ;一部分6頁。 474 et seq.; P. Volz, Jüdische Eschatologie von Daniel bis Akiba, §§ 34-35; HJ Holtzmann, Lehrbuch der Neutestamentlichen Theologie, i. 474頁起;頁volz , jüdische eschatologie馮丹尼爾之二秋葉, § § 34-35 ; hj holtzmann , lehrbuch明鏡neutestamentlichen theologie ,一。 68-85; W. Baldensperger, Die Messianisch-Apokalyptischen Hoffnungen des Judentums; F. Weber, Jüdische Theologie auf Grund des Talmud, etc., ch. 68-85 ;總統巴爾登施佩格,模具messianisch - apokalyptischen hoffnungen萬judentums ;樓韋伯, jüdische theologie auf grund萬猶太法典等,甲烷。 xxii.-xxiii.; GH Dalman, Der Leidende und der Sterbende Messias; idem, Die Worte Jesu, pp. xxii. -二十三;生長激素dalman ,明鏡leidende und明鏡sterbende messias ;同上,模具worte jesu ,聚丙烯。 191 et seq.; Kampers, Alexander der Grosse und die Idee des Weltimperiums in Prophetie und Sage; B. Beer, Welchen Aufschluss Geben die Jüdischen Quellen über den "Zweigehörnten" des Korans? 191頁起;坎佩斯,亞歷山大明鏡grosse und模具idee萬weltimperiums在prophetie und賢者;乙啤酒, welchen aufschluss geben模具jüdischen quellen黚er書齋" zweigehörnten "萬可蘭經? in ZDMG ix.在zdmg九。 791 et seq. 791頁起。

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