Transcendentalism, Transcendence超驗性,超越性

General Information 一般資料

The general philosophical concept of transcendence, or belief in a higher reality not validated by sense experience or pure reason, was developed in ancient times by Parmenides and Plato.一般哲學概念的超越性,或信仰,在更高的現實,未經審定通過的意識經驗或純粹理性,是在遠古時代,由巴門尼德和柏拉圖。 Plato referred to a realm of ideal Forms that was unknowable through the senses, and theologians since have spoken of God in the same way.柏拉圖提到一種境界的理想形式,那是不可知透過感官,和神學家,因為曾經說過,上帝在以同樣的方式。 The term transcendentalism is sometimes used to describe Immanuel Kant's philosophy and the philosophies of later German Idealists influenced by Kant.任期驗有時被用來形容康德的哲學與哲學的後來德國理想主義者受康德。

New England Transcendentalism was a religious, literary, and philosophical movement that flourished especially between 1836, when Ralph Waldo Emerson's essay Nature was published, and 1844, when the semiofficial journal of the movement, the Dial, ceased publication.新英格蘭超驗主義是一個宗教,文學和哲學運動的蓬勃發展,特別是1836年之間,當拉爾夫waldo愛默生的散文性質的出版, 1844年,當半的Journal of the運動,撥號,停止出版。 Influenced by Unitarianism, Transcendentalists denied the existence of miracles, preferring a Christianity that rested on the teachings of Christ rather than on his supposed deeds. Many Transcendentalists, in fact, were Harvard - educated Unitarian ministers who were dissatisfied with their conservative Unitarian leaders as well as with the general conservative tenor of the time.受unitarianism , transcendentalists否認存在的奇蹟,喜歡基督教即在於對教義的基督教,而不是對他的假定的事蹟,許多transcendentalists ,事實上,在被哈佛-受過教育的統一部長者表示不滿其保守的統一領導以及作為與一般保守男高音的時間。

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With a membership that included Bronson Alcott, Margaret Fuller, Theodore Parker, George Ripley, and Henry David Thoreau, Transcendentalists experimented with communitarian living and supported educational innovation, the abolitionist and feminist movements, and a reform of church and society generally.一個成員,其中包括布朗森奧爾科特,吳更充分,西奧多帕克,喬治ripley ,並亨利大衛梭羅, transcendentalists試行社區化的生活和支持教育創新,廢除死刑和女權運動,以及改革的教會和社會普遍。 They were committed to intuition as a way of knowing, to individualism, and to belief in the divinity of both man and nature.他們承諾,以直覺作為一個辦法了解,以個人主義,以及信仰的神都人與自然的。

Although philosophically based on Kant, the Boston - centered movement was more influenced by the romantic literary movement than by the systematic methodologies of philosophical Idealism.雖然理論上基於康德,波士頓-圍繞運動更多地受到浪漫主義文學運動較有系統的方法,哲學唯心主義。 That is, Transcendentalism owed more to Goethe, Coleridge, and Carlyle than to Hegel and Schelling.即是超驗欠下更多的歌德,柯勒律治,卡萊爾比黑格爾和謝林。 The mysticism of Emanuel Swedenborg also fed into the ideology of the movement.神秘主義的伊曼紐爾swedenborg也反饋到意識形態的運動。

Bibliography 參考書目
L Buell, Literary Transcendentalism (1973); OB Frothingham, Transcendentalism in New England(1876); WR Hutchison, The Transcendentalist Ministers (1959); P Miller, ed., American Transcendentalists (1957); RA Smyth, Forms of Intuition: An Historical Introduction to the Transcendental Aesthetic (1978).升布依爾,文學超驗( 1973年) ;轉播弗羅辛厄姆,先驗主義,在新英格蘭地區( 1876年) ,西鐵和記黃埔, transcendentalist部長( 1959年) ; p米勒版,美洲transcendentalists ( 1957年) ;類風濕性關節炎蘭克史密斯,形式的直覺:歷史介紹先驗美學( 1978 ) 。


Advanced Information 先進的信息

Transcendentalism is an idealistic philosophy that in general emphasizes the spiritual over the material.超驗主義是一個理想的理念,在一般強調精神比物質。 By its very nature, the movement is hard to describe and its body of beliefs hard to define.就其性質而言,運動是很難描述和其身體的信念,很難界定。 Its most important practitioner and spokesman in the New England manifestation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, called it "the Saturnalia or excess of Faith."其最重要的實踐者和發言人,在新英格蘭的表現,拉爾夫waldo埃莫森,它稱作是" saturnalia或過多的信仰" 。 That which is "popularly called Transcendentalism among us," he wrote, "is Idealism; Idealism as it appears in 1842."這就是"全民所謂的超驗主義在我們中間, "他寫道, "是唯心主義;唯心主義,因為它出現在1842年" 。 That description mentions two of the very elements, an emphasis upon heightened spiritual awareness and an interest in various types of philosophical idealism, that make transcendentalism so difficult to describe.這說明中提到的兩個極分子,在強調提高後,精神的認識和興趣,在不同類型的哲學唯心主義,使超驗主義,所以很難形容。

In actuality, we cannot speak of a well organized and clearly delineated transcendentalist movement as such.實際上,我們不能談論一個組織良好的和清楚界定transcendentalist運動等。 Instead, we find a loosely knit group of authors, preachers, and lecturers bound together by a mutual loathing of Unitarian orthodoxy, a mutual desire to see American cultural and spiritual life freed from bondage to the past, and a mutual faith in the unbounded potential of American democratic life.相反,我們找到一個鬆散的針織集團作家,傳教士,講師地聯繫在一起,由一個相互厭惡統一的正統,相互願望,他們希望看到美國的文化和精神生活,擺脫束縛,過去如此,相互信任中無限潛力美國的民主生活會。 Located in the Concord, Massachusetts, area in the years between 1835 and 1860, the transcendentalists formed not a tight group but, rather, a loose federation.設在康科德,馬薩諸塞州,區,在未來幾年間1835年和1860年, transcendentalists形成不是一個緊迫集團,而是一個鬆散的聯邦。

Though a movement such as transcendentalism cannot be said to have had one distinct leader, Emerson (1803 - 82) was clearly its central figure.雖然一場運動,如驗不能說具備了一個鮮明的領導者,艾默生( 1803 -8 2) ,顯然其核心人物。 The publication of his Nature in 1836 is generally considered to mark the beginning of an identifiable movement.出版他的本性,在1836年被普遍認為是為了紀念年初可識別運動。 The next two decades were to see numerous new works from Emerson and poems, essays, and books from other transcendentalist figures, such as Henry David Thoreau (1817 - 62), Orestes Brownson (1803 - 76), Amos Bronson Alcott (1799 - 1888), Margaret Fuller (1810 - 50), George Ripley (1802 - 80), and Theodore Parker (1810 - 60).在未來的20年看到了許多新的工程,從愛默生和詩歌,散文,圖書,從其他transcendentalist人物,如亨利大衛梭羅( 1817 -6 2) ,瑞斯忒斯b rownson( 1 803- 76 ),阿莫斯布朗森奧爾科特(1 7 99-1 88 8 ) ,吳更充分地( 1810 -5 0分) ,喬治r ipley( 1 802- 80 ),和西奧多帕克(1 8 10-6 0) 。 Never forming an official affiliation, these figures and others associated with them banded together for the formation of an informal discussion group called the Transcendental Club; the publication of the transcendentalist literary and philosophical journal, The Dial; and the establishment of an experiment in utopian communal living, Brook Farm.從來沒有形成一個官方背景的,這些數字和其他與他們有聯繫的聯結起來,為形成一個非正式的討論小組叫做先驗俱樂部;公佈該transcendentalist文學和哲學雜誌,撥號上網,並建立了一個實驗,在烏托邦式的社區生活,不容農場。

One thing almost all those associated with the movement did share, however, was a common heritage of Unitarianism.一件事,幾乎所有與之相關的運動並分享,不過,是一個共同的遺產unitarianism 。 Perhaps more than anything else, this fact helps to explain the development of transcendentalism and its later and larger significance for American culture.也許比任何事情都重要,這一事實有助於解釋的發展,超驗主義及其後和更大的意義是美國文化。 The transcendentalists broke with Unitarianism for two reasons.該transcendentalists打破unitarianism的原因有兩個。 First, they objected to the Unitarian desire to cling to certain particulars of Christian history and dogma.首先,他們反對以統一的願望,以固守某些基督教的歷史和教條。 Emerson called this clinging a "noxious" exaggeration of "the personal, the positive, the ritual," and he asked instead for a direct access to God, unmediated by any elements of Scripture and tradition.艾默生稱這是死抱著一個"有毒"誇張"的個人,積極的,禮儀" ,他問,而是一個直接進入上帝,由中間人的任何內容的經文和傳統。 And second, the transcendentalists lamented the sterility of belief and practice they found in the Unitarian faith.第二, transcendentalists哀嘆,不育的信仰與實踐,他們發現,在統一的信念。

According to Thoreau, it is not man's sin but his boredom and weariness that are "as old as Adam."根據梭羅的,它不是人類的罪過,但他的無聊和厭倦是"老亞當" 。 The American Adam needs to exchange his bondage to tradition for a freedom to experiment: "old deeds for old people, and new deeds for new."美國亞當需要,以交換他的枷鎖,以傳統為自由實驗: "舊事舊人,而新的先進事蹟,為新的" 。

In some ways transcendentalism attempted to recapture for the American spirit the fervor of the original Puritan enterprise.在某些方面,超驗主義,企圖奪回來,為美國精神的熱潮原清教徒企業。 That zeal, with its attendant bliss and agony, had been suppressed or exiled to the wilderness of the American religious experience by the end of the eighteenth century.這熱情,以及伴隨而來的幸福和痛苦,已被抑制或流放到荒無人煙的戈壁灘上的美國宗教體驗到去年底的18世紀。 Transcendentalism was one of the first and most dramatic protests against civil religion in America.超驗主義是最早和最戲劇性的抗議,民間宗教在美國。 Though it did not live up to the expectations of its adherents, many of them expected nothing less than a total regeneration of social and spiritual life through the application of the principles of idealism in America, transcendentalism has had a lasting impact.儘管它沒有辜負總書記的期望,其擁護者,他們中的許多人沒有預料不到總復興社會和精神生活通過原則的應用唯心主義在美國超驗主義產生了持久的影響。 In the years immediately preceding the Civil War, several of the transcendentalists were important participants in the abolitionist movement, and in the decades to follow, widely divergent individuals and movements would find inspiration in the transcendental protest against society.在未來數年前內戰期間,幾本transcendentalists的重要參與者,在廢除死刑的運動,並在數十年來遵循,大相徑庭的個人和動作是尋找靈感,在先驗抗議社會。

For example, Henry Ford, who once said "history is bunk" and declared Emerson's essays to be his favorite reading, dwelt upon the transcendentalists' disdain for convention and their exaltation of self reliant power, while both Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King drew deeply upon the resources of Thoreau's famous essay, "Civil Disobedience."例如,亨利福特,他曾經說過: "歷史是雙格" ,並宣布愛默生的散文是他的最愛讀,白景富後, transcendentalists '蔑視公約,並提升他們的自力更生的權力,而聖雄甘地和馬丁路德金提請深當資源的梭羅的著名文章, "公民抗命" 。

Perhaps even more significantly, transcendentalism marked the first substantial attempt in American history to retain the spiritual experience and potential of the Christian faith without any of the substance of its belief.或許更重要的是,超驗,標誌著第一次實質性嘗試,在美國歷史上,以保持精神的經驗和潛力的基督教信仰,沒有任何實質內容,其信仰。 By claiming an essential innocence for man, by substituting a direct intuition of God or truth for any form of revelation, and by foreseeing a future of ill defined but certain glory for humankind, transcendentalism paved the way for the many romantic notions about human nature and destiny that have become such a central part of the American experience in the last hundred years.所聲稱的一個重要無罪推定就人類總體而言,即以直接直覺的上帝或真理為任何形式的啟示,並通過預見的未來不明確的,但在一定的榮耀為人類,先驗主義鋪平了道路,為許多浪漫的理念,對人性和命運,這已經成為這樣一個中央的一部分,美國的經驗,在過去一百年。

R Lundin r lundin
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
P Miller, "From Edwards to Emerson," NEQ 13:587 - 617, and (ed.) The Transcendentalists: An Anthology; OB Frothingham, Transcendentalism in New England: A History; FO Matthiessen, American Renaissance: Art and Expression in the Age of Emerson and Whitman; L Buell, Literary Transcendentalism: Style and Vision in the American Renaissance; J Myerson, The New England Transcendentalists and The Dial. p苗" ,從愛德華茲向埃莫森, " neq 13:587 -6 17, (編) t ranscendentalists:選集;轉播弗羅辛厄姆,先驗主義,在新英格蘭地區:歷史; m atthiessen,美國文藝復興:藝術和表達,在年齡愛默生和惠特曼;升布依爾,文學驗:作風和高瞻遠矚,在美國文藝復興; j myerson ,新英格蘭transcendentalists和撥號。


Catholic Information 天主教資訊

The terms transcendent and transcendental are used in various senses, all of which, as a rule, have antithetical reference in some way to experience or the empirical order.該條款超越性和超越性,是用於各種感官,所有這些問題,作為一項規則,有對立的參考以某種方式與經驗或實證秩序。

(1) For the Scholastics, the categories are the highest classes of "things that are and are spoken of". ( 1 )為scholastics ,類別是最高階層"的事,那是口語的" 。 The transcendentals are notions, such as unity, truth, goodness, being, which are wider than the categories, and, going beyond them, are said to transcend them.該transcendentals是概念,如團結,真,善,正,這是較廣泛的分類,並超越了他們,是說,要超越他們。 In a metaphysical sense transcendent is opposed by the Scholastics and others to immanent; thus, the doctrine of Divine Transcendence is opposed to the doctrine of Divine Immanence in the Pantheistic sense., Here, however, there is no reference to experience.在形而上的意義上的超越,是反對由scholastics和他人的內在,因此,這個學說是神聖的超越性,反對中庸之道的神聖內涵,在pantheistic意識,在這裡,不過,目前並無參考經驗。 (See IMMANENCE.) (見內在) 。

(2) In the loosest sense of the word any philosophy or theology which lays stress on the intuitive, the mystical, the ultra-empirical, is aid to be transcendentalism. ( 2 )在loosest意義上的字,任何一種哲學,神學,其中側重於直觀的,神秘的,超實證,是急救被驗。 Thus, it is common to refer to the New England School of Transcendentalism, of which mention is made further on.因此,它是常見的是指新英格蘭學校的超驗,其中一提的是,取得了進一步的。

(3) In a stricter sense transcendentalism refers to a celebrated distinction made by Kant. ( 3 )在嚴格的意義上先驗主義指的是一個著名的區分作出康德。 Though he is not consistent in the use of the terms transcendent and transcendental, Kant understands by transcendent what lies beyond the limits of experience, and by transcendental he understands the non-empirical or a priori elements in our knowledge, which do not come from experience but are nevertheless, legitimately applied to the data or contents of knowledge furnished by experience.雖然他並不一致,在使用該條款超越和超越性,康德的理解超越什麼謊言超越界限的經驗,並超越他能理解非實證或先驗元素就我們所知,這不是來自經驗但儘管如此,合法地應用到的數據或知識含量出具的經驗。 The distinction is somewhat subtle, Yet, it may be made clear by an example.區別是有點微妙,但它可以清楚地表明了一個例子。 Within the limits of experience we learn the uniform sequence of acorn and oak, heat and expansion, cold and contraction, etc., and we give the antecedent as the cause of the consequent.內部界限的經驗,我們了解統一序列的橡子和柞木,熱膨脹,冷收縮等,我們給前因為病因的後果。 If, now, we go beyond the total of our experience and give God as the cause of all things, we are using the category "cause in a transcendent sense, and that use is not legitimate. If, however, to the data of sequence furnished by experience we apply the a priori form causation, we are introducing a transcendental element which elevates our knowledge to the rank of universal and necessary truth: "Every effect has its cause." Kant, as has been said, does not always adhere to this distinction. We may, then, understand transcendent and transcendental to refer to those elements or factors in our knowledge which do not come from experience, but are known a priori. Empirical philosophy is, therefore, a philosophy based on experience alone and adhering to the realm of experience in obedience to Hume's maxim, "'Tis impossible to go beyond experience." Transcendental philosophy, on the contrary, goes beyond experience, and considers that philosophical speculation is concerned chiefly, if not solely, with those things which lie beyond experience.如果,現在,我們超越了總認為我們的經驗,並給予上帝的事業,所有的東西,我們是利用類"的事業在一個超越意識,並利用不合法的。但是,如果以數據的序列出具的經驗,我們運用先驗形式的因果關係,我們引入先驗因素提升了我們的知識,以職級的普及和必要的真理: "每一個效果有其原因。 "康德,正如人們所說的,並不一定會堅持這個區別,我們可能的話,明白超越性和超越性是指這些要素或因素,在我們的文化知識,不是來自經驗,但已知先驗。實證哲學,因此,哲學,根據以往經驗,並獨自堅持這個境界的經驗,在服從休謨的一句格言: " '運輸資訊系統是不可能超越經驗, "先驗哲學,與此相反,它超越了經驗,並認為哲學投機而言,主要是,如果不是單憑這些東西在於超越經驗。

(4) Kant himself was convinced that, for the theoretical reason, the transcendental reality, the thing-in-itself, is unknown and unknowable. ( 4 )康德本人深信,為理論理性,超越現實的,這件事在其本身就是未知和不可知。 Therefore, he defined the task of philosophy to consist in the examination of knowledge for the purpose of determining the a priori elements, in the systematic enumeration of those elements, for forms, and the determination of the rules for their legitimate application to the data of experience.因此,他確定了哲學的任務將包括在考試的知識為目的,確定先驗要素,在系統枚舉的這些內容,為形式而形式,並確定了議事規則,為自己的合法應用的數據經驗。 Ultra-empirical reality, he taught, is to be known only by the practical reason.超實證而實際上,他教導,是被稱為只能由實踐理性。 Thus, his philosophy is critical transcendentalism.因此,他的哲學是關鍵驗。 Thus, too he left to his successors the task of bridging over the chasm between the theoretical and the practical reason.因此,過於他留給他的繼任者的任務是過渡性的鴻溝之間的理論和實踐的理由。 This task they accomplished in various ways, eliminating, transforming, or adapting the transcendent reality outside us.這項任務的完成,他們以各種方式,從根本上消除轉化,或改編超越現實之外。 the thing-in-itself, and establishing in this way different transcendentalisms in place of the critical transcendentalism of Kant.這件事在本身,並建立在這樣不同transcendentalisms到位的關鍵先驗主義的康德。

(5) Fiche introduced Egoistic Transcendentalism. ( 5 )菲切介紹了極端個人主義驗。 The subject, he taught, or the Ego, has a practical as well as a theoretical side.這個問題,他的教導,或自我,有一個實際的,也是一個理論方面。 to develop its practical side along the line of duty, obligation, and right, it is obliged to posit the non-Ego.以發展其實際側線沿線的職責,義務和權利,它有義務要把非自我。 In this way, the thing-in-itself as opposed to the subject, is eliminated, because it is a creation of the Ego, and, therefore all transcendental reality is contained in self.這樣一來,事情在自己反對這一課題,是消除,因為它是一個創造自我,因此,所有的超越現實是載於自我。 I am I, the original identity of self with itself, is the expression of the highest metaphysical truth.我,我原來的身份與自我本身,是表達最高的形而上的真理。

(6) Schelling, addressing himself to the same task, developed Transcendental Absolutism. ( 6 )謝林,對著鏡頭向同樣的任務,制定了先驗絕對性。 He brought to the problems of philosophy a highly spiritual imaginativeness and a scientific insight into nature which were lacking in Kant, the critic of knowledge, and Fiche, the exponent of romantic personalize.他帶來的問題,哲學的高度精神文明imaginativeness和科學洞察本質,其中缺乏康德,影評人的知識,並菲切,該指數的浪漫個性。 He taught that the transcendental reality is neither subject or object, but an Absolute which is so indeterminate that it may be said to be neither nature nor spirit.他告訴我們,超越現實情況是,既沒有主語或賓語,但絕對是不確定的,所以說,它可以說是既不自然也不精神。 Yet the Absolute is, in a sense, potentially both the one and the other.但絕對的,在一定意義上的,可能均是一個與其他。 For, from it, by gravity, light and organization, is derived spirit, which slumbers in nature, but reaches consciousness of self in the highest natural organization, man.因為從它,靠重力,輕工和組織,是源自精神,即slumbers性質,而且達到意識的自我中的最高自然組織的人。 There is here a hint of development which was brought out explicitly by Hegel.有此暗示他的發展,這是帶出了明確的,由黑格爾。

(7) Hegel introduced Idealistic Transcendentalism. ( 7 )黑格爾介紹理想化驗。 He taught that reality is not an unknowable thing in itself, nor the subject merely, nor an absolute of indifference, but an absolute Idea, Spirit, or Concept (Begriff), whose essence is development (das Werden), and which becomes in succession object and subject, nature and spirit, being and essence, the soul, law, the state, art, science, religion, and philosophy.他告訴我們,現實情況是,不是一個不可知的事本身,也不是純粹的主題,也不是一個絕對的冷漠,而是一種絕對理念,精神或概念( begriff ) ,其實質就是發展(之werden ) ,它已經成為我們在繼承對象和議題,性質和精神,正與本質,靈魂,法律,對國家,藝術,科學,宗教和哲學。

In all these various meanings there is preserved a generic resemblance to the original signification of the term transcendentalism.在所有這些不同的意義,有保存了通用相似的原始意義的任期驗。 The transcendentalists one and all, dwell in the regions beyond experience, and, if they do not condemn experience as untrustworthy, at least they value experience only in so far as it is elevated, sublimated, and transformed by the application to it of transcendental principles.該transcendentalists一和,住在該地區以外的經驗,而且,如果他們不譴責經驗言而無信,至少他們的經驗值只有這麼遠,因為這是提高,昇華,並轉化應用到它的先驗原則。 The fundamental epistemological error of Kant, that whatever is universal and necessary cannot come from experience, runs all through the transcendentalist philosophy, and it is on epistemological grounds that the transcendentalists are to be met.根本的認識論錯誤的康德,無論是普遍的和必要的,不能來自經驗,違背了所有通過transcendentalist哲學,它是對認識論,理由是transcendentalists都得到滿足。 This was the stand taken in Catholic circles, and there, with few exceptions, the doctrines of the transcendentalists met with a hostile reception.這是所採取的立場,在天主教界,並在那裡,除了少數例外,該學說的transcendentalists見了一個敵對的接待。 The exceptions were Franz Baader (1765-1841), Johann Frohschammer (1821-1893), and Anton Günther (1785-1863), who in their attempt to "reconcile" Catholic dogma with modern philosophical opinion, were influenced by the transcendentalists and overstepped the boundaries of orthodoxy.例外的Franz baader ( 1765至1841年) ,約翰弗羅沙默( 1821至1893年) ,以及安東吻( 1785至1863年) ,他在自己的企圖"調和"天主教教義與現代哲學認為,人受transcendentalists與超越邊界的正統。 It may without unfairness be laid to the charge of the German transcendentalists that their disregard for experience and common sense is largely accountable for the discredit into which metaphysics has fallen in recent years.它可能沒有不公平的規定,向主管該德語transcendentalists他們無視經驗和普通常識,主要是為如何抹黑成,其中形而上學已跌至近年來的。

New England transcendentalism, sometimes called the Concord School of Philosophy, looks to William Ellery Channing (1780-1842) as its founder.新英格蘭超驗主義,有時被稱為和諧學校的理念,期待著威廉ellery發生後( 1780年至1842年) ,其創辦人。 Its principal representatives are Amos Bronson Alcott (1799-1888), Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882), Theodore Parker (1810-1860), Frederick Henry Hedge (1805-890), George Ripley (1802-1880), and Margaret Fuller (1810-1850).其主要代表是阿莫斯布朗森奧爾科特( 1799至1888年) ,拉爾夫waldo愛默生( 1803至1882年) ,西奧多帕克( 1810年至1860年) ,馮檢亨利對沖( 1805-890 ) ,喬治ripley ( 1802至1880年) ,和瑪格麗特更充分( 1810年至1850年) 。 It had its inception in the foundation of the Transcendental Club in 1836.它成立的基礎,先驗俱樂部在1836年。 The chief influences discernible in its literary output are German philosophy, French sociology, and the reaction against the formalism of Its sociological and economic theories were tested in the famous Brook Farm (1841), with which the names just mentioned and those of several other distinguished Americans were associated.行政可察覺的影響,在其文學輸出是德國哲學,法社會學,反應反對形式主義,它的社會學和經濟學理論進行了測試,在著名的布魯克農場( 1841 ) ,其中姓名剛才所說的那些其他幾個傑出美國人聯繫在一起的。

Publication information Written by William Turner.出版信息寫威廉特納。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV.天主教百科全書,體積十五。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. nihil obstat , 1912年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


For the history of German transcendentalism see Ueberweg, Hist.為歷史上的德國超驗見ueberweg ,歷史。 of Philosophy, tr.哲學的TR 。 Morris (New York, 1892); Falckenberg, Hist.莫里斯(紐約, 1892年) ; falckenberg ,歷史。 of Modern Philosophy, tr.現代哲學的TR 。 Armstrong (New York, 1893); Turner, Hist.阿姆斯壯(紐約, 1893年) ;特納歷史。 of Philosophy (Boston, 1903); Stöckl, Gesch.哲學(波士頓, 1903年) ;斯特克爾, gesch 。 der Phil.明鏡菲爾。 (Mainz, 1888). (美因茨, 1888 ) 。 For New England transcendentalism see Frothingham, Transcendentalism in New England (New York, 1876); Codman, Brook Farm (Boston, 1894).對於新英格蘭超驗見弗羅辛厄姆,先驗主義,在新英格蘭地區(紐約, 1876年) ; codman ,布魯克農場(波士頓, 1894年) 。

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