Sacrament, Ordinance, Mystery聖餐,條例,神秘感

General Information 一般資料

Sacraments are Christian rites that are believed to be outward visible signs of inward spiritual grace to which the promise of Christ is attached. The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches accept seven sacraments: Baptism, the Eucharist, Confirmation (or Chrismation), Confession, Anointing of the Sick, marriage, and Holy Orders. The Council of Trent (1545 - 63) declared that all were instituted by Christ. Protestants accept only baptism and the Eucharist as instituted by Christ. The Anglican (Episcopal) church, however, accepts the other five as sacramental rites that evolved in the church. 聖禮是基督教的儀式,相信是外向明顯的跡象,外來的精神寬限期,即承諾的基督附後。羅馬天主教和東正教教堂接受七個聖禮:洗禮,聖體,確認書(或膏) ,供述, anointing對患病者,婚姻,和神聖的命令。安理會的遄達( 1545 -6 3)宣布,他們全部是由基督新教只接受洗禮和聖體聖事是由基督。英國國教(聖公會)的教會,但是,接受其他5名作為聖儀式演變在教會裡。 Other churches consider those of the five they observe as ecclesiastical ceremonies.其他教會考慮那些在五間,他們遵循的,因為教會儀式。

Christians have differed widely as to the meaning of the sacraments and how God works through them. Catholics, and many Protestants, consider them means of grace through which God bestows spiritual gifts. This view was held by Martin Luther and John Calvin.基督徒都大不相同,以意思聖禮和神是怎麼作品通過他們。 天主教徒,許多新教徒,他們考慮的手段恩典透過上帝賦予的精神禮物,這種觀點是召開由馬丁路德和約翰卡爾文。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
Other Protestants, following Ulrich Zwingli, view the sacraments as signs of Christian profession and testimony to grace that has already been given through faith. Some Protestant groups, notably the Quakers and the Salvation Army, do not use sacraments.其他新教徒,繼烏爾里希zwingli ,請查看聖禮作為標誌的基督教界人士和證言給宏表示,已透過信仰的一些新教團體,尤其是貴格會和救世軍,千萬不要使用聖禮。

LL Mitchell黎巴嫩鎊米切爾

Bibliography 參考書目
M Hellwig, The Meaning of the Sacraments (1972); B Leeming, Principles of Sacramental Theology (1956); J Martos, Doors to the Sacred (1982); E Russell and J Greenhalgh, eds., Signs of Faith, Hope, and Love: The Christian Sacraments Today (1988); Schmemann, Alexander, For the Life of the World: Sacraments and Orthodoxy (1973).米hellwig ,意思聖禮( 1972條) , b leeming ,原則聖事神學( 1956年) ; j martos ,門神聖( 1982年) ;電子羅素和J greenhalgh合編,標誌的信仰,希望,而愛:基督教聖禮今天( 1988年) ;舒梅曼,亞歷山大,為生活的世界:聖禮和正統( 1973年) 。


General Information 一般資料


A Sacrament is any of several liturgical actions of the Christian church, believed to have been instituted by Christ and to communicate the grace or power of God through the use of material objects.從樓上掉了,是任何的幾個禮儀行動的基督教教堂,相信已經由基督和溝通的恩典或上帝的力量,通過使用材料的物體。 In the 4th-century theologian St. Augustine's definition, the sacraments are "outward and visible signs of an inward and spiritual grace."在第四屆世紀的神學家聖奧古斯丁的定義,聖禮,是"走出去和明顯的跡象是一個內向和精神文明的恩典" 。

Sacrament in the New Testament聖餐,在新約聖經

The word sacrament does not appear in the Bible, although baptism, Eucharist, and perhaps other rites that fit the definition are reported there.字聖餐沒有出現在聖經中,雖然洗禮,聖體聖事的,或許是其他禮記適合定義報告。 The New Testament basis for sacraments is found in its teaching about Mystery, which remains the Eastern Orthodox word for sacrament.新約聖經的基礎聖禮,是發現在其教學的奧秘,這仍然是東部正統字聖餐。 In the New Testament, the word mystery refers to God's plan for the redemption of the world through Christ, a plan that is hidden from the understanding of unbelievers but revealed to those who have faith (see Ephresians 1:9-10).在新約聖經字之謎是指上帝的計劃為救贖世界的救世主,一項計劃,即從隱藏的了解,不信,但透露給那些有信心(見ephresians 1:9-10 ) 。

In the Christian experience, the saving action of Christ is made known and accessible to the church especially through certain liturgical actions such as baptism and the Eucharist.在基督教的經驗,拯救行動的基督是知道和接觸教會,特別是通過一定的禮儀活動,如洗禮和聖體聖事。 Therefore, these actions came to be known among the Greeks as mysteries, perhaps by analogy to mystery cults.因此,這些行動後來被稱為之間的希臘人,作為謎,也許比喻神秘教派。

From Mystery to Sacrament從神秘聖餐

In the early 3rd century, Tertullian, the first Latin theologian, translated the Greek word musterion ("mystery") by the Latin sacramentum, which in pre-Christian use denoted a pledge of future performance, as in oath of loyalty taken by soldiers to their commander; emphasis fell on the thing that was given in pledge. In the Christian case, the word sacrament came to focus attention on the water of baptism and on the bread and wine of the Eucharist. These different nuances of mystery and sacrament account in part for the differing character of Eastern and Western sacramental theology.我國早在3世紀,戴爾都良,第一拉丁語神學家,翻譯成希臘文musterion ( "謎" )是由拉丁語sacramentum ,而在會前基督教使用標註有承諾的未來的表現,因為在宣誓效忠而採取的士兵他們的指揮官;重點落在了這件事,這是由於在許下的承諾。 在基督教的情況下,這個詞聖餐來把注意力集中於水的洗禮,對麵包和酒的聖體聖事的,這些不同的細微差別的神秘與聖餐帳戶部分為不同性質的東部和西部的聖事神學。

Sacraments and Signs聖禮和標誌

Sacraments are sometimes called signs.聖禮有時是所謂的跡象。 In Roman Catholic and much Protestant theology, sacraments are regarded as "communicating signs."在羅馬天主教和新教的許多神學,聖禮是被視為"溝通的跡象" 。 That is, the sign itself actually conveys the reality for which it stands.這就是說,標誌本身其實是傳達了現實,它所代表。 In some Protestant theology, however, sacraments are not thought to be the vehicles of divine reality; rather, they are "arbitrary signs" that simply call to the believer's mind the inner reality of grace.在一些新教神學,但是,聖禮都沒有想過要成為汽車神聖的現實,而他們是"武斷的跡象" ,簡單地號召信徒心目中的內在現實的恩典。

Ex Opere Operato當然opere operato

If the communicative nature of the sacraments is acknowledged, a sacrament properly performed is seen to convey God's grace independently of the faith or moral character of the celebrant or recipients.如果交際性質的聖禮,是公認的,從樓上掉了妥善的表現有目共睹,傳達上帝的恩典是獨立於宗教或道德品質的監禮人或受助人。 Its value springs from its divine institution, "from the work already done" (Latin ex opere operato ), in which the sacrament participates.它的價值源於它的神聖機構, "從已經做的工作" (拉丁語前opere operato ) ,其中聖餐參與。 The opposite position has been maintained by some - that the value of the sacrament does depend in some way on those who celebrate and receive, ex opere operantis ("from the work being done").相反的立場一直保持著一些-即價值的聖餐是否取決於以某種方式對那些慶祝,並接受,當然o pereo perantis( "從正在做的工作" ) 。

Sacramental Character聖字

Certain sacraments, such as the Eucharist and penance, are to be repeated often.某些聖禮,如聖體聖事和懺悔,要經常反复。 Others - baptism, confirmation, Holy Orders - are to be administered to a person only once.其他人-的洗禮,確認,神聖的命令-要加以管理,一人只有一次。 From the time of Augustine, this second group of sacraments has been recognized as having "character."從時間的奧古斯丁,這第二個組的聖禮已被承認為具有"人格" 。 In other words, because God is faithful to his promises, the gift in these sacraments cannot be withdrawn. Grace may become latent if a person fails to act as the church intends, but the sacrament need not be repeated if the person is restored to the communion of the church.或者換句話說,因為上帝是信實的,以他的承諾,禮品,在這些聖禮不能撤回。 恩典有可能成為潛在的,如果一個人不能擔任教會打算,但聖餐不必重複,如果該人是恢復到了共融的教會。

Number of Sacraments有多少聖禮

The New Testament affirms one Mystery - God's plan for redeeming the world through Christ.新約聖經申明,其中的奧秘-上帝的計劃,為挽救世界,透過基督。 In the history of Christian thought, however, a large number of acts have been called Mysteries or Sacraments. In the 12th century, the Italian theologian Peter Lombard summarized a growing consensus that there should be just seven: baptism, confirmation, Eucharist, penance, extreme unction, anointing of the sick, Holy Orders, and marriage. These were, in fact, what the church found necessary for the regular, adequate liturgical celebration of the Christian Mystery. A series of conciliar decisions in the 13th century made the number seven official. Orthodox churches also recognize these seven rites as sacraments, but no official decision enjoins that number.在歷史上的基督教思想,但是,大量的行為,被稱為奧秘,或聖禮, 在12世紀,意大利的神學家彼得倫巴第,總結出了越來越多的共識認為,應該有公正之七:洗禮,確認,聖體聖事,懺悔,極端unction , anointing的患病者,聖令,以及婚姻,這些人,其實,教會發現有必要為經常性,足夠的禮儀慶祝基督教謎。 一系列conciliar決定,在13世紀取得了第7位官方。東正教教堂也認識到這七個禮記作為聖禮,但沒有正式的決定,責成這個數字。 The 16th-century Protestant reformers declared that there are but two sacraments, baptism and Eucharist - these having been instituted by Christ.在16世紀的新教改革者宣稱有,但兩個聖禮,洗禮和聖體聖事-這已經由基督。 The reformers dismantled the rest of the sacramental system, maintaining that God's grace is morereadily accessible through more personal channels - prayer, the Scripture, and preaching Reformation.改革者拆除其餘的聖事制度,維護上帝的恩典是morereadily可以通過更多的個人頻道-祈禱經文,並鼓吹改革。

Charles P. Price查爾斯頁價格

The Seven Sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church七個聖禮的羅馬天主教教會

General Information 一般資料

The sacramental principle is another characteristic tenet of Roman Catholicism. The sacramental system worked out especially in the Middle Ages by the schoolmen and subsequently at the Council of Trent envisaged sacraments primarily as causes of grace that could be received independent of the merit of the recipient. 聖事的原則是另一個特點特尼特的羅馬天主教。聖制工作,特別是在中世紀由schoolmen並隨後在安理會的遄達設想聖禮,主要是由於原因的恩典可以得到獨立的好處是收件人。 Recent Catholic sacramental theology emphasizes their function as signs of faith.最近天主教聖事神學強調其功能為標誌的信念。 Sacraments are said to cause grace insofar as they are intelligible signs of it, and that the fruitfulness, as distinct from the validity, of the sacrament is dependent on the faith and devotion of the recipient.聖禮是說令恩典,因為它們是理解的跡象,並表示,結實性,以區別於有效性,對聖餐是依賴於信念和獻身精神的收件人。 Sacramental rites are now administered in the vernacular, rather than in Latin, to increase the intelligibility of the signs.聖事禮儀,現在在經管白話,而不是在拉丁美洲,以增加可懂度的標誌。

Conservative Catholicism connected sacramental theology to Christology, stressing Christ's institution of the sacraments and the power of the sacraments to infuse the grace of Christ, earned on Calvary, to the recipient.保守的天主教連接聖神學,以christology ,強調基督的機構聖禮和權力的聖禮注入的恩典基督,賺取calvary ,給收件人。 The newer emphasis connects the sacraments to ecclesiology.較新的重連接聖禮,以教會。 We do not encounter Christ directly, but in the church, which is his body. The church mediates the presence and action of Christ.我們沒有遇到基督直接的,但在教會裡,這是他身體的一部分。 教會介導的存在和行動的喊聲。

The number of sacraments was finally fixed at seven during the medieval period (at the councils of Lyons 1274, Florence 1439, and Trent 1547). 有多少聖禮終於定在七,在中世紀時期 (在議會的里昂二一二七四,佛羅倫薩1439 ,並遄達1547 ) 。 In addition Roman Catholicism has innumerable sacramentals, eg, baptismal water, holy oil, blessed ashes, candles, palms, crucifixes, and statues.此外,羅馬天主教已經無數sacramentals ,如洗禮水,聖油,有福的骨灰,蠟燭,棕櫚,在十字架上,和雕像。 Sacramentals are said to cause grace not ex opere operanto like the sacraments, but ex opere operantis, through the faith and devotion of those using them. sacramentals是說令恩典不前opere operanto像聖禮,但前opere operantis ,透過信仰和奉獻的那些對他們的使用。

Three of the sacraments,三個聖禮,
baptism, confirmation, Eucharist,洗禮,確認,聖體聖事的,
are concerned with Christian initiation關注基督教啟動


The sacrament is understood to remit original sin and all personal sin of which the recipient sincerely repents. 聖事的理解是,免去原罪和個人全部罪過,其中受援國真誠悔悟。 All must be baptized or they cannot enter the kingdom of heaven. But not all baptism is sacramental baptism by water. 所有必須的洗禮,或者是他們不能進入天國的,但不是所有的洗禮,是聖洗禮,由水。 There is also "baptism of blood," which is received by dying for Christ (eg, the "holy innocents," Matt. 2:16 - 18), and "baptism of desire," which is received by those who, implicitly or explicitly, desire baptism but are prevented from receiving it sacramentally. "Even those who through no fault of their own do not know Christ and his church may be counted as anonymous Christians if their striving to lead a good life is in fact a response to his grace, which is given in sufficient measure to all."此外,還有"洗禮的血液" ,這是所有收到的臨終為基督(例如, "聖無辜, "馬特。 2時16 -1 8) ,和"洗禮的慾望" ,這是所有收到的那些,暗示或明確,慾望的洗禮,但均無法接受sacramentally " ,即使是那些沒有通過自己的過錯不知道基督和他的教會,可算為匿名基督徒,如果他們的努力,帶領好今後的人生其實是在回應他的恩典,這是考慮到足夠的措施,對所有" 。

Confirmation (Christmation)確認書( christmation )

A theology of confirmation was not developed until the Middle Ages.一名神的確認並不發達,直到中世紀。 Confirmation was said to be the gift of the Spirit for strengthening (ad robur) while baptismal grace is for forgiveness (ad remissionem).確認據說是禮品的精神,為加強(公元robur ) ,而洗禮的恩典是寬恕(公元remissionem ) 。 This distinction has no basis in the Scriptures or the fathers, but has been retained to the present following ratification by the Council of Trent.這種區分是沒有根據的,在經文或父親,但一直保留到現在批准後,由理事會遄。 Today, however, the rite is sometimes administered at the same time as baptism and by the priest, not the bishop, to emphasize that both are really aspects of the one sacrament of initiation.但是,今天的儀式是經管的,有時在同一時間,作為洗禮和由牧師,而不是主教,以強調兩者都是真的方面的一個聖餐起爆。


Distinctively Catholic doctrines on the Eucharist include the sacrificial nature of the Mass and transubstantiation. Both were defined at Trent and neither was modified at Vatican II. 鮮明的天主教教義對聖體聖事,包括祭祀的性質,質量和陷於變體說,兩人被界定在遄達也被修改,梵蒂岡第二。 The unbloody sacrifice of the Mass is identified with the bloody sacrifice of the cross, in that both are offered for the sins of the living and the dead.該unbloody犧牲質量鑑定與流血犧牲的十字架上,在這方面都提供了捷聯慣導系統的活人與死人。 Hence Christ is the same victim and priest in the Eucharist as he was on the cross.因此,基督是同一名受害人和神父在聖體聖事,因為他在十字架上。 Transubstantiation, the belief that the substance of bread and wine is changed into the body and blood of Christ, was first spoken of at the Fourth Lateran Council (1215). The Eucharist is also known as Holy Communion.陷於變體說,認為,這是物質的麵包和酒變成了身體和血液基督的,是第一次談到了在第四次lateran會( 1215年) 。 聖體聖事又被稱為聖餐。

Two sacraments,兩個聖禮,
penance and anointing the sick,懺悔和anointing患病,
are concerned with healing關注癒合


By the Middle Ages the sacrament of penance had four components which were confirmed by the Council of Trent: satisfaction (the doing of an act of penance), confession, contrition, and absolution by a priest. All grave sins had to be confessed to a priest who acted as judge.由中世紀的聖事的懺悔四個組成部分,這證實了安理會的遄達: 滿意(該做的行為懺悔) ,供述, contrition ,並赦免一名神父,所有嚴重的罪過要交待,一牧師擔任法官。 Since Vatican II the role of the priest in penance is understood as healer, and the purpose of the sacrament is reconciliation with the church rather than the restoration of friendship with God.自從梵蒂岡第二的作用牧師在懺悔,是理解為治愈,而且其目的的聖餐是和解與教會,而不是恢復友誼與上帝。 Through contrition the sinner's union with God is restored, but he is still required to seek forgiveness in the sacrament of penance because his sin compromises the mission of the church to be a holy people.通過contrition罪人的聯盟與上帝恢復,但他仍必須尋求寬恕,在聖事的懺悔,因為他的罪惡妥協的使命,教會是一個神聖的人。

Anointing the Sick anointing有病

During the Middle Ages the rite of anointing the sick was reserved increasingly for the dying, hence the description of Peter Lombard: extreme unctio (last anointing).在中世紀的成年禮anointing有病預留越來越為亡者,因此描述彼得倫巴第:極端unctio (最後anointing ) 。 Vatican II relabeled the sacrament "anointing of the sick," stating explicitly that it "is not a sacrament reserved for those who are at the point of death."梵蒂岡第二relabeled聖" anointing的病人, "明確地說,它"不是一個聖餐保留給那些在點的死亡" 。 The last sacrament is now known as viaticum, received during Mass if possible. Earlier, this was called Extreme Unction.最後聖餐是現在被稱為旅費,在接到群眾如果可能的。 早些時候,這個被稱為極端unction 。

There are two sacraments有兩個聖禮
of vocation and commitment:的天職,並承諾:
marriage and orders婚姻和命令


The sacramentality of marriage was affirmed by the councils of Florence and Trent.該sacramentality的婚姻是肯定了由議會佛羅倫薩和遄達。 Marriage is understood to be indissoluble, although dispensations, chiefly in the form of annulment (a declaration that a valid marriage never existed), are permitted.婚姻是理解為不可分割的,雖然dispensations ,主要是在形式上的廢止(一聲明說,一個有效的婚姻從來沒有存在的話) ,都是不允許的。 The grounds of nullity so carefully delimited in the 1918 Code of Canon Law have now been broadened to embrace many deficiencies of character.理由是無效的,所以仔細地劃定在1918年的工作守則教會法,現在已擴充到擁抱很多不足的性格。


Vatican II recognized that all the baptized participate in some way in the priesthood of Christ, but confirmed Catholic tradition on the clerical hierarchy by decreeing that there is a distinction between the priesthood conferred by baptism and that conferred by ordination. 梵蒂岡第二認識到,所有參與的洗禮,在某種程度上,在神職人員的基督,但他證實天主教傳統對文書的等級由頒布是有區別的神職人員所賦予的洗禮,以及所賦予的各項措施。

The ordained priesthood has three orders: bishops, priests, and deacons. The first and third are offices of the NT church. 這項祝聖司鐸有三個命令:主教,司鐸和執事。第一次和第三次都是辦事處新台幣教堂。 The office of priest emerged when it was no longer practical to continue recognizing the Jewish priesthood (owing to the destruction of the temple and the great influx of Gentiles into the church) and with the development of a sacrificial understanding of the Lord's Supper.辦公室的牧師出現時,它不再是現實,繼續承認猶太神職人員(由於摧毀廟宇和大湧入外邦人進入教會) ,並開發一個犧牲品的認識主的晚餐。

FS Piggin財政司司長皮格金博士

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)


Advanced Information 先進的信息

A religious rite or ceremony instituted or recognized by Jesus Christ.是一個宗教的儀式或典禮提起或認可的耶穌基督。 Baptism and the Lord's Supper were given a prominent place in the fellowship of the early church (Acts 2:41 - 42; 10:47; 20:7, 11), along with the proclamation (kerygma) and teaching (didache).洗禮和主的晚餐被賦予突出的地方,在獎學金的初期教會(使徒2時41 -4 2; 1 0:47; 2 0時0 7分, 1 1人) ,隨文告( k erygma)與教學( d idache) 。 Both rites were regarded as means appointed by Jesus Christ to bring the members of the church into communion with his death and resurrection, and thus with himself through the Holy Spirit (Matt. 28:19 - 20; Acts 2:38; Rom. 6:3 - 5; 1 Cor. 11:23 - 27; Col. 2:11 - 12).這兩個儀軌,被視為是指委任耶穌基督,使教會的成員到共融與他的死與復活,並因此與自己通過聖靈。 ( 28:19 -第2 0條;行徑2時3 8分;光碟6 : 3 -5 1肺心病。 1 1時2 3分-第2 7條;上校2時1 1 -1 2) 。 They were linked together in our Lord's teaching (Mark 10:38 - 39) and in the mind of the church (1 Cor. 10:1 - 5ff.) as having such significance.他們都聯接在一起,在我們的主的教學(馬克10:38 -3 9) ,並在他心中的教堂( 1肺心病。 1 0:1- 5f f),因為有這樣的意義。 They were the visible enactment of the word proclaimed in the kerygma, and their significance must be understood as such.它們分別是有形頒布的字宣布在kerygma ,其意義必須被理解為這樣的。

The proclamation of the gospel in the NT was no mere recital of the events of the life, death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus, the Son of God.宣布福音新台幣並沒有僅僅演奏的事件,生命,死亡,復活,升天的耶穌,上帝的兒子。 It was the representation of these events to the hearers in the power of the Spirit so that through such proclamation they could become related to these events in a living way through faith.這是代表這些事件向hearers在權力的精神,以便通過這種宣布,他們有可能成為與上述事件謀生途徑,透過信仰。 In the proclamation of the gospel the once - for - all event continued to be effective for salvation (1 Cor. 1:21; 2 Cor. 5:18 - 19).在宣布福音一度-為-所有的活動繼續得到有效救助(1肺心病。1時2 1分, 2肺心病。5時1 8 -1 9) 。 The word of the kerygma gave men fellowship in the mystery of the kingdom of God brought nigh in Jesus (Matt. 13:1 - 23; Mark 4:11), and the preacher in fulfilling his task was the steward of this mystery (1 Cor. 4:1; Eph. 3:8 - 9; Col. 1:25).這個詞的kerygma了男子金在神秘的神的國度帶來了幾乎是在耶穌。 ( 13時01分-2 3歲;馬克4時1 1分) ,以及傳教士在履行他的任務是管家的這個謎( 1肺心病。 4:1 ;以弗所書, 3點08分-九;上校2 5) 。 The miracles or signs accompanying the proclamation in the early church were the visible aspect of the living power the word derived from its relation to the mystery of the kingdom of God.神蹟或標誌陪同代表作,在早期教會的有形方面的生活權力一詞源自它關係到神秘的神的國度。

It was inevitable, therefore, that baptism and the Lord's Supper, the other visible counterparts of the kerygma, should also come to be regarded as giving fellowship in the same mysterion of the Word made flesh (1 Tim. 3:16), and should be interpreted as themselves partaking in the mystery of the relationship between Christ and his church (Eph. 5:32).這是無法避免的,因此,洗禮和主的晚餐外,其他有形對口的kerygma ,也應被視為給予獎學金在同一mysterion的字肉身( 1添。 3:16 ) ,並應被解釋為自己partaking在神秘的關係,基督和他的教會(以弗所書5時32分) 。

The Greek word mysterion was later often given the Latin sacramentum, and the rites themselves came to be spoken of as sacramenta.希臘字mysterion後來往往由於拉丁語sacramentum和儀軌自己後來被談及,因為sacramenta 。 The word sacramentum meant both "a thing set apart as sacred" and "a military oath of obedience as administered by the commander."字sacramentum意味著雙方"的事,除了一套作為神聖" , "軍事宣誓服從作為經管的指揮官" 。 The use of this word for baptism and the Lord's Supper affected the thought about these rites, and they tended to be regarded as conveying grace in themselves, rather than as relating men through faith to Christ.使用此詞的洗禮和主的晚餐影響想過這些儀軌的,他們往往被視為傳達寬限期本身,而不是作為與男性通過信仰基督的。

A sacrament came later to be defined (following Augustine) as a "visible word" or an "outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace."從樓上掉了後來加以確定(以下奧古斯丁) ,作為"有形之詞"或"走出去和可視性標誌的向內和精神文明的恩典" 。 The similarity between the form of the sacrament and the hidden gift tended to be stressed.之間的相似形式的聖餐和隱藏的禮物往往予以強調。 Five lesser sacraments became traditional in the church: confirmation, penance, extreme unction, order, matrimony.五較輕聖禮成為傳統在教會:確認,懺悔,極端unction ,秩序,婚姻關係。 But the church had always a special place for baptism and the Lord's Supper as the chief mysteries, and at the Reformation these were regarded as the only two that had the authority of our Lord himself, and therefore as the only true sacraments.但教會總是一個特殊的地點,為的洗禮和主的晚餐作為行政奧秘,並在改造這些被視為僅有的兩個曾權威我們的主自己,因此,作為唯一真正的聖禮。

Since God in the OT also used visible signs along with the word, these were also regarded as having sacramental significance.因為上帝在城市旅遊局還利用有形的跡象,隨著這個詞,這些人也被視為聖事的意義。 Among the OT sacraments the rites of circumcision and the passover were stressed as being the OT counterparts of baptism (Col. 2:11 - 12) and the Lord's Supper (1 Cor. 5:7).各城市旅遊局聖禮儀式的割禮和逾越節的人強調,被稱為是城市旅遊局對口的洗禮(上校2時11 -1 2)和主的晚餐( 1肺心病。 5 :7) 。

RS Wallace盧比華萊士
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
Calvin, Institutes 4.14; R Bruce, Sermons upon the Sacraments; TF Torrance, "Eschatology and the Eucharist," in Intercommunion; G Bornkamm, TDNT , IV; OC Quick, The Christian Sacraments; JI Packer, ed., Eucharistic Sacrifice.卡爾文學院4.14與r布魯斯,講道後,聖禮;托蘭斯的TF , "末世和聖體聖事" ,在交流的100博恩卡姆, tdnt ,四;胡椒快速,基督教聖禮;紀封隔器,編輯,聖體聖事的犧牲。


Catholic Information 天主教資訊

Sacraments are outward signs of inward grace, instituted by Christ for our sanctification (Catechismus concil. Trident., n.4, ex S. Aug. "De Catechizandis rudibus").聖禮是外在跡象外來恩典,是由基督為我們的成聖( catechismus concil 。三叉戟, n.4 ,前美國8月, "德catechizandis rudibus " ) 。 The subject may be treated under the following headings:此事可能治療下,其標題如下:

I. The necessity and the nature of the sacramental system一,必要性和性質的聖事制度

II.二。 The nature of the sacraments of the new law性質聖禮的新法律

III.三。 The origin (cause) of the sacraments原產地(事業)的聖禮

IV.四。 The number of the sacraments有多少聖禮

V. The effects of the sacraments五,影響聖禮

VI.六。 The minister of the sacraments部長聖禮

VII.七。 The recipient of the sacraments收件人的聖禮


(1) In what sense necessary ( 1 )在何種意義上的必要

Almighty God can and does give grace to men in answer to their internal aspirations and prayers without the use of any external sign or ceremony.全能的上帝可以,而且確實給予寬限期,以男性在回答其內部的願望和祈禱,無需使用任何外部標誌或儀式。 This will always be possible, because God, grace, and the soul are spiritual beings.這將始終是不可能的,因為上帝的恩典,和靈魂是精神。 God is not restricted to the use of material, visible symbols in dealing with men; the sacraments are not necessary in the sense that they could not have been dispensed with.上帝不是限於使用的素材,有形的象徵,在處理與男人;聖禮,是沒有必要在某種意義上說,他們已經不能免除。 But, if it is known that God has appointed external, visible ceremonies as the means by which certain graces are to be conferred on men, then in order to obtain those graces it will be necessary for men to make use of those Divinely appointed means.但是,如果我們知道,上帝已委任外部的,有形的儀式為手段,其中某些青睞,是賦予男人,然後為了獲得那些青睞,這將是必要的,男性可以利用這些神聖的任命方式。 This truth theologians express by saying that the sacraments are necessary, not absolutely but only hypothetically, ie, in the supposition that if we wish to obtain a certain supernatural end we must use the supernatural means appointed for obtaining that end.這個真理神學家表示說,聖禮是必要的,而不是絕對,而只是假設,即,在假設,如果我們想取得某種超自然的目的,我們必須用超自然的手段委任為取得這一目的。 In this sense the Council of Trent (Sess. VII, can. 4) declared heretical those who assert that the sacraments of the New Law are superfluous and not necessary, although all are not necessary for each individual.在這個意義上,安理會的遄達( sess.七,可以的。四日)宣布異端者斷言聖禮的新的法律都是多餘的和不必要的,雖然大家都沒有必要為每一個人。 It is the teaching of the Catholic Church and of Christians in general that, whilst God was nowise bound to make use of external ceremonies as symbols of things spiritual and sacred, it has pleased Him to do so, and this is the ordinary and most suitable manner of dealing with men.它是教學的天主教教會和基督徒的一般,雖然上帝是nowise勢必利用外部儀式象徵事物的精神和神聖的,它很高興他這樣做,這是普通和最合適以何種方式處理男人。 Writers on the sacraments refer to this as the necessitas convenientiae, the necessity of suitableness.作家對聖禮是指將這一問題作為necessitas convenientiae ,必要性的適宜性。 It is not really a necessity, but the most appropriate manner of dealing with creatures that are at the same time spiritual and corporeal.這是不是一個真正的必要性,但以最恰當的方式處理動物,是在同一時間,精神和體。 In this assertion all Christians are united: it is only when we come to consider the nature of the sacramental signs that Protestants (except some Anglicans) differ from Catholics.在此斷言,所有基督徒都美:這是唯一的時候,我們現在應該考慮的性質以及聖跡象顯示,新教徒(除了一些教徒) ,從不同的天主教徒。 "To sacraments considered merely as outward forms, pictorial representations or symbolic acts, there is generally no objection", wrote Dr. Morgan Dix ("The sacramental system", New York, 1902, p. 16). "聖禮僅應視為向外形式,圖案申述或象徵性的行為,一般無異議" ,寫博士摩根迪克斯(以下簡稱"聖事制度" ,紐約, 1902年,第16頁) 。 "Of sacramental doctrine this may be said, that it is co-extensive with historic Christianity. Of this there is no reasonable doubt, as regards the very ancient days, of which St. Chrysostom's treatise on the priesthood and St. Cyril's catechetical lectures may be taken as characteristic documents. Nor was it otherwise with the more conservative of the reformed bodies of the sixteenth century. Martin Luther's Catechism, the Augsburg, and later the Westminster, Confessions are strongly sacramental in their tone, putting to shame the degenerate followers of those who compiled them" (ibid., p. 7, 8) "聖教義,這可以說,這是合作的廣泛歷史性基督教。交代,因此,沒有合理的疑點,至於非常古老的天,其中聖金口的傷寒論神職人員和聖西里爾的catechetical講座五月採取為特徵的文件。也不是,否則,與較保守的機構改革的16世紀。馬丁路德的講授,奧格斯堡,後來西敏寺,自白書是強烈的聖事,在他們的口氣,把汗顏退化的追隨者那些彙編成" (同上,第7頁, 8 )

(2) Why the sacramental system is most appropriate ( 2 )為什麼聖制度是最合適的

The reasons underlying a sacramental system are as follows:原因某個聖系統分列如下:

Taking the word "sacrament" in its broadest sense, as the sign of something sacred and hidden (the Greek word is "mystery"), we can say that the whole world is a vast sacramental system, in that material things are unto men the signs of things spiritual and sacred, even of the Divinity.走字"聖餐" ,其最廣泛的意義上,作為標誌的東西,神聖和隱患(希臘字是"謎" ) ,我們可以說,整個世界是一個廣闊的聖事制度,在這物質的東西所不欲,男性跡象顯示事情的精神和神聖的,甚至是神。 "The heavens show forth the glory of God, and the firmament declareth the work of his hands" (Ps. xviii, 2). "老天爺顯示了神的榮耀,以及firmament declareth的工作,他的手" (詩篇十八, 2 ) 。 The invisible things of him [ie God], from the creation of the world, are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made; his eternal power also, and divinity" (Romans 1:20).無形的東西,他[即上帝] ,從建立世界各地,他們清楚地看到,被理解的事情,都是他的永恆力量,也和神性" (羅馬書1:20 ) 。

The redemption of man was not accomplished in an invisible manner.贖回的男子沒有完成在無形的方式。 God renewed, through the Patriarchs and the Prophets, the promise of salvation made to the first man; external symbols were used to express faith in the promised Redeemer: "all these things happened to them [the Israelites] in figure" (1 Corinthians 10:11; Hebrews 10:1).上帝再次,通過patriarchs和先知,承諾救國作出了第一名男子;外在符號被用來表達信仰,在其承諾的救贖主說: "所有這些事情發生在自己身上[以色列人]圖" (哥林多前書10個: 11 ;希伯來書10:1 ) 。 "So we also, when we were children, were serving under the elements of the world. But when the fullness of time was come, God sent his Son, made of a woman" (Galatians 4:3-4). "因此,我們同樣,當我們是小孩,下提供服務內容的世界,但是當豐滿的時候,是來,上帝派他的兒子,取得的一個女人" (加拉太書4:3-4 ) 。 The Incarnation took place because God dealt with men in the manner that was best suited to their nature.化身發生,因為上帝處理與男人的方式是最適合自己的性質。

The Church established by the Saviour was to be a visible organization (see CHURCH: The Visibility of the Church): consequently it should have external ceremonies and symbols of things sacred.教會設立的救世主,是一個有形的組織(見教堂:能見度的教會) :因此它應該有外在的儀式和符號的東西,神聖的。

The principal reason for a sacramental system is found in man.主要理由為聖事制度,是發現於人類。 It is the nature of man, writes St. Thomas (III:61:1), to be led by things corporeal and semse-perceptible to things spiritual and intelligible; now Divine Providence provides for everything in accordance with its nature (secundum modum suae conditionis); therefore it is fitting that Divine Wisdom should provide means of salvation for men in the form of certain corporeal and sensible signs which are called sacraments.這是大自然的人,寫聖托馬斯(三: 61:1 ) ,被領導者,由東西是有形的和semse -感知到的東西,精神和理解,現在是神聖的規定,一切按照其性質(對Secundum modum suae conditionis ) ,因此這是非常恰當的神聖智慧,應提供手段拯救男人的形式,一定是有形的和理智的跡象,這是所謂的聖禮。 (For other reasons see Catech. Conc. Trid., II, n.14.) (因其他原因見catech 。結論。 trid 。第一,二, n.14 ) 。

(3) Existence of sacred symbols ( 3 )存在的神聖符號

(a) No sacraments in the state of innocence. (一)沒有聖禮,在國家無罪推定的原則。 According ot St. Thomas (III:61:2) and theologians generally there were no sacraments before Adam sinned, ie, in the state of original justice.據酒店聖托馬斯(三: 61:2 )和神學家普遍有沒有聖禮之前,亞當犯罪,即在該國的原始正義。 Man's dignity was so great that he was raised above the natural condition of human nature.人的尊嚴是如此巨大,他所提出的上述自然條件的人的本性。 His mind was subject to God; his lower faculties were subject to the higher part of his mind; his body was subject to his soul; it would have been against the dignity of that state had he been dependent, for the acquisition of knowledge or of Divine grace, on anything beneath him, ie, corporeal things.他的態度是受到上帝的,其較低的院系,曾受到較高的一部分,他的心,他的身體受到他的靈魂,它已對尊嚴的國家,他一直依賴,為獲取知識或神的恩典,我什麼下方他的,即是有形的東西。 For this reason the majority of theologians hold that no sacraments would have been instituted even if that state had lasted for a long time.基於這個原因,大多數神學家認為,沒有聖禮會已提起即使這種狀態持續了相當長的時間。

(b) Sacraments of the law of nature. (二)聖禮的自然法則。 Apart from what was or might have been in that extraordinary state, the use of sacred symbols is universal.除了是什麼或可能已經在這不平凡的狀態下,用神聖的符號,是具有普遍性。 St. Augustine says that every religion, true or false, has its visible signs or sacraments.聖奧古斯丁說,每一種宗教,是真還是假的,有其明顯的標誌或聖禮。 "In nullum nomen religionis, seu verum seu falsum, coadunari homines possunt, nisi aliquo signaculorum seu sacramentorum visibilium consortio colligantur" (Cont. Faust., XIX, xi). "法無名字religionis ,請輸入您的真相您falsum , coadunari homines possunt ,暫準aliquo signaculorum您sacramentorum visibilium consortio colligantur " (續浮士德,十九,十一) 。 Commentators on the Scriptures and theologians almost unanimously assert that there were sacraments under the law of nature and under the Mosaic Law, as there are sacraments of greater dignity under the Law of Christ.評論家對聖經和神學家幾乎一致斷言,有聖禮根據自然的規律,並根據鑲嵌法,因為有聖禮更大的尊嚴,根據法律規定的喊聲。 Under the law of nature -- so called not to exclude supernatural revelation but because at that time there existed no written supernatural law -- salvation was granted through faith in the promised Redeemer, and men expressed that faith by some external signs.根據自然的規律-所謂不排除超自然啟示,但因為在那個時候不存在書面超自然法-救亡獲得通過信仰,在其承諾的救贖主,將士表示,信仰是由一些外部標誌。 What those signs should be God did not determine, leaving this for the people, most probably to the leaders or heads of families, who were guided in their choice by an interior inspiration of the Holy Ghost.這些跡象,應該上帝並沒有確定,離開這一切為了人民,極有可能向各國領導人或元首的家庭,他們的指導思想是,在他們的選擇是由一個內部的啟示聖靈。 This is the conception of St. Thomas, who says that, as under the law of nature (when there was no written law), men were guided by interior inspiration in worshiping God, so also they determined what signs should be used in the external acts of worship (III:60:5, ad 3).這是觀聖托馬斯,他說,因為根據法律規定的性質(因為當時有沒有書面的法律) ,男人遵循內部靈感崇拜上帝,而他們也確定了什麼跡象,應採用外部行為的崇拜(三: 60:5 ,專案3 ) 。 Afterwards, however, as it was necessary to give a written law: (a) because the law of nature had been obscured by sin, and (b) because it was time to give a more explicit knowledge of the grace of Christ, then also it became necessary to determine what external signs should be used as sacraments (III:60:5, ad 3; III:61:3, ad 2) This was not necessary immediately after the Fall, by reason of the fullness of faith and knowledge imparted to Adam.可是後來,因為它是有必要給予書面法律: (一)由於自然的規律已被掩蓋罪惡,及( b ) ,因為它是時間,以提供更清晰的認識恩典基督,然後又它已成為必要,以確定哪些外部標誌,應該被用來作為聖禮(三: 60:5 ,專案3 ;三: 61:3 ,專案2 ) ,這是沒有必要立即陷落後,因她的豐滿的信仰和知識傳授給亞當。 But about the time of Abraham, when faith had been weakened, many had fallen into idolatry, and the light of reason had been obscured by indulgence of the passions, even unto the commission of sins against nature, God intervened and appointed as a sign of faith the rite of circumcision (Genesis 17; ST III:70:2, ad 1; see CIRCUMCISION).但對於當時亞伯拉罕的信仰時,已經被大大削弱,許多已陷入偶像崇拜,以及輕的理由已被掩蓋,放縱自己的激情,即使祂犯下的罪過違反自然,上帝干預,並獲委任為標誌真誠地成年禮的割禮(創17個;聖三: 70:2 ,專案一見包皮環切術) 。

The vast majority of theologians teach that this ceremony was a sacrament and that it was instituted as a remedy for original sin; consequently that it conferred grace, not indeed of itself (ex opere operato), but by reason of the faith in Christ which it expressed.絕大多數的神學教授表示,這個頒獎典禮是從樓上掉了,而且它建立了一個補救的原罪;因此,它賦予的恩典,而不是事實上的本身(當然opere operato ) ,而是因為信仰基督,它表示。 "In circumcisione conferebatur gratia, non ex virtute circumcisionis, sed ex virtute fidei passionis Christi futurae, cujus signum erat circumcisio -- quia scilicet justitia erat ex fide significata, non ex circumcisione significante" (ST III:70:4). "在circumcisione conferebatur特惠,非當然virtute circumcisionis文,而前virtute信passionis基督教futurae , cujus Signum的erat circumcisio -q uias cilicetj ustitiae rat當然正當s ignificata,非當然c ircumcisiones ignificante" (聖三: 7 0:4) 。 Certainly it was at least a sign of something sacred, and it was appointed and determined by God himself as a sign of faith and as a mark by which the faithful were distinguished from unbelievers.當然,這是起碼的一個標誌東西神聖的,它接受了任命,並確定由上帝自己是一個信仰的象徵,並作為一個標誌,其中忠實區分,從信的。 It was not, however, the only sign of faith used under the law of nature.它不是,但是,只有信仰的象徵,用來根據自然的規律。 It is incredible, writes St. Augustine, that before circumcision there was no sacrament for the relief (justification) of children, although for some good reason the Scriptures do not tell us what that sacrament was (Cont. Jul., III, xi).這是令人難以置信的,寫的聖奧古斯丁,以前割包皮是沒有聖餐,為救濟(理由)的兒童,雖然對一些很好的理由念經不告訴我們,什麼樣的聖餐(續7月,三,十一) 。 The sacrifice of Melchisedech, the sacrifice of the friends of Job, the various tithes and oblations for the service of God are mentioned by St. Thomas (III:61:3, ad 3; III:65:1, ad 7) as external observances which may be considered as the sacred signs of that time, prefiguring future sacred institutions: hence, he adds, they may be called sacraments of the law of nature.犧牲melchisedech ,犧牲了朋友的工作,各tithes和oblations為天主服務的是所提到的聖托馬斯(三: 61:3 ,專案3 ;三: 65:1 ,專案7 )作為對外紀念活動可能被視為神聖的標誌,那些日子裡, prefiguring未來的神聖機構:因此,他補充說,他們可能被稱為聖禮的自然法則。

(c) Sacraments of the Mosaic Law. (三)聖禮的鑲嵌法。 As the time for Christ's coming drew nearer, in order that the Israelites might be better instructed God spoke to Moses, revealing to him in detail the sacred signs and ceremonies by which they were to manifest more explicitly their faith in the future Redeemer.由於時間為基督即將提請臨近,為了讓以色列人可能更好指示上帝以摩西,揭示了他在詳細的神聖標誌和儀式,由它們呈現出更加明確自己的前途抱有信心救贖。 Those signs and ceremonies were the sacraments of the Mosaic Law, "which are compared to the sacraments which were before the law as something determined to something undetermined, because before the law it had not been determined what signs men should use" (ST III:61:3, ad 2).這些標誌和儀式,聖禮的鑲嵌法" ,這是一種比較聖禮,其中在法律面前,看成決心一些未確定的,因為在法律面前,它尚未確定什麼跡象男人應該使用" (聖三: 61:3 ,專案2 ) 。 With the Angelic Doctor (I-II:102:5) theologians usually divide the sacraments of this period into three classes:與天使的醫生(一至二: 102:5 )神學家通常鴻溝聖禮的這一時期分為三個檔次:

The ceremonies by which men were made and signed as worshippers or ministers of God.儀式由男人發了言,並簽署了為善信或部長的上帝。 Thus we have (a) circumcision, instituted in the time of Abraham (Genesis 17), renewed in the time of Moses (Leviticus 12:3) for all people; and (b) the sacred rites by which the Levitical priests were consecrated.因此,我們有(一)包皮環切術,是在當時的亞伯拉罕(創17 ) ,在續約的時候,摩西(利未記12時03分) ,為全體人民受益;及( b )的神聖儀式,其中levitical神職人員遭到consecrated 。 The ceremonies which consisted in the use of things pertaining to the service of God, ie (a) the paschal lamb for all the people, and (b) the loaves of proposition for the ministers.儀式,其中在使用的東西,涉及到天主服務的,即(一)逾越節的羔羊,所有的人,及(二)麵包的命題,為部長。

The ceremonies of purification from legal contamination, ie (a) for the people, various expiations, (b) for the priests, the washing of hands and feet, the shaving of the head, etc. St. Augustine says the sacraments of the Old Law were abolished because they had been fulfilled (cf. Matthew 5:17), and others have been instituted which are more efficacious, more useful, easier to administer and to receive, fewer in number ("virtute majora, utilitate meliora, actu faciliora, numero pauciora", Cont. Faust., XIX, xiii).儀式的純化,從法律上的污染,即: (一)一切為了人民,各expiations , ( b )為神父,清洗雙手及雙腳,剃的頭,等聖奧古斯丁說,聖禮的舊法律被廢除,因為他們已經完成了(參見馬太5時17分) ,以及其他已建立了一些更有效,更有益的,易於管理,並接受,數量較少( " virtute對大, utilitate meliora ,工會faciliora ,的數字pauciora " ,承上。浮士德,十九,十三) 。 The Council of Trent condemns those who say that there is no difference except in the outward rite between the sacraments of the Old Law and those of the New Law (Sess. VII, can. ii).安理會的遄譴責那些說是沒有區別,除了在離港成年禮之間聖禮的舊法者的新法律( sess.七,可以第二節) 。 The Decree for the Armenians, published by Order of the Council of Florence, says that the sacraments of the Old Law did not confer grace, but only prefigured the grace which was to be given by the Passion of Christ.這項法令為亞美尼亞人,由立法會作出此項命令的佛羅倫斯說,聖禮的舊法也沒有賦予寬限期,但只prefigured恩典是給予熱情的喊聲。 This means that they did not give grace themselves (ie ex opere operato) but only by reason of the faith in Christ which they represented -- "ex fide significata, non ex circumcisione significante" (ST I-II:102:5)這意味著他們沒有給自己的恩典(即前opere operato ) ,但只有理由的信念,在基督裡,他們所代表的-"當然有誠意s ignificata,非當然c ircumcisiones ignificante" (聖第一項和第二項: 1 02:5)


(1) Definition of a sacrament ( 1 )定義一個聖餐

The sacraments thus far considered were merely signs of sacred things.聖禮,所以至今仍然只是跡象神聖的東西。 According to the teaching of the Catholic Church, accepted today by many Episcopalians, the sacraments of the Christian dispensation are not mere signs; they do not merely signify Divine grace, but in virtue of their Divine institution, they cause that grace in the souls of men.根據教學的天主教教會,今天接受了許多episcopalians ,聖禮的基督教省卻不是單純的跡象,他們並不僅僅意味著神聖的恩典,但在憑藉自己的神聖機構,他們的事業,在寬限期的靈魂男性。 "Signum sacro sanctum efficax gratiae" -- a sacrosanct sign producing grace, is a good, succinct definition of a sacrament of the New Law. " Signum的骶密室efficax謝謝" -一個神聖的標誌製作的恩典,是一個很好的,簡潔的定義,從樓上掉了這項新法律。 Sacrament, in its broadest acceptation, may be defined as an external sign of something sacred.聖餐,在最廣泛的接受性,可以定義為一個外部標誌的東西,神聖的。 In the twelfth century Peter Lombard (d. 1164), known as the Master of the Sentences, author of the manual of systematized theology, gave an accurate definition of a sacrament of the New Law: A sacrament is in such a manner an outward sign of inward grace that it bears its image (ie signifies or represents it) and is its cause -- "Sacramentum proprie dicitur quod ita signum est gratiae Dei, ei invisibilis gratiae forma, ut ipsius imaginem gerat et causa existat" (IV Sent., dI, n.2).在12世紀彼得倫巴第(四1164年) ,被稱為師父的句子,作者手冊的系統化神學,作了準確的定義從樓上掉了的新的法律:一個是聖餐用這種方式向外跡象外來恩典說,它關係到自己的形象(即意味或代表) ,是其事業-" s acramentump ropried icitur和I TA的S ignum的預測感謝d ei,指引i nvisibilis感謝形式上, U T斯達康i psiusi maginem大等病因e xistat" (四發送,邸, n.2 ) 。 This definition was adopted and perfected by the medieval Scholastics.這個定義是通過建立和完善由中世紀scholastics 。 From St. Thomas we have the short but very expressive definition: The sign of a sacred thing in so far as it sanctifies men - "Signum rei sacrae in quantum est sanctificans homines" (III:60:2).從聖托馬斯我們有短,但非常傳神的定義是:標誌的一個神聖的事,目前為止,因為它sanctifies男人-" S ignum的瑞s acrae在量子預測s anctificansh omines" (三: 6 0:2) 。

All the creatures of the universe proclaim something sacred, namely, the wisdom and the goodness of God, as they are sacred in themselves, not as they are sacred things sanctifying men, hence they cannot be called sacraments in the sense in which we speak of sacraments (ibid., ad 1um).所有動物的宇宙宣告神聖的東西,即智慧和善良的上帝,因為他們是神聖的本身,而不是因為它們是神聖的事情sanctifying男人,因此他們不能被稱為聖禮,在某種意義上,這是我們講的聖禮(同上,專案1um ) 。 The Council of Trent includes the substance of these two definitions in the following: "Symbolum rei sacrae, et invisibilis gratiae forma visibilis, sanctificandi vim habens" -- A symbol of something sacred, a visible form of invisible grace, having the power of sanctifying (Sess. XIII, cap.3).安理會的遄包含的實質內容,這兩個定義如下: " symbolum瑞sacrae等invisibilis感謝形式上visibilis , sanctificandi無窮的habens " -一個符號的東西,神聖的,有形的形式,無形的恩典,有權力的s anctifying ( sess.十三, cap.3 ) 。 The "Catechism of the Council of Trent" gives a more complete definition: Something perceptible by the senses which by Divine institution has the power both to signify and to effect sanctity and justice (II, n.2). "講授的安理會的遄達"會得到更完整的定義是:一些可感知由感官所神學院有權力既象徵和效果神聖性和正義(二n.2 ) 。 Catholic catechisms in English usually have the following: An outward sign of inward grace, a sacred and mysterious sign or ceremony, ordained by Christ, by which grace is conveyed to our souls.天主教catechisms在英語,通常是有以下幾點:一個外向型的跡象,外來恩典,神聖和神秘符號或儀式,祝聖基督,其中Grace是轉達了我們的靈魂。 Anglican and Epscopalian theologies and catechisms give definitions which Catholics could accept.聖公會和epscopalian神學和catechisms給予定義,其中天主教徒所不能接受的。 In every sacrament three things are necessary: the outward sign; the inward grace; Divine institution.在每一個聖餐三件事是必要的:向外徵;抵港寬限期;神聖機構。 A sign stands for and represents something else, either naturally, as smoke represents fire, or by the choice of an intelligent being, as the red cross indicates an ambulance.一個跡象主張,代表了一些,否則,無論是自然,作為濃煙代表著火災,或所選擇的一種智能正,作為紅十字會表明了救護車。 Sacraments do not naturally signify grace; they do so because they have been chosen by God to signify mysterious effects.聖禮不自然意味著有文采,他們這樣做是因為他們已經選擇了上帝,以顯示神秘的效果。 Yet they are not altogether arbitrary, because in some cases, if not in all, the ceremonies performed have a quasi-natural connection with the effect to be produced.但他們不是完全任意的,因為在某些情況下,若不能在所有的儀式表演有一個半自然的結合效果製作。 Thus, pouring water on the head of a child readily brings to mind the interior purification of the soul.因此,灌水在頭上的孩子很容易使我想起許多內部淨化的心靈。 The word "sacrament" (sacramentum), even as used by profane Latin writers, signified something sacred, viz., the oath by which soldiers were bound, or the money deposited by litigants in a contest.用"聖餐" ( sacramentum ) ,甚至所用的褻瀆拉美作家,象徵著神聖的東西,即,宣誓,其中士兵被約束,或是錢存入訴訟人在競賽。 In the writings of the Fathers of the Church the word was used to signify something sacred and mysterious, and where the Latins use sacramentum the Greeks use mysterion (mystery).在該著作的,教會的神父們一詞被用來象徵東西神聖和神秘的,並在其拉丁人使用sacramentum希臘人使用mysterion (謎) 。 The sacred and mysterious thing signified is Divine grace, which is the formal cause of our justification (see GRACE), but with it we must associate the Passion of Christ (efficient and meritorious cause) and the end (final cause) of our sanctification, viz., eternal ife.神聖和神秘的東西,標誌,是神的恩典,這是正式的事業,我們的理由(見寬限期) ,但是它要聯繫激情的基督(高效率和優良的事業)和落腳點(最後一個原因) ,我們的成聖,即,永恆Ife的。 The significance of the sacraments according to theologians (eg ST III:60:3) and the Roman Catechism (II, n.13) extends to these three sacred things, of which one is past, one present, and one future.意義聖禮根據神學家(如聖三: 60:3 )和羅馬問答(二, n.13 )延伸到這三個神聖的東西,其中一個是過去,一個本,和一個共同的未來。 The three are aptly expressed in St. Thomas's beautiful antiphon on the Eucharist: "O sacrum convivium, in quo Christus sumitur, recolitur memoria passionis ejus, mens impletur gratia, et futurae gloriae nobis pignus datur -- O sacred banquet, in which Christ is received, the memory of the passion is recalled, the soul is filled with grace, and a pledge of future life is given to us".三者正好表示,在聖托馬斯的美麗antiphon對聖體聖事: "啊,骶骨convivium ,在維持現狀的基督sumitur , recolitur備忘錄passionis ejus ,男士impletur特惠等futurae gloriae的意識pignus datur -鄰神聖宴會,其中基督收到的,記憶的激情回憶說,靈魂,是充滿恩典,並保證今後的生活,是給我們" 。

(2) Errors of Protestants ( 2 )錯誤的新教徒

Protestants generally hold that the sacraments are signs of something sacred (grace and faith), but deny that they really cause Divine grace.新教徒普遍認為聖禮的跡象,其中的神聖(恩典和信仰) ,但否認他們確實造成神的恩典。 Episcopalians, however, and Anglicans, especially the Ritualists, hold with Catholics that the sacraments are "effectual signs" of grace. episcopalians ,但是,和英國聖公會教徒,特別是ritualists ,持有與天主教徒認為聖禮是"有效標誌"的恩典。 In article XXV of the Westminster Confession we read:在第二十五條的西敏寺自白我們讀到:

Sacraments ordained of God be not only badges or tokens of Christian men's profession, but rather they be certain sure witnesses and effectual signs of grace and God's good will towards us by which He doth work invisibly in us, and doth not only quicken but strengthen and confirm our faith in Him (cf. art. XXVII).聖禮受戒上帝不僅徽章或紀念品的基督教男人的職業,而是他們一定知道證人和有效標誌的恩典和上帝的善意,對我們的,據此,他doth工作看不見的美, doth不僅加快,但加強和確認我們對他的信任(參見藝術。二十七) 。

"The Zwinglian theory", writes Morgan Dix (op.cit., p.73), "that sacraments are nothing but memorials of Christ and badges of Christian profession, is one that can by no possible jugglery with the English tongue be reconciled with the formularies of our church." " zwinglian兩國論" ,寫道:摩根迪克斯( op.cit ,臨73 ) , "聖事只不過是紀念耶穌和肩章的基督教界人士,是一個絕對不能盡可能jugglery與英語母語和解該處方的我們的教會" 。 Mortimer adopts and explains the Catholic formula "ex opere operato" (loc. cit., p. 122).天敏採用,並解釋天主教公式"易地opere operato " ( loc.引書,第122頁) 。 Luther and his early followers rejected this conception of the sacraments.路德和他的早期信徒們拒絕了這一構想的聖禮。 They do not cause grace, but are merely "signs and testimonies of God's good will towards us" (Augsburg Confessions); they excite faith, and faith (fiduciary) causes justification.他們這樣做不會引起寬限期,但只不過是"的標誌和見證上帝的良好意願,我們" (奧格斯堡自白書) ;激發他們的信仰,信念(託管)導致的理由。 Calvinists and Presbyterians hold substantially the same doctrine. calvinists和presbyterians持有大致相同的教義。 Zwinglius lowered still further the dignity of the sacraments, making them signs not of God's fidelity but of our fidelity. zwinglius降低仍進一步的尊嚴聖禮,使他們沒有跡象上帝的忠誠,但我們的保真度。 By receiving the sacraments we manifest faith in Christ: they are merely the badges of our profession and the pledges of our fidelity.通過接受聖禮體現在基督裡的信仰:他們只是警銜標誌的,我們專業和承諾我們的保真度。 Fundamentally all these errors arise from Luther's newly-invented theory of righteousness, ie the doctrine of justification by faith alone (see GRACE).從根本上,所有這些錯誤出現路德的新發明的理論,是正義的,即學說的因信稱義單(見寬限期) 。 If man is to be sanctified not by an interior renovation through grace which will blot out his sins, but by an extrinsic imputation through the merits of Christ, which will cover his soul as a cloak, there is no place for signs that cause grace, and those used can have no other purpose than to excite faith in the Saviour.如果男子是被神聖化而不是由一個室內裝修透過恩典,將印跡了他的罪過,而是由一個外在歸責通過的優點,基督,其中包括他的靈魂作為外衣,有沒有地方跡象表明事業的恩典,和那些用好了,才能有沒有其他目的是為了激發信心,在救世主。 Luther's convenient doctrine on justification was not adopted by all his followers and it is not baldly and boldly proclaimed by all Protestants today; nevertheless they accept its consequences affecting the true notion of the sacraments.路德的方便學說的理由是沒有通過他的所有信徒,但我們不能baldly大膽地闖,大膽地宣布,所有新教徒今天,但由於他們接受它的後果,影響了真實的概念聖禮。

(3) Catholic Doctrine ( 3 )天主教教義

Against all innovators the Council of Trent declared: "If anyone say that the sacraments of the New Law do not contain the grace which they signify, or that they do not confer grace on those who place no obstacle to the same, let him be anathema" (Sess. viii,反對一切革新者安理會的遄達宣布: "如果有人說,聖禮的新的法律不包含寬限期,他們象徵,或者說它們並未賦予的寬限期,對那些地方,沒有任何障礙,同時,讓他被詛咒" ( sess.第八, ) 。 "If anyone say that grace is not conferred by the sacraments ex opere operato but that faith in God's promises is alone sufficient for obtaining grace, let him be anathema" (ibid., can. viii; cf. can.iv, v, vii). "如果有人說, Grace是不是所賦予的聖禮前opere operato但對上帝的信仰的承諾,是僅足以獲得寬限期,讓他被詛咒" (同上,可以第八節;比照can.iv ,五,七) 。 The phrase "ex opere operato", for which there is no equivalent in English, probably was used for the first time by Peter of Poitiers (D. 1205), and afterwards by Innocent III (d. 1216; de myst. missae, III, v), and by St. Thomas (d. 1274; IV Sent., dist. 1, Qi, a.5). "當然opere operato " ,不存在任何等值的英語,大概是第一次使用,由彼得的普瓦捷(四1205 ) ,後來改由無辜的三(四1216 ;德神秘島。彌撒程序" ,三,五) ,以及由聖托馬斯(四二一二七四;四派,區一日起,第A.5 ) 。 It was happily invented to express a truth that had always been taught and had been introduced without objection.這是愉快地發明了表達真理一直教導,並已推出無異議通過。 It is not an elegant formula but, as St. Augustine remarks (In Ps. cxxxviii): It is better that grammarians should object than that the people should not understand.這不是一個優雅的公式,但正如聖奧古斯丁的言論(在PS 。 cxxxviii ) :最好是語法應該反對比說,人們不應該明白。 "Ex opere operato", ie by virtue of the action, means that the efficacy of the action of the sacraments does not depend on anything human, but solely on the will of God as expressed by Christ's institution and promise. "當然opere operato " ,即以德治國的行動,即表示功效的行動聖禮並不取決於任何人,但只對上帝的意志所表達基督的機構和許諾。 "Ex opere operantis", ie by reason of the agent, would mean that the action of the sacraments depended on the worthiness either of the minister or of the recipient (see Pourrat, "Theology of the Sacraments", tr. St. Louis, 1910, 162 sqq.). "當然opere operantis " ,即由原因的代理人,將意味著這一行動的聖禮,還取決於對老有所為的任何一個部長或有關受援國(見pourrat , "神學的聖禮"的TR 。聖路易斯1910年, 162 sqq ) 。 Protestants cannot in good faith object to the phrase as if it meant that the mere outward ceremony, apart from God's action, causes grace.新教徒不能善意地反對這句話,因為如果這意味著僅僅向外儀式上,除了從上帝的行動,起因恩典。 It is well known that Catholics teach that the sacraments are only the instrumental, not the principal, causes of grace.這是人所共知的天主教徒教導聖禮只是工具,而不是主要的,根源的寬限期。 Neither can it be claimed that the phrase adopted by the council does away with all dispositions necessary on the part of the recipient, the sacraments acting like infallible charms causing grace in those who are ill-disposed or in grievous sin.既不能被聲稱這句話安理會通過摒棄了所有必要的處置對部分受贈人,聖禮像個犯錯的魅力造成的寬限期,在那些虐待處置或在他人罪。 The fathers of the council were careful to note that there must be no obstacle to grace on the part of the recipients, who must receive them rite, ie rightly and worthily; and they declare it a calumny to assert that they require no previous dispositions (Sess. XIV, de poenit., cap.4).父親安理會小心注意,必須有任何障礙,寬限期對部分受助人,他們必須接受他們的成年禮,即正確和抱負,以及他們宣布,它誹謗聲稱,他們需要以往並沒有處分權( sess 。十四,德poenit , cap.4 ) 。 Dispositions are required to prepare the subject, but they are a condition (conditio sine qua non), not the causes, of the grace conferred.處分權都必須編制議題,但他們的一個條件(必要條件) ,而不是原因的基礎上,該所賦予的恩典。 In this case the sacraments differ from the sacramentals, which may cause grace ex opere operantis, ie by reason of the prayers of the Church or the good, pious sentiments of those who use them.在這種情況下,聖禮不同,從sacramentals ,可能會導致寬限期前opere operantis ,即由原因的禱告,教會或善,虔誠的情緒,那些使用它們。

(4) Proofs of the Catholic Doctrine ( 4 )的證明天主教教義

In examining proofs of the Catholic doctrine it must be borne in mind that our rule of faith is not simply Scripture, but Scripture and tradition.在審查證據的天主教教義,它必須牢記,我們的法治信仰,是不是簡單的經文,但經文和傳統。

(a) In Sacred Scripture we find expressions which clearly indicate that the sacraments are more than mere signs of grace and faith: "Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God" (John 3:5); "He saved us, by the laver of regeneration, and renovation of the Holy Ghost" (Titus 3:5); "Then they laid their hands upon them, and they received the Holy Ghost" (Acts 8:17); "He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood, hath everlasting life . . . For my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed" (John 6:55-56). ( a )在神聖的經文中,我們找到意向書,其中明確指出,聖禮是遠遠超乎標誌的恩典和信仰: "除非一個人出生,又水和聖靈,他也不能進入神的國度" (約翰。 3時05分) , "他救了我們,由紫菜的復興,並對裝修的聖靈" (提3點05分) , "然後他們奠定了自己的手中,對他們,他們得到的聖靈" (使徒8 : 17 ) , "他說, eateth我的肉體和drinketh我的血液,祂所永恆的生命… … 。為我的肉體是肉的確,我的血是酒後確實" (約翰福音6:55-56 ) 。 These and similar expressions (see articles on each sacrament) are, to say the least, very much exaggerated if they do not mean that the sacramental ceremony is in some sense the cause of the grace conferred.這些以及類似的表述(見文章,對每一個聖餐) ,至少可以說是十分誇張的,如果他們不等於說,聖儀式,是在一定意義上的事業恩典授予。

(b) Tradition clearly indicates the sense in which they have been interpreted in the Church. (二)傳統清楚地表明,責任感,使他們有被解釋在教會裡。 From the numerous expressions used by the Fathers we select the following: "The Holy Ghost comes down from heaven and hovers over the waters, sanctifying them of Himself, and thus they imbibe the power of sanctifying" (Tertullian, De bapt., c. iv).從眾多的用語,由父親,我們選擇了以下內容: "聖靈下來,從天上盤旋超過水域, sanctifying他們自己,因此他們吸收的權力sanctifying " (戴爾都良,德bapt ,長四) 。 "Baptism is the expiation of sins, the remission of crimes, the cause of renovation and regeneration" (St. Gregory of Nyssa, "Orat. in Bapt."). "的洗禮,是犯罪被害人的捷聯慣導系統,可減免罪行的,其原因的翻新和再生" (聖格雷戈里的nyssa , " orat 。 bapt " ) 。 "Explain to me the manner of nativity in the flesh and I will explain to you the regeneration of the soul . . . Throughout, by Divine power and efficacy, it is incomprehensible; no reasoning, no art can explain it" (ibid.) "He that passes through the fountain [Baptism] shall not die but rises to new life" (St. Ambrose, De sacr., I, iv). "向我解釋的方式nativity在肉體中,我會向你解釋,振興中華的靈魂… … 。全國各地,由神力和有效性,這是難以理解的,沒有任何道理,沒有藝術,可以說明它" (同上) "他說,經過噴泉[洗禮]應不會死,但上升到新的生命" (聖劉漢銓,德sacr 。來說,我四) 。 "Whence this great power of water", exclaims St. Augustine, "that it touches the body and cleanses the soul?" "何時會有這樣的大國的水" , exclaims聖奧古斯丁" ,它牽涉到身體和淨化心靈" ? (Tr. 80 in Joann). ( tr. 80在joann ) 。 "Baptism", writes the same Father, "consists not in the merits of those by whom it is administered, nor of those to whom it is administered, but in its own sanctity and truth, on account of Him who instituted it" (Cont. Cres., IV). "洗禮" ,寫道:同一個父親, "已經沒有的優點,這些由誰管理,也沒有那些人,這是管理的,而在於其本身的神聖性和真理,就交代他的人提起它" (承。 cres ,四) 。 The doctrine solemnly defined by the Council of Trent had been announced in previous councils, notably at Constantinople (381; Symb. Fid.), at Mileve (416; can.ii) in the Second Council of Orange (529; can. xy); and in the Council of Florence (1439; Decr. pro. Armen., see Denzinger-Bannwart, nn. 86, 102, 200, 695).該學說鄭重界定理事會遄已經宣布,在過去的兩局,尤其是在君士坦丁堡( 381 ; symb 。 FID法) ,在mileve ( 416 ; can.ii )在第二局的橙( 529 ,能說。的XY )以及在議會中的佛羅倫斯( 1432人次;下降,親。亞美尼亞,見登青格- bannwart ,神經網絡。 86 , 102 , 200 , 695 ) 。 The early Anglican Church held fast to the true doctrine: "Baptism is not only a sign of profession and a mark of difference, whereby christened men are discerned from those that be not christened, but is also a sign of regeneration or New-Birth, whereby as by an instrument they that receive Baptism rightly are grafted into the church" (Art. XXVII).早期的聖公會教堂舉行了較快的真正教義: "洗禮不僅是一個標誌專業和一個標記的差異,據此命名為男子單從那些不命名,而且是一個跡象,再生或新出生,而作為一名文書,他們表示,接受洗禮,是正確地嫁接到教會" (第二十七) 。

(c) Theological argument. (三)神學的論點。 -- The Westminster Confession adds: "The Baptism of children is in any wise to be retained in the church as most agreeable with the institution of Christ". -西敏寺供認說: "洗禮的孩子,是在任何一個明智的予以保留,在教會裡,因為大部分認同與機構的基督" 。 If Baptism does not confer grace ex opere operato, but simply excites faith, then we ask: (1) Of what use would this be if the language used be not understood by the recipient, ie an infant or an adult that does not understand Latin?如果洗禮,並沒有賦予寬限期前opere operato ,而只是激發了信心,那麼我們不禁要問: ( 1 )有什麼用,這是否如所使用的語言不理解,由受贈人,即一名嬰兒或成年人表示,不明白的拉丁語? In such cases it might be more beneficial to the bystanders than to the one baptized.在這種情況下,它可能更為有利旁觀者比,將其中的洗禮。 (2) In what does the Baptism of Christ surpass the Baptism of John, for the latter could excite faith? ( 2 )在什麼洗禮基督超越洗禮的約翰,後者可以激發信仰呢? Why were those baptized by the Baptism of John rebaptized with the Baptism of Christ?為什麼這些洗禮的洗禮約翰rebaptized與洗禮的基督? (Acts 19). (使徒19 ) 。 (3) How can it be said that Baptism is strictly necessary for salvation since faith can be excited and expressed in many other ways? ( 3 )如何能說的洗禮,是絕對必需的救恩,因為信仰可以興奮,並表示,在許多其他的方法嗎? Finally Episcopalians and Anglicans of today would not revert to the doctrine of grace ex opere operato unless they were convinced that the ancient faith was warranted by Scripture and Tradition.最後episcopalians和英國聖公會的今天不會回复到學說的寬限期前opere operato除非他們確信古代的信仰是有道理的,由經文和傳統。

(5) Matter and Form of the sacraments ( 5 )事和形式聖禮

Scholastic writers of the thirteenth century introduced into their explanations of the sacraments terms which were derived from the philosophy of Aristotle.作家在學術上的13世紀引進到自己的解釋聖禮條款均來自於哲學的亞里士多德。 William of Auxerre (d. 1223) was the first to apply to them the words matter (materia) and form (forma).威廉的歐塞爾隊(四1223年)是第一家適用於他們的話無關緊要(本草綱目)和形式(形式上的) 。 As in physical bodies, so also in the sacramental rite we find two elements, one undetermined, which is called the matter, the other determining, called the form.由於在肉體,所以也應在聖事禮儀,我們找到兩個要素,一個未確定的,即所謂此事時,其他確定,所謂的形式。 For instance, water may be used for drinking, or for cooling or cleansing the body, but the words pronounced by the minister when he pours water on the head of the child, with the intention of doing what the Church does, determines the meaning of the act, so that it signifies the purification of the soul by grace.舉例來說,水可被用於飲用,或用於冷卻或清洗身體,但一語發音,由部長時,他注入水在頭上的孩子,並打算做什麼教會,以訂定的含義該法令,因此它標誌著淨化靈魂,由恩典。 The matter and form (the res et verba) make up the external rite, which has its special significance and efficacy from the institution of Christ.此事,並形成(第等verba )彌補外部成年禮,有其特殊意義和功效,由該機構的喊聲。 The words are the more important element in the composition, because men express their thoughts and intentions principally by words.字是更重要的要素組成,因為男人表達他們的思想和意圖,主要是通過話。 "Verba inter homines obtinuerunt principatum significandi" (St. Augustine, De doct. christ.", II, iii; ST III:60:6). It must not be supposed that the things used for the acts performed, for they are included in the res, remarks St. Thomas (ST III:60:6, ad 2) have no significance. They too may be symbolical, eg anointing the body with oil relates to health; but their significance is clearly determined by the words. "In all the compounds of matter and form the determining element is the form: (ST III:60:7). " verba跨homines obtinuerunt principatum significandi " (聖奧古斯丁,德doct 。基督" ,第一,二,三;聖三: 60:6 ) ,它絕不能假定的東西用的行為,因為他們是列入在res ,備註聖托馬斯(聖三: 60:6 ,專案2 )沒有意義,他們也可能是具有象徵意義,如anointing身體與石油有關的健康,但其意義顯然是取決於字" 。在所有這些化合物的問題,並形成決定因素是形式: (聖三: 60:7 ) 。

The terminology was somewhat new, the doctrine was old; the same truth had been expressed in former times in different words.術語是有點新的,該理論歲;同一事實已表示,在以前,在不同的詞語。 Sometimes the form of the sacrament meant the whole external rite (St. Augustine, "De pecc. et mer.", xxxiv; Conc. Milev., De bapt.).有時形式的聖餐意味著整個外部成年禮(聖奧古斯丁, "德太平洋經濟合作理事會。等市場匯率" ,第三十四;濃度米利夫,德bapt ) 。 What we call the matter and form were referred to as "mystic symbols"; "the sign and the thing invisible"; the "word and the element" (St. Augustine, tr. 80 in Joann.).我們所稱此事,並形成被稱為"神秘符號" , "標誌和無形的東西" , "字和元素" (聖奧古斯丁的TR 80在joann ) 。 The new terminology immediately found favour.新的術語,立刻找到了贊成票。 It was solemnly ratified by being used in the Decree for the Armenians, which was added to the Decrees of the Council of Florence, yet has not the value of a conciliar definition (see Denzinger-Bannwart, 695; Hurter, "Theol. dog. comp.", I, 441; Pourrat, op.cit., p. 51).這是莊嚴批准使用的法令,為亞美尼亞人,這是加入該法令的理事會佛羅倫薩,還沒有價值的一個conciliar定義(見登青格- bannwart , 695個; hurter , " theol 。狗。可比" ,我和441個; pourrat , op.cit ,第51頁) 。 The Council of Trent used the words matter and form (Sess. XIV, cap. ii, iii, can. iv), but did not define that the sacramental rite was composed of these two elements.安理會的遄用的字眼問題,並表( sess.第十四章第二,三,可以第四節) ,但並沒有確定說,聖事禮儀組成的這兩個要素。 Leo XIII, in the "Apostolicae Curae" (13 Sept., 1896) made the scholastic theory the basis of his declaration, and pronounced ordinations performed according to the ancient Anglican rite invalid, owing to a defect in the form used and a lack of the necessary intention on the part of the ministers.利奧十三世,在" apostolicae curae " ( 1896年9月13日)發表在學術上的理論根據他的宣言,並宣告ordinations演出,據古代聖公會成年禮無效的,因為有缺陷的形式使用和缺乏所需的意圖對部分部長。 The hylomorphistic theory furnishes a very apt comparison and sheds much light on our conception of the external ceremony.該hylomorphistic理論提供了一個非常容易比較和雞舍輕得多對我們的構想對外儀式。 Nevertheless our knowledge of the sacraments is not dependent on this Scholastic terminology, and the comparison must not be carried too far.不過就我們所知的聖禮,是不依賴於這個學術術語,並比較絕不能進行太過分。 The attempt to verify the comparison (of sacraments to a body) in all details of the sacramental rite will lead to confusing subtilities or to singular opinions, eg, Melchior Cano's (De locis theol., VIII, v.3) opinion as to the minister of Matrimony (see MARRIAGE; cf. Pourrat, op.cit., ii).企圖以核實比較(聖禮,以一個機構) ,在所有細節的聖事禮儀,將導致混亂subtilities或以奇異的意見,例如,梅爾希奧爾莫卡諾的(德locis theol ,第八, V.3條)民意,以決定該部長的婚姻關係(見婚姻;比照pourrat , op.cit ,二) 。


It might now be asked: in how far was it necessary that the matter and form of the sacraments should have been determined by Christ?現在可能是問:在何種程度是否有必要將此事和形式聖禮應已確定由基督?

(1) Power of God ( 1 )上帝的力量

The Council of Trent defined that the seven sacraments of the New Law were instituted by Christ (Sess. VII, can.i).安理會的遄達界定,這7聖禮的新的法律宗是由基督( sess.七, can.i ) 。 This settles the question of fact for all Catholics.這解決了的問題,事實上,所有的天主教徒。 Reason tells us that all sacraments must come originally from God.理由告訴我們,所有聖禮必須原本來自上帝。 Since they are the signs of sacred things in so far as by these sacred things men are sanctified (ST III:60:2); since the external rite (matter and form) of itself cannot give grace, it is evident that all sacraments properly so called must originate in Divine appointment.因為他們是這個標誌的神聖的東西,所以對於這些神聖的東西,男人是聖潔(聖三: 60:2 ) ;以來對外成年禮(此事,並表)的本身不能給予寬限期,很顯然,所有聖禮妥善所謂必須源於神的任命。 "Since the sanctification of man is in the power of God who sanctifies", writes St. Thomas (ST III:60:2), "it is not in the competency of man to choose the things by which he is to be sanctified, but this must be determined by Divine institution". "自從成聖的人是在上帝的力量,誰sanctifies " ,寫道:聖托馬斯(聖三: 60:2 ) , "這是不勝任的人,選擇的事,據此,他是被神聖化,不過,這必須下大決心,以神學院" 。 Add to this that grace is, in some sense, a participation of the Divine nature (see GRACE) and our doctrine becomes unassailable: God alone can decree that by exterior ceremonies men shall be partakers of His nature.補充說, Grace是,在某些意義上說,參與的神性(見寬限期) ,我們的學說變成無懈可擊:只有上帝才能令,由外部儀式男人應partakers他的性質。

(2) Power of Christ ( 2 )電源的基督

God alone is the principal cause of the sacraments.只有上帝是主要的原因之一。聖禮。 He alone authoritatively and by innate power can give to external material rites the power to confer grace on men.只有他最權威的,由天賦的權力,可以給外部的物質禮記權力賦予的恩典男人。 Christ as God, equally with the Father, possessed this principal, authoritative, innate power.基督為上帝,同樣與父親,這樣的校長,權威的,天生的權力。 As man He had another power which St. Thomas calls "the power of the principal ministry" or "the power of excellence" (III:64:3).至於男子,他有另外的權力,聖托馬斯所說的"權力的主體部"或"權力卓越" (三: 64:3 ) 。 "Christ produced the interior effects of the sacraments by meriting them and by effecting them. . . The passion of Christ is the cause of our justification meritoriously and effectively, not as the principal agent and authoritatively but as an instrument, inasmuch as His Humanity was the instrument of His Divinity" (III:64:3; cf. III:13:1, III:13:3). "基督產生內部效應聖禮由值得他們並影響他們… … 。激情的基督,是導致我們的理由meritoriously和有效,而不是作為主要的代理人和權威性,但作為一種工具,因為他的人性是儀表他的神性" (三: 64:3 ;比照三: 13時01分,三: 13時03分) 。 There is theological truth as well as piety in the old maxim: "From the side of Christ dying on the cross flowed the sacraments by which the Church was saved" (Gloss. Ord. in Rom.5: ST III:62:5).有神學真理以及孝道在舊格言: "從側面基督死在十字架上流到聖禮所教堂保存" ( gloss.霍德在rom.5 :聖三: 62:5 ) 。 The principal efficient cause of grace is God, to whom the Humanity of Christ is as a conjoined instrument, the sacraments being instruments not joined to the Divinity (by hypostatic union): therefore the saving power of the sacraments passes from the Divinity of Christ, through His Humanity into the sacraments (ST III:62:5).主要的原因有效率的恩典是上帝,向誰人類的基督,是一個連體的文書,聖禮正文書沒有加入到神性(本質聯盟) :因此節省電力的聖禮通行證從基督的神,通過他的人類步入聖禮(聖三: 62:5 ) 。 One who weighs well all these words will understand why Catholics have great reverence for the sacraments.一個人的重量,以及所有這些的話,將會明白為什麼天主教徒有很大的崇敬聖禮。 Christ's power of excellence consists in four things: (1) Sacraments have their efficacy from His merits and sufferings; (2) they are sanctified and they sanctify in His name; (3) He could and He did institute the sacraments; (4) He could produce the effects of the sacraments without the external ceremony (ST III:64:3).基督的力量,精益求精,綜合在四件事: ( 1 )聖禮有其功效,從他的優點和痛苦; ( 2 )他們是聖潔,他們認可自己在他的名字; ( 3 )他能和他學會聖禮; ( 4 )他能產生的影響聖禮沒有對外儀式(聖三: 64:3 ) 。 Christ could have communicated this power of excellence to men: this was not absolutely impossible (III:64:4).基督能傳達這項權力卓越的男人:這是不是絕對不可能(三: 64:4 ) 。 But, (1) had He done so men could not have possessed it with the same perfection as Christ: "He would have remained the head of the Church principally, others secondarily" (III:64:3).但是, ( 1 )如果他這樣做的男人不能擁有它,同時完善,正如基督說: "他將仍然是教會的頭主要是,其他為輔" (三: 64:3 ) 。 (2) Christ did not communicate this power, and this for the good of the faithful: (a) that they might place their hope in God and not in men; (b) that there might not be different sacraments, giving rise to divisions in the Church (III:64:1). ( 2 )基督沒有溝通,使這項權力,這為良好的教友們: (一) ,他們可能把他們的希望在上帝而不是在男人; (二)有可能不是不同的聖禮,從而產生了以告在教會(三: 64:1 ) 。 This second reason is mentioned by St. Paul (1 Corinthians 1:12-13): "every one of you saith: I indeed am of Paul; and I am of Apollo; and I of Cephas; and I of Christ. Is Christ divided? Was Paul then crucified for you? Or were you baptized in the name of Paul?"這第二個原因是,所提到的聖保羅(哥林多前書1:12-13 )說: "你們每一個人仰:我確實相信保羅和我的太陽神;我的cephas ;我的基督,是基督劃分?保羅,然後釘在十字架上為你還是你的名受洗,叫保羅" ?

(3) Immediate or Mediate Institution ( 3 )即時或調解機構

The Council of Trent did not define explicitly and formally that all the sacraments were instituted immediately by Christ.安理會的遄達沒有明確界定,並正式表示,所有聖禮被提起,立即由基督。 Before the council great theologians, eg Peter Lombard (IV Sent., d. xxiii), Hugh of St. Victor (De sac. II, ii) Alexander of Hales (Summa, IV, Q. xxiv, 1) held that some sacraments were instituted by the Apostles, using power that had been given to them by Jesus Christ.擺在安理會面前的偉大的神學家,如彼得倫巴第(四派,四二十三) ,休聖維克多(德囊。二,二)亞歷山大的hales (總結,四,問: 24 , 1 )認為有一部分聖禮宗是由使徒,利用職權已經給他們耶穌基督。 Doubts were raised especially about Confirmation and Extreme Unction.提出了疑問,特別是關於確認和極端unction 。 St. Thomas rejects the opinion that Confirmation was instituted by the Apostles.聖托馬斯駁斥認為,確認是由使徒。 It was instituted by Christ, he holds, when he promised to send the Paraclete, although it was never administered whilst He was on earth, because the fullness of the Holy Ghost was not to be given until after the Ascension: "Christus instituit hoc sacramentum, non exhibendo, sed promittendo" (III. Q.lxii, a.1, ad 1um).它是由基督裡,他認為,當他允諾派遣paraclete ,雖然那是永遠不會管理,而他是地球上的,因為豐滿的聖靈,是不被考慮後,才升騰: "基督instituit責sacramentum非exhibendo文,而promittendo " ( iii. q.lxii , 37.1 ,專案1um ) 。 The Council of Trent defined that the sacrament of Extreme Unction was instituted by Christ and promulgated by St. James (Sess. XIV, can.i).安理會的遄確定,聖事的極端unction是由基督和頒布的聖雅各福群會( sess.第十四can.i ) 。 Some theologians, eg Becanus, Bellarmine, Vasquez, Gonet, etc. thought the words of the council (Sess. VII, can.i) were explicit enough to make the immediate institution of all the sacraments by Christ a matter of defined faith.一些神學家,如becanus , bellarmine ,巴斯克斯,戈內特等思想的話理事會( sess.七, can.i )均不夠明確,使即時機構的所有聖禮由基督的問題,確定了信心。 They are opposed by Soto (a theologian of the council), Estius, Gotti, Tournély, Berti, and a host of others, so that now nearly all theologians unite in saying: it is theologically certain, but not defined (de fide) that Christ immediately instituted all the sacraments of the New Law.他們反對由德索托(一神學家的理事會) , estius ,戈蒂, tournély , berti ,以及一系列其他的,所以現在幾乎所有的神學家,團結的說:這是theologically一定的,但並沒有界定(德正當)基督立即提起所有聖禮的新的法律。 In the decree "Lamentabili", 3 July, 1907, Pius X condemned twelve propositions of the Modernists, who would attribute the origin of the sacraments to some species of evolution or development.在該法令" lamentabili " , 1907年7月3日,比約x譴責十二命題的現代派,他們將屬性的起源聖禮一些物種的進化或發展。 The first sweeping proposition is this: "The sacraments had their origin in this that the Apostles, persuaded and moved by circumstances and events, interpreted some idea and intention of Christ", (Demzinger-Bannwart, 2040).第一次掃命題是這樣的: "聖禮,其原產地在這方面說,使徒,說服和提出的情況和事件,解釋一些想法和意圖的基督" , ( demzinger - bannwart , 2040 ) 。 Then follow eleven propositions relating to each of the sacraments in order (ibid., 2041-51).然後沿著十命題有關的每一項聖禮,以(同上, 2041-51 ) 。 These propositions deny that Christ immediately instituted the sacraments and some seem to deny even their mediate institution by the Saviour.這些主張否認基督立即提起聖禮和一些似乎是否定,甚至連調解機構由救世主。

(4) What does Immediate Institution Imply? ( 4 )什麼是即時機構意味著什麼? Power of the Church.權力的教會。

Granting that Christ immediately instituted all the sacraments, it does not necessarily follow that personally He determined all the details of the sacred ceremony, prescribing minutely every iota relating to the matter and the form to be used.給予基督立即提起所有聖禮,但並不一定要跟進,他個人確定所有細節的神聖儀式,開處方minutely每絲毫有關此事,並在表格上使用。 It is sufficient (even for immediate institution) to say: Christ determined what special graces were to be conferred by means of external rites: for some sacraments (eg Baptism, the Eucharist) He determined minutely (in specie) the matter and form: for others He determined only in a general way (in genere) that there should be an external ceremony, by which special graces were to be conferred, leaving to the Apostles or to the Church the power to determine whatever He had not determined, eg to prescribe the matter and form of the Sacraments of Confirmation and Holy Orders.這是足夠的(甚至即時機構)說:基督確定什麼特別青睞被賦予的對外禮儀:有些聖禮(如洗禮,聖體聖事) ,他決心minutely (種) ,這件事的形式:其他人,他決心只有在一個一般的方式(在genere )說,應該有一個外部儀式,其中特別青睞被授予的,留下來的使徒或教會有權決定什麼,他還沒有確定的,如處方這件事的形式聖禮的確認和神聖的命令。 The Council of Trent (Sess. XXI, cap. ii) declared that the Church had the power to change the "substance" of the sacraments.安理會的遄達( sess.第二十一章第二節)宣稱,教會有能力改變它的"物質"的聖禮。 She would not be claiming power to alter the substance of the sacraments if she used her Divinely given authority to determine more precisely the matter and form in so far as they had not been determined by Christ.她將不能聲稱有權改變物質的聖禮,如果她用自己的神聖權力,以確定更精確此事,並在形式而言,他們尚未確定,由基督。 This theory (which is not modern) had been adopted by theologians: by it we can solve historical difficulties relating, principally, to Confirmation and Holy Orders.這一理論(這是不是現代的) ,已經通過了由神學家:通過它,我們可以解決歷史困難有關,主要是,以確認和神聖的命令。

(5) May we then say that Christ instituted some sacraments in an implicit state? ( 5 )然後,我們說,基督提起一些聖禮在一個隱含的狀態?

That Christ was satisfied to lay down the essential principles from which, after a more or less protracted development, would come forth the fully developed sacraments?基督滿意地放下了基本原則,據此推論,經過較為漫長的發展,將站出來了充分開發,聖禮? This is an application of Newman's theory of development, according to Pourrat (op.cit., p.300), who proposes two other formulae; Christ instituted all the sacraments immediately, but did not himself give them all to the Church fully constituted; or Jesus instituted immediately and explicitly Baptism and Holy Eucharist: He instituted immediately but implicitly the five other sacraments (loc.cit., p.301).這是一個應用紐曼的發展理論,根據pourrat ( op.cit , p.300 ) ,世衛組織提出了其他兩個公式;基督提起所有聖禮馬上,但他沒有親自給他們都送到教堂完全組成;或耶穌提起立即和明確的洗禮和聖體聖事:他立即提起,但含蓄其他5個聖禮( loc.cit , p.301 ) 。 Pourrat himself thinks the latter formula too absolute. pourrat本人認為,後者的公式過於絕對。 Theologians probably will consider it rather dangerous, and at least "male sonans".神學家可能會認為這是相當危險的,至少是"男sonans " 。 If it be taken to mean more than the old expression, Christ determined in genere only the matter and the form of some sacraments, it grants too much development.如果它被理解為較舊的表達,基督確定genere只有這件事的形式,有些聖禮,它贈款太大的發展。 If it means nothing more than the expression hitherto in use, what is gained by admitting a formula which easily might be misunderstood?如果它意味著什麼比表達迄今使用的,什麼是得到承認的方程式很容易會被人誤會?


(1) Catholic Doctrine: Eastern and Western Churches ( 1 )天主教教義:東方和西方教會

The Council of Trent solemnly defined that there are seven sacraments of the New Law, truly and properly so called, viz., Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Orders, and Matrimony.安理會的遄達鄭重確定,有七個聖禮的新的法律,切實妥善所謂的,即,洗禮,確認,聖體聖事,懺悔,極端unction ,命令,以及婚姻關係。 The same enumeration had been made in the Decree for the Armenians by the Council of Florence (1439), in the Profession of Faith of Michael Palaelogus, offered to Gregory X in the Council of Lyons (1274) and in the council held at London, in 1237, under Otto, legate of the Holy See.同時枚舉已取得在該法令為亞美尼亞人,由理事會佛羅倫薩( 1428 ) ,在法律界的信仰邁克爾palaelogus ,提供給格雷戈里X在安理會的里昂( 1274 ) ,並在議會舉行的倫敦,在1237名,根據奧托, legate的羅馬教廷。 According to some writers Otto of Bamberg (1139), the Apostle of Pomerania, was the first who clearly adopted the number seven (see Tanquerey, "De sacr.").據一些作家奧托的班貝克( 1139 ) ,使徒的美拉尼亞,他最早的人清楚地通過了第7位(見tanquerey , "德sacr " ) 。 Most probably this honour belongs to Peter Lombard (d. 1164) who in his fourth Book of Sentences (d. i, n.2) defines a sacrament as a sacred sign which not only signifies but also causes grace, and then (d.ii, n.1) enumerates the seven sacraments.最有可能贏得這項殊榮屬於彼得倫巴第(四1164 )的人在他的第四本書的句(四,我n.2 )定義了一個聖餐作為神聖的標誌,不僅標誌著但也造成寬限期,然後(四二, n.1 )列舉了七項聖禮。 It is worthy of note that, although the great Scholastics rejected many of his theological opinions (list given in app. to Migne edition, Paris, 1841), this definition and enumeration were at once universally accepted, proof positive that he did not introduce a new doctrine, but merely expressed in a convenient and precise formula what had always been held in the Church.這是值得我們注意的是,雖然大scholastics拒絕了他的許多神學思想建設的意見(名單給在亞洲漿紙。米涅版,巴黎, 1841年) ,這個定義,並列舉上一次普遍接受的,足以證明他不引進新軍事學說,而只是表示,在一個方便和準確的公式是什麼一直被關押在教堂。 Just as many doctrines were believed, but not always accurately expressed, until the condemnation of heresies or the development of religious knowledge called forth a neat and precise formula, so also the sacraments were accepted and used by the Church for centuries before Aristotelian philosophy, applied to the systematic explanation of Christian doctrine, furnished the accurate definition and enumeration of Peter Lombard.正如許多學說相信,但並不總是準確地表示,直到譴責異端邪說或制訂新的宗教知識所謂提出了整潔和精確公式,所以也聖禮被接受和使用由教會幾百年前,亞里士多德的哲學,應用為了系統地解釋基督教教義,提供了準確的定義,並列舉彼得倫巴第。 The earlier Christians were more concerned with the use of sacred rites than with scientific formulae, being like the pious author of the "Imitation of Christ", who wrote: "I had rather feel compunction than know its definition" (I, i).較早的基督徒更關心與使用神聖的儀式,比用科學的計算公式,被像虔誠的作者的"模仿基督" ,他寫道: "我有,而不是覺得compunction比知道它的定義: " (一,一) 。

Thus time was required, not for the development of the sacraments - except in so far as the Church may have determined what was left under her control by Jesus Christ -- but for the growth and knowledge of the sacraments.因此當時的需要,而不是為發展聖禮-除了至於所謂的教會,可能決定了什麼是下離開她的控制,由耶穌基督-但對於成長和知識的聖禮。 For many centuries all signs of sacred things were called sacraments, and the enumeration of these signs was somewhat arbitrary.許多世紀以來,所有的跡象神聖的東西,被稱為聖禮,並列舉的這些跡象是有點武斷。 Our seven sacraments were all mentioned in the Sacred Scriptures, and we find them all mentioned here and there by the Fathers (see THEOLOGY; and articles on each sacrament).我們七個聖禮的人都不約而同地提及,在神聖的經文,我們發現他們都不約而同地提及這裡或那裡,由父親(見神學;和文章,每個聖餐) 。 After the ninth century, writers began to draw a distinction between sacraments in a general sense and sacraments properly so called.在第九世紀之後,作家開始著手制訂區分聖禮,在一般意義和聖禮妥善所謂。 The ill-fated Abelard ("Intro. ad Theol.", I, i, and in the "Sic et Non") and Hugh of St. Victor (De sacr., I, part 9, chap. viii; cf. Pourrat, op.cit., pp.34, 35) prepared the way for Peter Lombard, who proposed the precise formula which the Church accepted.該失事阿貝拉爾( "簡介。 theol專案" ,我,我的,而在"碳化矽等非" )和休聖維克多(德sacr 。來說,我和第9部分,第八章;比照pourrat , op.cit , pp.34 , 35歲)準備了道路彼得倫巴第,誰提出精確的公式,其中教會接受。 Thenceforward until the time of the so-called Reformation the Eastern Church joined with the Latin Church in saying: by sacraments proper we understand efficacious sacred signs, ie ceremonies which by Divine ordinance signify, contain and confer grace; and they are seven in number. thenceforward到的時候,那些所謂的改造東部教會了與拉美教會的說:由聖禮妥善據我們了解,有效的神聖標誌,即儀式,其中,以神條例意味著,遏制和賦予文采和他們是七個多。 In the history of conferences and councils held to effect the reunion of the Greek with the Latin Church, we find no record of objections made to the doctrine of seven sacraments.在歷史上的會議和議會召開,對個別團聚的希臘語與拉丁語教會,我們發現沒有記錄的反對意見,以中庸的七個聖禮。 On the contrary, about 1576, when the Reformers of Wittenberg, anxious to draw the Eastern Churches into their errors, sent a Greek translation of the Augsburg Confession to Jeremias, Patriarch of Constantinople, he replied: "The mysteries received in this same Catholic Church of orthodox Christians, and the sacred ceremonies, are seven in number -- just seven and no more" (Pourrat, op.cit., p.289).與此相反,約有第1576 ,當改革者的維滕貝格,急欲吸引東部教會到自己的過失,發出了一個希臘語翻譯的奧格斯堡,不打自招jeremias ,牧的君士坦丁堡時,他回答道: "奧秘收到同樣在這一天主教教會東正教基督徒,和神聖的儀式,是七個號碼-僅僅7 ,沒有更多的" ( p ourrat, o p.cit, p .289) 。 The consensus of the Greek and Latin Churches on this subject is clearly shown by Arcadius, "De con. ecc. occident. et orient. in sept. sacr. administr."共識的希臘和拉丁教會就這個問題是清楚地表明,由arcadius , "得結論。派發。歐美。東方等,在9月。 sacr 。 administr " 。 (1619); Goar in his "Euchologion" by Martene (qv) in his work "De antiquis ecclesiae ritibus", by Renaudot in his "Perpetuite de la foi sur sacrements" (1711), and this agreement of the two Churches furnishes recent writers (Episcopalians) with a strong argument in support of their appeal for the acceptance of seven sacraments. ( 1619 ) ; goar在他的" euchologion " martene (請參閱) ,在他的作品"德antiquis ecclesiae ritibus " ,由勒諾多在他的" perpetuite德香格里拉已公佈sur sacrements " ( 1711 ) ,以及本協定的兩個教會提供了近作家( episcopalians )提供一個強而有力的理由支持他們的呼籲接受七個聖禮。

(2) Protestant Errors ( 2 )新教錯誤

Luther's capital errors, viz.路德的資本誤差,即 private interpretation of the Scriptures, and justification by faith alone, logically led to a rejection of the Catholic doctrine on the sacraments (see LUTHER; GRACE).私人的解釋聖經,並因信稱義,僅在邏輯上導致了排斥反應的天主教教義就聖禮(見路德;寬限期) 。 Gladly would he have swept them all away, but the words of Scripture were too convincing and the Augsburg Confession retained three as "having the command of God and the promise of the grace of the New Testament".很樂意將他席捲把他們全部衝去,但字的經文中太有說服力和奧格斯堡供認保留3個為"具有指揮上帝許諾的恩典的新約全書" 。 These three, Baptism, the Lord's Supper, and Penance were admitted by Luther and also by Cranmer in his "Catechism" (see Dix, "op.cit.", p. 79).這三個人的洗禮,主的晚餐,並懺悔被錄取,由路德和也由克蘭默在他的"問答" (見迪克斯" , op.cit 。 " ,第79頁) 。 Henry VIII protested against Luther's innovations and received the title "Defender of the Faith" as a reward for publishing the "Assertio septem sacramentorum" (re-edited by Rev. Louis O'Donovan, New York, 1908).亨利八世抗議路德的創新,並獲得授予的"捍衛者的信仰" ,作為獎勵出版的" assertio septem sacramentorum " (重主編牧師路易斯存在其它的,紐約, 1908年) 。 Followers of Luther's principles surpassed their leader in opposition to the sacraments.信徒的路德的原則,超出了他們的領導人,反對聖禮。 Once granted that they were merely "signs and testimonies of God's good will towards us", the reason for great reverence was gone.曾經理所當然地認為,他們只是把"字樣的標誌和見證上帝的良好意願,我們" ,原因是懷著崇敬卻消失了。 Some rejected all sacraments, since God's good will could be manifested without these external signs.一些拒絕一切聖禮,因為上帝的好,將能得到體現,沒有這些外在標誌。 Confession (Penance) was soon dropped from the list of those retained.自白(懺悔)很快就下降,由名單上的那些保留。 The Anabaptists rejected infant Baptism, since the ceremony could not excite faith in children.該anabaptists拒絕嬰兒的洗禮,自頒獎典禮無法激發信心的兒童。 Protestants generally retained two sacraments, Baptism and the Lord's Supper, the latter being reduced by the denial of the Real Presence to a mere commemorative service.新教徒普遍聘請兩名聖禮,洗禮和主的晚餐,後者被削減剝奪了真正的存在,只有紀念性的服務。 After the first fervour of destruction there was a reaction.經過第一次熱潮的破壞有一個反應。 Lutherans retained a ceremony of Confirmation and ordination. lutherans保留了一個儀式,確認和排序。 Cranmer retained three sacraments, yet we find in the Westminster Confession: "There are two Sacraments ordained of Christ Our Lord in the Gospel, that is to say, Baptism, and the Supper of the Lord. Those five commonly called sacraments, that is to say Confirmation, Penance, Orders, Matrimony, and Extreme Unction, are not to be counted for sacraments of the Gospel, being such as have grown partly of the corrupt following of the Apostles, partly are states of life allowed in the Scriptures but yet have not like nature of sacraments with Baptism and the Lord's Supper, for that they have not any visible signs or ceremony ordained by God (art.XXV). The Wittenberg theologians, by way of compromise, had shown a willingness to make such a distinction, in a second letter to the Patriarch of Constantinople, but the Greeks would have no compromise (Pourrat, loc.cit., 290).克蘭默保留三個聖禮,但我們發現在西敏寺供認說: "有兩個聖禮受戒的耶穌,我們的主在福音,這就是說,洗禮,和晚飯的主。五個俗稱聖禮,即是確認說,懺悔,命令,婚姻和極端unction ,都沒有被算為聖禮的福音,如成長部分的舞弊以下的使徒,部分原因是各國的生活方式,讓在會念經,但尚未有不一樣的性質,聖禮與洗禮和主的晚餐,他們表示並沒有任何明顯的標誌或祝聖儀式,由神( art.xxv ) 。維滕貝格神學家,由折衷方式,已經表現出願意作出這樣的區分,在第二封信給老人家的君士坦丁堡,但希臘人便沒有妥協( pourrat , loc.cit , 290 ) 。

For more than two centuries the Church of England theoretically recognized only two "sacraments of the Gospel" yet permitted, or tolerated other five rites.兩個多世紀以來英國教會在理論上只承認兩個"聖禮的福音" ,但允許或容忍其他五方儀式。 In practice these five "lesser sacraments" were neglected, especially Penance and Extreme Unction.在實踐中這五個"較小聖禮"被忽視,尤其是懺悔和極端unction 。 Anglicans of the nineteenth century would have gladly altered or abolished the twenty-fifth article.英國聖公會的19世紀將是很樂意,變造或者廢止第二十五條。 There has been a strong desire, dating chiefly from the Tractarian Movement, and the days of Pusey, Newman, Lyddon, etc. to reintroduce all of the sacraments.有一種強烈的願望,約會,主要是從tractarian運動,日子pusey ,紐曼, lyddon等,為重新恢復了所有的聖禮。 Many Episcopalians and Anglicans today make heroic efforts to show that the twenty-fifth article repudiated the lesser sacraments only in so far as they had "grown of the corrupt following of the Apostles, and were administered 'more Romamensium'", after the Roman fashion.許多episcopalians和英國聖公會今天作出的英勇努力,以證明第二十五條推翻了較輕的聖禮只有這樣,因為它們已"長大的舞弊以下的使徒,並經管'更romamensium ' " ,之後,羅馬時裝。 Thus Morgan Dix reminded his contemporaries that the first book of Edward VI allowed "auricular and secret confession to the priest", who could give absolution as well as "ghostly counsel, advice, and comfort", but did not make the practice obligatory: therefore the sacrament of Absolution is not to be "obtruded upon men's consciences as a matter necessary to salvation" (op.cit., pp.99, 101, 102, 103).因此,摩根迪克斯提醒他的同時代的說,第一本書的愛德華六不准"耳穴和秘密招供神父" ,他們可以給予赦免,以及"鬼影律師,諮詢,並安慰" ,但並沒有使實踐義不容辭:所以聖事的赦免,是不是要" obtruded後,男人的良心的事,要救贖" ( op.cit , pp.99 , 101 , 102 , 103 ) 。 He cites authorities who state that "one cannot doubt that a sacramental use of anointing the sick has been from the beginning", and adds, "There are not wanting, among the bishops of the American Church, some who concur in deploring the loss of thiss primitive ordinance and predicting its restoration among us at some propitious time" (ibid., p.105).他舉例說,當局人士指出, "一個不能懷疑說,聖使用anointing患病已經從一開始" ,並補充說, "不都是無用的,其中主教的美國教會,有些人同意在痛惜的損失thiss原始條例及預測其恢復當中,我們在一些適當的時間" (同上,臨105 ) 。 At a convention of Episcopalians held at Cincinnati, in 1910, unsuccessful effort was made to obtain approbation for the practice of anointing the sick.在一項公約的episcopalians舉行的辛辛那提市,在1910年,成功做出了很大努力,以獲得讚許,為實踐anointing病人。 High Church pastors and curates, especially in England, frequently are in conflict with their bishops because the former use all the ancient rites.高教會牧師和curates ,尤其是在英格蘭,經常處於衝突之中,與他們的主教,因為前者使用的所有古代禮儀。 Add to this the assertion made by Mortimer (op.cit., I, 122) that all the sacraments cause grace ex opere operato, and we see that "advanced" Anglicans are returning to the doctrine and the practices of the Old Church.加上今年斷言發了言敏( op.cit 。來說,我和122 )所有聖禮事業寬限期前opere operato ,我們看到, "先進"教教徒都回歸到理論和實踐的老教堂。 Whether and in how far their position can be reconciled with the twenty-fifth article, is a question which they must settle.是否以及在多大程度上他們的立場可以調和與第二十五屆文章,是一個問題,他們必須解決。 Assuredly their wanderings and gropings after the truth prove the necessity of having on earth an infallible interpreter of God's word.穩妥他們wanderings和gropings後的真相,證明必須要有地球上的一個犯錯的口譯員的神的話語。

(3) Division and Comparison of the Sacraments ( 3 )分工與比較聖禮

(a) All sacraments were instituted for the spiritual good of the recipients; but five, viz. (一)所有聖禮的人,為精神文明良好的受助人,但五人,分別為輔助。 Baptism, Confirmation, Penance, the Eucharist, and Extreme Unction, primarily benefit the individual in his private character, whilst the other two, Orders and Matrimony, primarily affect man as a social being, and sanctify him in the fulfillment of his duties tiowards the Church and society.洗禮,確認,懺悔,聖體聖事和極端unction ,主要是有利於個人在他的私人性質,而其他兩個,命令和婚姻關係,主要是影響到人,作為一項社會福利,聖他在履行他的職責tiowards了教會和社會。 By Baptism we are born again, Confirmation makes us strong, perfect Christians and soldiers.由洗禮,我們生來再次確認,使我們強大的,完善的基督徒和士兵。 The Eucharist furnishes our daily spiritual food.聖體聖事提供了我們日常的精神食糧。 Penance heals the soul wounded by sin.懺悔是醫治心靈受傷單。 Extreme Unction removes the last remnant of human frailty, and prepares the soul for eternal life, Orders supplies ministers to the Church of God.極端unction免職最後殘存的人類的脆弱性,並準備在靈魂永生,訂單用品部長神的教會。 Matrimony gives the graces necessary for those who are to rear children in the love and fear of God, members of the Church militant, future citizens of heaven.婚姻給人的青睞必要為那些向後方兒童在愛與恐懼的上帝,教會的成員激進,未來公民的天堂。 This is St. Thomas's explanation of the fitness of the number seven (III:55:1).這是聖托馬斯的解釋,健身的人數七(三: 55:1 ) 。 He gives other explanations offered by the Schoolmen, but does not bind himself to any of them.他給其他所提出的解釋, schoolmen ,但不約束自己,以他們任何人。 In fact the only sufficient reason for the existence of seven sacraments, and no more, is the will of Christ: there are seven because He instituted seven.事實上,只有足夠的理由存在的七個聖禮,並沒有更多的,是將耶穌:有七,因為他建立了七個。 The explanations and adaptations of theologians serve only to excite our admiration and gratitude, by showing how wisely and beneficently God has provided for our spiritual needs in these seven efficacious signs of grace.解釋和適應的神學家,只會激起我們的敬佩和感激,通過展示如何明智和beneficently上帝規定了我們的精神需求,在這7個有效的跡象恩典。

(b) Baptism and Penance are called "sacraments of the dead", because they give life, through sanctifying grace then called "first grace", to those who are spiritually dead by reason of original or actual sin. (二)洗禮和懺悔,是所謂的"聖禮的死者" ,因為他們讓生活中,通過sanctifying寬限期,那麼所謂的"第一恩典" ,對那些在精神上是死亡原因的原件或實際罪過。 The other five are "sacraments of the living", because their reception presupposes, at least ordinarily, that the recipient is in the state of grace, and they give "second grace", ie increase of sanctifying grace.其他5個是"聖禮的生活" ,因為他們的接待假定,至少在通常認為,受贈人是在國務院的寬限期,並給他們的"第二次恩典" ,即增加sanctifying恩典。 Nevertheless, since the sacraments always give some grace when there is no obstacle in the recipient, it may happen in cases explained by theologians that "second grace" is conferred by a sacrament of the dead, eg when one has only venial sins to confess receives absolution and that "first grace" is conferred by a sacrament of the living (see ST III:72:7 ad 2; III:79:3).然而,因為聖禮總是給一些寬限期時,不存在任何障礙,在受贈人,在可能發生案件的解釋,由神學家說, "第二次恩典" ,是由一個聖餐的死亡,例如,當一個人只venial罪孽供認收到赦免,並說: "首先恩典" ,是由一個聖餐的生活(見聖三: 72:7專案2 ;三: 79:3 ) 。 Concerning Extreme Unction St. James explicitly states that through it the recipient may be freed from his sins: "If he be in sins, they shall be forgiven him" (James 5:15).關於極端unction聖雅各福群會明確指出,通過它收件人可以擺脫他的罪過: "如果他在捷聯慣導系統,他們應被原諒他" (詹姆斯5點15分) 。

(c) Comparison in dignity and necessity. (三)比較,在尊嚴和必要性。 The Council of Trent declared that the sacraments are not all equal in dignity; also that none are superfluous, although all are not necessary for each individual (Sess. VII, can.3, 4).安理會的遄達宣布聖禮,是不是所有的平等的尊嚴,也沒有一個是多餘的,雖然大家都沒有必要為每一個人( sess.七, can.3 , 4 ) 。 The Eucharist is the first in dignity, because it contains Christ in person, whilst in the other sacraments grace is conferred by an instrumental virtue derived from Christ (ST III:56:3) To this reason St. Thomas adds another, namely, that the Eucharist is as the end to which the other sacraments tend, a centre around which they revolve (ST III:56:3).聖體聖事是第一次有尊嚴,因為它包含了基督的人,而在其他聖禮的恩典是由一種樂器美德源於基督(聖三: 56:3 ) ,以這個理由聖托馬斯增加了一個,那就是---聖體聖事是因為結束而其他聖禮趨向,圍繞它們旋轉(聖三: 56:3 ) 。 Baptism is always first in necessity; Holy Orders comes next after the Eucharist in the order of dignity, Confirmation being between these two.洗禮永遠是第一位的必要性;聖地訂單接下來後,在聖體聖事秩序的尊嚴,被確認在這兩者之間。 Penance and Extreme Unction could not have a first place because they presuppose defects (sins).懺悔與極端unction不能有放在首位,因為他們假定缺陷(罪孽) 。 Of the two Penance is the first in necessity: Extreme Unction completes the work of Penance and prepares souls for heaven.上述兩個懺悔是第一次必要性:極端unction完成工作的懺悔,並準備為靈魂升天。 Matrimony has not such an important social work as Orders (ST III:56:3, ad 1).婚姻關係並沒有這樣一個重要的社會工作,作為訂單(聖三: 56:3 ,專案1 ) 。 If we consider necessity alone -- the Eucharist being left out as our daily bread, and God's greatest gift -- three are simply and strictly necessary, Baptism for all, Penance for those who fall into mortal sin after receiving Baptism, Orders for the Church.如果我們認為有必要單獨-聖體聖事被排除在外,因為我們每天的麵包,和上帝的禮物-三個簡單和絕對必要,洗禮,懺悔對於那些陷入你死我活單後,接受洗禮,訂單教會。 The others are not so strictly necessary.其他則是不那麼嚴格必要的。 Confirmation completes the work of Baptism; Extreme Unction completes the work of Penance; Matrimony sanctifies the procreation and education of children, which is not so important nor so necessary as the sanctification of ministers of the Church (ST III:56:3, ad 4).完成確認工作的洗禮;極端unction完成工作的懺悔;婚姻sanctifies了生育和教育孩子,這是不是那麼重要了,也沒有那麼必要,因為成聖部長教堂(聖三: 56:3 ,專案四日) 。

(d) Episcopalians and Anglicans distinguish two great sacraments and five lesser sacraments because the latter "have not any visible sign or ceremony ordained by God" (art. XXXV). (四) episcopalians和教徒的區分兩個偉大聖禮和5個較小的聖禮,因為後者" ,沒有任何明顯的標誌或祝聖儀式由上帝" (第三十五) 。 Then they should be classed among the sacramentals since God alone can be the author of a sacrament (see above III).那麼他們就應該被歸類其中sacramentals因為只有上帝能作者從樓上掉了(見上述三) 。 On this point the language of the twenty-fifth article ("commonly called sacraments") is more logical and straightforward than the terminology of recent Anglican writers.關於這一點,語言的第二十五屆文章( "俗稱聖禮" ) ,是更合乎邏輯的和直截了當比術語最近英國國教的作家。 The Anglican Catechism calls Baptism and Eucharist sacraments "generally (ie universally) necessary for salvation".聖公會講授來電洗禮和聖體聖事"一般(即普遍) ,有必要救贖" 。 Mortimer justly remarks that this expression is not "entirely accurate", because the Eucharist is not generally necessary to salvation in the same way as Baptism (op.cit., I, 127).天敏公正的言論,這句話並非是"完全正確" ,因為聖體聖事是不是一般都需要救贖,在相同的方式洗禮( op.cit 。來說,我和第127頁) 。 The other five he adds are placed in a lower class because, "they are not necessary to salvation in the same sense as the two other sacraments, since they are not necessary for everyone" (loc.cit., 128).其他5個,他說是放置在一個較低的階層,因為, "他們是不是要救亡在同樣的意義,因為其他兩個聖禮,因為它們是沒有必要為人人" ( loc.cit , 128 ) 。 Verily this is interpretation extraordinary; yet we should be grateful since it is more respectful than saying that those five are "such as have grown partly of the corrupt following of the Apostles, partly are states of life allowed in the Scriptures" (art. XXV).能眾志成城,這是解釋不平凡的,但我們應該感激,因為它是更尊重比他說,那些五人" ,如增加部分的舞弊以下的使徒,部分原因是各國的生活方式,讓在會念經" (第二十五) 。 Confusion and uncertainty will be avoided by accepting the declaration of the Council of Trent (above).混亂和不確定的,將予以迴避,由受理申報安理會的遄達(段) 。


(1) Catholic Doctrine ( 1 )天主教教義

(a) The principal effect of the sacrament is a two-fold grace: (1) the grace of the sacrament which is "first grace", produced by the sacraments of the dead, or "second grace", produced by the sacraments of the living (supra, IV, 3, b); (2) The sacramental grace, ie, the special grace needed to attain the end of each sacrament. (一)主要作用的聖餐是一個兩方面的恩典: ( 1 )寬限期的聖餐,這是"第一次恩典" ,此劇由聖禮的死了,或"第二個寬限期" ,此劇由聖禮的生活(同上,四,三,二) , (二)聖事的寬限期,即特別恩典需要達到每年年底的聖餐。 Most probably it is not a new habitual gift, but a special vigour or efficacy in the sanctifying grace conferred, including on the part of God, a promise, and on the part of man a permanent right to the assistance needed in order to act in accordance with the obligations incurred, eg, to live as a good Christian, a good priest, a good husband or wife (cf. ST III:62:2).極有可能,這是不是一個新的慣性禮物,結果卻是一個特殊的活力或療效在sanctifying恩典授予,其中包括對部分上帝的承諾,對部分人的一個永久的權利所需的援助,以行事按照該承擔的債務,如生活是一個好基督徒,一個好的牧師,一個好丈夫或妻子(參見聖三: 62:2 ) 。

(b) Three sacraments, Baptism, Confirmation and Orders, besides grace, produce in the soul a character, ie, an indelible spiritual mark by which some are consecrated as servants of God, some as soldiers, some as ministers. (二)三聖禮,洗禮,確認和訂單,除了恩典,生產中的靈魂,一個人物,即是一個不可磨滅的精神標誌,其中有些是consecrated公僕的上帝,有的兵,有的擔任部長職位。 Since it is an indelible mark, the sacraments which impress a character cannot be received more than once (Conc. Trid., sess. VII, can.9; see CHARACTER).由於這是一個不可磨滅的印記,聖禮,而打動一個字符不能得到一次以上( conc. trid , sess 。七, can.9 ;見字) 。

(2) How the sacraments cause Grace: Theological controversies. ( 2 )如何聖禮事業的恩典:神學爭論。

Few questions have been so hotly controverted as this one relative to the manner in which the sacraments cause grace (ST IV, Sent., d.1, Q.4, a.1.).幾個問題,已如此激烈controverted因為這一個相對的,以何種方式在聖禮事業的恩典(聖四,發送,草1 ,問題4 , 37.1 ) 。

(a) All admit that the sacraments of the New Law cause grace ex opere operato, not ex opere operantis (above, II, 2, 3). (一)都承認,聖禮的新的法律事業的寬限期前opere operato ,而不是前opere operantis (以上第一,二, 2日, 3日) 。

(b) All admit that God alone can be the principal cause of grace (above 3, 1). (二)都承認,只有上帝能的主要根源恩典(以上3 , 1 ) 。

(c) All admit that Christ as man, had a special power over the sacraments (above, 3, 2). (三)都承認,以基督為中心的男子,有一個特殊的權力聖禮(以上, 3 , 2 ) 。

(d) All admit that the sacraments are, in some sense, the instrumental causes either of grace itself or of something else which will be a "title exigent of grace" (infra e). (四)都承認,聖禮是,在某些意義上說,器樂原因一方的恩典或本身的東西,否則這將是一個"標題急迫的恩典" (紅外線五) 。 The principal cause is one which produces an effect by a power which it has by reason of its own nature or by an inherent faculty.主要的原因是其中產生後果由一個權力它,因為它本身的性質,或由一個內在的教職人員。 An instrumental cause produces an effect, not by its own power, but by a power which it receives from the principal agent.一個器樂事業產生一種效果,而不是由它自己的權力,而是由權力,其中包括接受來自主要代理人。 When a carpenter makes a table, he is the principal cause, his tools are the instrumental causes.當一名木匠,使一張桌子,他是主要的原因,他的工具,是工具性的原因。 God alone can cause grace as the principal cause; sacraments can be no more than his instruments "for they are applied to men by Divine ordinance to cause grace in them" (ST III:62:1).只有上帝能引起寬限期為主體的事業;聖禮,可以不超過他的文書" ,因為他們是適用於男子,以神條例,以事業的寬限期,在他們" (聖三: 62:1 ) 。 No theologian today defends Occasionalism (see CAUSE) ie the system which taught that the sacraments caused grace by a kind of concomitance, they being not real causes but the causae sine quibus non: their reception being merely the occasion of conferring grace.沒有神學家今天辯解occasionalism (見事業) ,即系統教導說聖禮造成的寬限期,由種concomitance ,他們不被接納的真正原因,但causae正弦quibus非:對他們的接待僅僅值此賦予的恩典。 This opinion, according to Pourrat (op.cit., 167), was defended by St. Bonaventure, Duns Scotus, Durandus, Occam, and all the Nominalists, and "enjoyed a real success until the time of the Council of Trent, when it was transformed into the modern system of moral causality".這種看法,根據pourrat ( op.cit , 167 ) ,是捍衛的聖文德, duns scotus , durandus ,的Occam ,所有nominalists , "享有真正的成功,直至當時的理事會遄,當它轉化為現代企業制度的道義上的因果關係" 。 St. Thomas (III:62:1, III:62:4; and "Quodlibeta", 12, a, 14), and others rejected it on the ground that it reduced the sacraments to the condition of mere signs.聖托馬斯(三: 62:1 ,第三部分: 62:4 ,以及" quodlibeta " , 12 , 14 ) ,和其他人拒絕,所持理由是,它減少了聖禮,以條件單純的跡象。

(e) In solving the problem the next step was the introduction of the system of dispositive instrumental causality, explained by Alexander of Hales (Summa theol., IV, Q. v, membr. 4), adopted and perfected by St. Thomas (IV Sent., d. 1, Q. i, a. 4), defended by many theologians down to the sixteenth century, and revived later by Father Billot, SJ ("De eccl. sacram.", I, Rome, 1900). ( e )在解決問題,下一步是該系統使用的處分器樂因果關係,解釋了亞歷山大的hales (總結theol ,四,問:五,膜4 ) ,通過建立和完善由聖托馬斯(四派,四1 ,問:我,甲4 ) ,捍衛了許多神學家下降到16世紀,與復活後,由父親billot ,律政司司長( "時點eccl 。 sacram 。 " ,我想,羅馬, 1900 ) 。 According to this theory the sacraments do not efficiently and immediately cause grace itself, but they cause ex opere operato and instrumentally, a something else -- the character (in some cases) or a spiritual ornament or form -- which will be a "disposition" entitling the soul to grace ("dispositio exigitiva gratiae"; "titulus exigitivus gratiae", Billot, loc.cit.).根據這一理論聖禮,沒有效率,並立即引起寬限期本身,但它們造成的當然opere operato和instrumentally ,別的-字(在某些情況下)或精神飾品或形式-這將是一個"處置"享受靈魂的恩典( " dispositio exigitiva謝謝" , "職稱exigitivus謝謝" , billot , loc.cit ) 。 It must be admitted that this theory would be most convenient in explaining "reviviscence" of the sacraments (infra, VII, c).但是必須承認,這一理論將是最方便的解釋, "復活"的聖禮(紅外,七,三) 。 Against it the following objections are made:對有下列反對意見,詳情如下:

From the time of the Council of Trent down to recent times little was heard of this system.從時間的,安理會的遄下降至最近的時候,卻很少聽說過這個制度。

The "ornament", or "disposition", entitling the soul to grace is not well explained, hence explains very little. "飾品" ,或"處置" ,享受靈魂的恩典,是不是很好解釋,因此,解釋非常少。

Since this "disposition" must be something spiritual and of the supernatural order, and the sacraments can cause it, why can they not cause the grace itself?由於這種"處置"的,必須有精神和超自然秩序,聖禮可引起它,為什麼他們不可以事業寬限期自打嘴巴?

In his "Summa theologica" St. Thomas does not mention this dispositive causality: hence we may reasonably believe that he abandoned it.在他的"總結theologica "聖托馬斯並沒有提及這件處分因果關係:因此,我們可以合理地相信他罷手了。

(f) Since the time of the Council of Trent theologians almost unanimously have taught that the sacraments are the efficient instrumental cause of grace itself. (六)自的時候,安理會的遄達神學家幾乎是一致地告訴我們,聖禮,是有效率的儀器事業的恩典本身。 The definition of the Council of Trent, that the sacraments "contain the grace which they signify", that they "confer grace ex opere operato" (Sess. VII, can.6, 8), seemed to justify the assertion, which was not contested until quite recently.定義安理會的遄達,即聖禮" ,包含寬限期,他們象徵" ,因為它們"賦予寬限期前opere operato " ( sess.七, can.6 , 8 ) ,似乎有理由斷言,因為這是不有爭議的,直到最近。 Yet the end of the controversy had not come.然而,去年底的爭論還沒有到來。 What was the nature of that causality?到底是什麼性質的因果? Did it belong to the physical or to the moral order?它屬於物理或道德秩序? A physical cause really and immediately produces its effects, either as the principal agent or as the instrument used, as when a sculptor uses a chisel to carve a statue.物理事業真的,並立即產生效果,要么作為主要代理人或使用的器具,當一名雕塑家用鑿子瓜分一尊塑像。 A moral cause is one which moves or entreats a physical cause to act.在道義上的原因,是一些動作或entreats身體原因,以採取行動。 It also can be principal or instrumental, eg, a bishop who in person successfully pleads for the liberation of a prisoner is the principal moral cause, a letter sent by him would be the instrumental moral cause, of the freedom granted.它也可作為主要的還是工具,例如,一個主教,他們在人的成功中呼籲解放囚犯是主要的道義事業,函件中,他將成為器樂道義事業,自由是理所當然的。 The expressions used by St. Thomas seem clearly to indicate that the sacraments act after the manner of physical causes.該用語,由聖托馬斯看來顯然表明聖禮法後,地體育事業。 He says that there is in the sacraments a virtue productive of grace (III:62:4) and he answers objections against attributing such power to a corporeal instrument by simply stating that such power is not inherent in them and does not reside in them permanently, but is in them only so far and so long as they are instruments in the hands of Almighty God (loc.cit., ad um and 3 um).他說有,是在聖禮是一種美德生產的恩典(三: 62:4 )和他的答案反對歸因於這種權力交給一個是有形的文書,由簡單地說,這種權力不是固有的,他們並沒有住在他們永久,而且是在他們只有這麼遠,這麼久,因為他們是文書在手中,全能的上帝( loc.cit ,專案嗯和3嗯) 。 Cajetan, Francisco Suárez, and a host of other great theologians defend this system, which is usually termed Thomistic. cajetan ,弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯,以及許多其他偉大的神學家,捍衛這個制度,這是通常被稱為thomistic 。 The language of the Scripture, the expressions of the Fathers, the Decrees of the councils, they say, are so strong that nothing short of an impossibility will justify a denial of this dignity to the sacraments of the New Law.語言的聖經,表達了父親,法令議會,他們說,如此強烈,絕對不會缺少不可能的,將理由否定了這尊嚴聖禮的新的法律。 Many facts must be admitted which we cannot fully explain.許多事實必須承認,我們並不能完全解釋。 The body of man acts on his spiritual soul; fire acts, in some way, on souls and on angels.身體的人的行為對他的精神靈魂;消防行為,在某種程度上,對心靈和天使。 The strings of a harp, remarks Cajetan (In III, Q.lxii) touched by an unskilled hand, produce nothing but sounds: touched by the hands of a skilful mmusician they give forth beautiful melodies.弦樂的豎琴,備註cajetan (三q.lxii )感動的是一個不熟練的,一方面,生產什麼,但聲音:感動之手巧mmusician他們給予了美好的旋律。 Why cannot the sacraments, as instruments in the hands of God, produce grace?為什麼不能聖禮,因為票據在天主手中,生產的恩典?

Many grave theologians were not convinced by these arguments, and another school, improperly called the Scotistic, headed by Melchior Cano, De Lugo, and Vasquez, embracing later Henno, Tournély, Franzelin, and others, adopted the system of instrumental moral causality.許多嚴重的神學家沒有被他說服,由這些論點,與另一所學校,不當稱為scotistic ,為首梅爾希奧爾莫卡諾,德盧戈,巴斯克斯,擁抱後henno , tournély , franzelin ,和其他人,通過系統的工具性道德的因果關係。 The principal moral cause of grace is the Passion of Christ.主要道義事業的恩典,是激情的喊聲。 The sacraments are instruments which move or entreat God effectively and infallibly to give his grace to those who receive them with proper disposotions, because, says Melchior Cano, "the price of the blood of Jesus Christ is communicated to them" (see Pourrat, op. cit., 192, 193).聖禮是文書,其中移動或哀求上帝有效infallibly給他的恩典那些接收他們適當disposotions的,因為,說梅爾希奧爾莫卡諾, "價格的血,耶穌基督是傳達給他們" (見pourrat ,作品引文中,第192條, 193條) 。 This system was further developed by Franzelin, who looks upon the sacraments as being morally an act of Christ (loc.cit., p.194).這一制度得到了進一步發展,由franzelin ,長相後,聖禮作為道德行為的基督( loc.cit , p.194 ) 。 The Thomists and Francisco Suárez object to this system:該thomists和弗朗西斯蘇亞雷斯反對這項制度:

Since the sacraments (ie the external rites) have no intrisic value, they do not, according to this explanation, exert any genuine causality; they do not really cause grace, God alone causes the grace: the sacrament do not operate to produce it; they are only signs or occasions of conferring it.自聖禮(即對外禮記)沒有intrisic價值,他們不走,根據這個解釋,施加任何真正的因果關係,他們並不真正原因恩典,上帝的原因,僅在寬限期:聖餐沒有開辦生產;他們只是標誌或場合賦予它。

The Fathers saw something mysterious and inexplicable in the sacraments.父親看到了一些神秘和莫名在聖禮。 In this system wonders cease or are, at least, so much reduced that the expressions used by the Fathers seem altogether out of place.在這個系統中奇觀停止或者,至少,因此大大減少,這詞句,由父親似乎完全失控。

This theory does not sufficiently distinguish, in efficacy, the sacraments of the Gospel from the sacraments of the Old Law.這個理論並沒有充分地區別,在療效,聖禮的福音,從聖禮的舊法。 Nevertheless, because it avoids certain difficulties and obscurities of the physical causality theory, the system of moral causality has found many defenders, and today if we consider numbers alone, it has authority in its favour.不過,因為它避免了一定的困難和obscurities的物理因果關係理論,系統的道德因果關係已發現許多維護者,而今天如果我們考慮到數字本身,它有權力對其有利的。

Recently both of these systems have been vigorously attacked by Father Billot (op.cit., 107 sq.), who proposes a new explanation.最近,這兩種系統已被大力抨擊,由父親billot ( op.cit 。 20,107平方米) ,世衛組織提出了一項新的解釋。 He revives the old theory that the sacraments do not immediately cause grace itself, but a disposition or title to grace (above e).他恢復舊理論認為聖禮不立即事業的恩典,而是一個處置或所有權轉移給宏力(以上五) 。 This disposition is produced by the sacraments, neither physically nor morally, but imperatively.這種處置是由聖禮,既不是身體也不是道義上的,但勢在必行。 Sacraments are practical signs of an intentional order: they manifest God's intention to give spiritual benefits; this manifestation of the Divine intention is a title exigent of grace (op.cit., 59 sq., 123 sq.; Pourrat, op.cit., 194; Cronin in reviews, sup. cit.).聖禮是現實的跡象,一種有意的命令:他們體現了上帝的意圖給予精神上的好處,這體現了神的用意是一個標題急迫的恩典( op.cit , 59平方米, 123平方米; pourrat , op.cit 。 , 194人;克羅寧在評論,副刊引文) 。 Father Billot defends his opinions with remarkable acumen.父親billot辯護,他的意見具有顯著的敏銳。 Patrons of the physical causality gratefully note his attack against the moral causality, but object to the new explanation, that the imperative or the intentional causality, as distinct from the action of signs, occasions, moral or physical instruments (a) is conceived with difficulty and (b) does not make the sacraments (ie the external, Divinely appointed ceremonies) the real cause of grace.食客的物理因果關係感激地注意到他的攻擊,對道德的因果關係,但反對這項新的解釋,認為有必要或故意因果關係,有別於行動的跡象,場合,道德或身體上的文書(一) ,是構思與困難及( b )不作聖禮(即外來的,神聖的任命儀式)的真正原因恩典。 Theologians are perfectly free to dispute and differ as to the manner of instrumental causality.神學是完全免費的爭議和分歧,以該地的樂器因果關係。 Lis est adhuc sub judice.未決預測adhuc審理中。


(1) Men, Not Angels ( 1 )男,而不是天使

It was altogether fitting that the ministration of the sacraments be given, not to the angels, but to men.這是完全恰當的ministration的聖禮給予,而不是天使,而是為了男人。 The efficacy of the sacraments comes from the Passion of Christ, hence from Christ as a man; men, not angels, are like unto Christ in His human nature.功效聖禮來從基督的,因此,從基督作為一個男人;男子,而不是天使,就像祂基督在他的人性。 Miraculously God might send a good angel to administer a sacrament (ST III:64:7).奇蹟般地上帝可能會給一個好的天使施行聖事(聖三: 64:7 ) 。

(2) Ordination Requirements for the Ministers of Particular Sacraments ( 2 )統籌的要求部長們特別聖禮

For administering Baptism validly no special ordination is required.管理的洗禮有效,沒有特別統籌的需要。 Any one, even a pagan, can baptize, provided that he use the proper matter and pronounce the words of the essential form, with the intention of doing what the Church does (Decr. pro Armen., Denzinger-Bannwart, 696).任何一個,即使是異教徒,可以baptize ,只要他使用正確的事,並宣告的話,基本的形式,並打算做什麼教會( decr.阿爾親,登青格- bannwart , 696 ) 。 Only bishops, priests, and in some cases, deacons may confer Baptism solemnly (see BAPTISM).只有主教,神父,並在某些情況下,執事,可授予洗禮鄭重(見洗禮) 。 It is now held as certain that in Matrimony the contracting parties are the ministers of the sacrament, because they make the contract and the sacrament is a contract raised by Christ to the dignity of a sacrament (cf. Leo XIII, Encycl. "Arcanum", 10 Febr., 1880; see MATRIMONY).現在是舉行肯定,在婚姻締約各方正部長的聖餐,因為他們使合約及聖餐是一個合同所提出的以基督的尊嚴從樓上掉了(參見利奧十三世, encycl " 。 arcanum " , 10 febr , 1880年,見婚姻) 。 For the validity of the other five sacraments the minister must be duly ordained.為有效性其他五個聖禮部長必須受到應有的受戒。 The Council of Trent anathematized those who said that all Christians could administer all the sacraments (Sess. VII, can.10).安理會的遄達anathematized人士說,所有基督徒,可以管理所有聖禮( sess.七, can.10 ) 。 Only bishops can confer Sacred Orders (Council of Trent, sess. XXIII, can.7).只有主教才能賦予的神聖命令(理事會的遄達, sess 。二十三, can.7 ) 。 Ordinarily only a bishop can give Confirmation (see CONFIRMATION).通常只有一位主教,可以給予確認(見確認) 。 The priestly Order is required for the valid administration of Penance and Extreme Unction (Conc. Trid., sess. XIV, can.10, can.4).該司鐸秩序,是需要有效的管理懺悔和極端unction ( conc. trid , sess 。第十四can.10 , can.4 ) 。 As to the Eucharist, those only who have priestly Orders can consecrate, ie change bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ.以聖體聖事的,只有那些有聖令可consecrate ,即改變麵包和酒的身體和血液裡的喊聲。 Consecration presupposed, any one can distribute the Eucharistic species but, outside of very extraordinary circumstances this can be lawfully done only by bishops, priests, or (in some cases) deacons. consecration假定,任何一個可以分發聖體聖事的物種,但外界十分不尋常的情況下,可以合法地做只由主教,神父,或(在某些情況下)執事。

(3) Heretical or Schismatic Ministers ( 3 )邪教或schismatic部長

The care of all those sacred rites has been given to the Church of Christ.照顧所有這些神聖的儀式已考慮到教會的真理。 Heretical or schismatical ministers can administer the sacraments validly if they have valid Orders, but their ministrations are sinful (see Billot, op.cit., thesis 16).異端邪說或schismatical部長們能夠管理聖禮有效,如果他們是否有有效的訂單,但他們ministrations是罪孽深重的(見billot , op.cit ,論文16 ) 。 Good faith would excuse the recipients from sin, and in cases of necessity the Church grants jurisdiction necessary for Penance and Extreme Unction (see EXCOMMUNICATION: V, Effects of Excommunication).善意的藉口,將受助人,從單,並在案件必要性教會贈款管轄必要懺悔和極端unction (見禁教:五,影響禁教) 。

(4) State of Soul of the Minister ( 4 )國家的靈魂部長

Due reverence for the sacraments requires the minister to be in a state of grace: one who solemnly and officially administers a sacrament, being himself in a state of mortal sin, would certainly be guilty of a sacrilege (cf. ST III:64:6).由於崇敬聖禮要求部長必須在一國的恩典:一個人鄭重和正式管理從樓上掉了,被自己,在一國的大罪,肯定會被裁定犯了一種褻瀆(參見聖三: 64:6 ) 。 Some hold that this sacrilege is committed even when the minister does not act officially or confer the sacrament solemnly.有的認為這是褻瀆承諾,甚至當牧師的行為沒有正式或賦予的神聖莊嚴。 But from the controversy between St. Augustine and the Donatists in the fourth century and especially from the controversy between St. Stephen and St. Cyprian in the third century, we know that personal holiness or the state of grace in the minister is not a prerequisite for the valid administration of the sacrament.但是,從之間爭議的聖奧古斯丁和donatists在第四世紀,特別是從之間爭議的聖士提反灣和聖塞浦路斯在三世紀,我們知道,個人的成聖或國家的寬限期,在部長,是不是前提為有效地管理本聖餐。 This has been solemnly defined in several general councils including the Council of Trent (Sess VII, can.12, ibid., de bapt., can.4).這一直是莊嚴地界定在幾個省議會包括安理會的遄達( sess七, can.12 ,同上,德bapt , can.4 ) 。 The reason is that the sacraments have their efficacy by Divine institution and through the merits of Christ.原因是聖禮有其功效,以神機構,並通過案情的喊聲。 Unworthy ministers, validly conferring the sacraments, cannot impede the efficacy of signs ordained by Christ to produce grace ex opere operato (cf. St. Thomas, III:64:5, III:64:9).卑微的部長,有效賦予聖禮,不能妨礙療效的跡象受戒基督出示寬限期前opere operato (參見聖托馬斯,三: 64:5 ,第三部分: 64:9 ) 。 The knowledge of this truth, which follows logically from the true conception of a sacrament, gives comfort to the faithful, and it should increase, rather than diminish, reverence for those sacred rites and confidence in their efficacy.認識了這個道理,這是繼從邏輯上的真實觀,從樓上掉了,給人以舒適的信徒,而且要增加,而不是減少,崇敬那些神聖儀軌和信心,在他們的效能。 No one can give, in his own name, that which he does not possess; but a bank cashier, not possessing 2000 dollars in his own name, could write a draft worth 2, 000, 000 dollars by reason of the wealth of the bank which he is authorized to represent.沒有人能在他自己的名字,表示他並不具備,但銀行本票,而不是藏美元, 2000年在他自己的名字,可以寫草稿,價值2 , 000 , 000美元的原因,社會的財富銀行他是授權代表。 Christ left to His Church a vast treasure purchased by His merits and sufferings: the sacraments are as credentials entitling their holders to a share in this treasure.基督留給他教會了廣闊珍惜購買他的優點和痛苦:聖禮是作為全權證書享受其持有人分享這一財富。 On this subject, the Anglican Church has retained the true doctrine, which is neatly proved in article XXVI of the Westminster Confession: "Although in the visible church the evil be ever mingled with the good, and sometimes the evil hath the chief authority in the ministration of the Word and Sacraments, yet forasmuch as they do not the same in their own name, but in Christ's, and do minister by His commission and authority, we may use their ministry both in hearing the Word of God and in receiving the Sacraments. Neither is the effect of Christ's ordinance taken away by their wickedness nor the grace of God's gifts from such as by faith, and rightly, do receive the sacraments ministered unto them; which be effectual, because of Christ's institution and promise, although they be administered by evil men" (cf. Billuart, de sacram., d.5, a.3, sol.obj.)在這個問題上,聖公會保留了真正的教義,這是整齊地證明,在第二十六條的西敏寺供認說: "雖然在有形教會的罪惡比以往相互交融,善,有時邪惡祂所行政管理局在ministration的Word和聖禮,但forasmuch因為他們不一樣,在自己的名下,但在基督裡的,做部長,由他的委員會和權威,我們可以利用他們的部都喜歡聽上帝的話,並在接受聖禮也不是影響基督的條例帶走他們的邪惡,也不是天主的恩典的禮物,如信仰,這是正確的,不接受聖禮ministered賜給他們,哪一個行之有效的,因為基督的機構,並承諾,儘管他們被經管邪惡的人" (見billuart ,德sacram , d.5 , A.3的, sol.obj ) 。

(5) Intention of the Minister ( 5 )意圖部長

(a) To be a minister of the sacraments under and with Christ, a man must act as a man, ie as a rational being; hence it is absolutely necessary that he have the intention of doing what the Church does. (一)是一個部長聖禮下,並與基督,一名男子要當一名男子,即作為一個理性的作為,因此,這是絕對必要的,他已經打算做什麼教會。 This was declared by Eugene IV in 1439 (Denzinger-Bannwart, 695) and was solemnly defined in the Council of Trent (Sess.VII, can.II).這是宣布由尤金四,在1439 (登青格- bannwart , 695 ) ,並鄭重地界定在安理會中的遄達( sess.vii , can.ii ) 。 The anathema of Trent was aimed at the innovators of the sixteenth century.該詛咒的遄達目的是革新者的16世紀。 From their fundamental error that the sacraments were signs of faith, or signs that excited faith, it followed logically that their effect in no wise depended on the intention of the minister.從他們的根本錯誤,聖禮的跡象信仰,或跡象表明,興奮的信仰,它遵循的邏輯,他們的影響,在任何明智的是依賴於意圖部長。 Men are to be "ministers of Christ, and the dispensers of the mysteries of God" (1 Corinthians 4:1), and this they would not be without the intention, for it is by the intention, says St. Thomas (III:64:8, ad 1) that a man subjects and unites himself to the principal agent (Christ).男人要"部長們的基督,與掌櫃的奧秘,以神之名" (哥林多前書4:1 ) ,而這將不無用意,因為這是由意向說,聖托馬斯(三: 64:8 ,專案一日)表示,一名男子科目和聯合的人,向主要代理(基督) 。 Moreover, by rationally pronouncing the words of the form, the minister must determine what is not sufficiently determined or expressed by the matter applied, eg the significance of pouring water on the head of the child (ST III:64:8).此外,理性地,宣告了字的形式,部長必須確定什麼是不足夠決心或所表達的事項適用,例如意義的灌水在頭上的兒童(聖三: 64:8 ) 。 One who is demented, drunk, asleep, or in a stupor that prevents a rational act, one who goes through the external ceremony in mockery, mimicry, or in a play, does not act as a rational minister, hence cannot administer a sacrament.一個人是癡呆症患者,醉,睡,或在一個昏迷阻止一個理性的行為,其中一個人是通過對外儀式在嘲弄,模仿,或在一出戲,不作為一個理性的部長,因此不能施行聖事。

(b) The necessary object and qualities of the intention required in the minister of the sacrament are explained in the article INTENTION. (二)必要的物件和品質的意圖需要在部長的聖餐解釋在這篇文章的用意。 Pourrat (op.cit., ch.7) gives a history of all controversies on this subject. pourrat ( op.cit , ch.7 )給出了歷史上的一切爭議,對這個課題。 Whatever may be said speculatively about the opinion of Ambrosius Catherinus (see POLITI, LANCELOT) who advocated the sufficiency of an external intention in the minister, it may not be followed in practice, because, outside of cases of neccessity, no one may follow a probable opinion against one that is safer, when there is question of something required for the validity of a sacrament (Innoc. XI, 1679; Denzinger-Bannwart, 1151).無論如何,可以說, speculatively對民意的安布羅修斯catherinus (見波利蒂, , put ) ,他們主張有足夠的外部打算在部長說,它可能不會其次,在實踐中,因為外面的案件必要性,沒有人可以走一條可能的反對意見之一就是安全,當有問題的東西,需要的有效性,從樓上掉了( innoc.席, 1679個;登青格- bannwart , 1151 ) 。

(6) Attention in the Minister ( 6 )注意在部長

Attention is an act of the intellect, viz.注意的是一個行為,智力,即。 the application of the mind to what is being done.應用一心想正在做些什麼。 Voluntary distraction in one administering a sacrament would be sinful.志願分心,在一個管理從樓上掉了,將罪孽深重。 The sin would however not be brave, unless (a) there be danger of making a serious mistake, or (b) according to the common opinion, the distraction be admitted in consecrating the Eucharistic species.罪惡會,但不勇敢,除非(一)有危險性,使一個嚴重的錯誤,或( b )根據有關的共同意見,分心獲准在consecrating聖體聖事的物種。 Attention on the part of the minister is not necessary for the valid administration of a sacrament, because in virtue of the intention, which is presupposed, he can act in a rational manner, notwithstanding the distraction.注意對部分部長,是不是有必要為有效管理從樓上掉了,因為在美德的意圖,這是先決條件,他就可以在一個理性的態度,儘管分心。


When all conditions required by Divine and ecclesiastical law are complied with, the sacrament is received validly and licitly.當所有的條件下,以神和教會法的遵守,聖事是收到有效而licitly 。 If all conditions required for the essential rite are observed, on the part of the minister, the recipient, the matter and form, but some non-essential condition is not complied with by the recipient, the sacrament is received validly but not licitly; and if the condition wilfully neglected be grave, grace is not then conferred by the ceremony.如果所有需要的條件基本成年禮觀察,對部分部長,受贈人,在這件事的形式,但一些非必要條件,是不遵守由受贈人,在聖事是收到有效,而不是licitly ;若條件故意忽略了嚴重的,雍容的是,當時不能授予儀式。 Thus baptized persons contracting Matrimony whilst they are in the state of mortal sin would be validly (ie really) married, but would not then receive sanctifying grace.因此受洗者訂約婚姻,而他們是在國家的大罪,將有效地(即真)結婚,但不會那麼接收sanctifying恩典。

(1) Conditions for valid reception ( 1 )條件為有效酒會

(a) The previous reception of Baptism (by water) is an essential condition for the valid reception of any other sacrament. (一)前酒會的洗禮(水)是一個必要條件,為有效接收任何其他聖餐。 Only citizens and members of the Church can come under her influence as such; Baptism is the door by which we enter the Church and thereby become members of a mystical body united to Christ our head (Catech. Trid., de bapt., nn.5, 52).只有公民和教會的成員可以根據自己的影響,因為此類;洗禮,是大門,使我們進入教堂,從而成為大家的一種神秘的身體美,以耶穌,我們的頭( catech. trid ,德bapt ,神經網絡。 5 , 52 ) 。

(b) In adults, for the valid reception of any sacrament except the Eucharist, it is necessary that they have the intention of receiving it. ( b )在成人,為有效接收任何聖餐除聖體聖事,這是必要的,他們有意向接受它。 The sacraments impose obligations and confer grace: Christ does not wish to impose those obligations or confer grace without the consent of man.聖禮施加義務,並賦予寬限期:基督不希望施加這些義務,或賦予的寬限期,未經他們同意的人。 The Eucharist is excepted because, in whatever state the recipient may be, it is always the body and blood of Christ (see INTENTION; cf. Pourrat, op.cit., 392).聖體聖事是例外,因為,無論國有收件人可能,它永遠是身體與血的基督(見意圖;比照pourrat , op.cit , 392 ) 。

(c) For attention, see above, VI, 6. (三)注意,在上面看到,六,六。 By the intention man submits himself to the operation of the sacraments which produce their effects exopere operato, hence attention is not necessary for the valid reception of the sacraments.由意向人提交了自己的運作聖禮產生的影響exopere operato ,因此注意的是,沒有必要為有效接收聖禮。 One who might be distracted, even voluntarily, during the conferring, eg of Baptism, would receive the sacrament validly.一個人可能會分心,即使是自願的,在授予,如洗禮,將接受聖餐有效。 It must be carefully noted, however, that in the case of Matrimony the contracting parties are the ministers as well as the recipients of the sacraments; and in the sacrament of Penance, the acts of the penitent, contrition, confession, and willingness to accept a Penance in satisfaction, constitute the proximate matter of the sacraments, according to the commonly received opinion.它必須仔細然而,人們注意到,在案件婚姻締約各方都是部長以及收信人的聖禮,而且在聖事的懺悔,行為的懺悔, contrition ,認罪,並表示願意接受一懺悔,在滿意度,構成近因事聖禮,根據普遍收到了意見。 Hence in those cases such attention is required as is necessary for the valid application of the matter and form.因此,在這些情況下,如此大的關注,是因為需要,是必要的,為有效申請的事項和形式。

(2) Conditions for the Licit Reception ( 2 )的條件下,為合法酒會

(a) For the licit reception, besides the intention and the attention, in adults there is required: (一)為合法的酒會,除了打算和重視,在成年人有事項:

for the sacraments of the dead, supernatural attrition, which presupposes acts of faith, hope, and repentance (see ATTRITION and JUSTIFICATION);為聖禮的死,超自然的自然減員,這預示著行為的信仰,希望,而悔過書(見自然減員和理由) ;

for the sacraments of the living the state of grace.為聖禮的生活,國家的恩典。 Knowingly to receive a sacrament of the living whilst one is in the state of mortal sin would be a sacrilege.明知而接受聖餐的生活,而其中一個是在該國的大罪,將一種褻瀆。

(b) For the licit reception it is also necessary to observe all that is prescribed by Divine or ecclesiastical law, eg as to time, place, the minister, etc. As the Church alone has the care of the sacraments and generally her duly appointed agents alone have the right to administer them, except Baptism in some cases, and Matrimony (supra VI, 2), it is a general law that application for the sacraments should be made to worthy and duly appointed ministers. (二)為合法的接收它,還必須遵守所有,即由神或教會的規定,例如,以時間,地點,內政部長等,作為教會就有照顧聖禮和一般她正式委任代理商才有權利來管理他們,除非洗禮,在某些情況下,與婚姻(同上六, 2 ) ,這是一個普遍規律申請聖禮提出,要無愧于並正式任命的部長。 (For exceptions see EXCOMMUNICATION.) (例外見禁教) 。

(3) Reviviscence of the Sacraments ( 3 )復活的聖禮

Much attention has been given by theologians to the revival of effects which were impeded at the time when a sacrament was received.已成為備受重視的,由神學家,以復甦的影響,其中在阻礙的時候,從樓上掉了,收到。 The question arises whenever a sacrament is received validly but unworthily, ie with an obstacle which prevents the infusion of Divine grace.由此產生的問題是每當一個聖餐收到有效,但混跡,即同一個障礙防止輸液神的恩典。 The obstacle (mortal sin) is positive, when it is known and voluntary, or negative, when it is involuntary by reason of ignorance or good faith.障礙(凡人單)是正面的,當它被稱為和自願的,還是負面的,當他是自願因無知或誠意。 One who thus receives a sacrament is said to receive it feignedly, or falsely (ficte), because by the very act of receiving it he pretends to be properly disposed; and the sacrament is said to be validum sed informe -- valid, but lacking its proper form, ie grace or charity (see LOVE).一個人,因此在接到聖餐是說接受它feignedly ,或虛假( ficte ) ,因為受到十分的行為接受他假裝得到妥善處置;和聖餐據說是validum的SED informe -有效,但缺乏其適當的形式,即寬限期或慈善組織(見愛) 。 Can such a person recover or receive the effects of the sacraments?這樣的人收回或接收的影響聖禮? The term reviviscence (reviviscentia) is not used by St. Thomas in reference to the sacraments and it is not strictly correct because the effects in question being impeded by the obstacle, were not once "living" (cf. Billot, op.cit., 98, note).任期復活( reviviscentia )不是用聖托馬斯在參考聖禮,並嚴格來說,這不是正確的做法,因為影響問題受到阻礙的障礙,沒有一次的"活" (見billot , op.cit 。號, 98號,注) 。 The expression which he uses (III:69:10), viz., obtaining the effects after the obstacle has been removed, is more accurate, though not so convenient as the newer term.表達他的用途(三: 69:10 ) ,即,取得效果後,障礙已經消除,是較為準確的,雖然不是那麼方便,因為新的任期。

(a) Theologians generally hold that the question does not apply to Penance and the Holy Eucharist. (一)神學家普遍認為,這個問題根本不適用,以懺悔和聖體聖事。 If the penitent be not sufficiently disposed to receive grace at the time he confesses his sins the sacrament is not validly received because the acts of the penitent are a necessary part of the matter of this sacrament, or a necessary condition for its reception.如果懺悔者予以不夠處置接受恩賜的時候,他confesses他的罪孽聖事是不能有效地得到,因為該行為的懺悔,是一個必要的部分,此事本聖餐,或者一個必要條件,其接待。 One who unworthily receives the Eucharist can derive no benefit from that sacrament unless, perhaps, he repent of his sins and sacrilege before the sacred species have beeen destroyed.一位混跡於收到聖體聖事可以從中沒有受益於這種聖餐,除非,也許,他悔過,他的罪過和褻瀆前神聖物種有beeen銷毀。 Cases that may occur relate to the five other sacraments.案件中可能發生的涉及到其他五個聖禮。

(b) It is certain and admitted by all, that if Baptism be received by an adult who is in the state of mortal sin, he can afterwards receive the graces of the sacrament, viz. (二)這是一定的,並承認所有國家,如果得到洗禮收到一個成年人,他們是在該國的大罪,他可以事後得到恩寵的聖餐,即。 when the obstacle is removed by contrition or by the sacrament of Penance.當障礙消除contrition或由聖餐的懺悔。 On the one hand the sacraments always produce grace unless there be an obstacle; on the other hand those graces are necessary, and yet the sacrament cannot be repeated.就一方面聖禮總是產生的恩典,除非有成為障礙;另一方面那些青睞,是有必要的,但聖餐不能重演。 St. Thomas (III:69:10) and theologians find a special reason for the conferring of the effects of Baptism (when the "fiction" has been removed) in the permanent character which is impressed by the sacrament validly administered.聖托馬斯(三: 69:10 )和神學家找到一個特別的理由,為賦予的影響洗禮(當"小說"已被移除) ,在常設性質是印象深刻,而聖餐有效管理。 Reasoning from analogy they hold the same with regard to Confirmation and Holy Orders, noting however that the graces to be received are not so necessary as those conferred by Baptism.類比推理,他們持有同樣的關於確認和神聖的命令,但是注意到這恩寵將收到的是不那麼必要的,因為這些所賦予的洗禮。

(c) The doctrine is not so certain when applied to Matrimony and Extreme Unction. ( c )該學說是不是這麼肯定時,適用於婚姻和極端unction 。 But since the graces impeded are very important though not strictly necessary, and since Matrimony cannot be received again whilst both contracting parties are living, and Extreme Unction cannot be repeated whilst the same danger of death lasts, theologians adopt as more probable the opinion which holds that God will grant the graces of those sacraments when the obstacle is removed.但由於青睞阻礙是非常重要的,雖然不是絕對必要,因為婚姻不能再收到,而締約雙方的生活,和極端unction不能重複,而同樣的危險死亡為止,神學家採取更可能認為擁有上帝會給予青睞那些聖禮時的障礙就是拆除。 The "reviviscence" of the effects of sacraments received validly but with an obstacle to grace at the time of their reception, is urged as a strong argument against the system of the physical causality of grace (supra, V, 2), especially by Billot (op.cit., thesis, VII, 116, 126). "復活"的影響聖禮收到有效,但同一個障礙恩賜的時候,對他們的接待,是敦促作為一個強而有力的理由反對該系統的物理因果關係的恩典(同上,五, 2 ) ,特別是由billot ( op.cit ,論文,第七, 116 , 126 ) 。 For his own system he claims the merit of establishing an invariable mode of causality, namely, that in every case by the sacrament validly received there is conferred a "title exigent of grace".他對自己的制度,他索賠的好處,建立一個一成不變的模式因果關係,即,在任何情況下,由聖餐有效接獲有授予的"所有權急迫的恩典" 。 If there be no obstacle the grace is conferred then and there: if there be an obstacle the "title" remains calling for the grace which will be conferred as soon as the obstacle is removed (op.cit., th.VI, VII).如果有任何障礙的恩典是賦予那麼有:如果有一個障礙"所有權"仍呼籲恩典,將授予盡快障礙清除( op.cit , ,第七章) 。 To this his opponents reply that exceptional cases might well call for an exceptional mode of causality.以這是他的對手答复中表示,在特殊情況下可能會要求召開一次特殊的模式因果關係。 In the case of three sacraments the character sufficiently explains the revival of effects (cf. ST III:66:1, III:69:9, III:69:10).在案件3聖禮字足以說明復活的影響(參見聖三: 66:1 ,第三部分: 69:9 ,第三: 69:10 ) 。 The doctrine as applied to Extreme Unction and Matrimony, is not certain enough to furnish a strong argument for or against any system.中庸之道適用於極端unction和婚姻關係,是不是一定夠,提供了有力的論據支持或反對任何制度。 Future efforts of theologians may dispel the obscurity and uncertainty now prevailing in this interesting chapter.今後努力的神學家,可消除朦朧性和不確定性,現在普遍存在的,這有趣的一章。

Publication information Written by DJ Kennedy.出版信息所作的DJ英豪。 Transcribed by Marie Jutras.轉錄瑪麗jutras 。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.天主教百科全書,體積十三。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. nihil obstat , 1912年2月1日。 Remy Lafort, DD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,副署長,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

The Seven Great Mysteries (Sacraments) of the Orthodox Church七個大奧秘(聖禮)的東正教教堂

Catholic Perspective 天主教透視

There are, lastly, services for the administration of the Seven Great Mysteries (the Seven Sacraments) that are printed in the Euchologion after the liturgies (ed. cit., pp. 136-288).還有,最後,服務,為政府的七個大奧秘(七聖禮) ,這是印在euchologion後liturgies (編引書,頁136-288 ) 。


Baptism is always conferred by immersion (the Orthodox have grave doubts as to the validity of baptism by infusion. See Fortescue, Orth. E. Church, p. 420).洗禮是歷來所賦予沉浸(東正教有很大的疑慮,以有效性的洗禮,由輸液,見Fortescue的, Ortho的體育教會,頁420 ) 。 The child is anointed all over its body and dipped three times with its face towards the east.孩子是不信任,所有超過其身體和浸3次,它面向東方。 The form is: "The servant of God N. is baptized in the name of the Father, Amen, and of the Son, Amen, and of the Holy Ghost, Amen."形式是: "僕人神12月31日受洗,在父親的姓名,阿門,和兒子,阿門,和聖靈,阿門" 。


Confirmation follows at once and is conferred by priests (the Holy See recognizes this confirmation as valid and neither rebaptizes nor reconfirms converts from Orthodoxy).確認如下畢其功於一役,是由祭司(羅馬教廷認識到這一點,確認為有效,而且既不rebaptizes也再次確認從皈依正統) 。 The whole body is again anointed with chrism (to hagion hyron) prepared very elaborately with fifty-five various substances by the cumenical patriarch on Maundy Thursday (Fortescue, op. cit., 425-426).全身又是不信任與chrism ( hagion hyron )準備非常精心與55不同物質所cumenical元老對maundy週四( Fortescue的,前引書, 425-426 ) 。 The form is: "The seal of the gift of the Holy Ghost" (Euch., 136-144).形式是: "禮物的封條聖靈" ( euch. , 136-144段) 。 The Orthodox never rebaptize when they are sure of the validity of former baptism; but they reconfirm continually.東正教從未rebaptize時,他們是肯定的有效性前的洗禮,但他們確認不斷。 Confirmation has become the usual rite of admittance into their Church, even in the case of apostates who have already been confirmed orthodoxly.確認已成為慣常的成年禮納到他們的教堂,甚至在案件變節那些已經被證實orthodoxly 。

Holy Communion聖餐

The pious Orthodox layman Communicates as a rule only four times a year, at Christmas, Easter, Whitsunday, and the Falling Asleep of the Mother of God (15 August).這個虔誠的東正教門外漢溝通作為一項規則,只有每年4次,在聖誕節,復活節, whitsunday和入睡的天主之母( 8月15日) 。 The Blessed Sacrament is reserved for the sick in the artophorion, (or ierophylakion) under both kinds more or less, that is to say it has been dipped into the chalice and allowed to dry.聖體是預留給有病在artophorion , (或ierophylakion )根據兩種更多或更少,這就是說,它已下降到chalice並讓其乾燥。 It is given to the sick with a spoon and with the usual form (see above under Holy Liturgy).這是考慮到生病湯匙,並與通常形式(見上文教廷禮儀中) 。 They have no tradition of reverence for the reserved Eucharist.他們沒有傳統的崇敬預留聖體聖事。


Penance (metanoia) is administered rarely, usually on the same occasions as Holy Communion.懺悔( metanoia )是經管的很少,通常是對同一場合聖餐。 They have no confessionals.他們沒有confessionals 。 The ghostly father (pneumatikos) sits before the ikonostasis under the picture of Our Lord, the penitent kneels before him (one of the rare cases of kneeling is in this rite), and several prayers are said, to which the choir answers "Kyrie eleison".可怕的父親( pneumatikos )坐在前ikonostasis根據圖片我們的主,懺悔kneels之前,他(指一個罕見的案件跪在這成年禮) ,和幾個祈禱說,這是合唱團的答案" kyrie eleison " 。 The "choir" is always the penitent himself. "合唱團" ,始終是懺悔自己。 Then the ghostly father is directed to say "in a Cheerful voice: Brother, be not ashamed that you come before God and before me, for you do not confess to me but to God who is present here."那麼可怕,父親是導演說: "在一個歡快的聲音:兄弟,不覺得丟臉,你來到上帝面前,並在我之前,你不承認我,但上帝的人,是目前在這裡" 。 He asks the penitent his sins, says that only God can forgive him, but that Christ gave this power to his Apostles saying: "Whose sins ye shall forgive", etc., and absolves him with a deprecatory form in a long prayer in which occur the words: "May this same God, through me a sinner, forgive you all now and for ever."他要求懺悔自己的罪過,說只有上帝能原諒他,但基督了這項權力,以他的門徒說: "誰的罪過葉應原諒"等,並免除他與貶低形式,在漫長的祈禱中出現了一句: "可能同樣的上帝,通過我這個罪人,原諒你的一切,現在和永遠" 。 (Euch., pp. 221-223.) ( euch. ,頁221-223 ) 。

Holy Order聖秩序

Holy Order (cheirotonia) is given by laying on the right hand only.聖令( cheirotonia )給出了關於鋪設右手只。 The form is (for deacons): "The grace of God, that always strengthens the weak and fills the empty, appoints the most religious sub-deacon N. to be deacon. Let us then pray for him that the grace of the Holy Ghost may come to him."形式是(執事)說: "真主保佑,始終加強薄弱填補了空,任命最宗教分執事12月31日被執事。那麼讓我們祈禱,為他的恩典聖靈可以來他" 。 Long prayers follow, with allusions to St. Stephen and the diaconate; the bishop vests the new deacon, giving him an orarion and a ripidion.只要祈禱跟進,與典故,以聖士提反灣及diaconate ;主教賦予新的執事,讓他一個orarion和ripidion 。 For priests and bishops there is the same form, with the obvious variants, "the most religious deacon N. to be priest", or "the most religious elect N. to be Metropolitan of the holy Metropolis N."為神父和主教有相同的形式,有明顯變異, "最宗教執事12月31日被牧師" ,或是"最宗教選出12月31日被大都市的聖地大都市12月31日" (nearly all their bishops have the title Metropolitan), and the subjects receive their vestments and instruments. (幾乎所有他們的主教有標題都市圈) ,並受試者接受他們總有一套和文書。 Priests and bishops concelebrate at once with the ordainer (Euch., 160-181).神父和主教concelebrate在一次與ordainer ( euch. , 160-181 ) 。 The Orthodox believe that the grace of Holy orders may perish through heresy or schism, so they generally reordain converts (the Russian Church has officially refused to do this, Fortescue, op. cit., 423-424).東正教認為恩典神聖的命令可亡通過異端或裂,所以他們一般reordain轉換(俄羅斯教會已正式拒絕要做到這一點, Fortescue的,前引書, 423-424 ) 。


Matrimony (gamos) is often called the "crowning" (stephanoma) from the practice of crowning the spouses (Euch., 238-252).婚姻( gamos )往往被稱為"加冕" ( stephanoma )從實踐中的至高無上的配偶( euch. , 238-252 ) 。 They wear these crowns for a week, and have a special service for taking them off again (Euch., 252).他們穿這些冠了一個星期,有一個特殊的服務,為他們再次起飛( euch. , 252 ) 。

The Anointing of the Sick該anointing的患病

The Anointing of the Sick (euchelaion) is administered (when possible) by seven priests.該anointing的病人( euchelaion )是經管(如果可能) ,由7位神父。 The oil contains as a rule wine, in memory of the Good Samaritan.油含有作為一項規則葡萄酒,在記憶的好撒瑪利亞人。 It is blessed by a priest just before it is used.它是有福了,由一名神父剛剛才用它。 They use a very long form invoking the all-holy Theotokos, the "moneyless physicians" Sts.他們用很長的形式援引聖靈全部theotokos , " moneyless醫師"的STS 。 Cosmas and Damian, and other saints.科斯馬斯和26位,以及其他聖徒。 They anoint the forehead, chin, cheeks, hands, nostrils, and breast with a brush.他們傅油前額,下巴,臉頰,雙手,鼻孔,並與乳腺癌的毛筆。 Each priest present does the same (Euch., 260-288).每一個牧師,目前也獲得了同樣的( euch. , 260-288 ) 。 The service is, as usual, very long.這項服務是與往常一樣,很長。 They anoint people who are only slightly ill, (they very much resent our name: Extreme Unction), and in Russia on Maundy Thursday the Metropolitans of Moscow and Novgorod anoint everyone who presents himself, as a preparation for Holy Communion (Echos d'Orient, II, 193-203).他們傅油的人,只是輕微病患者, (他們十分反感,我們的名字:極端unction ) ,並在俄羅斯就maundy週四在大都市的莫斯科和諾夫哥羅德傅油每個人介紹自己,作為一個準備的聖餐(迴聲-東方第一,二, 193-203 ) 。

Sacramentals sacramentals

There are many Sacramentals.有很多sacramentals 。 People are sometimes anointed with the oil taken from a lamp that burns before a holy icon (occasionally with the form for confirmation: "The seal of the gift of the Holy Ghost").人有時不信任與油從一盞燈,燃燒的前一個神聖的圖標(偶爾與形式予以確認: "禮物的封條聖靈" ) 。 They have besides the antidoron another kind of blessed bread -- the kolyba eaten in honour of some saint or in memory of the dead.他們除了antidoron另一種有福麵包-k olyba吃掉致意一些聖或紀念死者。 On the Epiphany ("The Holy Lights" -- ta hagia phota) there is a solemn blessing of the waters.就頓悟( "神聖的燈" -電訊管理局局長h agiap hota)有一個莊嚴祝福的水域。 They have a great number of exorcisms, very stern laws of fasting (involving abstinence from many things besides flesh meat), and blessings for all manner of things.他們有大量的驅魔儀式,非常嚴厲的法律,空腹(包括禁慾,從很多事情,除了肉體的肉) ,並祝福所有的東西。 These are to be found in the Euchologion.這些將被發現在euchologion 。 Preaching was till lately almost a lost art in the Orthodox Church; now a revival of it has begun (Gelzer, Geistliches u. Weltliches, etc., 76-82).說教,是直到最近,幾乎失去了藝術在東正教教堂,現在死灰復燃,它已經開始(蓋爾澤, geistliches美國weltliches等, 76-82 ) 。 There is a long funeral service (Euch., ed. cit., 393-470).因此,是一項長期的殯葬服務( euch. ,海關引文中, 393-470 ) 。 For all these rites (except the Liturgy) a priest does not wear all his vestments but (over his cassock) the epitrachelion and phainolion.所有這些儀軌(除禮儀)的一名牧師不穿他的所有總有一套,但(超過他的cassock ) epitrachelion和phainolion 。 The high black hat without a brim (kalemeukion) worn by all priests of this rite is well known.高黑帽無布里姆( kalemeukion )佩戴所有的祭司這成年禮是人所共知的。 It is worn with vestments as well as in ordinary life.這是破舊與總有一套,以及在平凡的生活。 Bishops and dignitaries have a black veil over it.主教和貴賓有一個黑色的面紗,超過它。 All clerks wear long hair and a beard.所有辦事員穿長頭髮和鬍子。 For a more detailed account of all these rites see "Orth. Eastern Church", pp.為更詳細考慮所有這些儀軌見" Ortho的。東區教會" ,頁。 418-428. 418-428 。

Publication information Written by Adrian Fortescue.出版信息寫的阿德里安Fortescue的。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯j.波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.奉獻給聖心耶穌基督天主教百科全書,第四卷。 Published 1908. 1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat. nihil obstat 。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約

Bibliography 參考書目
The Orthodox Service-books in Greek are published at their official press (ho phoinix) at Venice (various dates: the Euchologion quoted here, 1898); the Uniat ones at Rome (Propaganda).東正教服務書籍,在希臘語,刊載在其官方新聞(何phoinix )在威尼斯(各個日期: euchologion引述在此, 1898年) ; uniat裁判員羅馬(宣傳) 。 There is also an Athenian edition; and the Churches that use translations have published their versions.此外,還有一個雅典版;和教會使用翻譯出版了自己的版本。 Provost ALEXIOS MALTZEW (of the Russian Embassy church at Berlin) has edited all the books in Old Slavonic with a parallel German translation and notes (Berlin, 1892); RENAUDOT, Liturgiarum orientalium collectio (2d ed., 2 vols., Frankfort, 1847); NEALE, The Liturgies of St. Mark, St. James, St. Clement, St. Chrysostom, St Basil (London, 1875, in Greek); another volume contains The Translations of the Primitive Liturgies of St. Mark, etc.; ROBERTSON, The Divine Liturgies of Our Fathers among the Saints John Chrysostom, Basil the Great and that of the Presanctified (Greek and English, London 1894); DE MEESTER, La divine liturgie de S. Jean Chrysostome (Greek and French, Paris, 1907); iHe theia leitourgia, periechousa ton esperinon, ktl (Athens, 1894); CHARON, Les saintes et divines Liturgies, etc. (Beirut, 1904); STORFF, Die griechiechen Liturgien, XLI of THALHOFER, Bibliothek der Kirchenväter (Kempten, 1877); Kitãb al-liturgiãt al-ilahiyyeh (Melchite Use in Arabic, Beirut, 1899); GOAR, Euchologion, sive Rituale Gr corum (2nd ed., Venice, 1720); PROBST, Liturgie der drei ersten christlichen Jahrhunderte (Tübingen, 1870); ANON., Liturgie des vierten Jahrhunderts und deren Reform (Münster, 1893); KATTENBUSCH, Lehrbuch der vergleichenden Konfessionskunde: Die orthodoxe anatolische Kirche (Freiburg im Br., 1892); NILLES, Kalendarium manuale utriusque ecclesi (2nd ed., Innsbruck, 1896-97); PRINCE MAX OF SAXONY, Pr lectiones de Liturgiis orientalibus (Freiburg im Br., 1908), I; HAPGOOD, Service-Book of the Holy Orthodox-Catholic Apostolic (Gr co-Russian) Church (Boston and New York, 1906); ALLATIUS, De libris et rebus eccl. provost阿萊希奧斯maltzew (俄羅斯大使館教會在柏林) ,先後編輯,所有圖書在舊斯拉夫與平行德語翻譯及債券(柏林, 1892年) ;勒諾多, liturgiarum orientalium collectio (第2版,第2卷,法蘭克福, 1847年) ;處於同一水平, liturgies的聖馬克,聖雅各福群會,聖克萊門特,聖金口,聖羅勒(倫敦, 1875年,在希臘) ;另一卷載翻譯的原始liturgies的聖馬克等。 ;羅伯遜,神聖liturgies我們的父親之間的聖徒約翰金口,羅勒偉大,並表示,在該presanctified (希臘文和英文,倫敦, 1894年) ;德meester ,香格里拉神liturgie下環讓chrysostome (希臘文和法文,巴黎, 1907年) ; IHE的忒伊亞leitourgia , periechousa噸esperinon , KTL的合作還可(雅典, 1894年) ;上述特性,就業輔導組saintes等divines liturgies等(貝魯特, 1904年) ; storff ,模具griechiechen liturgien ,四十一的塔爾霍費爾,圖書館明鏡kirchenväter (坎普頓, 1877年) ; kitãb基地liturgiãt基地ilahiyyeh ( melchite使用阿拉伯語,貝魯特, 1899年) ; goar , euchologion , sive裡圖阿萊遺傳資源喬魯姆(第二版,威尼斯, 1720 ) ; probst , liturgie明鏡drei ersten christlichen jahrhunderte (蒂賓根, 1870年) ;別名, liturgie萬vierten jahrhunderts und李德仁改革(在明斯特, 1893年) ; kattenbusch , lehrbuch明鏡vergleichenden konfessionskunde :模具orthodoxe anatolische kirche (弗賴堡的IM溴, 1892年) ; nilles , kalendarium manuale了兩個ecclesi (第二版,因斯布魯克, 1896年至1897年) ;王子最大的薩克森,公關lectiones德liturgiis orientalibus (弗賴堡的IM溴, 1908年) ,我; hapgood ,服務預訂的神聖東正教天主教使徒(遺傳資源合作,俄語)堂(波士頓紐約, 1906年) ; allatius ,德libris等rebus eccl 。 Gr corum (Cologne, 1646); CLUGNET, Dictionnaire grec-français des noms liturgiques en usage dans l'église grecque (Paris, 1895); ARCHATZIKAKI, Etudes sur les principales Fêtes chrétiennes dans l'ancienne Eglise d'Orient (Geneva, 1904); DE MEESTER, Officio dell' inno acatisto (Greek and Italian, Rome, 1903); GELZER, Geistliches und Weltliches aus dem türkisch-griechischen Orient (Leipzig, 1900); GAISSER, Le système musical de l'Eglise grecque (Maredsous, 1901); REBOURS, Traitê de psaltique.遺傳資源喬魯姆(科隆, 1646 ) ;克呂涅,詞典grec -法國noms liturgiques恩用法dans l' église希臘(巴黎, 1895年) ; archatzikaki ,練習曲sur就業輔導組principales fêtes chrétiennes dans l' ancienne eglise -東方(日內瓦, 1 904年) ;德meester ,守戴爾'創新acatisto (希臘和意大利,羅馬, 1903年) ;蓋爾澤, geistliches und weltliches澳大利亞DEM的türkisch - griechischen東方(萊比錫, 1900年) ;蓋瑟,系統和音樂德l' eglise希臘(馬利蘇斯, 1901年) ; rebours , traitê德psaltique 。 Théorie et pratique du chant dans l'Eglise grecque (Paris, 1906); FORTESCUE, The Orthodox Eastern Church (London, 1907). théorie等實用杜高唱dans l' eglise希臘(巴黎, 1906年) ; Fortescue的,東正教(倫敦, 1907年) 。

Editor's Notes編者注

There are some differences between the celebration of the Eucharist in various Churches.也有一些分歧,為慶祝聖體聖事在各個教堂。 For more extensive discussion, including Advanced Information articles, please see either the (Protestant oriented) Last Supper presentation or the (Catholic oriented) Mass presentation, linked below.為更廣泛的討論,其中包括先進的資訊文章,請參閱要么(新教為主的)最後的晚餐陳述或(天主教為主的)大規模的介紹,聯繫下文。

It is generally accepted by Christian scholars that the last meal of Jesus was a (Jewish) Seder meal which is part of the Passover celebration.這是大家普遍認同的,由基督教學者說,最後一頓耶穌是一個(猶太人) seder餐是該慶祝逾越節。 A presentation on the Seder includes the specific foods and procedures involved, along with the Jewish (historic) reasons for them.介紹了關於seder包括具體的食品和所涉及的程序,隨著猶太(歷史的)的原因。 References to Christian adaptations of the Seder are also included.提到基督教調適的seder也包括在內。

Also, see:此外,見:
Baptism 洗禮
Confirmation 確認
Eucharist 聖體聖事
(Protestant-oriented) Last Supper (新教為本)最後的晚餐
(Catholic oriented) Mass (天主教為主的)質量
(Jewish) Seder (猶太) seder

This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文

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