Roman Catholic Popes

General Information

The religious head of the Roman Catholic Church is known as the Pope or the bishop of Rome. He is elected by the College of Cardinals, who as a group rank next to the Pope in ecclesiastical authority. New Popes are elected on the death or retirement of a current Pope. To be elected, a new Pope must be named on two - thirds of the ballots cast, and each member of the College of Cardinals must vote. Once elected, a Pope must be asked by the dean of cardinals if he accepts the post. If he does, he is then asked to choose a name. The custom of a Pope changing his name upon election originated shortly before the year 1000.

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The following list includes all the Popes of the Roman Catholic Church, beginning with St. Peter the Apostle, who is traditionally considered to be the first Pope because of his appointment by Jesus and his role in organizing the Church. Also included in this list are the so - called antipopes, those who were elected or claimed to be pope at various times during Church history but whose positions were later invalidated; Recognized Popes are in BOLD type; anti-popes names appear in normal type. The list gives the names of the Popes, the years of their papacies, and the original names of those who changed their names upon election. Alternate spellings of names are given in parentheses.

There have been 265 individuals who have validly been considered to be the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. Of these, 74 were later given Sainthood, and they are indicated in this listing. Within the Orthodox Church, there have also been (different) individuals who have been considered either Popes or Patriarchs, and those (different, Alexandrian, Antiochene, Constantinople, others) listings are presented separately. Where the Roman Catholic Church considers Peter to have been the first Pope, the Alexandrian considers Saint Mark to be; the Antiochene considers a listing following Saint Peter, and the Constantinopolitan or Byzantium Church considers Saint Andrew to have been the first.

Original NameDates of Reign --
St. Peter
the Apostle
Symeon (Simon)died c.64
St. Linusc.66-c.78
St. Anacletus
St. Clement Ic.91-c.100
St. Evaristusc.100-c.109
St. Alexander Ic.109-c.116
St. Sixtus Ic.116-c.125
St. Telesphorusc.125-c.136
St. Hyginusc.136-c.142
St. Pius Ic.142-c.155
St. Anicetusc.155-c.166
St. Soterc.166-c.174
St. Eleutherius
St. Victor I189-98
St. Zephyrinus198-217
St. Callistus
(Calixtus) I
St. Hippolytus217-235
St. Urban I222-30
St. Pontianus
Jul 21, 230-Sep 29, 235
St. AnterusNov 21, 235-Jan 3, 236
St. FabianJan 10, 236-Jan 20, 250
St. CorneliusMar 251-Jun 253
NovatianMar 251-c.258
St. Lucius IJun 25, 253-Mar 5, 254
St. Stephen IMay 12, 254-Aug 2, 257
St. Sixtus IIAug 30, 257-Aug 6, 258
St. DionysiusJul 22, 260-Dec 26, 268
St. Felix IJan 3, 269-Dec 30, 274
St. EutychianJan 4, 275-Dec 7, 283
St. Gaius (Caius)Dec 17, 283-Apr 22, 296
St. MarcellinusJun 30, 296-c.304
St. Marcellus INov, 306-Jan 16, 308
St. EusebiusApr 18, 310-Oct 21, 310
St. Miltiades
Jul 2, 311-Jan 11, 314
St. Silvester IJan 31, 314-Dec 31, 335
St. MarkJan 18, 336-Oct 7, 336
St. Julius IFeb 6, 337-Apr 12, 352
LiberiusMay 17, 352-Sep 24, 366
Felix IIc.355-Nov 22, 365
St. Damasus IOct 1, 366-Dec 11, 384
UrsinusSep 366-Nov 367
St. SiriciusDec 384-Nov 26, 399
St. Anastasius INov 27, 399-Dec 19, 401
St. Innocent IDec 22, 401-Mar 12, 417
St. ZosimusMar 18, 417-Dec 26, 418
St. Boniface IDec 28, 418-Sep 4, 422
EulaliusDec 27, 418-Apr 3, 419
St. Celestine ISep 10, 422-Jul 27, 432
St. Sixtus IIIJul 31, 432-Aug 19, 440
St. Leo IAug, 440-Nov 10, 461
St. Hilary
Nov 19, 461-Feb 29, 468
St. SimpliciusMar 3, 468-Mar 10, 483
St. Felix III (II)Mar 13, 483-Mar 1, 492
St. Gelasius IMar 1, 492-Nov 21, 496
Anastasius IINov 24, 496-Nov 19, 498
St. SymmachusNov 22, 498-Jul 19, 514
LawrenceNov 22, 498-Feb 499
St. HormisdasJul 20, 514-Aug 6, 523
St. John IAug 13, 523-May 18, 526
St. Felix IV (III)Jul 12, 526-Sep 22, 530
Boniface IISep 22, 530-Oct 17, 532
DioscorusSep 22, 530-Oct 14, 530
John IIMercuryJan 2, 533-May 8, 535
St. Agapitus IMay 13, 535-Apr 22, 536
St. SilveriusJun 8, 536-Nov 11, 537
Vigiliusc.538-Jun 7, 555
Pelagius IApr 16, 556-Mar 3, 561
John IIICatelinusJul 17, 561-Jul 13, 574
Benedict IJun 2, 575-Jul 30, 579
Pelagius IINov 26, 579-Feb 7, 590
St. Gregory ISep 3, 590-Mar 12, 604
SabinianSep 13, 604-Feb 22, 606
Boniface IIIFeb 19, 607-Nov 12, 607
St. Boniface IVSep 15, 608-May 8, 615
St. Deusdedit IOct 19, 615-Nov 8, 618
Boniface VDec 23, 619-Oct 25, 625
Honorius IOct 27, 625-Oct 12, 638
SeverinusMay 28, 640-Aug 2, 640
John IVDec 24, 640-Oct 12, 642
Theodore INov 24, 642-May 14, 649
St. Martin IJul 5, 649-Jun 17, 653
St. Eugene IAug 10, 654-Jun 2, 657
St. VitalianJun 30, 657-Jan 27, 672
Deusdedit III
(Adeodadus II)
Apr 11, 672-Jun 17, 676
DonusNov 2, 676-Apr 11, 678
St. AgathoJun 27, 678-Jan 10, 681
St. Leo IIAug 17, 682-Jul 3, 683
St. Benedict IIJun 26, 684-May 8, 685
John VJul 23, 685-Aug 2, 686
CononOct 21, 686-Sep 21, 687
St. Sergius IDec 15, 687-Sep 9, 701
John VIOct 30, 701-Jan 11, 705
John VIIMar 1, 705-Oct 18, 707
SisinniusJan 15, 708-Feb 4, 708
ConstantineMar 25, 708-Apr 9, 715
St. Gregory IIMay 19, 715-Feb 11, 731
St. Gregory IIIMar 18, 731-Nov 28, 741
St. Zachary
(St. Zacharius)
Dec 3, 741-Mar 15, 752
StephenMar 22, 752-Mar 25, 752
Stephen II (III)Mar 26, 752-Apr 26, 757
St. Paul IMay 29, 757-Jun 28, 767
ConstantineJul 5, 767-Aug 6, 768
PhilipJul 31, 768
Stephen III (IV)Aug 7, 768-Jan 24, 772
Adrian I
(Hadrian I)
Feb 1, 772-Dec 25, 795
St. Leo IIIDec 26, 795-Jun 12, 816
Stephen IV (V)Jun 22, 816-Jan 24, 817
St. Paschal IJan 24, 817-Feb 11, 824
Eugene IIFeb 824-Aug 827
ValentineAug 827-Sep 827
Gregory IV827-Jan 25, 844
JohnJan 844
Sergius IIJan 844-Jan 27, 847
St. Leo IVApr 10, 847-Jul 17, 855
Benedict IIISep 29, 855-Apr 17, 858
Aug 855-Sep 855
St. Nicholas IApr 24, 858-Nov 13, 867
Adrian II
(Hadrian II)
Dec 14, 867-Dec, 872
John VIIIDec 14, 872-Dec 16, 882
Marinus IDec 16, 882-May 15, 884
St. Adrian III
(St. Hadrian III)
May 17, 884-Sep 885
Stephen V (VI)Sep 885-Sep 14, 891
FormosusOct 6, 891-Apr 4, 896
Boniface VIApr 896
Stephen VI (VII)May 896-Aug 897
RomanusAug 897-Nov 897
Theodore IINov 897
John IXJan 898-Jan 900
Benedict IVMay 900-Aug 903
Leo VAug 903-Sep 903
ChristopherSep 903-Jan 904
Sergius IIIJan 29, 904-Apr 14, 911
Anastasius IIIc.Jun 911-c.Aug 913
Landoc.Aug 913-c.Mar 914
John XMar 914-May 928
Leo VIMay 928-Dec 928
Stephen VII (VIII)Dec 928-Feb 931
John XIFeb 931-Jan 936
Leo VIIJan 3, 936-Jul 13, 939
Stephen VIII (IX)Jul 14, 939-Oct 942
Marinus IIOct 30, 942-May 946
(Agapitus II)
May 10, 946-Dec 955
John XIIOctavianDec 16, 955-May 14, 964
Leo VIIIDec 4, 963-Mar 1, 965
Benedict VMay 22, 964-Jun 23, 964
John XIIIOct 1, 965-Sep 6, 972
Benedict VIJan 19, 973-Jul 974
Boniface VIIFrancoJun 974-Jul 20, 985
Benedict VIIOct 974-Jul 10, 983
John XIVPeter CanepanovaDec 983-Aug 20, 984
John XVAug 985-Mar 996
Gregory VBrunoMay 3, 996-Feb 18, 999
John XVIJohn PhilagathosFeb 997-May 998
Silvester IIGerbertApr 2, 999-May 12, 1003
John XVIIJohn SiccoMay 16, 1003-Nov 6, 1003
John XVIIIJohn FasanusDec 25, 1003-Jul 1009
Sergius IVPeterJul 31, 1009-May 12, 1012
Benedict VIIITheophylactMay 17, 1012-Apr 9, 1024
John XIXRomanusApr 19, 1024-Oct 20, 1032
Benedict IXTheophylactOct 21, 1032-Sep, 1044
-Mar 10, 1045-May 1, 1045
-Nov 8, 1047-Jul 16, 1048
Silvester IIIJohn of SabinaJan 20, 1045-May 10, 1045
Gregory VIJohn GratianMay 1, 1045-Dec 20, 1046
Clement IISuidgerDec 24, 1046-Oct 9, 1047
Damasus IIPoppoJul 17, 1048-Aug 9, 1048
St. Leo IXBrunoFeb 12, 1049-Apr 19, 1054
Victor IIGebhardApr 13, 1055-Jul 28, 1057
Stephen IX (X)Frederick of
Aug 2, 1057-Mar 29, 1058
Benedict XJohn MinciusApr 5, 1058-Jan 24, 1059
Nicholas IIGerardDec 6, 1058-Jul 19, 1061
Alexander IIAnselmSep 30, 1061-Apr 21, 1073
(Honorius II)Peter CadalusOct 28, 1061-May 31, 1064
St. Gregory VIIHildebrandApr 22, 1073-May 25, 1085
Clement IIIGuibertMar 24, 1084-Sep 8, 1100
Victor IIIDaufer (Daufari)May 9, 1087-Sep 16, 1087
Urban IIOdo (Eudes)Mar 12, 1088-Jul 29, 1099
Paschal IIRaineriusAug 13, 1099-Jan 21, 1118
TheodoricSep 1100-Jan 1101
Silvester IVMaginulfNov 18, 1105-Apr 12, 1111
Gelasius IIJohn of GaetaJan 24, 1118-Jan 29, 1119
Gregory VIIIMaurice BurdinusMar 8, 1118-Apr 1121
Calistus IIGuidoFeb 2, 1119-Dec 14, 1124
Celestine IITeobaldo
Dec 15-16, 1124
Honorius IILamberto of OstiaDec 21, 1124-Feb 13, 1130
Innocent IIGregorio
Feb 14, 1130-Sep 24, 1143
Anacletus IIPietro PierleoniFeb 14, 1130-Jan 25, 1138
Victor IVGregorio ContiMar 1138-May 29, 1138
Celestine IIGuido of Citta
Sep 26, 1143-May 8, 1144
Lucius IIGherardo
Mar 12, 1144-Feb 15, 1145
Eugene IIIBernardo
Feb 15, 1145-Jul 8, 1153
Anastasius IVCorradoJul 8, 1153-Dec 3, 1154
Adrian IV
(Hadrian IV)
Dec 4, 1154-Sep 1, 1159
Alexander IIIOrlando (Roland)
Sep 7, 1159-Aug 30, 1181
Victor IVOttavianoSep 7, 1159-Apr 20, 1164
Paschal IIIGuido of CremaApr 22, 1164-Sep 20, 1168
Calistus IIIGiovanniSep 1168-Aug 29, 1178
Innocent IIILandoSep 29, 1179-Jan 1180
Lucius IIIUbaldo AllucingoliSep 1, 1181-Nov 25, 1185
Urban IIIUmberto CrivelliNov 25, 1185-Oct 20, 1187
Gregory VIIIAlberto de MorraOct 21, 1187-Dec 17, 1187
Clement IIIPaolo ScolariDec 19, 1187-Mar 1191
Celestine IIIGiacinto BoboMar 1191-Jan 8, 1198
Innocent IIILotarioJan 8, 1198-Jul 16, 1216
Honorius IIICencio SavelliJul 18, 1216-Mar 18, 1227
Gregory IXUgo (Ugolino)Mar 19, 1227-Aug 22, 1241
Celestine IVGoffredo da
Oct 25, 1241-Nov 10, 1241
Innocent IVSinibaldo FieschiJun 25, 1243-Dec 7, 1254
Alexander IVRinaldo,
Count of Segni
Dec 12, 1254-May 25, 1261
Urban IVJacques Pantal‚onAug 29, 1261-Oct 2, 1264
Clement IVGuy FoulquesFeb 5, 1265-Nov 29, 1268
Gregory XTedaldo ViscontiSep 1, 1271-Jan 10, 1276
Innocent VPierre of TarentaiseJan 21, 1276-Jun 22, 1276
Adrian V
(Hadrian V)
Ottobono FieschiJul 11, 1276-Aug 18, 1276
John XXIPedro Juliao
(Peter of Spain)
Sep 8, 1276-May 20, 1277
Nicholas IIIGiovanni GaetanoNov 25, 1277-Aug 22, 1280
Martin IVSimon de Brie
Feb 22, 1281-Mar 28, 1285
Honorius IVGiacomo SavelliApr 2, 1285-Apr 3, 1287
Nicholas IVGirolamo MasciFeb 22, 1288-Apr 4, 1292
St. Celestine VPietro del MorroneJul 5, 1294-Dec 130, 1294
Boniface VIIIBenedetto CaetaniDec 24, 1294-Oct 11, 1303
Benedict XINiccol• BoccasinoOct 22, 1303-Jul 7, 1304
Clement VBertrand de GotJun 5, 1305-Apr 20, 1314
John XXIIJacques DuŠseAug 7, 1316-Dec 4, 1334
Nicholas VPietro RainalducciMay 12, 1328-Jul 25, 1330
Benedict XIIJacques FournierDec 20, 1334-Apr 25, 1342
Clement VIPierre of Rosier
May 7, 1342-Dec 6, 1352
Innocent VIEtienne AubertDec 18, 1352-Sep 12, 1362
Urban VGuillaume de
Sep 28, 1362-Dec 19, 1370
Gregory XIPierre Roger
de Beaufort
Dec 30, 1370-Mar 27, 1378
Urban VIBartolomeo
Apr 8, 1378-Oct 15, 1389
Clement VIIRobert of CambraiSep 20, 1378-Sep 16, 1394
Boniface IXPietro TomacelliNov 2, 1389-Oct 1, 1404
Benedict XIIIPedro de LunaSep 28, 1394-Jul 26, 1417
Innocent VIICosimo Gentile
Oct 17, 1404-Nov 6, 1406
Gregory XIIAngelo CorrerNov 30, 1406-Jul 4, 1415
Alexander VPietro PhilarghiJun 26, 1409-May 3, 1410
John XXIIIBaldassare CossaMay 17, 1410-May 29, 1415
Martin VOddo ColonnaNov 11, 1417-Feb 20, 1431
Clement VIIIGil Sanchez Mu¤ozJun 10, 1423-Jul 26, 1429
Benedict XIVBernard GarnierNov 12, 1425-?
Eugene IVGabriele
Mar 3, 1431-Feb 23, 1447
Felix VAmadeus VIII,
Duke of Savoy
Nov 5, 1439-Apr 7, 1449
Nicholas VTommaso
Mar 6, 1447-Mar 24, 1455
Callistus IIIAlfonso deBorja
Apr 8, 1455-Aug 6, 1458
Pius IIEnea SilvoAug 19, 1458-Aug 15, 1464
(Paul II)
Pietro BarboAug 30, 1464-Jul 26, 1471
Sixtus IVFranceso della
Aug 9, 1471-Aug 12, 1484IT
Innocent VIIIGiovanni
Battista Cib•
Aug 29, 1484-Jul 25, 1492
Alexander VIRodrigo deBorja
y Borja
Aug 11, 1492-Aug 18, 1503SP
Pius IIIFrancesco
Sep 22, 1503-Oct 18, 1503
Julius IIGiuliano dell
Nov 1, 1503-Feb 21, 1513IT
Leo XGiovanni de'
Mar 11, 1513-Dec 1, 1521IT
Adrian VI
(Hadrian VI)
Adrian DedalJan 9, 1522-Sep 14, 1523Netherland
Clement VIIGiulio de' MediciNov 19, 1523-Sep 25, 1534IT
Paul IIIAlessandro FarneseOct 13, 1534-Nov 10, 1549IT
Julius IIIGiovanni Maria
del Monte
Feb 8, 1550-Mar 23, 1555IT
Marcellus IIMarcello CerviniApr 9, 1555-May 1, 1555IT
Paul IVGiampietro CarafaMay 23, 1555-Aug 18, 1559IT
Pius IVGiovanni Angelo
Dec 25, 1559-Dec 9, 1565IT
St. Pius VMichele GhislieriJan 7, 1566-May 1, 1572ITDominican
Gregory XIIIUgo BoncompagniMay 14, 1572-Apr 10, 1585IT
Sixtus VFelice PerettiApr 24, 1585-Aug 27, 1590IT
Urban VIIGiambattista
Sep 15, 1590-Sep 27, 1590IT
Gregory XIVNiccol• SfondratiDec 5, 1590-Oct 16, 1591IT
Innocent IXGiovanni Antonio
Oct 29, 1591-Dec 30, 1591IT
Clement VIIIIppolito
Jan 30, 1592-Mar 5, 1605IT
Leo XIAlessandro
Ottaviano de'Medici
Apr 1, 1605-Apr 27, 1605IT
Paul VCamillo BorgheseMay 16, 1605-Jan 28, 1621IT
Gregory XVAlessandro
Feb 9, 1621-Jul 8, 1623IT
Urban VIIIMafeo BarberiniAug 6, 1623-Jul 29, 1644IT
Innocent XGiambattista PamfiliSep 15, 1644-Jan 1, 1655IT
Alexander VIIFabio ChigiApr 7, 1655-May 22, 1667IT
Clement IXGiulio RospigliosiJun 20, 1667-Dec 9, 1669IT
Clement XEmilio AltieriApr 29, 1670-Jul 22, 1676IT
Innocent XIBenedetto
Sep 21, 1676-Aug 12, 1689IT
Alexander VIIIPietro OttoboniOct 6, 1689-Feb 1, 1691IT
Innocent XIIAntonio PignatelliJul 12, 1691-Sep 27, 1700IT
Clement XIGiovanni Francesco
Nov 23, 1700-Mar 19, 1721IT
Innocent XIIIMichelangelo
dei Conti
May 8, 1721-Mar 7, 1724IT
Benedict XIIIPietro Francesco
May 29, 1724-Feb 21, 1730IT
Clement XIILorenzo CorsiniJul 12, 1730-Feb 6, 1740IT
Benedict XIVProspero Lorenzo
Aug 17, 1740-May 3, 1758IT
Clement XIIICarlo della Torre
Jul 6, 1758-Feb 2, 1769IT
Clement XIVLorenzo GanganelliMay 19, 1769-Sep 22, 1774IT
Pius VIGiovanni Angelo
Feb 15, 1775-Aug 29, 1799IT
Pius VIILuigi Barnab…
Mar 14, 1800-Jul 20, 1823ITBenedictine
Leo XIIAnnibale Sermattei
della Genga
Sep 28, 1823-Feb 10, 1829IT
Pius VIIIFrancesco Saverio
Mar 31, 1829-Nov 30, 1830IT
Gregory XVIBartolomeo Albert
Feb 2, 1831-Jun 1, 1846IT
Pius IXGiovanni Maria
Jun 16, 1846-Feb 7, 1878IT
Leo XIIIGioacchino
Vincenzo Pecci
Feb 20, 1878-Jul 20, 1903IT
St. Pius XGiuseppe
Melchiorre Sarto
Aug 4, 1903-Aug 20, 1914IT
Benedict XVGiacomo Della
Sep 3, 1914-Jan 22, 1922IT
Pius XIAmbrogio Damiano
Achille Ratti
Feb 6, 1922-Feb 10, 1939IT
Pius XIIEugenio Maria
Giovanni Pacelli
Mar 2, 1939-Oct 9, 1958IT
John XXIIIAngelo Giuseppe
Oct 28, 1958-Jun 3, 1963IT
Paul VIGiovanni Battista
Jun 21, 1963-Aug 6, 1978IT
John Paul IAlbino LucianiAug 26, 1978-Sep 28, 1978IT263rd
John Paul IIKarol WojtylaOct 16, 1978 - Apr 2, 2005PL
Benedict XVIJoseph RatzingerApr 19, 2005 - Feb 28, 2013
Francis IJorge Mario Bergoglio Mar 13, 2013 - present Argentina Jesuits 266th

Chronological Lists of Popes

Catholic Information

The historical lists of the popes, from those drawn up in the second century to those of the present day, form in themselves a considerable body of literature. It would be beyond the scope of the article to enter upon a discussion of these catalogues. For an account of the most famous of them all, the article LIBER PONTIFICALIS may be consulted. It appears, however, desirable to indicate very briefly what are our authorities for the names and the durations in office of the popes for the first two centuries of the Church's existence.

St. Irenaeus, writing between 175 and 190, not many years after his Roman sojourn, enumerates the series from Peter to Eleutherius (Adv. Haer. 3:3:3; Eusebius, "Hist. eccl." 5:6). His object, as we have already seen, was to establish the orthodoxy of the traditional doctrine, as opposed to heretical novelties, by showing that the bishop was the natural inheritor of the Apostolic teaching. He gives us the names alone, not the length of the various episcopates. This need is supplied by other witnesses.

Most important evidence is furnished by the document entitled the "Liberian Catalogue" -- so called from the Pope whose name ends the list. The collection of tracts of which this forms a part was edited (apparently by one Furius Dionysius Philocalus) in 354. The catalogue consists of a list of the Roman bishops from Peter to Liberius, with the length of their respective episcopates, the consular dates, the name of the reigning emperor, and in many cases other details. There is the strongest ground for believing that the earlier part of the catalogue, as far as Pontian (230-35), is the work of Hippolytus of Portus. It is manifest that up to this point the fourth century compiler was making use of a different authority from that which he employs for the subsequent popes: and there is evidence rendering it almost certain that Hippolytus's work "Chronica" contained such a list. The reign of Pontian, moreover, would be the point at which that list would have stopped: for Hippolytus and he were condemned to servitude in the Sardinian mines -- a fact which the chronographer makes mention when speaking of Pontian's episcopate. Lightfoot has argued that this list originally contained nothing but the names of the bishops and the duration of their episcopates, the remaining notes being additions by a later hand. The list of popes is identical with that of Irenaeus, save that Anacletus is doubled into Cletus and Anacletus, while Clement appears before, instead of after, these two names. The order of Popes Pius and Anicetus has also been interchanged. There is every reason to regard these differences as due to the errors of copyists.

Another witness is Eusebius. The names and episcopal years of the bishops can be gathered alike from his "History" and his "Chronicle". The notices in the two works; can be shown to be in agreement, notwithstanding certain corruptions in many texts of the "Chronicle". This Eastern list in the hands of Eusebius is seen to have been identical with the Western list of Hippolytus, except that in the East the name of Linus's successor seems to have been given as Anencletus, in the original Western list as Cletus.

The two authorities presuppose the following list: (1) Peter, xxv; (2) Linus, xii; (3) Anencletus [Cletus], xii; (4) Clement, ix; (5) Evarestus, viii; (6) Alexander, x; (7) Sixtus, x; (8) Telesophorus, xi; (9) Hyginus, iv; (10) Pius, xv; (11) Anicetus, xi;, (12) Soter, viii; (13) Eleutherius, xv; (14) Victor, x; (15) Zephyrinus, xviii; (16) Callistus, v; (17) Urban, viii; (18) Pontian, v (Harnack, "Chronologie", I, 152).

We learn from Eusebius (Hist. eccl. 4:22) that in the middle of the second century Hegesippus, the Hebrew Christian, visited Rome and that he drew up a list of bishops as far as Anicetus, the then pope. Eusebius does not quote his catalogue, but Lightfoot sees ground for holding that we possess it in a passage of Epiphanius (Haer. 27:6), in which the bishops as far as Anicetus are enumerated. This list of Hegesippus, drawn up less than a century after the martyrdom of St. Peter, was he believes, the foundation alike of the Eusebian and Hippolytan catalogues (Clement of Rome I, 325 so.). His view has been accepted by many scholars. Even those who, like Harnack (Chronologie, I, 184 sq.), do not admit that this list is really that of Hegesippus, recognize it as a catalogue of Roman origin and of very early date, furnishing testimony independent alike of the Eusebian and Liberian lists.

The "Liber Pontificalis", long accepted as an authority of the highest value, is now acknowledged to have been originally composed at the beginning of the fifth century, and, as regards the early popes, to be dependent on the "Liberian Catalogue".

In the numbering of the successors of St. Peter, certain differences appear in various lists. The two forms Anacletus and Cletus, as we have seen, very early occasioned the third pope to be reckoned twice. There are some few cases, also, in which it is still doubted whether particular individuals should be accounted genuine popes or intruders, and, according to the view taken by the compiler of the list, they will be included or excluded. In the accompanying list the Stephen immediately following Zacharias (752) is not numbered, since, though duly elected, he died before his consecration. At that period the papal dignity was held to be conferred at consecration, and hence he is excluded from all the early lists. Leo VIII (963) is included, as the resignation of Benedict V, though enforced, may have been genuine. Boniface VII is also ranked as a pope, since, in 984 at least, he would seem to have been accepted as such by the Roman Church. The claim of Benedict X (1058) is likewise recognized. It cannot be affirmed that his title was certainly invalid, and his name, though now sometimes excluded, appears in the older catalogues.

It should be observed that there is no John XX in the catalogue. This is due to the fact that, in the "Liber Pontificalis", two dates are given in connexion with the life of John XIV (983). This introduced confusion into some of the papal catalogues, and a separate pope was assigned to each of these dates. Thus three popes named John were made to appear between Benedict VII and Gregory V. The error led the pope of the thirteenth century who should have been called John XX to style himself John XXI (Duchesne, "Lib. Pont." 2:17).

Some only of the antipopes find mention in the list. No useful purpose would be served by giving the name of every such claimant. Many of them possess no historical importance whatever. From Gregory VII onward not merely the years but the precise days are assigned on which the respective reigns commenced and closed. Ancient authorities furnish these details in the case of most of the foregoing popes also: but, previously to the middle of the eleventh century, the information is of uncertain value. With Gregory VII a new method of reckoning came in. The papal dignity was held to be conferred by the election, and not as previously by the coronation, and the commencement of the reign was computed from the day of election. This point seems therefore a convenient one at which to introduce the more detailed indications.

Publication information Written by G.H. Joyce. Transcribed by Gerard Haffner. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII. Published 1911. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York

Liber Pontificalis

Catholic Information

(Book of the Popes).

A history of the popes beginning with St. Peter and continued down to the fifteenth century, in the form of biographies. The first complete collection of the papal biographies in the original form of the Liber Pontificalis reached to Stephen V (885-91). They were afterwards continued in a different style as far as Eugene IV (d. 1447) and Pius II (d. 1464). The individual biographies are very unequal in extent and importance. In most cases they exhibit a definite symmetrical form, which in the old Liber Pontificalis is quite uniform. These brief sketches give the origin and birthplace of the pope, the length of his pontificate, the decrees issued by him on questions of ecclesiastical discipline and liturgy, civil and ecclesiastical events, the building and renovation of Roman churches, donations to churches of land, liturgical furniture, reliquaries valuable tapestries and the like, transfer of relics to churches, the number of the principal ordinations (bishops, priests, deacons), the burial-place of the pope, and the time during which the see was vacant.

Historical criticism has for a long time dealt with this ancient text in an exhaustive way, especially in recent decades after Duchesne had begun the publication of his classic edition. In most of its manuscript copies there is found at the beginning a spurious correspondence between Pope Damasus and Saint Jerome. These letters were considered genuine in the Middle Ages; consequently, in those times St. Jerome was considered the author of the biographies as far as Damasus, at whose request it was believed Jerome had written the work, the subsequent lives having been added at the command of each individual pope. When the above-mentioned correspondence was proved entirely apocryphal, this view was abandoned. In the sixteenth century Onofrio Panvinio on quite insufficient grounds attributed to Anastasius Bibliothecarius in the ninth century the continuation of the biographies as far as Nicholas I. Although Baronius in great measure corrected this false impression, the earlier editions, which appeared in the seventeenth century, bear the name of Anastasius as the author of our book of the popes. The investigations of Ciampini ("Examen Libri Pontificalis seu Vitarum Rom. Pont. quæ sub nomine Anastasii circumferuntur", Rome, 1688), Schelstrate ("Dissertatio de antiquis Romanorum Pontificum catalogis", Rome, 1692), and other scholars, disprove any possible claim of Anastasius to the authorship of this work. The conclusive researches of Duchesne have established beyond a doubt that in its earlier part, as far as the ninth century, the Liber Pontificalis war gradually compiled, and that the later continuations were added unsystematically. In only a few cases is it possible to ascertain the authors. Modern criticism deals chiefly with two points, the period in which the Liber Pontificalis, in its earliest part, was compiled, and the sources then available to the author of this oldest division of the Liber Pontificalis. Duchesne has proved exhaustively and convincingly that the first series of biographies from St. Peter to Felix III [IV (d. 530)], were compiled at the latest under Felix's successor, Boniface II (530-2), and that their author was a contemporary of Anastasius II (496-8) and of Symmachus (498-514). His principal arguments are the following. A great many biographies of the predecessors of Anastasius II are full of errors and historically untenable, but from Anastasius II on the information on the ecclesiastico-political history of the popes is valuable and historically certain. In addition, some manuscripts offer a summary of the earlier part of the Liber Pontificalis as far as Felix III (IV) whence the name "catalogus Felicianus"; consequently, the Liber Pontificalis must have been accessible to the author of this summary in a recension that reached to the above-mentioned Felix III (IV). This observation tallies well with the aforesaid fact that the biographies from Anastasius II on exhibit accurate historical information. Duchesne defended successfully this opinion against Waitz and Mommsen, who placed the first edition of the Liber Pontificalis in the beginning of the seventh century. To bear out this view they suppose that from the time of Anastasius II to that of the author a genuine and reliable historical source, since lost, was at his disposal. Since, moreover, they cannot explain the summary ending with Felix III (IV), as easily is done by the hypothesis of Duchesne, the latter's opinion meets with the general approval of historians, and has recently been perfected by investigators like Grisar. The first part therefore, to the death of Felix III (IV) i.e. to 530, should be considered a complete work, the compilation of some author who wrote shortly after the death of Pope Felix; later Biographies were added at different times in groups or separately by various authors.

The compiler of the first part made use of two ancient catalogues or lists of the popes taking from them the order of succession, the chronological data, and also certain historical notes; these lists were: (a) the so-called "Catalogus Liberianus", and (b) a list of the popes that varies in length in the manuscripts, and perhaps depends on the "Catalogus Liberianus" for the period before the middle of the sixth century. The "Catalogus Liberianus" is so called, because it terminates with Pope Liberius (352-66). It has reached us in the so-called Chronographus anni 354), an ancient manuscript that contains the valuable lists of the "Depositio martyrum" and the "Depositio episcoporum" In the "Catalogus Líberianus" there are already short historical notices of some popes (Peter, Pius, Pontianus, Fabianus, Cornelius, Lucius, Xystus, Marcellinus, Julius), which were taken over by the author of the Liber Pontificalis. For its list of the earliest popes the "Catalogus Liberianus" was able to draw on the papal catalogue given by Hippolytus of Rome in his "Liber generationis", though even this list is not the oldest list of popes. It is probable that from the beginning of the second century there was already a list of popes, which contained short historical notices and was afterwards continued. Eusebius and later chroniclers used such lists in their works [Lightfoot, "The Apostolic Fathers", Part I; "St. Clement of Rome", I (2nd ed., London, 1890), 201 sqq.; Harnack, "Gesch. der altchristl. Litt.", Part II: "Die Chronologie", I (Leipzig, 1897), 70 sqq.; Segna, "De Successione Romanorum Pontificum" (Rome, 1897)]. Such a catalogue of popes has reached us, as above stated, in the "Catalogus Liberianus", and forms a basis for the earliest recension of the work.

The compiler of the Liber Pontificalis utilized also some historical writings e.g. St. Jerome, "De Viris Illustribus"), a number of apocryphal fragments (e.g. the Pseudo-C1ementine Recognitions), the "Constitutum Silvestri", the spurious Acts of the alleged Synod of 275 bishops under Silvester etc., and fifth century Roman Acts of martyrs. Finally the compiler distributed arbitrarily along his list of popes a number of papal decrees taken from unauthentic sources; he likewise attributed to earlier popes liturgical and disciplinary regulations of the sixth century. The building of churches, the donations of land, of church plate and furniture, and many kinds of precious ornaments are specified in great detail. These latter items are of great value, since they are based on the records of the papal treasury (vestiarium), and the conclusion has been drawn that the compiler of the Liber Pontificalis in its earliest form must have been a clerk of the treasury. It is to be noted that the actual Liber Pontificalis that we have was not the only work of this kind. There existed a similar collection of papal biographies, executed under Pope Hormisdas (d. 523), of which a lengthy fragment has reached us (Fragmentum Laurentianum); it gives the end of the life of Anastasius II (d. 498) and the life of his successor Symmachus. The text of the early Liber Pontificalis (first half of the sixth century), as found in the manuscripts that exhibit the later continuations, is not the original text. Duchesne gives a reconstruction of the earliest text of the work. After Felix III (IV) the Liber Pontificalis was continued by various authors at intervals, each writer treating a group of papal lives. Duchesne recognizes a first continuation as far as Pope Silverius (536-7), whose life is attributed to a contemporary. The limits of the next continuation are more difficult to determine; moreover in its earliest biographies several inaccuracies are met with. It is certain that one continuation ended with Pope Conon (d. 687); the aforesaid summary ending with this pope (Catalogus Cononianus) and certain lists of popes are proof of this.

After Conon the lives down to Stephen V (885-91) were regularly added, and from the end of the seventh century usually by contemporaries of the popes in question. While many of the biographies are very circumstantial, their historical value varies much; from a literary point of view both style and diction are, as a rule, of a low grade. Nevertheless they are a very important historical source for the period covered. Some of these biographies were begun in the lifetime of the Pope, the incidents being set down as they occurred. The authors were Roman ecclesiastics, and some of them were attached to the papal court. In only two cases can the author's name be discovered with any probability. The life of Stephen II (752-7) was probably written by the papal "Primicerius" Christopher. Anastasius bibliothecarius perhaps wrote the life of Nicholas I (858-67), a genuine, though brief, history of this pope; this author may also have worked at the life of the following pope, Adrian II (867-72), with whose pontificate the text of this Liber Pontificalis, as exhibited in the extant manuscripts, comes to an end. The biographies of the three following popes are missing and that of Stephen V (885-91) is incomplete. In its original form the Liber Pontificalis reached as far as the latter pope. From the end of the ninth century the series of the papal lives was long interrupted. For the whole of the tenth and eleventh centuries there are only lists of the popes with a few short historical notices, that usually give only the pope's origin and the duration of his reign.

After Leo IX (1049-54) detailed biographies of the popes were again written; at first, however, not as continuations of the Liber Pontificalis, but as occasion offered, notably during the Investitures conflict. In this way Bonizo of Sutri, in his "Liber ad amicum" or "De persecutione ecclesiæ", wrote lives of the popes from Leo IX to Gregory VII; he also wrote, as an introduction to the fourth book of his "Decretals", a "Chronicon Romanorum Pontificum" as far as Urban II (1088-99). Cardinal Beno wrote a history of the Roman Church in opposition to Gregory VII, "Gesta Romanæ ecclesiæ contra Hildebrandum" (Mon. Germ. Hist., Libelli de lite, II, 368 sqq.). Important information concerning the popes is contained in the "Annales Romani", from 1044 to 1187, and is utilized, in part, by Duchesne in his edition of the Liber Pontificalis (below). Only in the first half of the twelfth century was a systematic continuation again undertaken. This is the Liber Pontificalis of Petrus Guillermi (son of William), so called by Duchesne after the manuscript written in 1142 by this Petrus in the monastery of St. Gilles (Diocese of Reims). But Petrus Guillermi merely copied, with certain additions and abbreviations, the biographies of the popes written by Pandulf, nephew of Hugo of Alatri. Following the lines of the old Liber Pontificalis, Pandulf had made a collection of the lives of the popes from St. Peter down; only from Leo IX does he add any original matter. Down to Urban II (1088-99) his information is drawn from written sources; from Paschal II (1099-1118) to Honorius II (1124-30), after whose pontificate this recension of the Liber Pontificalis was written, we have a contemporary's own information. Duchesne holds that all biographies from Gregory VII on were written by Pandulf, while earlier historians like Giesebrecht ("Allgemeine Monatsschrift", Halle, 1852, 260 sqq.) and Watterich (Romanorum Pontificum vitæ, I, LXVIII sqq.) had considered Cardinal Petrus Pisanus as author of the lives of Gregory VII, Victor III, and Urban II, and had attributed to Pandulf only the subsequent lives--i.e. those of Gelasius II, Callistus II, and Honorius II. This series of papal biographies, extant only in the recension of Petrus Guillermi, is continued in the same manuscripts of the monastery of St. Gilles as far as Martin II (1281-5); however, the statements of this manuscript have no special value, being all taken from the Chronicle of Martinus Polonus.

On the other hand the series of papal lives written by the cardinal priest Boso (d. about 1178), has independent value; it was his intention to continue the old Liber Pontificalis from the death of Stephen V, with which life, as above said, the work ends. For the popes from John XII to Gregory VII Boso drew on Bonizo of Sutri; for the lives from Gelasius II (1118-19), to Alexander III (1179-81) under whom Boso filled an important office, the work has independent value. This collection, nevertheless, was not completed as a continuation of the Liber Pontificalis and it remained unnoticed for a long time. Cencius Camerarius, afterwards Honorius III, was the first to publish, together with his "Liber Censuum", the "Gesta Romanorum Pontificum" of Boso. Biographies of individual popes of the thirteenth century were written by various authors, but were not brought together in a continuation of the Liber Pontificalis. Early in the fourteenth century an unknown author carried farther the above-mentioned continuation of Petrus Guillermi, and added biographies of the popes from Martin IV (d. 1281) to John XXII (1316-34); but the information is taken from the "Chronicon Pontificum" of Bernardus Guidonis, and the narrative reaches only to 1328. An independent continuation appeared in the reign of Eugene IV (1431-47). From Urban V (1362-70) to Martin V (1417-31), with whom this continuation ended, the biographies have special historical value; the epoch treated is broadly the time of the Great Western Schism. A later recension of this continuation, accomplished under Eugene IV, offers several additions. Finally, to the fifteenth century belong two collections of papal biographies, which were thought to be a continuation of the Liber Pontificalis, but nevertheless have remained separate and independent collections. The first comprises the popes from Benedict XII (1334-42) to Martin V (1417-31), and in another manuscript to Eugene IV (1431-47); the second reaches from Urban VI (1378-89) to Pius II (1458-64). For the last popes in each case they exhibit valuable historical material. In consequences of the peculiar development of the Liber Pontificalis as a whole, it follows that, in order to obtain the full value of the historical sources used in the Liber Pontificalis, each particular life, each larger or smaller group of lives, needs separate critical treatment. The Liber Pontificalis was first edited by J. Busæus under the title "Anastasii bibliothecarii Vitæ seu Gesta. Romanorum Pontificum" (Mainz, 1602). A new edition, with the "Historia ecclesiastica" of Anastasius, was edited by Fabrotti (Paris, 1647). The best of the older editions of the primitive Liber Pontificalis (down to Hadrian II), with edition of the life of Stephen VI, was done by Fr. Bianchini (4 vols., Rome, 1718-35; a projected fifth volume did not appear). Muratori added to his reprint of this edition the lives of later popes down to John XXII (Scriptores rerum Italicarum, III). The edition of Bianchini with several appendixes is found also in Migne (P. L., CXXVII-VIII). For a classic edition of the early Liber Pontificalis, with all the above-mentioned continuations, we are indebted to the tireless industry of Louis Duchesne, "Liber Pontificalis. Texte, introduction et commentaire" (2 vols., Paris, 1886-92). Mommsen began a new critical edition of the same work under the title "Gestorum Pontificum Romanorum pars I: Liber Pontificalis" (Mon. Germ. hist.); the first volume extends to 715 (Berlin, 1898).

On the plan of the Roman Liber Pontificalis, and in obvious imitation, Agnellus, a priest of Ravenna, wrote the history of the bishops of that city, and called it "Liber Pontificalis Ecclesiæ Revennatis". It began with St. Apollinaris and reached to about 485 (see AGNELLUS OF RAVENNA). This history of the bishops of Ravenna was continued, first by the unknown author to the end of the thirteenth century (1296), and afterwards to 1410 by Petrus Scordilli, provost of Ravenna. Other medieval chroniclers have also left collections of biographies of the bishops of particular sees, arranged on the lines of the Liber Pontificalis. Thus in 1071-2, at the order of Bishop Gundecharus of Eichstätt, the "Liber Pontificalis Eichstettensis" (ed. Bethmann in "Mon. Germ. hist., script.", VII, 242-50). Many medieval archiepiscopal and episcopal sees possess, under the title of "Gesta", histories of the occupants of these sees. Most of them offer very important original material for local diocesan history (for a list of them consult Potthast, "Bibliotheca historica medii ævi", 2nd ed., I,511, 514-6).

Publication information Written by J.P. Kirsch. Transcribed by Wm Stuart French, Jr. Dedicated to Rev. Anselm Biggs, O.S.B. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX. Published 1910. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Remy Lafort, Censor. Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York


Besides the learned Prolegomena to the editions of DUCHESNE and MOMMSEN, see DUCHESNE, Etude sur le Liber Pontificalis in Bibl. des Ecoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome (1st series, Paris, 1877); IDEM. La date et les récensions du Liber Pont. in Revue de quest. hist., XXVI (1879), 493-530; IDEM, Le premier Liber Pont., Ibid., XXIX (1881), 246-62; IDEM, La nouvelle édition du Liber Pont. in Mélanges d'archéoal. et d'hist., XVIII (1898), 381-417; GRISAR, Der Liber Pontif. in Zeitschr. für kath. Theol., XI (1887), 417-46; IDEM, Analecta Romana, I (Rome, 1899). 1 sqq.; WAITZ, Ueber die italienischen Handschriften des Liber Pont. in Neues Archiv. X (1885), 455-65 IDEM, Ueber den sogennanten Catalogus Felicianus der Päpste, ibid., XI (1886), 217-99: IDEM, Ueber die verschiedenen Texte des Liber Pont., ibid., IV (1879), 216-73; BRACKMANN, Reise nach Italien, ibid., XXVI (1901), 299-347; GIORGI, Appunti intorno ad alcuni manorcritti del Liber Pont. in Archivio della Soc. romana di storia patria, XX (1897), 247 sqq.; WATTERICH, Vitæ Pontif. Roman. (2 vols., Leipzig, 1862); LIGHTFOOT, The Apostolic Fathers. Part I: S. Clement of Rome, I (London, 1890). 303-25; FABRE: Etude sur le Liber Censuum de l'Eglise romaine in BIBL. des Ecoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome, n. lxii (1st series, Paris, 1899); GLASSCHRÖDER, Des Lucas Holstenius Sammlung von Papstleben in Römische Quartalschr., IV (1890), 125 sqq.; IDEM. Vitæ aliquot Ponticum Sæc. XV, ibid., V (1891), 178 sqq.; IDEM, Zur Quellenkunde der Papstgesch. des XIV. Jahrhunderts in Historiches Jahrbuch, XI (1890), 240 sqq.; HARNACK. Ueber die Ordinationes im Papstbuch in Sitzungsber. der Akad. der Wiss. Zu Berlin (1897), 761 sqq.; MOMMSEN. Ordo et spatia episcoporum Romanorum in Libro Pontificali in Neues Archiv., XXI (1894), 333 sqq.; SÄ;GMÜLLER. Dietrich von Niem und der Liber Pontificalis in Hist. Jahrbuch. XV (1894), 802 sqq.; ROSENFELD, Ueber die Komposition des Liber Pontificalis bis zu Konstantin. Dissert. (Marburg. 1896); SCHNÜRER, Der Verfasser der Vita Stephani II 752-757) im Liber Pontificalis in Histor. Jahrbuch. XI (1890). 425 sqq.; POTTHAST, Bibl. hist. medii ævi, I, 737-9; DE SMEDT, Introductio generalis ad historiam eccl. critice tractandam (Ghent, 1876), 220 sqq.

The List of Popes

Catholic Information

St. Peter (32-67)
St. Linus (67-76)
St. Anacletus (Cletus) (76-88)
St. Clement I (88-97)
St. Evaristus (97-105)
St. Alexander I (105-115)
St. Sixtus I (115-125) -- also called Xystus I
St. Telesphorus (125-136)
St. Hyginus (136-140)
St. Pius I (140-155)
St. Anicetus (155-166)
St. Soter (166-175)
St. Eleutherius (175-189)
St. Victor I (189-199)
St. Zephyrinus (199-217)
St. Callistus I (217-22)
St. Urban I (222-30)
St. Pontain (230-35)
St. Anterus (235-36)
St. Fabian (236-50)
St. Cornelius (251-53)
St. Lucius I (253-54)
St. Stephen I (254-257)
St. Sixtus II (257-258)
St. Dionysius (260-268)
St. Felix I (269-274)
St. Eutychian (275-283)
St. Caius (283-296) -- also called Gaius
St. Marcellinus (296-304)
St. Marcellus I (308-309)
St. Eusebius (309 or 310)
St. Miltiades (311-14)
St. Sylvester I (314-35)
St. Marcus (336)
St. Julius I (337-52)
Liberius (352-66)
St. Damasus I (366-83)
St. Siricius (384-99)
St. Anastasius I (399-401)
St. Innocent I (401-17)
St. Zosimus (417-18)
St. Boniface I (418-22)
St. Celestine I (422-32)
St. Sixtus III (432-40)
St. Leo I (the Great) (440-61)
St. Hilarius (461-68)
St. Simplicius (468-83)
St. Felix III (II) (483-92)
St. Gelasius I (492-96)
Anastasius II (496-98)
St. Symmachus (498-514)
St. Hormisdas (514-23)
St. John I (523-26)
St. Felix IV (III) (526-30)
Boniface II (530-32)
John II (533-35)
St. Agapetus I (535-36) -- also called Agapitus I
St. Silverius (536-37)
Vigilius (537-55)
Pelagius I (556-61)
John III (561-74)
Benedict I (575-79)
Pelagius II (579-90)
St. Gregory I (the Great) (590-604)
Sabinian (604-606)
Boniface III (607)
St. Boniface IV (608-15)
St. Deusdedit (Adeodatus I) (615-18)
Boniface V (619-25)
Honorius I (625-38)
Severinus (640)
John IV (640-42)
Theodore I (642-49)
St. Martin I (649-55)
St. Eugene I (655-57)
St. Vitalian (657-72)
Adeodatus (II) (672-76)
Donus (676-78)
St. Agatho (678-81)
St. Leo II (682-83)
St. Benedict II (684-85)
John V (685-86)
Conon (686-87)
St. Sergius I (687-701)
John VI (701-05)
John VII (705-07)
Sisinnius (708)
Constantine (708-15)
St. Gregory II (715-31)
St. Gregory III (731-41)
St. Zachary (741-52)
Stephen II (752) -- Because he died before being consecrated, some lists (including the Vatican's official list) omit him.
Stephen III (752-57)
St. Paul I (757-67)
Stephen IV (767-72)
Adrian I (772-95)
St. Leo III (795-816)
Stephen V (816-17)
St. Paschal I (817-24)
Eugene II (824-27)
Valentine (827)
Gregory IV (827-44)
Sergius II (844-47)
St. Leo IV (847-55)
Benedict III (855-58)
St. Nicholas I (the Great) (858-67)
Adrian II (867-72)
John VIII (872-82)
Marinus I (882-84)
St. Adrian III (884-85)
Stephen VI (885-91)
Formosus (891-96)
Boniface VI (896)
Stephen VII (896-97)
Romanus (897)
Theodore II (897)
John IX (898-900)
Benedict IV (900-03)
Leo V (903)
Sergius III (904-11)
Anastasius III (911-13)
Lando (913-14)
John X (914-28)
Leo VI (928)
Stephen VIII (929-31)
John XI (931-35)
Leo VII (936-39)
Stephen IX (939-42)
Marinus II (942-46)
Agapetus II (946-55)
John XII (955-63)
Leo VIII (963-64)
Benedict V (964)
John XIII (965-72)
Benedict VI (973-74)
Benedict VII (974-83)
John XIV (983-84)
John XV (985-96)
Gregory V (996-99)
Sylvester II (999-1003)
John XVII (1003)
John XVIII (1003-09)
Sergius IV (1009-12)
Benedict VIII (1012-24)
John XIX (1024-32)
Benedict IX (1032-45) Benedict IX appears on this list three separate times, because he was twice removed and restored (see below)
Sylvester III (1045) -- Considered by some to be an antipope
Benedict IX (1045)
Gregory VI (1045-46)
Clement II (1046-47)
Benedict IX (1047-48)
Damasus II (1048)
St. Leo IX (1049-54)
Victor II (1055-57)
Stephen X (1057-58)
Nicholas II (1058-61)
Alexander II (1061-73)
St. Gregory VII (1073-85)
Blessed Victor III (1086-87)
Blessed Urban II (1088-99)
Paschal II (1099-1118)
Gelasius II (1118-19)
Callistus II (1119-24)
Honorius II (1124-30)
Innocent II (1130-43)
Celestine II (1143-44)
Lucius II (1144-45)
Blessed Eugene III (1145-53)
Anastasius IV (1153-54)
Adrian IV (1154-59)
Alexander III (1159-81)
Lucius III (1181-85)
Urban III (1185-87)
Gregory VIII (1187)
Clement III (1187-91)
Celestine III (1191-98)
Innocent III (1198-1216)
Honorius III (1216-27)
Gregory IX (1227-41)
Celestine IV (1241)
Innocent IV (1243-54)
Alexander IV (1254-61)
Urban IV (1261-64)
Clement IV (1265-68)
Blessed Gregory X (1271-76)
Blessed Innocent V (1276)
Adrian V (1276)
John XXI (1276-77)
Nicholas III (1277-80)
Martin IV (1281-85)
Honorius IV (1285-87)
Nicholas IV (1288-92)
St. Celestine V (1294)
Boniface VIII (1294-1303)
Blessed Benedict XI (1303-04)
Clement V (1305-14)
John XXII (1316-34)
Benedict XII (1334-42)
Clement VI (1342-52)
Innocent VI (1352-62)
Blessed Urban V (1362-70)
Gregory XI (1370-78)
Urban VI (1378-89)
Boniface IX (1389-1404)
Innocent VII (1404-06)
Gregory XII (1406-15) (resigned)
Martin V (1417-31)
Eugene IV (1431-47)
Nicholas V (1447-55)
Callistus III (1455-58)
Pius II (1458-64)
Paul II (1464-71)
Sixtus IV (1471-84)
Innocent VIII (1484-92)
Alexander VI (1492-1503)
Pius III (1503)
Julius II (1503-13)
Leo X (1513-21)
Adrian VI (1522-23)
Clement VII (1523-34)
Paul III (1534-49)
Julius III (1550-55)
Marcellus II (1555)
Paul IV (1555-59)
Pius IV (1559-65)
St. Pius V (1566-72)
Gregory XIII (1572-85)
Sixtus V (1585-90)
Urban VII (1590)
Gregory XIV (1590-91)
Innocent IX (1591)
Clement VIII (1592-1605)
Leo XI (1605)
Paul V (1605-21)
Gregory XV (1621-23)
Urban VIII (1623-44)
Innocent X (1644-55)
Alexander VII (1655-67)
Clement IX (1667-69)
Clement X (1670-76)
Blessed Innocent XI (1676-89)
Alexander VIII (1689-91)
Innocent XII (1691-1700)
Clement XI (1700-21)
Innocent XIII (1721-24)
Benedict XIII (1724-30)
Clement XII (1730-40)
Benedict XIV (1740-58)
Clement XIII (1758-69)
Clement XIV (1769-74)
Pius VI (1775-99)
Pius VII (1800-23)
Leo XII (1823-29)
Pius VIII (1829-30)
Gregory XVI (1831-46)
Blessed Pius IX (1846-78)
Leo XIII (1878-1903)
St. Pius X (1903-14)
Benedict XV (1914-22)
Pius XI (1922-39)
Pius XII (1939-58)
Blessed John XXIII (1958-63)
Paul VI (1963-78)
John Paul I (1978)
John Paul II (1978-2005)
Benedict XVI (2005-2013) (resigned)
Francis I (2013-current)

Publication information The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII. Published 1911. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York

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The individual articles presented here were generally first published in the early 1980s. This subject presentation was first placed on the Internet in May 1997.

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