Writings of Jerome and Gennadius
The motive of the work was, as the preface declares, to show the
heretics how many and how excellent writers there were among the
Christians. The direct occasion of the undertaking was the urgency of
his friend Dexter, and his models were first of all Suetonius, and
then various Greek and Latin biographical works including the Brutus
Lives of Illustrious Men.
Translated, with Introduction and Notes, by Ernest Cushing Richardson, Ph.D.
Librarian of Princeton College.
Under the editorial supervision of Philip Schaff, D.D., LL.D.,
Professor of Church History in the Union Theological Semimary, New York,
and Henry Wace, D.D., Principal of King's College, London
Published in 1892 by Philip Schaff,
New York: Christian Literature Publishing Co.
This combined work of Jerome and Gennadius is unique and indispensable
in the history of early Christian literature, giving as it does a
chronological history in biographies of ecclesiastical literature to
about the end of the fifth century. For the period after the end of
Eusebius' Church History it is of prime value.
1. Time and Place of Composition, and Character.
1. The work of Jerome was written at Bethlehem in 492. It contains 135
writers from Peter up to that date. In his preface Jerome limits the
scope of his work to those who have written on Holy Scriptures, but in
carrying out his plans he includes all who have written on theological
topics; whether Orthodox or Heretic, Greek, Latin, Syriac, and even
Jews and Heathen (Josephus, Philo, Seneca). The Syriac writers
mentioned are however few. Gennadius apologizes for the scanty
representation which they have in Jerome on the ground that the latter
did not understand Syriac, and only knew of such as had been
Jerome expressly states in his preface that he had no predecessor in
his work, but very properly acknowledges his indebtedness to the
Church History of Eusebius, from whom he takes much verbatim. The
first part of the work is taken almost entirely from Eusebius.
The whole work gives evidence of hasty construction (e.g., in failure
to enumerate the works of well-known writers or in giving only
selections from the list of their writings) but too much has been made
of this, for in such work absolute exhaustiveness is all but
impossible, and in the circumstances of those days, such a list of
writers and their works is really remarkable. He apologizes in the
preface for omitting such as are not known to him in his "Out of the
way corner of the earth." He has been accused of too great credulity,
in accepting e.g., the letters of Paul to Seneca as genuine, but on
the other hand he often shows himself both cautious (Hilary, Song of
S.) and critical (Minutius Felix De Fato).
The work was composed with a practical purpose rather than a
scientific one and kept in general well within that purpose--giving
brief information about writers not generally known. This is perhaps
why in writings of the better known writers like Cyprian he does not
enumerate their works.
2. The work of Gennadius was written about 430 according to some, or
492 to 495 according to others. Ebert with the Benedictins and others
before him, makes an almost conclusive argument in favor of the
earlier date on the ground that Gennadius speaks of Timotheus Aelurus
who died in 477 as still living. This compels the rejection of the
paragraph on Gennadius himself as by a later hand but this should
probably be done at any rate, on other grounds. The mss. suggest that
Gennadius ended with John of Antioch, although an hypothesis of three
editions before the year 500, of which perhaps two were by Gennadius,
has grounds. The bulk of the work at least was composed about 480
(probably chapters 1-90) and the remainder added perhaps within a few
years by Gennadius or more probably two other hands.
Gennadius style is as bare and more irregular than Jerome's but he
more frequently expresses a critical judgment and gives more
interesting glimpses of his own--the semi-Pelagian--point of view. The
work appears more original than Jerome's and as a whole hardly less
valuable, though the period he covers is so much shorter.
1. The literature on Jerome is immense. The most often quoted general
works are Zöckler, Hieronymus. Gotha, 1865 and Thierry, St. Jérome
Par. 1867. On Jerome in general the article by Freemantle in Smith and
Wace Dict. of Christian Biography is the first for the English reader
to turn to. Ceillier and other patrologies, while sufficiently full
for their purpose, give very little special treatment to this work,
Ebert (Gesch. chr.-Lat.-Lit. Lpz. 1874) being a partial exception to
this statement. The best literary sources are the prolegomena and
notes to the various editions of the work itself. Much the same may be
said of Gennadius though the relative importance of his catalogue
among his writings gives that a larger proportionate attention. In
English the article by Cazenove in Smith and Wace and in French the
account in the Histoire litteraire de la France are the best generally
2. Literature on the writers mentioned by Jerome and Gennadius. Any
one who cares to follow up in English the study of any of the writers
mentioned in the Lives of illustrious men will find tools therefor: 1.
For the earlier writers to the time of Eusebius, Eusebius Church
History tr. M'Giffert (N. Y. Chr. Lit. Co.) notes. 2. For the whole
period: Smith and Wace Dict. of Christian Biography, 4 vols. and more
accessible to most (though a cheap reprint of Smith and Wace is now
threatened) Schaff. Church Hist. (N. Y. Scribners) where at the end of
each volume an account is given of the chief writers of the period
including admirable bibliographical reference.
Of course the best source is the works themselves: The Ante-Nicene
Fathers, ed. Coxe, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers ed. Schaff and
Wace. (N. Y. Christian Literature Co.) For further research the
student is referred to the list of Patrologies and Bibliographies in
the supplementary volume of the Ante-Nicene Fathers, to the
bibliography of Ante-Nicene Fathers in the same volume, to Chevalier.
Dict. des sources hist. and the memoranda by Sittl, in the
Jahresberichte ü. d. fortschr. d. class. Alterthwiss. 1887 sq.
The manuscripts of Jerome and Gennadius are numerous. The translator
has seen 84 mss. of Jerome and 57 of Gennadius and has certain
memoranda of at least 25 more and hints of still another score. It is
certainly within bounds to say that there are more than 150 mss. of
Jerome extant and not less than 100 of Gennadius.
The oldest of those examined (and all the oldest of which he could
learn were seen) are at Rome, Verona, Vercelli, Montpellier, Paris,
Munich and Vienna.
The editions of Jerome are relatively as numerous as the mss. The
Illustrious men is included in almost all the editions of his
collected works, in his collected "minor writings" and in many of the
editions of his epistles (most of the editions in fact from 1468 to
It is several times printed separately or with Gennadius or other
catalogues. The editions of Gennadius are less numerous but he is
often united with Jerome in the editions of Jerome's collected works,
and generally in the separate editions.
The following list of editions is printed as illustrative. It does not
pretend to be complete, but is simply a list of such as have been
personally examined by the translator up to date; s. l. et a (6) + 390
ff, 62, 11.; s. l. et a. (1468?) 223ff, 2 col. 50 11.; Rome 1468. P.
de Max; (Compluti?) 1470; Rome 1470; Mogunt 1470; s. l. et a. (Augsb.
Zainer 1470); s. l. et a. 1470, 4º 23 11: s. a. "JA. RV" 1471?; Rome
1479; Parma 1480; Ven. 1488; Basil 1489; Ven. 1490; Basil 1492 Norimb.
1495; s. l. 1496?; Basil 1497; Lyons, 1508; Paris 1512; Lyons 1513;
Lyons 1518 Basil 1525 Lyons 1526 (Erasmus); Basil 1526 (Erasm) Basil
1529 Lyons 1530 Paris 1534; Frankfort 1549; Bas. 1553; Bas. 1565; Rome
1565-; Rome 1576 Colon 1580; Paris 1609; Helmst 1611-12 Cologne 1616;
Frf. ; Antw. 1639 Frf. 1684; Paris 1706 (Martianay and Pouget);
Helmst. 1700; Hamb. 1718; Veron. 1734-42 (Vallarsi); repr. 1766-72;
Florence 1791; Paris 1865 (Migne); Lpz. 1879 (Herding) Turin 1875,
1877, 1885 (Jerome only).
Andreas, Erasmus, Victorinus, Graevius, Martianay, Miraeus, Fabricius,
Cyprian are among the earlier editors but Erasmus is facile princeps
in popularity of reprint. The edition of Vallarsi in 1734-42 was a
decided advance toward a critical text. Various editors before him had
made use of various mss. especially the "Corbeiensis" or
"Sangermanensis" but secondarily mss. at Wulfenbüttel, Munich, the
Bodleian, Nürnberg, "Sigbergensis," "Gemblacensis," "Marcianus" and
others. Vallarsi founded his edition largely on a Verona ms. (still
there) on the "Corbeiensis" so much used and praised before (now Paris
Lat. 12161 "St. Crucis" one at Lucca of the 9th century and more or
less on mss. employed by previous editors. This edition has remained
the standard and is the one adopted for the Migne edition.
The most recent edition which pretends to a critical character is that
of Herding (Lpz. 1879). The editions by Tamietti are simply school
editions of Jerome only, and make no pretensions to a critical text.
The edition of Herding is founded on a transcript of Vat. Reg. 2077,
7th century; Bamberg 677, 11th century; Bern, 11 cent. and a much
mutilated Nürnberg ms. of the 14th century. But it appears that the
transcript of Vaticanus only covered the Jerome and a few scanty
readings from Gennadius and the same is true of the collation made for
this editor later from the Paris ms. (Corbeiensis).
Sittl, (Jahresber; u. class. Alterthumsw. 1888. 2 p. 243) says that
the edition "without the preface which contains a collation of Codex
Corbeiensis would be worthless." This is a little strong, for the
readings he gives from Vaticanus have a decided value in default of
other sources for its readings and his strict following of this often
produces a correct reading against Vallarsi who was naturally inclined
to follow Veronensis and Corbeiensis both of which were probably a
good deal manipulated after they left the hand of Gennadius. The
collation of Corbeiensis besides excluding Gennadius is not over exact
and some of the most effaced pages seem to have been given up entirely
by the collator.
An early translation of Jerome's work into Greek was made by
Sophronius and used by Photius. A translation purporting to be his is
given by Erasmus. There has been a good deal of controversy over this,
some even accusing Erasmus of having forged it entire. It is an open
question with a general tendency to give Erasmus the benefit of the
doubt. The present translator while holding his judgment ready to be
corrected by the finding of a ms. or other evidence, inclines to
reject in toto, regarding it as for the most part translated by
Erasmus from some South German or Swiss ms., or, if that be not
certain, at least that the translation is too little established to be
of any use for textual purposes. There is a modern translation of
select words of Jerome in French by Matougues. The chief sources for
comparison used by the translator have been Sophronius (or Erasmus)
Matougues, M'Giffert's Eusebius for the first part of Jerome where he
takes so liberally from Eusebius, and scattered selections here and
there in Ceillier, Smith and Wace, Dict. and other literary-historical
6. The Present Translation.
1. Text. It was proposed at first to make the translation from the
text of Herding. This, and all editions, gave so little basis for
scientific certainty in regard to various readings that a cursory
examination of mss. was made. At the suggestion of Professor O. von
Gebhardt of Berlin the examination was made as thorough and systematic
as possible with definite reference to a new edition. The translator
hoped to finish and publish the new text before the translation was
needed for this series, but classification of the mss. proved
unexpectedly intricate and the question of the Greek translation so
difficult that publication has been delayed. The material has however
been gathered, analyzed, sifted and arranged sufficiently to give
reasonable certainty as to the body of the work and a tolerably
reliable judgment on most of the important variations.
While anxious not to claim too much for his material and unwilling to
give a final expression of judgment on disputed readings, until his
table of mss. is perfected, he ventures to think that for substantial
purposes of translation, if not for the nicer ones of a new text, the
material and method which he has made use of will be substantially
The following translation has been made first from the text of Herding
and then corrected from the manuscripts in all places where the
evidence was clearly against the edition. In places where the evidence
is fairly conclusive the change has been made and a brief statement of
evidence given in the notes. When the evidence is really doubtful the
reading has been allowed to stand with evidence generally given.
The materials of evidence used are 1. eight mss. collated entire by
the translator A. Parisinus (Corbeiensis or Sangermanensis 7 cent.) T.
Vaticanus Reg., 7 cent.; 25 Veronensis, 8 cent.; 30 Vercellensis 8
cent.; 31 Monspessalanensis 8 or 9 cent.; a Monacensis 8 cent.; e
Vindobonensis 8 or 9; H. Parisinus 10 or 9.
2. Occasional support from readings gathered by him from other mss.,
chiefly 10 Cassenatensis 9 cent.; 21 Florentinus, 11 cent.; 32
Toletanus 13 cent.; 40 Guelferbyrtinus, 10? cent.
3. Readings from mss. mentioned by other editors.
4. The various editions, but mainly confined to Vallarsi and Herding
in Jerome, Fabricius and Herding in Gennadius.
The translator has examined nearly 90 mss. and secured more or less
readings from nearly all with reference to an exact table. The
readings of several are extensive enough to have pretty nearly the
value of full collations. Quotations are occasionally made from these
(e.g. from 10, 21, 29, 32, 40, etc.) but practically quotations from
the eight mentioned mss. cover the evidence and without a table more
would rather obscure than otherwise.
There is no opportunity here to discuss the relative value of these
used. It may be said however that they are the oldest mss., and
include pretty much all the oldest. Though age itself is by no means
conclusive, the fact that they certainly represent several independent
groups makes it safe to say that a consensus of seven against one or
even six against any two (with certain reservations) or in the case of
Gennadius of 5 against 2 is conclusive for a reading. As a matter of
fact against many readings of Herding and even of Vallarsi, are
arranged all these mss., and against some nearly all or even every ms.
seen, e.g. Her. p. 73 d. 12 reads morti dari with Migne-Fabricius but
all these mss. have mutandam and so 91. 22 "seven" for "eight." On p.
161. 7. Her. omits Asyncritus against mss. and all modern eds., so 44.
3. "Ponti," 51. 7 "ut quidem putant;" 77. 25. "firmare" and a score of
Of course this is not enough evidence or discussion for a critical
scholastic text but for the practical illustrative purpose in hand
will serve. Any evidence which does not give a well digested genealogy
of mss. and the evidence for their classification must be reckoned as
incomplete,--all that the above evidence can claim to do, is to give
the translator's judgment respecting the readings and illustrative
evidence, but it is not probable that the completed table will alter
many (if any) of these readings which are given in view of a tentative
table which will likely prove final.
The Translation itself. The plan of this work includes (a) a
translation, in which the translator has tried to give a fair
representation of the text in a not too ragged form but has failed to
improve on the original. The works were written as science rather than
literature and have many facts but no style. The translator has
therefore aimed rather at representing these facts than at producing a
piece of polite literature. (b) Notes are subjoined including, first
the brief biographical data which every one wants first to orient
himself by, secondly textual notes, and thirdly, occasional
Lives of Illustrious Men.
You have urged me, Dexter,  to follow the example of Tranquillus
 in giving a systematic account of ecclesiastical writers, and
to do for our writers what he did for the illustrious men of letters
among the Gentiles, namely, to briefly set before you all those who
have published  any memorable writing on the Holy Scriptures,
from the time of our Lord's passion until the fourteenth year of the
Emperor Theodosius.  A similar work has been done by Hermippus
 the peripatetic, Antigonus Carystius,  the learned
Satyrus,  and most learned of all, Aristoxenus the Musician,
 among the Greeks, and among the Latins by Varro,  Santra,
 Nepos,  Hyginus,  and by him through whose example
you seek to stimulate  us,--Tranquillus.
But their situation and mine is not the same, for they, opening the
old histories and chronicles could as if gathering from some great
meadow, weave some  small crown at least for their work. As for
me, what shall I do, who, having no predecessor, have, as the saying
is, the worst possible master, namely myself, and yet I must
acknowledge that Eusebius Pamphilus in the ten books of his Church
History has been of the utmost assistance, and the works of various
among those of whom we are to write, often testify to the dates of
their authors. And so I pray the Lord Jesus,  that what your
Cicero, who stood at the summit of Roman eloquence, did not scorn to
do, compiling in his Brutus, a catalogue of Latin orators, this I too
may accomplish in the enumeration of ecclesiastical writers, and
accomplish in a fashion worthy of the exhortation which you made. But
if, perchance any of those who are yet writing have been overlooked by
me in this volume, they ought to ascribe it to themselves, rather than
to me, for among those whom I have not read, I could not, in the first
place, know those who concealed their own writings, and, in the second
place, what is perhaps well known to others, would be quite unknown to
me in this out of the way corner of the earth.  But surely when
they are distinguished by their writings, they will not very greatly
grieve over any loss in our non-mention of them. Let Celsus, Porphyry,
and Julian learn, rabid as they are against Christ, let their
followers, they who think the church has had no philosophers or
orators or men of learning, learn how many and what sort of men
founded, built and adorned it, and cease to accuse our faith of such
rustic simplicity, and recognize rather their own ignorance.
In the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, farewell. 
 Dexter. Compare chapters 132 and 106.
 Tranquillus. C. Suetonius Tranquillus (about a.d. 100). De
illustribus grammaticis; De claris rhetoribus.
 Published or handed down "Prodiderunt." Some mss. read
"tradiderunt," and Jerome usually employs "Edo" for publish.
 Fourteenth year of the Emperor Theodosius. a.d. 492.
 Hermippus of Smyrna. (3rd century b.c.) Lives of distinguished
 Antigonus. Antigonus of Carystus (Reign of Ptolemy
 Satyrus. A Peripatetic (Reign of Ptolemy Philopator) "wrote a
collection of biographies."
 Aristoxenus the musician. A Peripatetic, pupil of Aristotle,
wrote lives of various Philosophers.
 Varro. M. Terentius Varro the "most learned of the Romans"
(died b.c. 28) published among other things a series of "portraits of
seven hundred remarkable personages" (Ramsay in Smith's Dictionary).
 Santra. Santra the Grammarian?
 Nepos. Cornelius Nepos friend of Cicero wrote Lives of
 Hyginus. Caius Julius Hyginus, freedman of Augustus and friend
 Seek to stimulate 30 31 a [H e 21] and the mass of mss. also
Fabricius; stimulate. A.T. Migne. Her.
 SomeA H 25 31 e 21. Fabricius; No T a? Migne Her.
 The Lord Jesus A H T 25 31 e; The Lord Jesus Christ a; Our Lord
Jesus Christ Bamb. Bern; My Lord Jesus Christ Norimb.
 Out of the way corner of the earth i.e., Bethlehem.
 In the name of the Lord Jesus Christ farewell T 25 31 a 21; do.
omitting Christ A; omit all H e.
List of Writers.
1. Simon Peter.
2. James, the brother of our Lord.
3. Matthew, surnamed Levi.
4. Jude, the brother of James.
5. Paul, formerly called Saul.
6. Barnabas, surnamed Joseph.
7. Luke, the evangelist.
8. Mark, the evangelist.
9. John, the apostle and evangelist.
11. Philo Judæus.
12. Lucius Annæus Seneca.
13. Josephus, son of Matthias.
14. Justus of Tiberias.
15. Clemens the bishop.
16. Ignatius the bishop.
17. Polycarp the bishop.
18. Papias the bishop.
19. Quadratus the bishop.
20. Aristides the philosopher.
21. Agrippa Castor.
22. Hegesippus the historian.
23. Justin the philosopher.
24. Melito the bishop.
25. Theophilus the bishop.
26. Apollinaris the bishop.
27. Dionysius the bishop.
27. Pinytus the bishop.
29. Tatian the heresiarch.
30. Phillip the bishop.
33. Bardesanes the heresiarch.
34. Victor the bishop.
35. Iranæus the bishop.
36. Pantænus the philosopher.
37. Rhodo, the disciple of Tatian.
38. Clemens the presbyter.
41. Serapion the bishop.
42. Apollonius the senator.
43. Theophilus another bishop.
44. Baccylus the bishop.
45. Polycrates the bishop.
53. Tertullian the presbyter.
54. Origen, surnamed Adamantius.
56. Ambrose the deacon.
57. Trypho the pupil of Origen.
58. Minucius Felix.
60. Berillus the bishop.
61. Hippolytus the bishop.
62. Alexander the bishop.
63. Julius the African.
64. Gemimus the presbyter.
65. Theodorus, surnamed Gregory the bishop.
66. Cornelius the bishop.
67. Cyprian the bishop.
68. Pontius the deacon.
69. Dionysius the bishop.
70. Novatianus the heresiarch.
71. Malchion the presbyter.
72. Archelaus the bishop.
73. Anatolius the bishop.
74. Victorinus the bishop.
75. Pamphilus the presbyter.
76. Pierius the presbyter.
77. Lucianus the presbyter.
78. Phileas the bishop.
79. Arnobius the rhetorician.
80. Firmianus the rhetorician, surnamed Lactantius.
81. Eusebius the bishop.
82. Reticius the bishop.
83. Methodius the bishop.
84. Juvencus the presbyter.
85. Eustathius the bishop.
86. Marcellus the bishop.
87. Athanasius the bishop.
88. Antonius the monk.
89. Basilius the bishop.
90. Theodorus the bishop.
91. Eusebius another bishop.
92. Triphylius the bishop.
93. Donatus the heresiarch.
94. Asterius the philosopher.
95. Lucifer the bishop.
96. Eusebius another bishop.
97. Fortunatianus the bishop.
98. Acacius the bishop.
99. Serapion the bishop.
100. Hilary the bishop.
101. Victorinus the rhetorician.
102. Titus the bishop.
103. Damasus the bishop.
104. Apollinarius the bishop.
105. Gregory the bishop.
106. Pacianus the bishop.
107. Photinus the heresiarch.
108. Phoebadius the bishop.
109. Didymus the Blind.
110. Optatus the bishop.
111. Acilius Severus the senator.
112. Cyril the bishop.
113. Euzoius the bishop.
114. Epiphanius the bishop.
115. Ephrem the deacon.
116. Basil another bishop.
117. Gregory another bishop.
118. Lucius the bishop.
119. Diodorus the bishop.
120. Eunomius the heresiarch.
121. Priscillianus the bishop.
124. Ambrose the bishop.
125. Evagrius the bishop.
126. Ambrose the disciple of Didymus.
127. Maximus, first philosopher, then bishop.
128. Another Gregory, also a bishop.
129. John the presbyter.
130. Gelasius the bishop.
131. Theotimus the bishop.
132. Dexter, son of Pacianus, now prætorian prefect.
133. Amphilochius the bishop.
135. Jerome the presbyter.
Simon Peter  the son of John, from the village of Bethsaida in
the province of Galilee, brother of Andrew the apostle, and himself
chief of the apostles, after having been bishop of the church of
Antioch and having preached to the Dispersion  --the believers
in circumcision,  in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and
Bithynia--pushed on to Rome in the second year of Claudius to
overthrow Simon Magus,  and held the sacerdotal chair there for
twenty-five years until the last, that is the fourteenth, year of
Nero. At his hands he received the crown of martyrdom being nailed to
the cross with his head towards the ground and his feet raised on
high, asserting that he was unworthy to be crucified in the same
manner as his Lord. He wrote two epistles which are called Catholic,
the second of which, on account of its difference from the first in
style, is considered by many not to be by him. Then too the Gospel
according to Mark, who was his disciple and interpreter, is ascribed
to him. On the other hand, the books, of which one is entitled his
Acts, another his Gospel, a third his Preaching, a fourth his
Revelation, a fifth his "Judgment" are rejected as apocryphal. 
Buried at Rome in the Vatican near the triumphal way he is venerated
by the whole world. 
 Died 65-6 or 67.
 Dispersion. The technical "Dispersion"--the Jews out of Judea.
Cf. Peter 1. 1. See Westcott in Smith's Dict. of Bible.
 Circumcision a paraphrase for "Hebrews" in Eusebius and
 Simon Magus. That Peter met Simon Magus in Rome is a
post-apostolic legend. Compare the Clementine literature.
 Apocryphal. For literature on apocryphal works see Ante-Nic.
Fath. ed. Coxe (N. Y. Chr. Lit. Co.,) vol. 9 pp. 95 sq. The Acts,
Gospel, Preaching and Revelation are mentioned by Eusebius. The
Judgment was added by Jerome. This last has been much discussed of
late in connection with the recently discovered Teaching of the
Twelve. The identification of the Teaching with the Judgment is
credited to Dr. von Gebhardt (Salmon in Smith and Wace Dict. v. 4
(1887) pp. 810-11). The recent literature of it is immense. Compare
Schaff, Oldest Church Manual, and literature in Ante-Nic. Fath. vol. 9
 The textual variations on the Chapter are numerous enough but
none of them are sustained by the better mss. e.g. "First Simon Peter"
"Simon Peter the Apostle" "Peter the Apostle"..."Called
canonical"..."are considered apocryphal"..."the whole city."
James,  who is called the brother of the Lord,  surnamed
the Just, the son of Joseph by another wife, as some think, but, as
appears to me, the son of Mary sister of the mother of our Lord of
whom John makes mention in his book,  after our Lord's passion
at once ordained by the apostles bishop of Jerusalem, wrote a single
epistle, which is reckoned among the seven Catholic Epistles and even
this is claimed by some to have been published by some one else under
his name, and gradually, as time went on, to have gained authority.
Hegesippus who lived near the apostolic age, in the fifth book of his
Commentaries, writing of James, says "After the apostles, James the
brother of the Lord surnamed the Just was made head of the Church at
Jerusalem. Many indeed are called James. This one was holy from his
mother's womb. He drank neither wine nor strong drink, ate no flesh,
never shaved or anointed himself with ointment or bathed. He alone had
the privilege of entering the Holy of Holies, since indeed he did not
use woolen vestments but linen and went alone into the temple and
prayed in behalf of the people, insomuch that his knees were reputed
to have acquired the hardness of camels' knees." He says also many
other things, too numerous to mention. Josephus also in the 20th book
of his Antiquities, and Clement in the 7th of his Outlines mention
that on the death of Festus who reigned over Judea, Albinus was sent
by Nero as his successor. Before he had reached his province, Ananias
the high priest, the youthful son of Ananus of the priestly class
taking advantage of the state of anarchy, assembled a council and
publicly tried to force James to deny that Christ is the son of God.
When he refused Ananius ordered him to be stoned. Cast down from a
pinnacle of the temple, his legs broken, but still half alive, raising
his hands to heaven he said, "Lord forgive them for they know not what
they do." Then struck on the head by the club of a fuller such a club
as fullers are accustomed to wring out garments  with--he died.
This same Josephus records the tradition that this James was of so
great sanctity and reputation among the people that the downfall of
Jerusalem was believed to be on account of his death. He it is of whom
the apostle Paul writes to the Galatians that "No one else of the
apostles did I see except James the brother of the Lord," and shortly
after the event the Acts of the apostles bear witness to the matter.
The Gospel also which is called the Gospel according to the Hebrews,
 and which I have recently translated into Greek and Latin and
which also Origen  often makes use of, after the account of the
resurrection of the Saviour says, "but the Lord, after he had given
his grave clothes to the servant of the priest, appeared to James (for
James had sworn that he would not eat bread from that hour in which he
drank the cup of the Lord until he should see him rising again from
among those that sleep)" and again, a little later, it says "`Bring a
table and bread,' said the Lord." And immediately it is added, "He
brought bread and blessed and brake and gave to James the Just and
said to him, `my brother eat thy bread, for the son of man is risen
from among those that sleep.'" And so he ruled the church of Jerusalem
thirty years, that is until the seventh year of Nero, and was buried
near the temple from which he had been cast down. His tombstone with
its inscription was well known until the siege of Titus and the end of
Hadrian's reign. Some of our writers think he was buried in Mount
Olivet, but they are mistaken.
 Died 62 or 63 (according to Josephus and Jerome) or 69
 Brother of the Lord. Gal. i. 19
 in his book John xix. 25
 garments A H 25 30 e 21; wet garments T e 29.
 Gospel according to the Hebrews. Compare Lipsius Gospels apocr,
in Smith and Wace, Dict. v. 2 pp. 709-12.
 Origen. H 31 a e 1021; Adamantius A T 25.
Matthew,  also called Levi, apostle and aforetimes publican,
composed a gospel of Christ at first published in Judea in Hebrew
 for the sake of those of the circumcision who believed, but
this was afterwards translated into Greek though by what author is
uncertain. The Hebrew itself has been preserved until the present day
in the library at Cæsarea which Pamphilus so diligently gathered. I
have also had the opportunity of having the volume described to me by
the Nazarenes  of Beroea,  a city of Syria, who use it. In
this it is to be noted that wherever the Evangelist, whether on his
own account or in the person of our Lord the Saviour quotes the
testimony of the Old Testament he does not follow the authority of the
translators of the Septuagint but the Hebrew. Wherefore these two
forms exist "Out of Egypt have I called my son," and "for he shall be
called a Nazarene."
 Died after 62.
 Gospel...in Hebrew. Jerome seems to regard the Gospel according
to the Hebrews mentioned by him above as the original Hebrew Text of
Matthew. cf. Lightfoot, Ignatius v. 2. p. 295.
 Nazarenes=Nasaraei. See Smith and Wace s.v.
 Beroea some mss. read Veria and so Herding. The modern Aleppo.
Jude  the brother of James, left a short epistle which is
reckoned among the seven catholic epistles, and because in it 
he quotes from the apocryphal book of Enoch it is rejected by many.
Nevertheless by age and use it has gained authority and is reckoned
among the Holy Scriptures.
 Died after 62.
 in itH 31 a e 10 21; omit A T 25 30.
Paul,  formerly called Saul, an apostle outside the number of
the twelve apostles, was of the tribe of Benjamin and the town of
Giscalis  in Judea. When this was taken by the Romans he removed
with his parents to Tarsus in Cilicia. Sent by them to Jerusalem to
study law he was educated by Gamaliel a most learned man whom Luke
mentions. But after he had been present at the death of the martyr
Stephen and had received letters from the high priest of the temple
for the persecution of those who believed in Christ, he proceeded to
Damascus, where constrained to faith by a revelation, as it is written
in the Acts of the apostles, he was transformed from a persecutor into
an elect vessel. As Sergius Paulus Proconsul of Cyprus was the first
to believe on his preaching, he took his name from him because he had
subdued him to faith in Christ, and having been joined by Barnabas,
after traversing many cities, he returned to Jerusalem and was
ordained apostle to the Gentiles by Peter, James and John. And because
a full account of his life is given in the Acts of the Apostles, I
only say this, that the twenty-fifth year after our Lord's passion,
that is the second of Nero, at the time when Festus Procurator of
Judea succeeded Felix, he was sent bound to Rome, and remaining for
two years in free custody, disputed daily with the Jews concerning the
advent of Christ. It ought to be said that at the first defence, the
power of Nero having not yet been confirmed, nor his wickedness broken
forth to such a degree as the histories relate concerning him, Paul
was dismissed by Nero, that the gospel of Christ might be preached
also in the West. As he himself writes in the second epistle to
Timothy, at the time when he was about to be put to death dictating
his epistle as he did while in chains; "At my first defence no one
took my part, but all forsook me: may it not be laid to their account.
But the Lord stood by  me and strengthened me; that through me
the message might be fully proclaimed and that all the Gentiles might
hear, and I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion" 
--clearly indicating Nero as lion on account of his cruelty. And
directly following he says "The Lord delivered me from the mouth of
the lion" and again shortly "The Lord delivered me  from every
evil work and saved me unto his heavenly kingdom,"  for indeed
he felt within himself that his martyrdom was near at hand, for in the
same epistle he announced "for I am already being offered and the time
of my departure is at hand."  He then, in the fourteenth year of
Nero on the same day with Peter, was beheaded at Rome for Christ's
sake and was buried in the Ostian way, the twenty-seventh year after
our Lord's passion. He wrote nine epistles to seven churches: To the
Romans one, To the Corinthians two, To the Galatians one, To the
Ephesians one, To the Philippians one, To the Colossians one, To the
Thessalonians two; and besides these to his disciples, To Timothy two,
To Titus one, To Philemon one. The epistle which is called the Epistle
to the Hebrews is not considered his, on account of its difference
from the others in style and language, but it is reckoned, either
according to Tertullian to be the work of Barnabas, or according to
others, to be by Luke the Evangelist or Clement afterwards bishop of
the church at Rome, who, they say, arranged and adorned the ideas of
Paul in his own language, though to be sure, since Paul was writing to
Hebrews and was in disrepute among them he may have omitted his name
from the salutation on this account. He being a Hebrew wrote Hebrew,
that is his own tongue and most fluently while the things which were
eloquently written in Hebrew were more eloquently turned into Greek
 and this is the reason why it seems to differ from other
epistles of Paul. Some read one also to  the Laodiceans but it
is rejected by everyone.
 Died 67?, probably after 64 at least.
 Giscalis, supposed thus to have originated at Giscalis and to
have gone from there to Tarsus, but this is not generally accepted.
 The Lord stood by all mss. and eds; God. Her.
 lion. 2 Tim. 4. 16-17
 from the mouth of the lion, and again shortly "The Lord
delivered me"(substantially) A H 25 30 31 a e etc.; omit T. Her. There
are slight variations; God H 21 Bamb Bern. Norimb.; I was delivered
Val. Cypr. Tam. Par 1512 etc.
 The Lord...kingdom 2 Tim. 4. 18
 for I...at hand 2 Tim. 4. 6
 intoH 31 a e. and many others; in A T 25 30.
 also to A H T 25 30 a e Norimb, Bamb.; also 3l; omit, Her. who
seems to have omitted on some evidence possibly Bern.
Barnabas  the Cyprian, also called Joseph the Levite, ordained
apostle to the Gentiles with Paul, wrote one Epistle, valuable for the
edification of the church, which is reckoned among the apocryphal
writings. He afterwards separated from Paul on account of John, a
disciple also called Mark,  none the less exercised the work
laid upon him of preaching the Gospel.
 Died in Salamis 53 (Ceillier Papebroch), 56 (Braunsberger), 61
(Breviarum romanum), 76 (Nirschl). The discussion of the date of his
death is a good deal mixed up with the question of the authenticity of
 Mark Acts 15. 37
Luke  a physician of Antioch, as his writings indicate, was not
unskilled in the Greek language. An adherent of the apostle Paul, and
companion of all his journeying, he wrote a Gospel, concerning which
the same Paul says, "We send with him a brother whose praise in the
gospel is among all the churches"  and to the Colossians "Luke
the beloved physician salutes you,"  and to Timothy "Luke only
is with me."  He also wrote another excellent volume to which he
prefixed the title Acts of the Apostles, a history which extends to
the second year of Paul's sojourn at Rome, that is to the fourth
 year of Nero, from which we learn that the book was composed in
that same city. Therefore the Acts of Paul and Thecla  and all
the fable about the lion baptized by him we reckon among the
apocryphal writings,  for how is it possible that the
inseparable companion of the apostle in his other affairs, alone
should have been ignorant of this thing. Moreover Tertullian who lived
near those times, mentions a certain presbyter in Asia, an adherent of
the apostle Paul,  who was convicted by John of having been the
author of the book, and who, confessing that he did this for love of
Paul, resigned his office of presbyter. Some suppose that whenever
Paul in his epistle says "according to my gospel" he means the book of
Luke and that Luke not only was taught the gospel history by the
apostle Paul who was not with the Lord in the flesh, but also by other
apostles. This he too at the beginning of his work declares, saying
"Even as they delivered unto us, which from the beginning were
eyewitnesses and ministers of the word." So he wrote the gospel as he
had heard it, but composed the Acts of the apostles as he himself had
seen. He was buried at Constantinople to which city, in the twentieth
year of Constantius, his bones together with the remains of Andrew the
apostle were transferred.
 Died 83-4?
 we send...churches 2 Cor. 8. 18
 Luke...salutes you Col. 4. 14
 Luke...with me 2 Tim. 4. 11
 fourthA T H 25 30 31 Val. etc.; fourteenth. Her. Sigbert. S.
 Acts of Paul and Thecla (Acts = Journeyings) Cf. Acts of Paul
and Thecla, tr. in Ante Nic. Fath. v. 8 pp. 487-92.
 apocryphal writings A H 31 e a Bamb Norimb. Val. etc.;
apocrypha Her. T 25 30.
 apostle Paul A H e a etc. Val; omit Paul T 25 30 31 Her.
Mark  the disciple and interpreter of Peter wrote a short gospel
at the request of the brethren at Rome embodying what he had heard
Peter tell. When Peter had heard this, he approved it and published it
to the churches to be read by his authority as Clemens in the sixth
book of his Hypotyposes and Papias, bishop of Hierapolis, record.
Peter also mentions this Mark in his first epistle, figuratively
indicating Rome under the name of Babylon "She who  is in
Babylon elect together with you saluteth you  and so doth Mark
my son." So, taking the gospel which he himself composed, he went to
Egypt and first preaching Christ at Alexandria he formed a church so
admirable in doctrine and continence of living that he constrained all
followers of Christ to his example. Philo most learned of the Jews
seeing the first church at Alexandria still Jewish in a degree, wrote
a book  on their manner of life as something creditable to his
nation telling how, as Luke says, the believers had all things in
common  at Jerusalem, so he recorded that he saw  was done
at Alexandria, under the learned Mark. He died in the eighth year of
Nero and was buried at Alexandria, Annianus succeeding him. 
 Flourished 45 to 55?
 She who A H T 25 30 31 a e Val etc; the church which. Her. and
one mentioned by Vallarsi, also in Munich mss. 14370.
 She who...saluteth you 1 Pet. 5. 13
 a bookA H 31 a e etc; and Her.; omit T 25 30. This work
entitled On a contemplative life is still extant but is generally
regarded as not by Philo.
 had all things in common Acts 2. 44
 so...saw A H a e 31? Val.; so he saw and recorded. T 25 30 Her.
 Annianus succeeding him A H T 25 30 a e Val etc.; omit Her. 31.
John,  the apostle whom Jesus most loved, the son of Zebedee and
brother of James, the apostle whom Herod, after our Lord's passion,
beheaded, most recently of all the evangelists wrote a Gospel, at the
request of the bishops of Asia, against Cerinthus and other heretics
and especially against the then growing dogma of the Ebionites, who
assert that Christ did not exist before Mary. On this account he was
compelled to maintain His divine nativity. But there is said to be yet
another reason for this work, in that when he had read Matthew, Mark,
and Luke, he approved indeed the substance of the history and declared
that the things they said were true, but that they had given the
history of only one year, the one, that is, which follows the
imprisonment of John and in which he was put to death. So passing by
this year the events of which had been set forth by these, he related
the events of the earlier period before John was shut up in prison, so
that it might be manifest to those who should diligently read the
volumes of the four Evangelists. This also takes away the discrepancy
which there seems to be between John and the others. He wrote also one
Epistle which begins as follows "That which was from the beginning,
that which we have heard, that which we have seen with our eyes and
our hands handled concerning the word of life" which is esteemed of by
all men who are interested in the church or in learning. The other two
of which the first is "The elder to the elect lady and her children"
and the other "The elder unto Gaius  the beloved whom I love in
truth," are said to be the work of John the presbyter to the memory of
whom another sepulchre is shown at Ephesus to the present day, though
some think that there are two memorials of this same John the
evangelist. We shall treat of this matter in its turn  when we
come to Papias his disciple. In the fourteenth year then after Nero
 Domitian having raised a second persecution he was banished to
the island of Patmos, and wrote the Apocalypse, on which Justin Martyr
and Irenæus afterwards wrote commentaries. But Domitian having been
put to death and his acts, on account of his excessive cruelty, having
been annulled by the senate, he returned to Ephesus under Pertinax
 and continuing there until the time of the emperor Trajan,
founded and built churches throughout all Asia, and, worn out by old
age, died in the sixty-eighth year after our Lord's passion and was
buried near the same city.
 Exiled to Patmos 94-95.
 GaiusA H 25 30 31 a e; Caius Her. T.
 in its turn A H T 31 a e Val. etc; omit T. 25 30.
 after Nero A H 30 31 a e. Bamb. Norimb. Cypr. Val.; omit T 25.
 Pertinax A H T 25 30 31 a e Norimb. Cypr. etc; Nerva Pertinax
Bamb. Ambros. Her.; Nerva principe. Val.
Hermas   whom the apostle Paul mentions in writing to the
Romans "Salute  Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas  and the
brethren that are with them"  is reputed to be the author of the
book which is called Pastor and which is also read publicly in some
churches of Greece. It is in fact a useful book and many of the
ancient writers quote from it as authority, but among the Latins it is
 The date of Hermas depends on what Hermas is supposed to be the
author. He is supposed to be 1 the Hermas of the New Testament, or 2
the brother of Pius I (139-54) or 3 a still later Hermas. All these
views have distinguished advocates, but this view of Jerome taken from
Origen through Eusebius is not much accepted.
 HermasA T 25 30 e; Herman Her. Val. a 31; Hermam H Cypr.
 Salute(omitting Asyncritus) A H T 25 30 31 a e etc. Cypr.; add
Asyncritus Val. Her. Greek from the New Testament.
 Hermes Patrobas Hermas A H T 25 30 a e Val. Gr. etc.; omit
Hermes. A Her.
 Salute...them Rom. 15. 14
Philo  the Jew, an Alexandrian of the priestly class, is placed
by us among the ecclesiastical writers on the ground that, writing a
book concerning the first church of Mark the evangelist at Alexandria,
he writes to our praise, declaring not only that they were there, but
also that they were in many provinces and calling their habitations
monasteries. From this  it appears that the church of those that
believed in Christ at first, was such as now the monks desire to
imitate,  that is, such that nothing is the peculiar property of
any one of them, none of them rich, none poor, that patrimonies are
divided among the needy, that they have leisure for prayer and psalms,
for doctrine also and ascetic practice, that they were in fact as Luke
declares believers were at first at Jerusalem. They say that under
Caius  Caligula he ventured to Rome, whither he had been sent as
legate of his nation, and that when a second time he had come to
Claudius, he spoke in the same city with the apostle Peter and enjoyed
his friendship, and for this reason also adorned the adherents of
Mark, Peter's disciple at Alexandria, with his praises. There are
distinguished and innumerable works by this man: On the five books of
Moses, one book Concerning the confusion of tongues, one book On
nature and invention, one book On the things which our senses desire
and we detest, one book On learning, one book On the heir of divine
things, one book On the division of equals and contraries, one book On
the three virtues, one book On why in Scripture the names of many
persons are changed, two books On covenants, one book On the life of a
wise man, one book Concerning giants, five books That dreams are sent
by God, five books of Questions and answers on Exodus, four books On
the tabernacle and the Decalogue, as well as books On victims and
promises or curses, On Providence, On the Jews, On the manner of one's
life, On Alexander, and That dumb beasts have right reason, and That
every fool should be a slave, and On the lives of the Christians, of
which we spoke above, that is, lives of apostolic men, which also he
entitled, On those who practice the divine life, because in truth they
contemplate divine things and ever pray to God, also under other
categories, two On agriculture, two On drunkenness. There are other
monuments of his genius which have not come to our hands. Concerning
him there is a proverb among the Greeks "Either Plato philonized, or
Philo platonized," that is, either Plato followed Philo, or Philo,
Plato, so great is the similarity of ideas and language.
 Visited Rome a.d. 40, and must have lived (Edersheim) ten or
fifteen years after his return.
 From this etc. Acts 2. 4; Acts 4. 32
 desire to imitate the mss.; strive to be Cypr. Fabr. Val., on
account of the difficult construction with imitate.
 CaiusCypr. Fabr. Val.; Gaius all the mss.; omit Her.
Lucius Annæus Seneca  of Cordova, disciple of the Stoic Sotion
 and uncle of Lucan the Poet, was a man of most continent life,
whom I should not place in the category of saints were it not that
those Epistles of Paul to Seneca and Seneca  to Paul, which are
read by many, provoke me. In these, written when he was tutor of Nero
and the most powerful man of that time, he says that he would like to
hold such a place among his countrymen as Paul held among Christians.
He was put to death by Nero two years before Peter and Paul were
crowned with martyrdom.
 Died 65.
 SotionCypr. Val. Her.; Phothion fotion, fotinus Socion or
Sozonis, the mss.
 and Seneca A H e a 21 10 Fabr. Val. etc.; or Seneca T 25 30 31
Josephus,  the son of Matthias, priest of Jerusalem, taken
prisoner by Vespasian and his son Titus, was banished. Coming to Rome
he presented to the emperors, father and son, seven books On the
captivity of the Jews, which were deposited in the public library and,
on account of his genius, was found worthy of a statue at Rome. He
wrote also twenty books of Antiquities, from the beginning of the
world until the fourteenth year of Domitian Cæsar, and two of
Antiquities against Appion, the grammarian of Alexandria who, under
Caligula, sent as legate on the part of the Gentiles against Philo,
wrote also a book containing a vituperation of the Jewish nation.
Another book of his entitled, On all ruling wisdom, in which the
martyr deaths of the Maccabeans are related is highly esteemed. In the
eighth book of his Antiquities he most openly acknowledges that Christ
was slain by the Pharisees on account of the greatness of his
miracles, that John the Baptist was truly a prophet, and that
Jerusalem was destroyed because of the murder of James the apostle. He
wrote also concerning the Lord after this fashion: "In this same time
was Jesus, a wise man, if indeed it be lawful to call him man. For he
was a worker of wonderful miracles, and a teacher of those who freely
receive the truth. He had very many adherents also, both of the Jews
and of the Gentiles, and was believed to be Christ, and when through
the envy of our chief men Pilate had crucified him, nevertheless those
who had loved him at first continued to the end, for he appeared to
them the third day alive. Many things, both these and other wonderful
things are in the songs of the prophets who prophesied concerning him
and the sect of Christians, so named from Him, exists to the present
 Born a.d. 37, died after 97.
Justus,   of Tiberias of the province Galilee, also
attempted to write a History of Jewish affairs and certain brief
Commentaries on the Scriptures but Josephus convicts him of falsehood.
It is known that he wrote at the same time as Josephus himself.
 Flourished 100.
 Justusa 21 10 Fabr. Val.; Justinus others.
Clement,  of whom the apostle Paul writing to the Philippians
says "With Clement and others of my fellow-workers whose names are
written in the book of life,"  the fourth bishop of Rome after
Peter, if indeed the second was Linus and the third Anacletus, 
although most of the Latins think that Clement was second after the
apostle.  He wrote, on the part of the church of Rome, an
especially valuable Letter to the church of the Corinthians, which in
some places is publicly read, and which seems to me to agree in style
with the epistle to the Hebrews which passes under the name of Paul
but it differs from this same epistle, not only in many of its ideas,
but also in respect of the order of words, and its likeness in either
respect is not very great. There is also a second Epistle under his
name which is rejected by earlier writers, and a Disputation between
Peter and Appion written out at length, which Eusebius in the third
book of his Church history rejects. He died in the third year of
Trajan and a church built at Rome preserves the memory of his name
unto this day.
 Bishop 91 or 2-101. Died 110 (Euseb. Ch. Hist.) It is by no
means certain that Clemens Romanus is the Clemens mentioned in the New
Testament. Compare discussions by Salmon in Smith and Wace, and
M'Giffert in his translation of Eusebius.
 With Clement...life Phil. 4. 3
 Anacletus Val. Fabr. Her.; Anencletus, Anincletus, Anenclitus,
H 25 31 e; Cletus (or Elitus). T 30 31; Anicletus, 10; Anecletus, A;
 apostle A H 25 30 31 a e; apostle Peter T Fabr. Val. Her.
Ignatius,  third bishop of the church of Antioch after Peter the
apostle, condemned to the wild beasts during the persecution of
Trajan, was sent bound to Rome, and when he had come on his voyage as
far as Smyrna, where Polycarp the pupil of John was bishop, he wrote
one epistle To the Ephesians, another To the Magnesians, a third To
the Trallians, a fourth To the Romans, and going thence, he wrote To
the Philadelphians and To the Smyrneans and especially To Polycarp,
commending to him the church at Antioch. In this last  he bore
witness to the Gospel which I have recently translated, in respect of
the person of Christ saying, "I indeed saw him in the flesh after the
resurrection and I believe that he is," and when he came to Peter and
those who were with Peter, he said to them "Behold! touch me and see
me how that I am not an incorporeal spirit" and straightway they
touched him and believed. Moreover it seems worth while inasmuch as we
have made mention of such a man and of the Epistle which he wrote to
the Romans, to give a few "quotations"  : "From Syria even unto
Rome I fight with wild beasts, by land and by sea, by night and by
day, being bound amidst ten leopards, that is to say soldiers who
guard me and who only become worse when they are well treated. Their
wrong doing, however is my schoolmaster, but I am not thereby
justified. May I have joy of the beasts that are prepared for me; and
I pray that I may find them ready; I will even coax them to devour me
quickly that they may not treat me as they have some whom they have
refused to touch through fear. And if they are unwilling, I will
compel them to devour me. Forgive me my children, I know what is
expedient for me. Now do I begin to be a disciple, and desire none of
the things visible that I may attain unto Jesus Christ. Let fire and
cross and attacks of wild beasts, let wrenching of bones, cutting
apart of limbs, crushing of the whole body, tortures  of the
devil,--let all these come upon me if only I may attain unto the joy
which is in Christ."
When he had been condemned to the wild beasts and with zeal for
martyrdom heard the lions roaring, he said "I am the grain of Christ.
I am ground by the teeth of the wild beasts that I may be found the
bread of the world." He was put to death the eleventh year of Trajan
and the remains of his body lie in Antioch outside the Daphnitic gate
in the cemetery.
 Bishop about 70, died about 107.
 In this last etc. Eusebius from whom he quotes says Smyrneans.
Lightfoot maintains that Jerome had never seen the Epistles of
 quotations etc. This is taken bodily from Eusebius. The
translation is M'Giffert's adapted to the Latin of Jerome.
 tortures A H T 25 30 31 e; all the tortures a. Fabr. Val. Her.
Polycarp  disciple of the apostle John and by him ordained
bishop of Smyrna was chief of all Asia, where he saw and had as
teachers some of the apostles and of those who had seen the Lord. He,
on account of certain questions concerning the day of the Passover,
went to Rome in the time of the emperor Antoninus Pius while Anicetus
ruled the church in that city. There he led back to the faith many of
the believers who had been deceived through the persuasion of Marcion
and Valentinus, and when Marcion met him by chance and said "Do you
know us" he replied, "I know the firstborn of the devil." Afterwards
during the reign of Marcus Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus in
the fourth persecution after Nero, in the presence of the proconsul
holding court at Smyrna and all the people crying out against him in
the Amphitheater, he was burned. He wrote a very valuable Epistle to
the Philippians which is read to the present day in the meetings in
 Bishop 106 or 7--157-168 (?); 154 sq (Lipsius) Authorities
differ as to dates of his death from 147-175. Bishop certainly
Papias,  the pupil of John, bishop of Hierapolis in Asia, wrote
only five volumes, which he entitled Exposition of the words of our
Lord, in which, when he had asserted in his preface that he did not
follow various opinions but had the apostles for authority, he said "I
considered what Andrew and Peter said, what Philip, what Thomas, what
James, what John,  what Matthew or any one else among the
disciples of our Lord, what also Aristion and the elder John,
disciples of the Lord had said, not so much that I have their books to
read, as that their living voice is heard until the present day in the
authors themselves." It appears through this catalogue of names that
the John who is placed among the disciples is not the same as the
elder John whom he places after Aristion in his enumeration. This we
say moreover because of the opinion mentioned above, where we record
that it is declared by many that the last two epistles of John are the
work not of the apostle but of the presbyter.
He is said to have published a Second coming of Our Lord or
Millennium. Irenæus and Apollinaris and others who say that after the
resurrection the Lord will reign in the flesh with the saints, follow
him. Tertullian also in his work On the hope of the faithful,
Victorinus of Petau and Lactantius follow this view.
 130 (Salmon).
 what John A H 25 30 31 a e; omit T Her.
Quadratus,  disciple of the apostles, after Publius bishop of
Athens had been crowned with martyrdom on account of his faith in
Christ, was substituted in his place, and by his faith and industry
gathered the church scattered by reason of its great fear. And when
Hadrian passed the winter at Athens to witness the Eleusinian
mysteries and was initiated into almost all the sacred mysteries of
Greece, those who hated the Christians took opportunity without
instructions from the Emperor to harass the believers. At this time he
presented to Hadrian a work composed in behalf of our religion,
indispensable, full of sound argument and faith and worthy of the
apostolic teaching. In which, illustrating the antiquity of his
period, he says that he has seen many who, oppressed by various ills,
were healed by the Lord in Judea as well as some who had been raised
from the dead.
 Flourished 126 (125)? Not the Athenian bishop (Salmon). Work
Aristides  a most eloquent Athenian philosopher, and a disciple
of Christ while yet retaining his philosopher's garb, presented a work
to Hadrian at the same time that Quadratus presented his. The work
contained a systematic statement of our doctrine, that is, an Apology
for the Christians, which is still extant and is regarded by
philologians as a monument to his genius.
 Flourished 125, apology presented about 133.
Agrippa  surnamed Castor, a man of great learning, wrote a
strong refutation of the twenty-four volumes which Basilides the
heretic had written against the Gospel, disclosing all his mysteries
and enumerating the prophets Barcabbas and Barchob  and all the
other barbarous names which terrify the hearers, and his most high God
Abraxas, whose name was supposed to contain the year according to the
reckoning  of the Greeks. Basilides died at Alexandria in the
reign of Hadrian, and from him the Gnostic sects arose. In this
tempestuous time also, Cochebas leader of the Jewish faction put
Christians to death with various tortures.
 Flourished about 130 or 135.
 Various readings are Barcobus, Barcobeth, Barcho et, Bascobus
 reckoning all but T and Her. which have nomenclature.
Hegesippus  who lived at a period not far from the Apostolic
age, writing a History of all ecclesiastical events from the passion
of our Lord, down to his own period, and gathering many things useful
to the reader, composed five volumes in simple style, trying to
represent the style of speaking of those whose lives he treated. He
says that he went to Rome in the time of Anicetus, the tenth bishop
after Peter, and continued there till the time of Eleutherius, bishop
of the same city, who had been formerly deacon under Anicetus.
Moreover, arguing against idols, he wrote a history, showing from what
error they had first arisen, and this work indicates in what age he
flourished.  He says, "They built monuments and temples to their
dead as we see up to the present day,  such as the one to
Antinous, servant to the Emperor Hadrian, in whose honour also games
were celebrated, and a city founded bearing his name, and a temple
with priests established." The Emperor Hadrian is said to have been
enamoured of Antinous.
 Died 180. Wrote his history in part before 167, and published
 He flourished T H a e 25 30 Val. Fabr.; They flourished Her.
 up to the present day A H 31 e a; to day T 25 30.
Justin,  a philosopher, and wearing the garb of philosopher, a
citizen of Neapolis, a city of Palestine, and the son of Priscus
Bacchius, laboured strenuously in behalf of the religion of Christ,
insomuch that he delivered to Antoninus Pius and his sons and the
senate, a work written Against the nations, and did not shun the
ignominy of the cross. He addressed another book also to the
successors of this Antoninus, Marcus Antoninus Verus and Lucius
Aurelius Commodus. Another volume of his Against the nations, is also
extant, where he discusses the nature of demons, and a fourth against
the nations which he entitled, Refutation and yet another On the
sovereignty of God, and another book which he entitled, Psaltes, and
another On the Soul, the Dialogue against the Jews, which he held
against Trypho, the leader of the Jews, and also notable volumes
Against Marcion, which Irenæus also mentions in the fourth book 
Against heresies, also another book Against all heresies which he
mentions in the Apology which is addressed to Antoninus Pius. He, when
he had held diatribas in the city of Rome, and had convicted Crescens
the cynic, who said many blasphemous things against the Christians, of
gluttony and fear of death, and had proved him devoted to luxury and
lusts, at last, accused of being a Christian, through the efforts and
wiles of Crescens, he shed his blood for Christ.
 Born about 104 (100?), Christian 133 (before 132 Holland) wrote
apology about 150, died 167.
 fourth book A T 25 30 Val. Her.; fifth H 31 a e Fabr. and early
editions; The right reference is probably Bk. 4 ch. 10 but he himself
is mentioned in book 5 and it is likely Jerome wrote 5.
Melito  of Asia, bishop of Sardis, addressed a book to the
emperor Marcus Antoninus Verus, a disciple of Fronto the orator, in
behalf of the Christian doctrine. He wrote other things also, among
which are the following: On the passover, two books, one book On the
lives of the prophets, one book On the church,  one book On the
Lord's day, one book On faith, one book On the psalms (?) one On the
senses, one On the soul and body, one On baptism, one On truth, one On
the generation of Christ, On His prophecy  one On hospitality
and another which is called the Key--one On the devil, one On the
Apocalypse of John, one On the corporeality of God, and six books of
Eclogues. Of his fine oratorical genius, Tertullian, in the seven
books which he wrote against the church on behalf of Montanus,
satirically says that he was considered a prophet by many of us.
 Bishop about 150, died between 171 and 180.
 On the church A 25 30 e a; omit T 3l e a [H].
 On truth...prophecy A H 25 30 31 e a Val. etc; omit T Her.
Theophilus,  sixth bishop of the church of Antioch, in the reign
of the emperor Marcus Antoninus Verus composed a book Against Marcion,
which is still extant, also three volumes To Autolycus and one Against
the heresy of Hermogenes and other short and elegant treatises, well
fitted for the edification of the church. I have read, under his name,
commentaries On the Gospel and On the proverbs of Solomon which do not
appear to me to correspond in style and language with the elegance and
expressiveness of the above works.
 Bishop in 168, died after 181 (some 176-86).
Apollinaris,  bishop of Hierapolis in Asia, flourished in the
reign of Marcus Antoninus Verus, to whom he addressed a notable volume
in behalf of the faith of the Christians. There are extant also five
other books of his Against the Nations, two On truth andAgainst the
Cataphrygians written at the time when Montanus was making a beginning
with Prisca and Maximilla.
 Claudius Apollinaris died before 180.
Dionysius,  bishop of the church of Corinth, was of so great
eloquence and industry that he taught not only the people of his own
city and province but also those of other provinces and cities by his
letters. Of these one is To the Lacedæmonians, another To the
Athenians, a third To the Nicomedians, a fourth To the Cretans, a
fifth To the church at Amastrina and to the other churches of Pontus,
a sixth To the Gnosians and to Pinytus bishop of the same city, a
seventh To the Romans, addressed to Soter their bishop, an eighth To
Chrysophora a holy woman. He flourished in the reign of Marcus
Antoninus Verus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus.
 Bishop about 170, died about 180.
Pinytus  of Crete, bishop of the city of Gnosus, wrote to
Dionysius bishop of the Corinthians, an exceedingly elegant letter in
which he teaches that the people are not to be forever fed on milk,
lest by chance they be overtaken by the last day while yet infants,
but that they ought to be fed also on solid food, that they may go on
to a spiritual old age. He flourished under Marcus Antoninus Verus and
Lucius Aurelius Commodus. 
 Died about 180.
 That they may go on...Commodus A 25 30 31 e a Fabr. Val; omit T
Tatian  who, while teaching oratory, won not a little glory in
the rhetorical art, was a follower of Justin Martyr and was
distinguished so long as he did not leave his master's side. But
afterwards, inflated  by a swelling of eloquence, he founded a
new heresy which is called that of the Encratites, the heresy which
Severus afterwards augmented in such wise that heretics of this party
are called Severians to the present day. Tatian wrote besides
innumerable volumes, one of which, a most successful book Against the
nations, is extant, and this is considered the most significant of all
his works. He flourished in the reign of Marcus Antoninus Verus and
Lucius Aurelius Commodus.
 Born about 130, died after 172.
 inflated A H 30 31 a e Val etc.; elated T 25 Her.
Philip  bishop of Crete, that is of the city of Gortina, whom
Dionysius mentions in the epistle which he wrote to the church of the
same city, published a remarkable book Against Marcion and flourished
in the time of Marcus Antoninus Verus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus.
 Bishop about 160, died about 180.
Musanus,  not inconsiderable among those who have written on
ecclesiastical doctrine, in the reign of Marcus Antoninus Verus wrote
a book to certain brethren who had turned aside from the church to the
heresy of the Encratites.
 Flourished 204?
Modestus  also in the reign of Marcus Antoninus and Lucius
Aurelius Commodus wrote a book Against Marcion which is still extant.
Some other compositions pass under his name but are regarded by
scholars as spurious.
 Flourished 180-190.
Bardesanes  of Mesopotamia is reckoned among the distinguished
men. He was at first a follower of Valentinus and afterwards his
opponent and himself founded a new heresy. He has the reputation among
the Syrians of having been a brilliant genius and vehement in
argument. He wrote a multitude of works against almost all heresies
which had come into existence in his time. Among these a most
remarkable and strong work is the one which he addressed to Marcus
Antoninus On fate, and many other volumes On persecution which his
followers translated from the Syriac language into Greek. If indeed so
much force and brilliancy appears in the translation, how great it
must have been in the original.
 Flourished about 172.
Victor,  thirteenth bishop of Rome, wrote, On the Paschal
Controversy and some other small works. He ruled the church for ten
years in the reign of the Emperor Severus.
 Bishop about 190 (or 185 according to others) died 202 or 197.
Irenæus,  a presbyter under Pothinus the bishop who ruled the
church of Lyons in Gaul, being sent to Rome as legate by the martyrs
of this place, on account of certain ecclesiastical questions,
presented to Bishop Eleutherius certain letters under his own name
which are worthy of honour. Afterwards when Pothinus, nearly ninety
years of age, received the crown of martyrdom for Christ, he was put
in his place. It is certain too that he was a disciple of Polycarp,
the priest and martyr, whom we mentioned above. He wrote five books
Against heresies and a short volume, Against the nations and another
On discipline, a letter to Marcianus his brother On apostolical
preaching, a book of Various treatises; also to Blastus, On schism,
 to Florinus On monarchy or That God is not the author of evil,
also an excellent Commentary on the Ogdoad  at the end of which
indicating that he was near the apostolic period he wrote "I adjure
thee whosoever shall transcribe this book, by our Lord Jesus Christ
and by his glorious advent at which He shall judge the quick and the
dead, that you diligently compare, after you have transcribed, and
amend it according to the copy from which you have transcribed it and
also that you shall similarly transcribe this adjuration as you find
it in your pattern." Other works of his are in circulation to wit: to
Victor the Roman bishop On the Paschal controversy in which he warns
him not lightly to break the unity of the fraternity, if indeed Victor
believed that the many bishops of Asia and the East, who with the Jews
celebrated the passover, on the fourteenth day of the new moon, were
to be condemned. But even those who differed from them did not support
Victor in his opinion. He flourished chiefly in the reign of the
Emperor Commodus, who succeeded Marcus Antoninus Verus in power.
 Born between 140 and 145, died 202 or later.
 schismH A 31 a e Val. Eusebius etc: chrism A T 25 30.
 Ogdoad"Octava" is translation for "Ogdoad" used by Eusebius and
explained to refer to the Valentinian Ogdoads. (M'Giffert.)
Pantaenus,  a philosopher of the stoic school, according to some
old Alexandrian custom, where, from the time of  Mark the
evangelist the ecclesiastics were always doctors, was of so great
prudence and erudition both in scripture and secular literature that,
on the request of the legates of that nation, he was sent to India by
Demetrius bishop of Alexandria, where he found that Bartholomew, one
of the twelve apostles, had preached the advent of the Lord Jesus
according to the gospel of Matthew, and on his return to Alexandria he
brought this with him written in Hebrew characters. Many of his
commentaries on Holy Scripture are indeed extant, but his living voice
was of still greater benefit to the churches. He taught in the reigns
of the emperor Severus and Antoninus surnamed Caracalla.
 At Alexandria about 179, died about 216.
 T reads following the example of and makes a more manageable
Rhodo,  a native of Asia, instructed in the Scriptures at Rome
by Tatian whom we mentioned above, published many things especially a
work Against Marcion in which he tells how the Marcionites differ from
one another as well as from the church and says that the aged Apelles,
another heretic, was once engaged in a discussion with him, and that
he, Rhodo, held Apelles up to ridicule because he declared that he did
not know the God whom he worshipped. He mentioned in the same book,
which he wrote to Callistion, that he had been a pupil of Tatian at
Rome. He also composed elegant treatises On the six days of creation
and a notable work against the Phrygians.  He flourished in the
reigns of Commodus and Severus.
 Flourished 186.
 Phrygians A 31 a e with Eusebius; Cataphrygians T 25 30
"according to the usage of the Latins" (cf. M'Giffert).
Clemens,  presbyter of the Alexandrian church, and a pupil of
the Pantaenus mentioned above, led the theological school at
Alexandria after the death of his master and was teacher of the
Catechetes. He is the author of notable volumes, full of eloquence and
learning, both in sacred Scripture and in secular literature; among
these are the Stromata, eight books, Hypotyposes eight books, Against
the nations one book, On pedagogy  three books, On the Passover,
Disquisition on fasting and another book entitled, What rich man is
saved? one book On Calumny, On ecclesiastical canons and against those
who follow the error of the Jews, one book which he addressed to
Alexander bishop of Jerusalem. He also mentions in his volumes of
Stromata the work of Tatian Against the nations which we mentioned
above and a Chronography of one Cassianus, a work which I have not
been able to find. He also mentioned certain Jewish writers against
the nations, one Aristobulus and Demetrius and Eupolemus who after the
example of Josephus asserted the primacy of Moses and the Jewish
people. There is a letter of Alexander the bishop of Jerusalem who
afterwards ruled the church with Narcissus, on the ordination of
Asclepiades the confessor, addressed to the Antiochians congratulating
them, at the end of which he says "these writings honoured 
brethren I have sent to you by the blessed presbyter Clement, a man
illustrious and approved, whom you also know and with whom now you
will become better acquainted a man who, when he had come hither by
the special providence of God, strengthened and enlarged the church of
God." Origen is known to have been his disciple. He flourished
moreover during the reigns of Severus and his son Antoninus.
 Born about 160, died about 217.
 On pedagogy = "The Instructor."
 honoured literally "lordly" perhaps like the conventional
formula "Lords and brethren."
Miltiades  of whom Rhodo gives an account in the work which he
wrote against Montanus, Prisca and Maximilla, wrote a considerable
volume against these same persons, and other books Against the nations
and the Jews and addressed an Apology to the then ruling emperors. He
flourished in the reign of Marcus Antoninus and Commodus.
 Flourished 180-190.
Apollonius,  an exceedingly talented man, wrote against
Montanus, Prisca and Maximilla a notable and lengthy volume, in which
he asserts that Montanus and his mad prophetesses died by hanging, and
many other things, among which are the following concerning Prisca and
Maximilla, "if they denied that they have accepted gifts, let them
confess that those who do accept are not prophets and I will prove by
a thousand witnesses that they have received gifts, for it is by other
fruits that prophets are shown to be prophets indeed. Tell me, does a
prophet dye his hair? Does a prophet stain her eyelids with antimony?
Is a prophet adorned with fine garments and precious stones? Does a
prophet play with dice and tables? Does he accept usury? Let them
respond whether this ought to be permitted or not, it will be my task
to prove that they do these things." He says in the same book, that
the time when he wrote the work was the fortieth year after the
beginning of the heresy of the Cataphrygians. Tertullian added to the
six volumes which he wrote On ecstasy against the church a seventh,
directed especially against Apollonius, in which he attempts to defend
all which Apollonius refuted. Apollonius flourished in the reigns of
Commodus and Severus.
 Bishop about 196, flourished 210.
Serapion,  ordained bishop of Antioch in the eleventh year of
the emperor Commodus, wrote a letter to Caricus and Pontius  on
the heresy of Montanus, in which he said "that you may know moreover
that the madness of this false doctrine, that is the doctrine of a new
prophecy, is reprobated by all the world, I have sent to you the
letters of the most holy Apollinaris bishop of Hierapolis in Asia." He
wrote a volume also to Domnus, who in time of persecution went over to
the Jews, and another work on the gospel which passes under the name
of Peter, a work to the church of the Rhosenses in Cilicia who by the
reading of this book had turned aside to heresy. There are here and
there short letters of his, harmonious in character with the ascetic
life of their author.
 Bishop 199, died 211.
 Caricus and Pontius. So Valesius and others with Eusebius but
mss. except "a" have Carinus and it is interesting to note that the
same ms. reads Ponticus with most mss. of Eusebius.
Apollonius,  a Roman senator under the emperor Commodus, having
been denounced by a slave as a Christian, gained permission to give a
reason for his faith and wrote a remarkable volume which he read in
the senate, yet none the less, by the will of the senate, he was
beheaded for Christ by virtue of an ancient law among them, that
Christians who had once been brought before their judgment seat should
not be dismissed unless they recanted.
 Died about 185.
Theophilus,  bishop of Cæsarea in Palestine, the city formerly
called Turris Stratonis, in the reign of the emperor Severus wrote, in
conjunction with other bishops, a synodical letter of great utility
against those who celebrated the passover with the Jews on the
fourteenth day of the month.
 Died about 190.
Bacchylus,  bishop of Corinth, was held in renown under the same
emperor Severus, and wrote, as representative of all the bishops who
were in Achaia, an elegant work On the passover.
 Bishop about 190-200.
Polycrates  bishop of the Ephesians with other bishops of Asia
who in accordance with some ancient custom celebrated the passover
with the Jews on the fourteenth of the month, wrote a synodical letter
against Victor bishop of Rome in which he says that he follows the
authority of the apostle John and of the ancients. From this we make
the following brief quotations, "We therefore celebrate the day
according to usage, inviolably, neither adding anything to nor taking
anything from it, for in Asia lie the remains of the greatest saints
of those who shall rise again on the day of the Lord, when he shall
come in majesty from heaven and shall quicken all the saints, I mean
Philip one of the twelve apostles who sleeps at Hierapolis and his two
daughters who were virgins until their death and another daughter of
his who died at Ephesus full of the Holy Spirit. And John too, who lay
on Our Lord's breast and was his high priest carrying the golden
frontlet on his forehead, both martyr and doctor, fell asleep at
Ephesus and Polycarp bishop and martyr died at Smyrna. Thraseas of
Eumenia also, bishop and martyr, rests in the same Smyrna. What need
is there of mentioning Sagaris, bishop and martyr, who sleeps in
Laodicea and the blessed Papyrus and Melito, eunuch in the Holy
Spirit, who, ever serving the Lord, was laid to rest in Sardis and
there awaits his resurrection at Christ's advent. These all observed
the day of the passover on the fourteenth of the month, in nowise
departing from the evangelical tradition and following the
ecclesiastical canon. I also, Polycrates, the least of all your
servants, according to the doctrine of my relatives which I also have
followed (for there were seven of my relatives bishops indeed and I
the eighth) have always celebrated the passover when the Jewish people
celebrated the putting away of the leaven. And so brethren being
sixty-five years old in the Lord and instructed by many brethren from
all parts of the world, and having searched all the Scriptures, I will
not fear those who threaten us, for my predecessors said "It is
fitting to obey God rather than men." I quote this to show through a
small example the genius and authority of the man. He flourished in
the reign of the emperor Severus in the same period as Narcissus of
 Bishop about 196.
Heraclitus  in the reign of Commodus and Severus wrote
commentaries on the Acts and Epistles.
 Flourished about 193.
Maximus,  under the same emperors propounded in a remarkable
volume the famous questions, What is the origin of evil? and Whether
matter is made by God.
 Bishop of Jerusalem 185.
Candidus  under the above mentioned emperors published most
admirable treatises On the six days of creation.
 Flourished about 196.
Appion  under the emperor Severus likewise wrote treatises On
the six days of creation.
 Flourished about 196.
Sextus  in the reign of the emperor Severus wrote a book On the
 Flourished about 196.
Arabianus  under the same emperor published certain small works
relating to christian doctrine.
 Flourished about 196.
Judas,  discussed at length the seventy weeks mentioned in
Daniel and wrote a Chronography of former times which he brought up to
the tenth year of Severus. He is convicted of error in respect of this
work in that he prophesied that the advent of Anti-Christ would be
about his period, but this was because the greatness of the
persecutions seemed to forebode the end of the world.
Tertullian  the presbyter, now regarded as chief of the Latin
writers after Victor and Apollonius, was from the city of Carthage in
the province of Africa, and was the son of a proconsul or Centurion, a
man of keen and vigorous character, he flourished chiefly in the reign
of the emperor Severus and Antoninus Caracalla and wrote many volumes
which we pass by because they are well known to most. I myself have
seen a certain Paul an old man of Concordia, a town of Italy, who,
while he himself was a very young man had been secretary to the
blessed Cyprian who was already advanced in age. He said that he
himself had seen how Cyprian was accustomed never to pass a day
without reading Tertullian, and that he frequently said to him, "Give
me the master," meaning by this, Tertullian. He was presbyter of the
church until middle life, afterwards driven by the envy and abuse of
the clergy of the Roman church, he lapsed to the doctrine of Montanus,
and mentions the new prophecy in many of his books.
He composed, moreover, directly against the church, volumes: On
modesty, On persecution, On fasts, On monogamy, six books On ecstasy,
and a seventh which he wrote Against Apollonius. He is said to have
lived to a decrepit old age, and to have composed many small works,
which are not extant.
 Born about 160, christian 195, apology 198, died about 245.
Origen,  surnamed Adamantius, a persecution having been raised
against the Christians in the tenth year of Severus Pertinax, and his
father Leonidas having received the crown of martyrdom for Christ, was
left at the age of about seventeen, with his six brothers and widowed
mother, in poverty, for their property had been confiscated because of
confessing Christ. When only eighteen years old, he undertook the work
of instructing the Catechetes in the scattered churches of Alexandria.
Afterwards appointed by Demetrius, bishop of this city, successor to
the presbyter Clement, he flourished many years. When he had already
reached middle life, on account of the churches of Achaia, which were
torn with many heresies, he was journeying to Athens, by way of
Palestine, under the authority of an ecclesiastical letter, and having
been ordained presbyter by Theoctistus and Alexander, bishops of
Cæsarea and Jerusalem, he offended Demetrius, who was so wildly
enraged at him that he wrote everywhere to injure his reputation. It
is known that before he went to Cæsarea, he had been at Rome, under
bishop Zephyrinus. Immediately on his return to Alexandria he made
Heraclas the presbyter, who continued to wear his philosopher's garb,
his assistant in the school for catechetes. Heraclas became bishop of
the church of Alexandria, after Demetrius. How great the glory of
Origen was, appears from the fact that Firmilianus, bishop of Cæsarea,
with all the Cappadocian bishops, sought a visit from him, and
entertained him for a long while. Sometime afterwards, going to
Palestine to visit the holy places, he came to Cæsarea  and was
instructed at length by Origen in the Holy Scriptures. It appears also
from the fact that he went to Antioch, on the request of Mammaea,
mother of the Emperor Alexander, and a woman religiously disposed, and
was there held in great honour, and sent letters to the Emperor
Philip, who was the first among the Roman rulers, to become a
christian, and to his mother, letters which are still extant. Who is
there, who does not also know that he was so assiduous in the study of
Holy Scriptures, that contrary to the spirit of his time, and of his
people, he learned the Hebrew language, and taking the Septuagint
translation, he gathered the other translations also in a single work,
namely, that of Aquila, of Ponticus the Proselyte, and Theodotian the
Ebonite, and Symmachus an adherent of the same sect who wrote
commentaries also on the gospel according to Matthew, from which he
tried to establish his doctrine. And besides these, a fifth, sixth,
and seventh translation, which we also have from his library, he
sought out with great diligence, and compared with other editions. And
since I have given a list of his works, in the volumes of letters
which I have written to Paula, in a letter which I wrote against the
works of Varro, I pass this by now, not failing however, to make
mention of his immortal genius, how that he understood dialectics, as
well as geometry, arithmetic, music, grammar, and rhetoric, and taught
all the schools of philosophers, in such wise that he had also
diligent students in secular literature, and lectured to them daily,
and the crowds which flocked to him were marvellous. These, he
received in the hope that through the instrumentality of this secular
literature, he might establish them in the faith of Christ.
It is unnecessary to speak of the cruelty of that persecution which
was raised against the Christians and under Decius, who was mad
against the religion of Philip, whom he had slain,--the persecution in
which Fabianus, bishop of the Roman church, perished at Rome, and
Alexander and Babylas, Pontifs of the churches of Jerusalem and
Antioch, were imprisoned for their confession of Christ. If any one
wishes to know what was done in regard to the position of Origen, he
can clearly learn, first indeed from his own epistles, which after the
persecution, were sent to different ones, and secondly, from the sixth
book of the church history of Eusebius of Cæsarea, and from his six
volumes in behalf of the same Origen.
He lived until the time of Gallus and Volusianus, that is, until his
sixty-ninth year, and died at Tyre, in which city he also was buried.
 Born at Alexandria 185, died at Tyre 253.
 Cæsarea. Cæsarea in Palestine.
Ammonius,  a talented man of great philosophical learning, was
distinguished at Alexandria, at the same time. Among many and
distinguished monuments of his genius, is the elaborate work which he
composed On the harmony of Moses and Jesus, and the Gospel canons,
which he worked out, and which Eusebius of Cæsarea, afterwards
followed. Porphyry falsely accused him of having become a heathen
again, after being a Christian, but it is certain that he continued a
Christian until the very end of his life.
 Flourished 220.
Ambrosius,  at first a Marcionite but afterwards set right by
Origen, was deacon in the church, and gloriously distinguished as
confessor of the Lord. To him, together with Protoctetus the
presbyter, the book of Origen, On martyrdom was written. Aided 
by his industry, funds, and perseverance, Origen dictated a great
number of volumes. He himself, as befits a man of noble nature, was of
no mean literary talent, as his letters to Origen indicate. He died
moreover, before the death of Origen, and is condemned by many, in
that being a man of wealth, he did not at death, remember in his will,
his old and needy friend.
 Died about 250.
 aideda T e Val. Her.; "and to him" A H 25 30; "and to this
time" a 31.
Trypho,  pupil of Origen, to whom some of his extant letters are
addressed, was very learned in the Scriptures, and this many of his
works show here and there, but especially the book which he composed
On the red heifer  in Deuteronomy, and On the halves, which with
the pigeon and the turtledoves were offered by Abraham as recorded in
 Flourished about 240.
 red heifer Numb. 19. 2. (?) or Deut. Ch. 21.
 Genesis 15. 9-10.
Minucius  Felix, a distinguished advocate of Rome, wrote a
dialogue representing a discussion between a Christian and a Gentile,
which is entitled Octavius, and still another work passes current in
his name, On fate, or Against the mathematicians, but this although it
is the work of a talented man, does not seem to me to correspond in
style with the above mentioned work. Lactantius also mentions this
Minucius in his works.
 Flourished 196?
Gaius,  bishop of Rome, in the time of Zephyrinus, that is, in
the reign of Antoninus, the son of Severus, delivered a very notable
disputation Against Proculus, the follower of Montanus, convicting him
of temerity in his defence of the new prophecy, and in the same volume
also enumerating only thirteen epistles of Paul, says that the
fourteenth, which is now called, To the Hebrews, is not by him, and is
not considered among the Romans to the present day as being by the
 Died about 217.
Beryllus,  bishop of Bostra in Arabia, after he had ruled the
church gloriously  for a little while, finally lapsed into the
heresy which denies that Christ existed before the incarnation. Set
right by Origen, he wrote various short works, especially letters, in
which he thanks Origen. The letters of Origen to him, are also extant,
and a dialogue between Origen and Beryllus as well, in which heresies
are discussed. He was distinguished during the reign of Alexander, son
of Mammaea, and Maximinus and Gordianus, who succeeded him in power.
 Flourished about 230.
 gloriously A 31 e a 10 21 Bamb. Norimb. Val.; omit T 25 30 H
Hippolytus,  bishop of some church (the name of the city I have
not been able to learn) wrote A reckoning of the Paschal feast and
chronological tables which he worked out up to the first year of the
Emperor Alexander. He also discussed the cycle of sixteen years, which
the Greeks called ekkaidekaeterida and gave the cue to Eusebius, who
composed on the same Paschal feast a cycle of nineteen years, that is
enneakaidekaeterida. He wrote some commentaries on the Scriptures,
among which are the following: On the six days of creation, On Exodus,
On the Song of Songs, On Genesis, On Zechariah, On the Psalms, On
Isaiah, On Daniel, On the Apocalypse, On the Proverbs, On
Ecclesiastes, On Saul, On the Pythonissa, On the Antichrist, On the
resurrection, Against Marcion, On the Passover, Against all heresies,
and an exhortation On the praise of our Lord and Saviour, in which he
indicates that he is speaking in the church in the presence of Origen.
Ambrosius, who we have said was converted by Origen from the heresy of
Marcion, to the true faith, urged Origen to write, in emulation of
Hyppolytus, commentaries on the Scriptures, offering him seven, and
even more secretaries, and their expenses, and an equal number of
copyists, and what is still more, with incredible zeal, daily exacting
work from him, on which account Origen, in one of his epistles, calls
him his "Taskmaster."
 Bishop 217-8, died 229-38.
Alexander,  bishop of Cappadocia, desiring to visit the Holy
Land, came to Jerusalem, at the time when Narcissus, bishop of this
city, already an old man, ruled the church. It was revealed to
Narcissus and many of his clergy, that on the morning of the next day,
a bishop would enter the city, who should be assistant on the
sacerdotal throne. And so it came to pass, as it was predicted, and
all the bishops of Palestine being gathered together, Narcissus
himself being especially urgent, Alexander took with him the helm of
the church of Jerusalem. At the end of one of his epistles, written to
the Antinoites On the peace of the church, he says "Narcissus, who
held the bishopric here before me, and now with me exercises his
office by his prayers, being about a hundred and sixteen years old,
salutes you, and with me begs you to become of one mind." He wrote
another also To the Antiocheans, by the hand of Clement, the presbyter
of Alexandria, of whom we spoke above, another also To Origen, and In
behalf of Origen against Demetrius, called forth by the fact that,
according to the testimony of Demetrius, he had made Origen presbyter.
There are other epistles of his to different persons. In the seventh
persecution under Decius, at the time when Babylas of Antioch was put
to death, brought to Cæsarea and shut up in prison, he received the
crown of martyrdom for confessing Christ.
 Bishop at Jerusalem 212, died 250.
Julius Africanus,  whose five volumes On Chronology, are yet
extant, in the reign of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, who succeeded
Macrinus, received a commission to restore the city of Emmaus, which
afterwards was called Nicopolis. There is an epistle of his to Origen,
On the question of Susanna, where it is contended that this story is
not contained in the Hebrew, and is not consistent with the Hebrew
etymology in respect of the play on "prinos and prisai," "schinos and
schisai." In reply to this, Origen wrote a learned epistle. There is
extant another letter of his, To Aristides, in which he discusses at
length the discrepancies, which appear in the genealogy of our
Saviour, as recorded by Matthew and Luke.
Geminus,  presbyter of the church at Antioch, composed a few
monuments of his genius, flourishing in the time of the Emperor
Alexander and Zebennus, bishop of his city, especially at the time at
which Heraclas was ordained Pontiff of the church at Alexandria.
 Presbyter at Antioch about 232.
Theodorus,  afterwards called Gregory, bishop of Neocæsarea in
Pontus, while yet a very young man, in company with his brother
Athenodorus, went from Cappadocia to Berytus, and thence to Cæsarea in
Palestine, to study Greek and Latin literature. When Origen had seen
the remarkable natural ability of these men, he urged them to study
philosophy, in the teaching of which he gradually introduced the
matter of faith in Christ, and made them also his followers. So,
instructed by him for five years, they were sent back by him to their
mother. Theodorus, on his departure, wrote a panegyric of thanks to
Origen, and delivered it before a large assembly, Origen himself being
present. This panegyric is extant at the present day.
He wrote also a short, but very valuable, paraphrase On Ecclesiastes,
and current report speaks of other epistles of his, but more
especially of the signs and wonders, which as bishop, he performed to
the great glory of the churches.
 Gregory of Neocesarea, born 210-15, bishop 240, died about 270.
Cornelius,  bishop of Rome, to whom eight letters of Cyprian are
extant, wrote a letter to Fabius,  bishop of the church at
Antioch, On the Roman, Italian, and African councils, and another On
Novatian and those who had fallen from the faith, a third On the acts
of the council, and a fourth very prolix one to the same Fabius,
containing the causes of the Novatian heresy and an anathema of it. He
ruled the church for two years under Gallus and Volusianus. He
received the crown of martyrdom for Christ, and was succeeded by
 Bishop 251, died 252.
 Fabius. Some mss. Fabianus.
Cyprian  of Africa, at first was famous as a teacher of
rhetoric, and afterwards on the persuasion of the presbyter Caecilius,
from whom he received his surname, he became a Christian, and gave all
his substance to the poor. Not long after he was inducted into the
presbytery, and was also made bishop of Carthage. It is unnecessary to
make a catalogue of the works of his genius, since they are more
conspicuous than the sun.
He was put to death under the Emperors Valerian and Gallienus, in the
eighth persecution, on the same day that Cornelius was put to death at
Rome, but not in the same year.
 Born about 200, bishop 248, died at Carthage 258.
Pontius,  deacon of Cyprian, sharing his exile until the day of
his death, left a notable volume On the life and death of Cyprian.
 Died about 260.
Dionysius,  bishop of Alexandria, as presbyter had charge of the
catechetical school under Heraclas, and was the most distinguished
pupil of Origen. Consenting to the doctrine of Cyprian and the African
synod, on the rebaptizing  of heretics, he sent many letters to
different people, which are yet extant; He wrote one to Fabius, bishop
of the church at Antioch, On penitence, another To the Romans, by the
hand of Hippolytus, two letters To Xystus, who had succeeded Stephen,
two also To Philemon and Dionysius, presbyters of the church at Rome,
and another To the same Dionysius, afterwards bishop of Rome; and To
Novatian, treating of their claim that Novatian had been ordained
bishop of Rome, against his will. The beginning of this epistle is as
follows: "Dionysius to Novatian, his brother greeting. If you have
been ordained unwillingly, as you say, you will prove it, when you
shall willingly retire."
There is another epistle of his also To Dionysius and Didymus, and
many Festal epistles on the passover, written in a declamatory style,
also one to the church of Alexandria On exile, one To Hierax, 
bishop in Egypt, and yet others On mortality, On the Sabbath, andOn
the gymnasium, also one To Hermammon and others On the persecution of
Decius, and two books Against Nepos the bishop, who asserted in his
writings a thousand years reign in the body. Among other things he
diligently discussed the Apocalypse of John, and wrote Against
Sabellius and To Ammon, bishop of Bernice, and To Telesphorus, also To
Euphranor, also four books To Dionysius, bishop of Rome, to the
Laodiceans On penitence, to Origen On martyrdom, to the Armenians On
penitence,  also On the order of transgression, to Timothy On
nature, to Euphranor On temptation, many letters also To Basilides, in
one of which he asserts that he also began to write commentaries on
Ecclesiastes. The notable epistle which he wrote against Paul of
Samosata, a few days before his death is also current. He died in the
twelfth year of Gallienus.
 Presbyter 232, exiled 250 and 257, died 265.
 rebaptizing a e Val. Her.; baptizing A? H T 25 30 31.
 Hieraxe Euseb. Val. Her. Heraclas A H T 25 30 31.
 penitence A T 25 30 a Her.; penitence likewise Canon on
penitence H 31 e 10 21 Val.
Novatianus,  presbyter of Rome, attempted to usurp the
sacerdotal chair occupied by Cornelius, and established the dogma of
the Novatians, or as they are called in Greek, the Cathari, by
refusing to receive penitent apostates. Novatus, author of this
doctrine, was a presbyter of Cyprian. He wrote, On the passover, On
the Sabbath, On circumcision, On the priesthood, On prayer,  On
the food of the Jews, On zeal, On Attalus, and many others,
especially, a great volume On the Trinity, a sort of epitome of the
work of Tertullian, which many mistakenly ascribe to Cyprian.
 Flourished about 250 sq.
 PrayerA H 25 30 31 21; Ordination e T Her.
Malchion,  the highly gifted presbyter of the church at Antioch,
who had most successfully taught rhetoric in the same city, held a
discussion with Paul of Samosata, who as bishop of the church at
Antioch, had introduced the doctrine of Artemon, and this was taken
down by short hand writers. This dialogue is still extant, and yet
another extended epistle written by him, in behalf of the council, is
addressed to Dionysius and Maximus, bishops of Rome and Alexandria. He
flourished under Claudius and Aurelianus.
 Flourished 272.
Archelaus,  bishop of Mesopotamia, composed in the Syriac
language, a book of the discussion which he held with Manichaeus, when
he came from Persia. This book, which is translated into Greek, is
possessed by many.
He flourished under the Emperor Probus, who succeeded Aurelianus and
 Flourished about 278.
Anatolius  of Alexandria, bishop of Laodicea in Syria, who
flourished under the emperors Probus and Carus, was a man of wonderful
learning in arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, grammar, rhetoric, and
dialectic. We can get an idea of the greatness of his genius from the
volume which he wrote On the passover and his ten books On the
institutes of arithmetic.
 Born about 230, bishop 270, died about 283.
Victorinus,  bishop of Pettau, was not equally familiar with
Latin and Greek. On this account his works though noble in thought,
are inferior in style. They are the following: Commentaries On
Genesis, On Exodus, On Leviticus, On Isaiah, On Ezekiel, On Habakkuk,
On Ecclesiastes, On the Song of Songs, On the Apocalypse of John,
Against all heresies and many others. At the last he received the
crown of martyrdom.
 Bishop of Pettau 303, died 304.
Pamphilus  the presbyter, patron of Eusebius bishop of Cæsarea,
was so inflamed with love of sacred literature, that he transcribed
the greater part of the works of Origen with his own hand and these
are still preserved in the library at Cæsarea. I have twenty-five
volumes  of Commentaries of Origen, written in his hand, On the
twelve prophets which I hug and guard with such joy, that I deem
myself to have the wealth of Croesus. And if it is such joy to have
one epistle of a martyr how much more to have so many thousand lines
which seem to me to be traced in his blood. He wrote an Apology for
Origen before Eusebius had written his and was put to death at Cæsarea
in Palestine in the persecution of Maximinus.
 Died 309.
 volumes A H 31 a e 10 21 Val.; omit T 25 30 Her.
Pierius,  presbyter of the church at Alexandria in the reign of
Carus and Diocletian, at the time when Theonas ruled as bishop in the
same church, taught the people with great success and attained such
elegance of language and published so many treatises on all sorts of
subjects (which are still extant) that he was called Origen Junior. He
was remarkable for his self-discipline, devoted to voluntary poverty,
and thoroughly acquainted with the dialectic art. After the
persecution, he passed the rest of his life at Rome. There is extant a
long treatise of his On the prophet Hosea which from internal evidence
appears to have been delivered on the vigil of Passover.
 Flourished before 299.
Lucianus,  a man of great talent, presbyter of the church at
Antioch, was so diligent in the study of the Scriptures, that even now
certain copies of the Scriptures bear the name of Lucian. Works of
his, On faith, and short Epistles to various people are extant. He was
put to death at Nicomedia for his confession of Christ in the
persecution of Maximinus, and was buried at Helenopolis in Bithynia.
 Died 312.
Phileas  a resident of that Egyptian city which is called
Thmuis, of noble family, and no small wealth, having become bishop,
composed a finely written work in praise of martyrs and arguing
against the judge who tried to compel him to offer sacrifices, was
beheaded for Christ during the same persecution in which Lucianus was
put to death at Nicomedia.
 Died after 306.
Arnobius  was a most successful teacher of rhetoric at Sicca in
Africa during the reign of Diocletian, and wrote volumes Against the
nations which may be found everywhere.
 Flourished 295.
Firmianus,  known also as Lactantius, a disciple of Arnobius,
during the reign of Diocletian summoned to Nicomedia with Flavius the
Grammarian whose poem On medicine is still extant, taught rhetoric
there and on account of his lack of pupils (since it was a Greek city)
he betook himself to writing. We have a Banquet of his which he wrote
as a young man in Africa and an Itinerary of a journey from Africa to
Nicomedia written in hexameters, and another book which is called The
Grammarian and a most beautiful one On the wrath of God, and Divine
institutes against the nations, seven books, and an Epitome of the
same work in one volume, without a title,  also two books To
Asclepiades, one book On persecution, four books of Epistles to
Probus, two books of Epistles to Severus, two books of Epistles to his
pupil Demetrius  and one book to the same On the work of God or
the creation of man. In his extreme old age he was tutor to Crispus
Cæsar a son of Constantine in Gaul, the same one who was afterwards
put to death by his father.
 Died 325.
 without a title "that is a compendium of the last three books
only" as Cave explains it. Ffoulkes in Smith and W. But no.
 two books...Severus...Demetrius e a H 10 21 Val.; omit T 25 30
Eusebius  bishop of Cæsarea in Palestine was diligent in the
study of Divine Scriptures and with Pamphilus the martyr a most
diligent investigator of the Holy Bible. He published a great number
of volumes among which are the following: Demonstrations of the Gospel
twenty books, Preparations for the Gospel fifteen books, Theophany
 five books, Church history ten books, Chronicle of Universal
history and an Epitome of this last. Also On discrepancies between the
Gospels, On Isaiah, ten books, also Against Porphyry, who was writing
at that same time in Sicily as some think, twenty-five books, also one
book of Topics, six books of Apology for Origen, three books On the
life of Pamphilus, other brief works On the martyrs, exceedingly
learned Commentaries on one hundred and fifty Psalms, and many others.
He flourished chiefly in the reigns of Constantine the Great and
Constantius. His surname Pamphilus arose from his friendship for
Pamphilus the martyr.
 Born 267, bishop about 315, died about 338.
 Theophany T 31 Val. Her.; omit A H 25 30 a? e.
Reticius  bishop of Autun, among the Aedui, had a great
reputation in Gaul in the reign of Constantine. I have read his
commentaries On the Song of Songs and another great volume Against
Novatian but besides these, I have found no works of his.
 Bishop 313, died 334.
Methodius,  bishop of Olympus in Lycia and afterwards of Tyre,
composed books Against Porphyry written in polished and logical style
also a Banquet of the ten virgins, an excellent work On the
resurrection, against Origen and On the Pythonissa and On free will,
also against Origen. He also wrote commentaries On Genesis and On the
Song of Songs and many others which are widely read. At the end of the
recent persecution or, as others affirm, in the reign of Decius and
Valerianus, he was crowned with martyrdom at Chalcis in Greece.
 Died 311 or 312.
Juvencus,  a Spaniard of noble family and presbyter, translating
the four gospels almost verbally in hexameter verses, composed four
books. He wrote some other things in the same metre relating to the
order of the sacraments. He flourished in the reign of Constantinus.
 Flourished 330.
Eustathius,  a Pamphilian from Side, bishop  first of
Beroea in Syria and then of Antioch, ruled the church and, composing
many things against the doctrine of the Arians, was driven into exile
under the emperor Constantius  into Trajanopolis in Thrace where
he is until this day. Works of his are extant On the soul, On
ventriloquism Against Origen and Letters too numerous to mention.
 Died 337, (or according to others 370-82.) Jerome in this
Chapter seems, unless the usual modern view is confused, to have mixed
up Eustathius of Antioch with Eusebius of Sebaste.
 BishopA H T 25 30 Her; omit 31 32 a e Val.
 Constantius this is supposed to be an evident slip for
Constantinus (Compare Venables in Smith and Wace Dict. v. 2, p. 383)
but if there is confusion with Eustathius of Sebaste as suggested
above possibly the latter's deposition by Constantius is referred to.
But the difficulty remains almost as great.
Marcellus,  bishop of Ancyra, flourished in the reign of
Constantinus and Constantius and wrote many volumes of various
Propositions and especially against the Arians. Works of Asterius and
Apollinarius against him are current, which accuse him of
Sabellianism. Hilary too, in the seventh book of his work Against the
Arians, mentions him as a heretic, but he defends himself against the
charge through the fact that Julius and Athanasius bishops of Rome and
Alexandria communed with him.
 Died 372, or 374 (Ffoulkes.)
Athanasius  bishop of Alexandria, hard pressed by the wiles of
the Arians, fled to Constans emperor of Gaul. Returning thence with
letters and, after the death of the emperor, again taking refuge in
flight, he kept in hiding until the accession of Jovian, when he
returned to the church and died in the reign of Valens. Various works
by him are in circulation; two books Against the nations, one Against
Valens and Ursacius, On virginity, very many On the persecutions of
the Arians, also On the titles of the Psalms and Life of Anthony the
monk, also Festal epistles and other works too numerous to mention.
 Born about 296, died 373.
Anthony  the monk, whose life Athanasius bishop of Alexandria
wrote a long work upon, sent seven letters in Coptic to various
monasteries, letters truly apostolic in idea and language, and which
have been translated into Greek. The chief of these is To the
Arsenoites. He flourished during the reign of Constantinus and his
 Born 251, died 356.
Basil  bishop of Ancyra, [a doctor of]  medicine, wrote a
book Against Marcellus and on virginity and some other things--and in
the reign of Constantius was, with Eustathius of Sebaste, primate of
 Bishop of Ancyra 336-344, 353-60, 361-3.
 A doctor of So T? and some editions. Most mss. omit (gnarus)
but it needs to be supplied in translation.
Theodorus,  bishop of Heraclea in Thrace, published in the reign
of the emperor Constantius commentaries On Matthew and John, On the
Epistles and On the Psalter. These are written in a polished and clear
style and show an excellent historical sense.
 Bishop 335, died 355?
Eusebius  of Emesa, who had fine rhetorical talent, composed
innumerable works suited to win popular applause and writing
historically he is most diligently read by those who practise public
speaking. Among these the chief are, Against Jews, Gentiles and
Novatians and Homilies on the Gospels, brief but numerous. He
flourished in the reign of the emperor Constantius in whose reign he
died, and was buried at Antioch.
 Died before 359.
Triphylius,  bishop of Ledra or Leucotheon,  in Cyprus,
was the most eloquent man of his age, and was distinguished during the
reign of Constantius. I have read his Commentary on the Song of Songs.
He is said to have written many other works, none of which have come
to our hand.
 Bishop 344, died about 370.
 Leucotheon = Leuteon.
Donatus,  from whom the Donatians arose in Africa in the reigns
of the emperors Constantinus and Constantius, asserted that the
scriptures were given up to the heathen by the orthodox during the
persecution, and deceived almost all Africa, and especially Numidia by
his persuasiveness. Many of his works, which relate to his heresy, are
extant, including On the Holy Spirit, a work which is Arian in
 Bishop 313, --355.
Asterius,  a philosopher of the Arian party, wrote, during the
reign of Constantius, commentaries On the Epistle to the Romans, On
the Gospels and On the Psalms, also many other works which are
diligently read by those of his party.
 Asterius of Cappadocia, died about 330.
Lucifer,  bishop of Cagliari, was sent by Liberius the bishop,
with Pancratius and Hilary, clergy of the Roman church, to the emperor
Constantius, as legates for the faith. When he would not condemn the
Nicene faith as represented by Athanasius, sent again to Palestine,
with wonderful constancy and willingness to meet martyrdom, he wrote a
book against the emperor Constantius and sent it to be read by him,
and not long after he returned to Cagliari in the reign of the emperor
Julian and died in the reign of Valentinian.
 Bishop 353, died 370.
Eusebius,  a native of Sardinia, at first a lector at Rome and
afterwards bishop of Vercelli, sent by the emperor Constantius to
Scythopolis, and afterwards to Cappadocia, on account of his
confession of the faith, returned to the church under the emperor
Julian and published the Commentaries of Eusebius of Cæsarea on the
Psalms, which he had translated from Greek into Latin, and died during
the reign of Valentian and Valens.
 Born about 315, Bishop about 340, exiled 355-62, died 371-5.
Fortunatianus,  an African by birth, bishop of Aquilia during
the reign of Constantius, composed brief Commentaries on the gospels
arranged by Chapters, written in a rustic style, and is held in
detestation because, when Liberius bishop of Rome was driven into
exile for the faith, he was induced by the urgency of Fortunatianus to
subscribe to heresy.
 Flourished 343-355.
Acacius,  who, because he was blind in one eye, they nicknamed
"the one-eyed," bishop of the church of Cæsarea in Palestine, wrote
seventeen volumes On Ecclesiastes and six of Miscellaneous questions,
and many treatises besides on various subjects. He was so influential
in the reign of the emperor Constantius that he made Felix bishop of
Rome in the place of Liberius.
 Bishop about 338, died 365-6.
Serapion,  bishop of Thmuis, who on account of his cultivated
genius was found worthy of the surname of Scholasticus, was the
intimate friend of Anthony the monk, and published an excellent book
Against the Manichaeans, also another On the titles of the Psalms, and
valuable Epistles to different people. In the reign of the emperor
Constantius he was renowned as a confessor.
 Serapion the scholastic, died about 358.
Hilary,  a bishop of Poitiers in Aquitania, was a member of the
party of Saturninus bishop of Arles. Banished into Phrygia by the
Synod of Beziérs he composed twelve books Against the Arians and
another book On Councils written to the Gallican bishops, and
Commentaries on the Psalms that is on the first and second, from the
fifty-first to the sixty-second, and from the one hundred and
eighteenth to the end of the book. In this work he imitated Origen,
but added also some original matter. There is a little book of his To
Constantius which he presented to the emperor while he was living in
Constantinople, and another On Constantius which he wrote after his
death and a book Against Valens and Ursacius, containing a history of
the Ariminian and Selucian Councils and To Sallust the prefect
orAgainst Dioscurus, also a book of Hymns and mysteries, a commentary
On Matthew and treatises On Job, which he translated freely from the
Greek of Origen, and another elegant little work Against Auxentius
andEpistles to different persons. They say he has written On the Song
of Songs but this work is not known to us. He died at Poictiers during
the reign of Valentinianus and Valens.
 Bishop 350-5, exiled 356-60, died at Poitiers 367-8.
Victorinus,  an African by birth, taught rhetoric at Rome under
the emperor Constantius and in extreme old age, yielding himself to
faith in Christ wrote books against Arius, written in dialectic style
and very obscure language, books which can only be understood by the
learned. He also wrote Commentaries on the Epistles.
 Caius or Fabius Marius Victorinus, died about 370.
Titus  bishop of Bostra, in the reign of the emperors Julian and
Jovinian wrote vigorous works against the Manichaeans and some other
things. He died under Valens.
 Ordained 361, died 371.
Damasus,  bishop of Rome, had a fine talent for making verses
and published many brief works in heroic metre. He died in the reign
of the Emperor Theodosius at the age of almost eighty.
 Pope Damasus, died 380.
Apollinarus,  bishop of Laodicea, in Syria, the son of a
presbyter, applied himself in his youth to the diligent study of
grammar, and afterwards, writing innumerable volumes on the Holy
Scriptures, died in the reign of the Emperor Theodosius. There are
extant thirty books by him Against Porphyry, which are generally
considered as among the best of his works. 
 Apollinaris the younger, Bishop 362, died about 390.
 Works"generally recognized as authentic" Matougues.
Gregory,  bishop of Elvira,  in Baetica, writing even to
extreme old age, composed various treatises in mediocre language, and
an elegant work On Faith. He is said to be still living.
 Gregory Baeticus Bishop of Elvira 359-392.
 Elvira, Eliberi or Grenada.
Pacianus,  bishop of Barcelona, in the Pyrenees Mountains, a man
of chaste eloquence, and as distinguished by his life as by his
speech, wrote various short works, among which are The Deer, 
and Against the Novatians, and died in the reign of Emperor
Theodosian, in extreme old age.
 Bishop about 360, died about 390.
 Deer,This title has given rise to a good deal of conjecture.
Fabricius's conjecture that it referred to certain games held on the
Kalends of January is doubted by Vallarsi, but appears to have been
really acute, from the fact that two mss. read "The deer [Cervulus] on
the Kalends of January and against other pagan games."
Photinus,  of Gallograecia, a disciple of Marcellus, and
ordained bishop of Sirmium, attempted to introduce the Ebionite
heresy, and afterwards having been expelled from the church by the
Emperor Valentinianus, wrote many volumes, among which the most
distinguished are Against the nations, and To Valentinianus.
 Bishop about 347, deposed 351, died about 376.
Phoebadius,  bishop of Agen, in Gaul, published a book Against
the Arians. There are said to be other works by him, which I have not
yet read. He is still living, infirm with age.
 Bishop 358, died about 392.
Didymus,  of Alexandria, becoming blind while very young, and
therefore ignorant of the rudiments of learning, displayed such a
miracle of intelligence as to learn perfectly dialectics and even
geometry, sciences which especially require sight. He wrote many
admirable works: Commentaries on all the Psalms, Commentaries on the
Gospels of Matthew and John, On the doctrines, also two books Against
the Arians, and one book On the Holy Spirit, which I translated in
Latin, eighteen volumes On Isaiah, three books of commentaries On
Hosea, addressed to me, and five books On Zechariah, written at my
request, also commentaries On Job, and many other things, to give an
account of which would be a work of itself.  He is still living,
and has already passed his eighty-third year.
 Born about 311, flourished about 315, died 396.
 itself"The titles of which are well known." Matougues.
Optatus  the African, bishop of Milevis,  during the reign
of the Emperors Valentinianus and Valens, wrote in behalf of the
Catholic party six books against the calumny of the Donatian party, in
which he asserts that the crime of the Donatists is falsely charged
upon the catholic party.
 Flourished about 370.
 Milevis or Mileum = Milah "a town of Numidia 25 miles
north-west of Cirta." Phillott.
Acilius Severus  of Spain, of the family of that Severus to whom
Lactantius' two books of Epistles are addressed, composed a volume of
mingled poetry and prose which is a sort of guide book to his whole
life. This he called Calamity or Trial.  He died in the reign of
 Died before 376. Fabricius and Migne read Aquilus, Honorius has
Achilius but the mss. read as above. This is the only source of
information and the work is lost.
 Trial"Vicissitudes or proofs." Matougues.
Cyril,  bishop of Jerusalem often expelled by the church, and at
last received, held the episcopate for eight consecutive years, in the
reign of Theodosius. Certain Catachetical lectures of his, composed
while he was a young man, are extant.
 Cyril of Jerusalem, born about 315, Bishop 350-7, 359-60,
362-7, 378 to his death in 386.
Euzoius,  as a young man, together with Gregory, bishop of
Nazianzan, was educated by Thespesius the rhetorician at Cæsarea, and
afterwards when bishop of the same city, with great pains attempted to
restore the library, collected by Origen and Pamphilus, which had
already suffered injury. At last, in the reign of the Emperor
Theodosian, he was expelled from the church. Many and various
treatises of his are in circulation, and one may easily become
acquainted with them.
 Deposed about 379.
Epiphanius,  bishop of Salamina in Cyprus, wrote books Against
all heresies and many others which are eagerly read by the learned, on
account of their subject matter, and also by the plain people, on
account of their language. He is still living, and in his extreme old
age composes various brief works.
 Born about 310, bishop about 368-9, died 403.
Ephraim,  deacon of the church at Edessa, composed many works in
the Syriac language, and became so distinguished that his writings are
repeated publicly in some churches, after the reading of the
I once read in Greek a volume by him On the Holy Spirit, which some
one had translated from the Syriac, and recognized even in
translation, the incisive power of lofty genius. He died in the reign
 Ephrem of Nisibis = Ephrem Syrus died 378.
Basil,  bishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia, the city formerly
called Mazaca, composed admirable carefully written books Against
Eunomius, a volume On the Holy Spirit, and nine homilies On the six
days of creation, also a work On asceticism and short treatises on
various subjects. He died in the reign of Gratianus.
 Basil the Great, born 329, bishop 370 died 379.
Gregory,  bishop of Nazianzen, a most eloquent man, and my
instructor in the Scriptures, composed works, amounting in all to
thirty thousand lines, among which are On the death of his brother
Cæsarius, On charity, In praise of the Maccabees, In praise of
Cyprian, In praise of Athanasius, In praise of Maximus the philosopher
after he had returned from exile. This latter however, some
superscribe with the pseudonym of Herona, since there is another work
by Gregory, upbraiding this same Maximus, as if one might not praise
and upbraid the same person at one time or another as the occasion may
demand. Other works of his are a book in hexameter, containing, A
discussion between virginity and marriage, two books Against Eunomius,
one book On the Holy Spirit, and one Against the Emperor Julian. He
was a follower of Polemon in his style of speaking. Having ordained
his successor in the bishopric, during his own life time, he retired
to the country where he lived the life of a monk and died, three years
or more ago, in the reign of Theodosius.
 Gregory Nazianzan born about 325, Bishop 373, died 389.
Lucius,  bishop of the Arian party after Athanasius, held the
bishopric of the church at Alexandria, until the time of the Emperor
Theodosius, by whom he was deposed. Certain festal epistles of his, On
the passover are extant, and a few short works of Miscellaneous
 Lucius bishop of Samosata, at Alexandria 373, deposed 378.
Diodorus,  bishop of Tarsus enjoyed a great reputation while he
was still presbyter of Antioch. Commentaries of his On the epistles
are extant, as well as many other works in the manner of Eusebius the
great of Emesa, whose meaning he has followed, but whose eloquence he
could not imitate on account of his ignorance of secular literature.
 Died before 394.
Eunomius,  bishop of Cyzicus and member of the Arian party, fell
into such open blasphemy in his heresy, as to proclaim publicly what
the others concealed. He is said to be still living in Cappadocia, and
to write much against the church. Replies to him have been made by
Apollinarius, Didymus, Basil of Cæsarea, Gregory Nazianzen, and
Gregory of Nyssa.
 Bishop 360, died before 396.
Priscillianus,  bishop of Abila, belonged to the party of
Hydatius and Ithacius, and was put to death at Trèves by the tyrant
Maximus. He published many short writings, some of which have reached
us. He is still accused by some, of being tainted with Gnosticism,
that is, with the heresy of Basilides or Mark, of whom Irenæus writes,
while his defenders maintain that he was not at all of this way of
 Flourished 379, condemned 380, died 385.
Latronianus,  of Spain, a man of great learning, and in the
matter of versification worthy to be compared with the poets of
ancient time, was also put to death at Trèves with Priscillianus,
Felicissimus, Julianus, and Euchrotia, coöriginators with him of
schism. Various fruits of his genius written in different metres are
 Died 385.
Tiberianus,  the Baetican, in answer to an insinuation that he
shared the heresy of Priscillian, wrote an apology in pompous and
mongrel language. But after the death of his friends, overcome by the
tediousness of exile, he changed his mind, as it is written in Holy
Scripture "the dog returned to his vomit," and married a nun, a virgin
dedicated to Christ.
 End of 4th Century.
Ambrose  a bishop of Milan, at the present time is still
writing. I withhold my judgment of him, because he is still alive,
fearing either to praise or blame lest in the one event, I should be
blamed for adulation, and in the other for speaking the truth.
 Born about 340, baptized 374, died 397.
Evagrius,  bishop of Antioch, a man of remarkably keen mind,
while he was yet presbyter read me various treatises on various
topics, which he had not yet published. He translated also the Life of
the blessed Anthony from the Greek of Athanasius into our language.
 Bishop of Antioch, 388, died 393.
Ambrose  of Alexandria, pupil of Didymus, wrote a long work On
doctrines against Apollinaris, and as some one has lately informed me,
Commentaries on Job. He is still living.
 Died after 392.
Maximus  the philosopher, born at Alexandria, ordained bishop at
Constantinople and deposed, wrote a remarkable work On faith against
the Arians and gave it to the Emperor Gratianus, at Milan.
 A Cynic. Bishop 379.
Gregory  bishop of Nyssa, the brother of Basil of Cæsarea, a few
years since read to Gregory Nazianzan and myself a work against
Eunomius. He is said to have also written many other works, and to be
 Born 339-2, bishop 372, deposed 376, restored 378, died after
John,  presbyter of the church at Antioch, a follower of
Eusebius of Emesa and Diodorus, is said to have composed many books,
but of these I have only read his On the priesthood.
 John Chrysostom born at Antioch about 347, at Constantinople
398, deposed 403, died 407.
Gelasius,  bishop of Cæsarea in Palestine after Euzoius, is said
to write more or less in carefully polished style, but not to publish
 Bishop 379, died 394-5.
Theotimus,  bishop of Tomi, in Scythia, has published brief and
epigrammatical treatises, in the form of dialogues, and in olden
style. I hear that he is now writing other works.
 Bishop of Tomes? 392-403.
Dexter,  son of Pacianus whom I mentioned above, distinguished
in his generation and devoted to the Christian faith, has, I am told,
written a Universal History, which I have not yet read.
 Flavius Lucius Dexter flourished 395.
Amphilochius,  bishop of Iconium, recently read to me a book On
the Holy Spirit, arguing that He is God, that He is to be worshipped,
and that He is omnipotent.
 Amphilochius of Cappadocia, bishop 375, died about 400.
Sophronius,  a man of superlative learning, wrote while yet a
lad, In praise of Bethlehem and recently a notable volume, On the
overthrow of Serapis, and also to Eustachius, On virginity, and a Life
of Hilarion the monk. He rendered short works of mine into Greek in a
very finished style, the Psalter also, and the Prophets, which I
translated from Hebrew into Latin.
 Flourished 392. Author also of Greek translation of Jerome's
I, Jerome,  son of Eusebius, of the city of Strido, which is on
the border of Dalmatia and Pannonia and was overthrown by the Goths,
up to the present year, that is, the fourteenth of the Emperor
Theodosius, have written the following: Life of Paul the monk, one
book of Letters to different persons, an Exhortation to Heliodorus,
Controversy of Luciferianus and Orthodoxus, Chronicle of universal
history, 28 homilies of Origen on Jeremiah and Ezekiel, which I
translated from Greek into Latin, On the Seraphim, On Osanna, On the
prudent and the prodigal sons, On three questions of the ancient law,
Homilies on the Song of Songs two, Against Helvidius, On the perpetual
virginity of Mary, To Eustochius, On maintaining virginity, one book
of Epistles to Marcella, a consolatory letter to Paula On the death of
a daughter, three books of Commentaries on the epistle of Paul to the
Galatians, likewise three books of Commentaries on the epistle to the
Ephesians, On the epistle to Titus one book, On the epistle to
Philemon one, Commentaries on Ecclesiastes, one book of Hebrew
questions on Genesis, one book On places in Judea, one book of Hebrew
names, Didymus on the Holy Spirit, which I translated into Latin one
book, 39 homilies on Luke  On Psalms 10 to 16, seven books, On
the captive Monk, The Life of the blessed Hilarion. I translated the
New Testament from the Greek, and the Old Testament from the Hebrew,
 and how many Letters I have written To Paula and Eustochius I
do not know, for I write daily. I wrote moreover, two books of
Explanations on Micah, one book On Nahum, two books On Habakkuk, one
On Zephaniah, one On Haggai, and many others On the prophets, which
are not yet finished, and which I am still at work upon. 
 Born 331, died 420.
 39 homilies, T 25 30 Her.; 39 homilies of Origen A H 31 e a
 The Old Testament from the Hebrew A H 30 31 a e; omit T 25 Her.
 There are many brief additions to the Chapter on Jerome
himself, the most common one (B C D I S V W X Y Z 1 2 4 5 6 7 9 11 12
14 15 17 19 20 21 26 27 28 33 42 m o p r t u v y z) being "Two books
Against Jovinian and an Apology addressed to Pammachus." Some add also
"and an Epitaphium." A and k give a long additional account of Jerome.
List of the Authors whom Gennadius added, after the Death of the
Blessed Jerome. 
1. James; surnamed the Wise.
2. Julius, bishop of Rome.
3. Paulonas the presbyter.
4. Vitellius the African.
5. Macrobius the presbyter.
6. Heliodorus the presbyter.
7. Pachomius the presbyter-monk.
8. Theodorus, his successor.
9. Oresiesis the monk.
10. Macarius the monk.
11. Evagrius the monk.
12. Theodorus the presbyter.
14. Audentius the bishop.
16. Faustinus the presbyter.
17. Rufinus the presbyter.
18. Tichonius the African.
19. Severus the presbyter.
20. Antiochus the bishop.
21. Severianus the bishop.
22. Nicaeas the bishop.
23. Olympius the bishop.
25. Sabbatius the bishop.
28. Another Macarius.
29. Heliodorus the presbyter.
30. John, bishop of Constantinople.
31. John, another bishop.
32. Paulus the bishop.
34. Theophilus the bishop.
35. Eusebius the bishop.
36. Vigilantius the presbyter.
37. Simplicianus the bishop.
38. Vigilius the bishop.
39. Augustine the bishop.
40. Orosius the presbyter.
41. Maximus the bishop.
42. Petronius the bishop.
43. Pelagius the heresiarch.
44. Innocentius the bishop.
45. Caelestius, follower of Pelagius.
46. Julianus the bishop.
47. Lucianus the presbyter.
48. Avitus the presbyter.
49. Paulinus the bishop.
50. Eutropius the presbyter.
51. Another Evagrius.
52. Vigilius the deacon.
53. Atticus the holy bishop.
54. Nestorius the heresiarch.
55. Caelestinus the bishop.
56. Theodorus the bishop.
57. Fastidius the bishop.
58. Cyrillus the bishop.
59. Timotheus the bishop.
60. Leporius the presbyter.
61. Victorinus the rhetorician.
62. Cassianus the deacon.
63. Philippus the presbyter.
64. Eucherius the bishop.
65. Vincentius the Gaul.
67. Isaac the presbyter.
68. Salvianus the presbyter.
69. Paulinus the bishop.
70. Hilarius the bishop.
71. Leo the bishop.
72. Mochimus the presbyter.
73. Timotheus the bishop.
74. Asclepius the bishop.
75. Peter the presbyter.
76. Paul the presbyter.
77. Pastor the bishop.
78. Victor the bishop.
79. Voconius the bishop.
80. Musaeus the presbyter.
81. Vincentius the presbyter.
82. Cyrus the monk.
83. Samuel the presbyter.
84. Claudianus the presbyter.
86. Faustus the bishop.
87. Servus Dei the bishop.
89. Theodoritus the bishop.
90. Gennadius the bishop.
91. Theodulus the presbyter.
92. John the presbyter.
93. Sidonius the bishop.
94. Gelasius the bishop.
95. Honoratus the bishop.
96. Cerealis the bishop.
97. Eugenius the bishop.
98. Pomerius the bishop.
 List...Jerome. This is in a few mss. only.
James,  surnamed the Wise, was bishop of Nisibis the famous city
of the Persians and one of the confessors under Maximinus the
persecutor. He was also one of those who, in the Nicean council, by
their opposition overthrew the Arian perversity of the Homoousia. That
the blessed Jerome mentions this man in his Chronicle as a man of
great virtues and yet does not place him in his catalogue of writers,
will be easily explained if we note that of the three or four Syrians
whom he mentions he says that he read them translated into the Greek.
From this it is evident that, at that period, he did not know the
Syriac language or literature and therefore he did not know a writer
who had not yet been translated into another language. All his
writings are contained in twenty-six books namely On faith, Against
all heresies, On charity towards all, On fasting, On prayer, On
particular affection towards our neighbor, On the resurrection, On the
life after death, On humility, On penitence,  On satisfaction,
On virginity, On the worth  of the soul, On circumcision, On the
blessed grapes, On the saying in Isaiah, "the grape cluster shall not
be destroyed," That Christ is the son of God and consubstantial with
the Father, On chastity, Against the Nations, On the construction of
the tabernacle, On the conversation of the nations, On the Persian
kingdom, On the persecution of the Christians. He composed also a
Chronicle of little interest indeed to the Greeks, but of great
reliability in that it is constructed only on the authority of the
Divine Scriptures. It shuts the mouths of those who, on some daring
guess, idly philosophize concerning the advent of Antichrist, or of
our Lord. This man died in the time of Constantius and according to
the direction of his father Constantine was buried within the walls of
Nisibis, for the protection evidently of the city, and it turned out
as Constantine had expected. For many years after, Julian having
entered Nisibis and grudging either the glory of him who was buried
there or the faith of Constantine, whose family he persecuted on
account of this envy, ordered the remains of the saint to be carried
out of the city, and a few months later, as a matter of public policy,
the Emperor Jovian who succeeded Julian, gave over to the barbarians
the city which, with the adjoining territory, is subject unto the
Persian rule until this day.
 Became bishop before 325, died after 350.
 On penitence. A few mss. read "patience" for "penitence" but
the only one which the translator has been able to find which gives
both is one at Wolfenbüttel dated 1460, nor is it in the earliest
editions (e.g.) Nürn. Koburger 1495, Paris 1512). But the later
editions (Fabricius, Herding) have both.
 worth, mss. generally; feeling, editions generally.
Julius,  bishop of Rome, wrote to one Dionysius a single epistle
On the incarnation of Our Lord, which at that time was regarded as
useful against those who asserted that, as by incarnation there were
two persons in Christ, so also there were two natures, but now this
too is regarded as injurious for it nourishes the Eutychian and
 Bishop (Pope) 337, died 352.
Paulonas,  the Presbyter, disciple of the blessed deacon Ephraim
a man of very energetic character and learned in the holy scriptures
was distinguished among the doctors of the church while his master was
still living and especially as an extemporaneous orator. After the
death of his master, overcome by love of reputation, separating
himself from the church, he wrote many things opposed to the faith.
The blessed Ephraim when on the point of death is reported to have
said to him as he stood by his side--See to it, Paulonas that you do
not yield yourself to your own ideas, but when you shall think that
you understand God wholly, believe that you have not known,--for he
felt beforehand from the studies or the words of Paulonus, that he was
investigating new things, and was stretching out his mind to the
illimitable, whence also he frequently called him the new Bardesanes.
 Flourished 370.
Vitellius  the African, defending the Donatist schism wrote Why
the servants of God are hated by the world, in which, except in
speaking of us as persecutors, he published excellent doctrine. He
wrote also Against the nations and against us as traditors of the Holy
Scriptures in times of persecution, and wrote much On ecclesiastical
procedure. He was distinguished during the reign of Constans son of
the emperor Constantinus.
 Fourth century.
Macrobius  the Presbyter was likewise as I learned from the
writings of Optatus, afterwards secretly bishop of the Donatians in
Rome. He wrote, having been up to this time a presbyter in the church
of God, a work To confessors and virgins, a work of ethics indeed, but
of very necessary doctrine as well and fortified with sentiments well
fitted for the preservation of chastity. He was distinguished first in
our party in Africa and afterwards in his own, that is among the
Donatians or Montanists at Rome.
 Bishop about 370.
Heliodorus  the Presbyter wrote a book entitled An introductory
treatise on the nature of things, in which he showed that the
beginning of things was one, that nothing was coaeval with God, that
God was not the creator of evil, but in such wise the creator of all
good, that matter, which is used for  evil, was created by God
after evil was discovered, and that nothing material whatever can be
regarded as established in any other way than by God, and that there
was no other creator than God, who, when by His foreknowledge He knew
that nature was to be changed,  warned of punishment.
 About 360.
 Used for T 35 31 a e 21; inclined to 30? ? Fabr. Her.
 changed A T 25 30 31 a e 21 10 Bamb. Bern. Gemblac. Sigberg.
Guelfenb.; given over to death Fabr. Her. etc.
Pachomius  the monk, a man endowed with apostolic grace both in
teaching and in performing miracles, and founder of the Egyptian
monasteries, wrote an Order of discipline suited to both classes of
monks, which he received by angelic dictation. He wrote letters also
to the associated bishops of his district, in an alphabet concealed by
mystic sacraments so as to surpass customary human knowledge and only
manifest to those of special grace or desert, that is To the Abbot
Cornelius one, To the Abbot Syrus one, and one To the heads of all
monasteries exhorting that, gathered together to one very ancient
monastery which is called in the Egyptian language Bau, they should
celebrate the day of the Passover together as by everlasting law. He
urged likewise in another letter that on the day of remission, which
is celebrated in the month of August, the chief bishops should be
gathered together to one place, and wrote one other letter to the
brethren who had been sent to work outside the monasteries.
 Born about 292, died 348.
Theodorus,  successor to the grace and the headship of the above
mentioned Abbot Pachomius, addressed to other monasteries letters
written in the language of Holy Scripture, in which nevertheless he
frequently mentions his master and teacher Pachomius and sets forth
his doctrine and life as examples. This he had been taught he said by
an Angel that he himself might teach again. He likewise exhorts them
to remain by the purpose of their heart and desire, and to restore to
harmony and unity those who, a dissension having arisen after the
death of the Abbot, had broken the unity by separating themselves from
the community. Three hortatory epistles of his are extant.
 Born about 314, died 367.
Oresiesis  the monk, the colleague of both Pachomius and
Theodorus, a man learned to perfection in Scripture,  composed a
book seasoned with divine salt and formed of the essentials of all
monastic discipline and to speak moderately, in which almost the whole
Old and New Testament is found set forth in compact
dissertations--all, at least, which relates to the special needs of
monks. This he gave to his brethren almost on the very day of his
death leaving, as it were, a legacy.
 Died about 380.
 Scripture 25 30 a e 10: Holy Scriptures A T 31 21.
Macarius,  the Egyptian monk, distinguished for his miracles and
virtues, wrote one letter which was addressed to the younger men of
his profession. In this he taught them that he could serve God
perfectly who, knowing the condition of his creation, should devote
himself to all labours, and by wrestling against every thing which is
agreeable in this life, and at the same time imploring the aid of God
would attain also to natural purity and obtain continence, as a well
merited gift of nature.
 Born about 300, died 390 (391).
Evagrius  the monk, the intimate disciple of the above mentioned
Macarius, educated in  sacred and profane literature and
distinguished, whom the book which is called the Lives of the fathers
mentions as a most continent and erudite man, wrote many things of use
to monks among which are these: Suggestions against the eight
principal sins. He was first to mention or among the first at least to
teach these setting against them eight books taken from the testimony
of the Holy Scriptures only, after the example of our Lord, who always
met his tempter with quotations from Scripture, so that every
suggestion, whether of the devil or of depraved nature had a testimony
against it. This work I have, under instructions, translated into
Latin translating with the same simplicity which I found in the Greek.
He composed also a book of One hundred sentiments for those living
simply as anchorites, arranged by Chapters, and one of Fifty
sentiments for the erudite and studious, which I first translated into
Latin. The former one, translated before, I restored, partly by
retranslating and partly by emendation, so as to represent the true
meaning of the author, because I saw that the translation was vitiated
and confused by time. He composed also a doctrine of the common-life
suited to Cenobites and Synodites,  and to the virgin
consecrated to God, a little book suitable to her religion and sex. He
published also a few collections of opinions very obscure and, as he
himself says of them, only to be understood by the hearts of monks,
and these likewise I published in Latin. He lived to old age, mighty
in signs and miracles.
 Born 345, died 399.
 educated in T 31 e Her.; omit A 25 30 a.
 Synodites a kind of monks.
Theodorus,  presbyter of the church at Antioch, a cautious
investigator and clever of tongue, wrote against the Apollinarians and
Anomians On the incarnation of the Lord, fifteen books containing as
many as fifteen thousand verses, in which he showed by the clearest
reasoning and by the testimony of Scripture that just as the Lord
Jesus had a plenitude of deity, so he had a plenitude of humanity. He
taught also that man consists only of two substances, soul and body
and that sense and spirit are not different substances, but inherent
inborn faculties of the soul through which it is inspired and has
rationality and through which it makes the body capable of feeling.
Moreover the fourteenth book of this work treats wholly of the
uncreated and alone incorporeal and ruling nature of the holy Trinity
and of the rationality of animals which he explains in a devotional
spirit, on the authority of Holy Scriptures. In the fifteenth volume
he confirms and fortifies the whole body of his work by citing the
traditions of the fathers.
 Theodore of Mopsuesta (?), born at Antioch (?) about 350, died
Prudentius,  a man well versed in secular literature, composed a
Trocheum  of selected persons from the whole Old and New
Testament. He wrote a commentary also, after the fashion of the
Greeks, On the six days of creation from creation of the world until
the creation of the first man and his fall. He wrote also short books
which are entitled in the Greek, Apotheosis, Psychomachia and
Hamartigenia, that is On divinity, On spiritual conflict, On the
origin of sin. He wrote also In praise of martyrs, an invitation to
martyrdom in one book citing several as examples and another of Hymns,
but specially directed Against Symmachus  who defended idolatry,
from which we learn that Palatinus was a soldier.
 Born at Saragossa 348, was at Rome in 405, died in Spain 408?
 Trocheum. There is much controversy over the word, some
maintaining that it should be Dittochaeon= "the double food or double
testament" (Lock in Smith and Wace) or Diptychon. It is a description
of a series of pictures from the Bible. The mss. read Trocheum a.e.;
Troceum T 25; Trocetum 30; Trocleum A; Tropeum 31. A recent monograph
on the subject has not yet come to hand.
 Symmachus. Two works are here confused, the work against
Symmachus, and the Cathemerinon hymns, in the preface to which the
Audentius,  bishop of Spain, wrote a book against the
Manicheans, Sabellians and Arians and very particularly against the
Photinians who are now called Bonosiacians. This book he entitled On
faith against heretics, and in it he showed the Son to have been
coeternal with the Father and that He did not receive the beginning of
his deity from God the Father, at the time when conceived by the act
of God, he was born of the Virgin Mary his mother in true humanity.
 Bishop of Toledo about 390. (Chevalier) or in the reign of
Constantius (Ceillier), 370 (Hoefer).
Commodianus,  while he was engaged in secular literature read
also our writings and, finding opportunity, accepted the faith. Having
become a Christian thus and wishing to offer the fruit of his studies
to Christ the author of his salvation, he wrote, in barely tolerable
semi-versified language, Against the pagans, and because he was very
little acquainted with our literature he was better able to overthrow
their [doctrine] than to establish ours. Whence also, contending
against them concerning the divine counterpromises, he discoursed in a
sufficiently wretched and so to speak, gross fashion, to their
stupefaction and our despair. Following Tertullian, Lactantius and
Papias as authorities he adopted and inculcated in his students good
ethical principles and especially a voluntary love of poverty.
 Flourished about 270. There is wide variety of opinion
respecting this date, some placing as early as 250 and some nearly one
hundred years later.
Faustinus  the presbyter wrote to Queen Flaccilla seven books
Against the Arians and Macedonians, arguing and convicting them by the
testimonies of the very Scriptures which they used, in perverted
meaning, for blasphemy. He wrote also a book which, together with a
certain presbyter named Marcellinus, he addressed to the emperors
Valentinianus, Theodosius and Arcadius, in defence of their fellow
Christians. From this it appears that he acquiesced in the Luciferian
schism, in that in this same book he blames Hilary of Poitiers and
Damasus, bishop of Rome, for giving ill-advised counsel to the church,
advising that the apostate  bishops should be received into
communion for the sake of restoring the peace. For it was as
displeasing to the Luciferians to receive the bishops who in the
Ariminian council had communed with Arius, as it was to the Novatians
to receive the penitent apostates.
 Flourished about 384.
 Apostate = prevaricatores.
Rufinus,  presbyter of the church at Aquileia, was not the least
among the doctors of the church and had a fine talent for elegant
translation from Greek into Latin. In this way he opened to the Latin
speaking church the greater part of the Greek literature; translating
the works of Basil of Cæsarea in Cappadocia, Gregory Nazianzan, that
most eloquent man, the Recognitions of Clement of Rome, the Church
history of Eusebius of Cæsarea in Palestine, the Sentences of Xystus,
 the Sentences of Evagrius and the work of Pamphilus Martyr
Against the mathematicians. Whatever among all these which are read by
the Latins have prefatory matter, have been translated by Rufinus, but
those which are without Prologue have been translated by some one else
who did not choose to write a prologue. Not all of Origen, however, is
his work, for Jerome translated some which are identified by his
prologue. On his own account, the same Rufinus, ever through the grace
of God published an Exposition of the Apostles' creed so excellent
that other expositions are regarded as of no account in comparison. He
also wrote in a threefold sense, that is, the historical, moral and
mystical sense, on Jacob's blessing on the patriarchs. He wrote also
many epistles exhorting to fear of God, among which those which he
addressed to Proba are preëminent. He added also a tenth and eleventh
book to the ecclesiastical history which we have said was written by
Eusebius and translated by him. Moreover he responded to a detractor
of his works, in two volumes, arguing and proving that he exercised
his talent with the aid of the Lord and in the sight of God, for the
good of the church, while he, on the other hand, incited by jealousy
had taken to polemics.
 Born 345, at Jerusalem about 390, died 410.
 XystusT 25 30 e; Sextus A 31 a Xystus of Rome T Her.
Tichonius,  an African by nationality was, it is said,
sufficiently learned in sacred literature, not wholly unacquainted
with secular literature and zealous in ecclesiastical affairs. He
wrote books On internal war and Expositions of various causes in which
for the defence of his friends, he cites the ancient councils and from
all of which  he is recognized to have been a Donatist. He
composed also eight Rules for investigating and ascertaining the
meaning of the Scriptures, compressing them into one volume. He also
expounded the Apocalypse of John entire, regarding nothing in it in a
carnal sense, but all in a spiritual sense. In this exposition he
maintained the angelical nature  to be corporeal, moreover he
doubts that there will be a reign of the righteous on earth for a
thousand years after the resurrection, or that there will be two
resurrections of the dead in the flesh, one of the righteous and the
other of the unrighteous, but maintains that there will be one
simultaneous resurrection of all, at which shall arise even the
aborted and the deformed lest any living human being, however
deformed, should be lost. He makes such distinction to be sure,
between the two resurrections as to make the first, which he calls the
apocalypse of the righteous, only to take place in the growth of the
church where, justified by faith, they are raised from the dead bodies
of their sins through baptism to the service of eternal life, but the
second, the general resurrection of all men in the flesh. This man
flourished at the same period with the above mentioned Rufinus during
the reign of Theodosius and his sons.
 from all of which A 25 30 31 a; from which e T Her.
 angelical nature etc., "that the human body is an abode of
angels" (angelicam stationem corpus esse) Phillott, in Smith and Wace.
Severus  the presbyter, surnamed Sulpitius, of the province of
Aquitania, a man distinguished by his birth, by his excellent literary
work, by his devotion to poverty and by his humility, beloved also of
the sainted men Martin bishop of Tours and Paulinus Nolanus, wrote
small books which are far from despicable. He wrote to his sister many
Letters exhorting to love of God and contempt of the world. These are
well known. He wrote two to the above mentioned Paulinus Nolanus and
others to others, but because, in some, family matters are included,
they have not been collected for publication. He composed also a
Chronicle, and wrote also to the profit of many, a Life of the holy
Martin, monk and bishop, a man famous for signs and wonders and
virtues.  He also wrote a Conference between Postumianus and
Gallus, in which he himself acted as mediator and judge of the debate.
The subject matter was the manner of life of the oriental monks and of
St. Martin--a sort of dialogue in two divisions. In the first of these
he mentions a decree of the bishops at the synod of Alexandria in his
own time to the effect that Origen is to be read, though cautiously,
by those who are wise, for the good that is in him, and is to be
rejected by the less able on account of the evil. In his old age, he
was led astray by the Pelagians, and recognizing the guilt of much
speaking, kept silent until his death, in order that by penitent
silence he might atone for the sin which he had contracted by
 Sulpicius Severus born after 353, died about 410.
 Virtues or miracles.
Antiochus  the bishop, wrote one long  volume Against
avarice and he composed a homily, full of  godly penitence and
humility On the healing of the blind man whose sight was restored by
the Saviour. He died during the reign of the emperor Arcadius.
 Bishop of Ptolemais (Acre) about 400, died about 408.
 long. a 25 30 31; great A T e.
 full of A 25 30 31 a e; on T 21 Her.
Severianus,  bishop of the church of Gabala, was learned in the
Holy Scriptures and a wonderful preacher of homilies. On this account
he was frequently summoned by the bishop John and the emperor Arcadius
to preach a sermon at Constantinople. I have read his Exposition of
the epistle to the Galatians and a most attractive little work On
baptism and the feast of Epiphany. He died in the reign of Theodosius,
his son by baptism.
 Severianus of Emesa. Bishop 400-3, died after 408.
Niceas,   bishop of the city of Romatia, composed, in
simple and clear language, six books of Instruction for neophites. The
first of these contains, How candidates who seek to obtain grace of
baptism ought to act, the second, On the errors of relationship, in
which he relates that not far from his own time a certain Melodius,
father of a family, on account of his liberality and Garadius  a
peasant, on account of his bravery, were placed, by the heathen, among
the gods. A third book On faith in one sovereign, a fourth Against
genealogy,  a fifth On the creed, a sixth On the sacrifice of
the paschal lamb. He addressed a work also To the fallen virgin, an
incentive to amendment for all who have fallen.
 Nicetas Bishop of "Remessianen" or Romaciana or Remetiana in
Dacia before 392, died after 414.
 T and 31 read Niceta or Nicetas, but other mss. Niceas and so
Fabricius and Her.
 Garadius A T 31 a e; Gadarius 25 30 Her.
 Genealogy T 25 30 21; genethlogiam 31 a e.
Olympius  the bishop, a Spaniard by nationality, wrote a book of
faith against those who blame nature and not the will, showing that
evil was introduced into nature not by creation but by disobedience.
 Bishop of Barcelona about 316.
Bachiarius,  a Christian philosopher, prompt and ready and
minded to devote his time to God, chose travel as a means of
preserving the integrity of his purpose. He is said to have published
acceptable small works but I have only read one of them, a work On
faith, in which he justified himself to the chief priest of the city,
defending himself against those who complained and misrepresented his
travel, and asserting that he undertook his travel not through fear of
men but for the sake of God, that going forth from his land and
kindred he might become a co-heir with Abraham the patriarch.
 A Spanish bishop. Flourished about 400.
Sabbatius,  bishop of the Gallican province, at the request of a
certain virgin, chaste and devoted to Christ, Secunda by name,
composed a book On faith against Marcion and Valentinus his teacher,
also against Eunomius and his Master Aëtius, showing, both by reason
and by testimony of the Scriptures, that the origin of the deity is
one, that the Author of his eternity and the Creator of the earth out
of nothing, are one and the same, and likewise concerning Christ, that
he did not appear as man in a phantasm but had real flesh through
which eating, drinking, weary and weeping, suffering, dying, rising
again he was demonstrated to be man indeed. For Marcion and Valentinus
had been opposed to these opinions asserting that the origin of Deity
is twofold and that Christ came in a phantasm. To Aëtius indeed and
Eunomius his disciple, he showed that the Father and Son are not of
two natures and equal in divinity but of one essence and the one from
the other, that is the Son from the Father, the one coeternal with the
other, which belief Aëtius and Eunomius opposed.
 St. Servais, Bishop of Tongres 338, died at Maestricht 384. The
patron saint of Maestricht. Supposed by some to be the same as
Phebadius (Faegadius, Phaebadius, Segatius, Sabadius Phitadius (called
in Gascony Fiari)? bishop of Agen. Flourished 440 (Cave).
Isaac  wrote On the Holy Trinity and a book On the incarnation
of the Lord, writing in a very obscure style of argument and involved
language, maintaining that three persons exist in one Deity, in such
wise that any thing may be peculiar to each which another does not
have, that is to say, that the Father has this peculiarity that He,
himself without source, is the source of others, that the Son has this
peculiarity, that, begotten, He is not posterior to the begetter, that
the Holy Spirit has this peculiarity, that He is neither made nor
begotten but nevertheless is from another. Of the incarnation of the
Lord indeed, he writes that the person of the Son of God is believed
to be one, while yet there are two natures existing in him.
 Converted Jew, flourished about 385.
Ursinus  the monk wrote against those who say that heretics
should be rebaptized, teaching  that it is not legitimate nor
honouring God, that those should be rebaptized who have been baptized
either in the name of Christ alone or in the name of the Father and of
the Son and of the Holy Spirit, though the formula has been used in a
vitiated sense. He considers that after the simple confession of the
Holy Trinity and of Christ, the imposition of the hands of the
catholic priest is sufficient for salvation.
 Flourished above 440.
 Omit "teaching" e T 31.
Macarius  another monk, wrote at Rome books Against the
mathematicians, in which labour he sought the comfort of oriental
 Flourished fifth century.
Heliodorus,  presbyter of Antioch, published an excellent volume
gathered from Holy Scriptures On Virginity.
 Flourished about 440.
[John   bishop of Constantinople, a man of marvelous
knowledge and in sanctity of life, in every respect worthy of
imitation, wrote many and very useful works for all who are hastening
to divine things. Among them are the following On compunction of soul
one book, That no one is injured except by himself, an excellent
volume In praise of the blessed Paul the apostle, On the excesses and
ill reputation of Eutropius a prætorian prefect and many others, as I
have said, which may be found by the industrious.]
 John Chrysostom born at Antioch about 347, bishop of
Constantinople 398, deposed 403, died 407.
 This whole paragraph is omitted by most mss., though T and 21
Another John,   bishop of Jerusalem, wrote a book against
those who disparaged his studies, in which he shows that he follows
the genius of Origen not his creed.
 Bishop 386, died 417.
 JohnA 25 30 31 a e; another John [T ?] 21.
Paul the bishop wrote a short work On penitence in which he lays down
this law for penitents; that they ought to repent for their sins in
such manner that they be not beyond measure overwhelmed with
Helvidius,  a disciple of Auxentius and imitator of Symmachus,
wrote, indeed, with zeal for religion but not according to knowledge,
a book, polished neither in language nor in reasoning, a work in which
he so attempted to twist the meaning of the Holy Scriptures to his own
perversity, as to venture to assert on their testimony that Joseph and
Mary, after the nativity of our Lord, had children who were called
brothers of the Lord. In reply to his perverseness Jerome, published a
book against him, well filled with scripture proofs. 
 Fourth century.
 In reply...proofs A T 25 30 21; omit e 31 a.
Theophilus,  bishop of the church  of Alexandria, wrote
one great volume Against Origen in which he condemns pretty nearly all
his sayings and himself likewise, at the same time saying that he was
not original in his views but derived them from the ancient fathers
especially from Heraclas, that he was deposed from  the office
of presbyter driven from the church and compelled to fly from the
city. He also wrote Against the Anthropomorphites, heretics who say
that God has the human form and members, confuting in a long
discussion and arguing by testimonies of Divine Scripture and
convincing. He shows that, according to the belief of the Fathers, God
is to be thought of as incorporal, not formed with any suggestion of
members at all, and therefore there is nothing like Him among created
things in substance, nor has the incorruptibility nor unchangeableness
nor incorporeality of his nature been given to any one but that all
intellectual natures are corporeal, all corruptible, all mutable, that
He alone should not be subject to corruptibility or changeableness,
who alone has immortality and life. Likewise the return of the paschal
feast which the great council at Nicea had found would take place
after ninety years at the same time, the same month and day adding
some observations on the festival and explanations he gave to the
emperor Theodosius. I have read also three books On faith, which bear
his name but, as their language is not like his, I do not very much
think they are by him.
 Bishop 385, died 412.
 ChurchT 21; city A 25 30 31 a.
 deposed 25 31 a e?; elect A 30; stripped of T.
Eusebius  wrote On the mystery of our Lord's cross and the
faithfulness of the apostles, and especially of Peter, gained by
virtue of the cross.
 Bishop of Milan 451, died 462.
Vigilantius,  a citizen of Gaul, had the church of Barcelona. He
wrote also with some zeal for religion but, overcome by the desire for
human praise and presuming above his strength, being a man of polished
language but not practised in the meaning of Scriptures, he expounded
the vision of Daniel in a perverted sense and said other frivolous
things which are necessarily mentioned in a catalogue of heretics. [To
him also the blessed Jerome the presbyter responded.] 
 At Jerusalem 394, heretic about 404.
 to him...responded A Her.; omit T 25 30 31 a e.
Simplicianus,  the bishop, exhorted Augustine then presbyter, in
many letters, that he should exercise his genius and take time for
exposition of the Scriptures that, as it were, a new Ambrosius, the
task master of Origen might appear. Wherefore also he sent to him many
examinations of scriptures. There is also an epistle of his of
Questions in which he teaches by asking questions as if wishing to
 Bishop of Milan 397, died 400.
Vigilius  the bishop wrote to one Simplicianus a small book In
praise of martyrs and an epistle containing the acts of the martyrs in
his time among the barbarians.
 Bishop of Trent 388, died 405.
Augustine,  of Africa, bishop of Hipporegensis, a man renowned
throughout the world for learning both sacred and secular, unblemished
in the faith, pure in life, wrote works so many that they cannot all
be gathered. For who is there that can boast himself of having all his
works, or who reads with such diligence as to read all he has written?
 As an old man even, he published fifteen books On the Trinity
which he had begun as a young man. In which, as scripture says,
brought into the chamber of the king and adorned with the manifold
garment of the wisdom of God, he exhibited a church not having spot or
wrinkle or any such thing. In his work On the incarnation of the Lord
also he manifested a peculiar piety. On the resurrection of the dead
he wrote with equal sincerity, and left it to the less able to raise
doubts respecting abortions.  
 Born at Tagaste 354, baptized at Milan 387, bishop of Hippo
395, died 430.
 all he has written e T A 30 31 a Her.; 25 Fabr. add "wherefore
on account of his much speaking Solomon's saying came true that `In
the multitude of words there wanteth not sin.'" This expression in the
editions has been the ground of much comment on Gennadius'
Semi-pelagian bias, but it almost certainly does not represent the
original form of the text.
 Abortions "That abortions...shall rise again I make bold
neither to affirm nor to deny" Augustine De civ. Dei. 22, 13.
 T 31 end thus; A omits and left...abortions but adds a few
lines of other matter; e adds differing matter; a adds remained a
catholic; 30 adds remained a catholic and died in the same city--the
city which is still called Hypporegensis; while 25 adds a vast amount.
Orosius,  a Spanish presbyter, a man most eloquent and learned
in history, wrote eight books against those enemies of the Christians
who say that the decay of the Roman State was caused by the Christian
religion. In these rehearsing the calamities and miseries and
disturbances of wars, of pretty much the whole world from the creation
 he shows that the Roman Empire owed to the Christian religion
its undeserved continuance and the state of peace which it enjoyed for
the worship of God.
In the first book he described the world situated within the ever
flowing stream of Oceanus and intersected by the Tanais, giving the
situations of places, the names, number and customs of nations, the
characteristics of various regions, the wars begun and the formation
of empires sealed with the blood of kinsmen.
This is the Orosius who, sent by Augustine to Hieronymus to teach the
nature of the soul, returning, was the first to bring to the West
relics of the blessed Stephen the first martyr then recently found. He
flourished almost  at the end of the reign of the emperor
 Paulus Orosius of Tarragon, the historian, flourished about 413
or 417. His history was begun after 416 and finished in 417.
 from the creation ("from the whole period of the earth") A 25
30 31 a e; omit T 21 Her.
 almost25 30 31 a e; omit T A Her.
Maximus,  bishop of the church at Turin, a man fairly
industrious in the study of the Holy Scripture, and good at teaching
the people extemporaneously, composed treatises In praise of the
apostles and John the Baptist, and a Homily on all the martyrs.
Moreover he wrote many acute comments on passages from the Gospels and
the Acts of the Apostles. He wrote also two treatises, On the life
 of Saint Eusebius, bishop of Vercelli, and confessor, and On
Saint Cyprian, and published a monograph On the grace of baptism. I
have read his On avarice, On hospitality, On the eclipse of the moon,
On almsgiving, On the saying in Isaiah, Your winedealers mix wine with
water, On Our Lord's Passion, A general treatise On fasting by the
servants of God, On the quadragesimal fast in particular, and That
there should be no jesting on fast day, On Judas, the betrayer, On Our
Lord's cross, On His sepulchre, On His resurrection, On the accusation
and trial of Our Lord before Pontius Pilate, On the Kalends of
January, a homily On the day of Our Lord's Nativity, also homilies On
Epiphany, On the Passover, On Pentecost, many also, On having no fear
of carnal Foes, On giving thanks after meat, On the repentance of the
Ninivites, and other homilies of his, published  on various
occasions, whose names I do not remember. He died in the reign of
Honorius and Theodosius the younger.
 Maximus of Vercelli, bishop of Turin about 415, died 466-470.
 omit life A 30 a.
 published T 30 21 Her.; delivered A 25 31 a e.
Petronius,  bishop of Bologna in Italy  a man of holy life
and from his youth practised in monastic studies, is reputed to have
written the Lives of the Fathers, to wit of the Egyptian monks, a work
which the monks accept as the mirror and pattern of their profession.
I have read a treatise which bears his name On the ordination of
bishops, a work full of good reasoning and notable for its humility,
but whose polished style shows it not to have been his, but perhaps,
as some say, the work of his father Petronius,  a man of great
eloquence and learned in secular literature. This I think is to be
accepted, for the author of the work describes himself as a prætorian
prefect. He died in the reign of Theodosius and Valentinianus.
 Bishop of Bologna 430, died before 350.
 in Italy A 30 31 a e; omit T 25 21 Her.
 Petronius A 25 30 31; omit T a?
Pelagius  the heresiarch, before he was proclaimed a heretic
wrote works of practical value for students: three books On belief in
the Trinity, and one book of Selections from Holy Scriptures bearing
on the Christian life. This latter was preceded by tables of contents,
after the model of Saint Cyprian the martyr. After he was proclaimed
heretic, however, he wrote works bearing on his heresy.
 At Rome about 400, at Carthage 411, heretic 417.
Innocentius,  bishop of Rome, wrote the decree which the Western
churches passed against the Pelagians and which his successor, Pope
Zosimus, afterwards widely promulgated.
 Bishop or "Pope" 402, died 417.
Caelestius,  before he joined Pelagius, while yet a very young
man, wrote to his parents three epistles On monastic life, written as
short books, and containing moral maxims suited to every one who is
seeking God, containing no trace of the fault which afterwards
appeared but wholly devoted to the encouragement of virtue.
 Heretic 412-417.
Julianus  the bishop, a man of vigorous character, learned in
the Divine Scriptures, and proficient both in Greek and Latin, was,
before he disclosed his participation in the ungodliness of Pelagius,
distinguished among the doctors of the church. But afterwards, trying
to defend the Pelagian heresy, he wrote four books, Against Augustine,
the opponent of Pelagius, and then again, eight books more. There is
also a book containing a discussion, where each defends his side.
This Julianus, in time of famine and want, attracting many through the
alms which he gave, and the glamour of virtue, which they cast around
him, associated them with him in his heresy. He died during the reign
of Valentinianus, the son of Constantius.
 Bishop of Eclanum about 416.
Lucianus  the presbyter, a holy man to whom, at the time when
Honorius and Theodosius were Emperors, God revealed the place of the
sepulchre and the remains of Saint Stephen the Protomartyr, wrote out
that revelation in Greek, addressing it to all the churches.
 Lucianus of Caphargamala, flourished 415.
Avitus  the presbyter, a Spaniard by race, translated the above
mentioned work of the presbyter Lucianus into Latin, and sent it with
his letter annexed, by the hand of Orosius the presbyter, to the
 Avitus of Braga, died 440.
Paulinus,  bishop of Nola in Campania, composed many brief works
in verse, also a consolatory work to Celsus On the death of a
christian and baptized child, a sort of epitaph, well fortified with
christian hope, also many Letters to Severus, and A panegric in prose
written before he became bishop, On victory over tyrants which was
addressed to Theodosius and maintained that victory lay rather in
faith and prayer, than in arms. He wrote also a Sacramentary and
He also addressed many letters to his sister, On contempt of the
world, and published treatises of different sorts, on various
The most notable of all his minor works are the works On repentance,
and A general panegyric of all the martyrs. He lived in the reign of
Honorius and Valentinianus, and was distinguished, not only for
erudition  and holiness of life, but also for his ability to
cast out demons.
 Pontius Meropius (Anicius?) Paulinus, Born at Bordeaux 353
(354?), pupil of Ausonius, baptized before 389, bishop before 410,
 on various occasions is omitted by T 31 e.
 erudition A T 31 a e 21; observation 25 30 Her.
Eutropius,  the presbyter, wrote to two sisters, handmaids of
Christ, who had been disinherited by their parents on account of their
devotion to chastity and their love for religion, two Consolatory
letters in the form of small books, written in polished and clear
language and fortified not only by argument, but also by testimonies
from the Scriptures.
 Pupil of Augustine about 430.
Another Evagrius  wrote a Discussion between Simon the Jew and
Theophilus the Christian, a work which is very well known.
 Pupil of St. Martin of Tours 405.
Vigilius  the deacon. composed out of the traditions of the
fathers a Rule for monks, which is accustomed to be read in the
monastery for the profit of the assembled monks. It is written in
condensed and clear language and covers the whole range of monastic
 Flourished about 430.
Atticus  bishop of Constantinople, wrote to the princess
daughters  of the Emperor Arcadius, On faith and virginity, a
most excellent work, in which he attacks by anticipation the Nestorian
 Bishop of Constantinople 406, died 425.
 Daughters Pulcheria and her sisters.
Nestorius   the heresiarch, was regarded, while presbyter
of the church at Antioch, as a remarkable extemporaneous teacher,
 and composed a great many treatises on various Questions, into
which already at that time  he infused that subtle evil, which
afterwards became the poison of acknowledged impiety, veiled meanwhile
by moral exhortation. But afterwards, when commended by his eloquence
and abstemiousness he had been made pontiff of the church at
Constantinople, showing openly what he had for a long while concealed,
he became a declared enemy of the church, and wrote a book On the
incarnation of the Lord, formed of sixty-two passages from Divine
Scripture, used in a perverted meaning. What he maintained in this
book may be found in the catalogue of heretics.
 Bishop of Constantinople 428, deposed 431, died in the Thebaid
 Nestorius 25 30 Her; Nestor A T 31 a e 21.
 teacher A T 30 31 a e; omit 25 Her.
 at that time A T a e; omit 25 30 31.
Caelestinus,  bishop of Rome, addressed a volume to the churches
of the East and West, giving an account of the decree of the synod
against the above mentioned Nestorius and maintaining that while there
are two complete natures in Christ, the person of the Son of God is to
be regarded as single. The above mentioned Nestorius was shown to be
opposed to this view. Xystus likewise, the successor of Caelestinus,
wrote on the same subject and to the same Nestorius and the Eastern
bishops, giving the views of the Western bishops against his error.
 Bishop (Pope) of Rome 422, died 432.
Theodotus,   bishop of Ancyra in Galatia, while at 
Ephesus, wrote against Nestorius a work of defence and refutation,
 written, to be sure, in dialectic style, but interwoven with
passages from the Holy Scriptures. His method was to make statements
and then quote proof texts from the Scriptures.
 Theodotus Bishop of Ancyra 431-8.
 Theodotus T ? a e; Theodorus a 25 30 31 Fabr. Her.
 while at T 31 e 21; while formerly at 25 30 a A?
 and refutation A 25 30 a; omit T 31 e 21.
Fastidius,  bishop in Britain, wrote to one Fatalis, a book On
the Christian life, and another On preserving the estate of virginity,
 a work full of sound doctrine, and doing honour to God.
 Flourished 420.
 virginity T 31 e 21; widowhood A 25 30 a Fabr. Her.
Cyril,  bishop of the church at Alexandria, published various
treatises on various Questions, and also composed many homilies, which
are recommended for preaching by the Greek bishops. Other books of his
are; On the downfall of the synagogue, On faith against the heretics,
and a work directed especially against Nestorius and entitled, A
Refutation, in which all the secrets of Nestorius are exposed and his
published opinions are refuted.
 Born about 376, bishop of Alexandria 412, died 444.
Timotheus,  the bishop composed a book On the nativity of Our
Lord according to the flesh, which is supposed to have been written at
 From position evidently flourished before 450.
Leporius,  formerly monk afterwards presbyter, relying on
purity,  through his own free will and unaided effort, instead
of depending on the help of God, began to follow the Pelagian
doctrine. But having been admonished by the Gallican doctors, and
corrected by Augustine in Africa, he wrote a book containing his
retraction, in which he both acknowledges his error and returns thanks
for his correction. At the same time in correction of his false view
of the incarnation of Christ, he presented the Catholic view,
acknowledging the single person of the Son of God, and the two natures
existing in Christ in his substance. 
 Flourished 418-430.
 purityT 31 a e 21; purity of life A 25 30.
 in his substance A T 30 31 a e 21; omit 25 Her.
Victorinus,  a rhetorician of Marseilles, wrote to his son
Etherius, a commentary On Genesis, commenting, that is, from the
beginning of the book to the death of the patriarch Abraham, and
published four  books in verse, words which have a savour of
piety indeed, but, in that he was a man busied with secular literature
and quite untrained in the Divine Scriptures, they are of slight
weight, so far as ideas are concerned.
He died in the reign of Theodosius and Valentinianus.
 Claudius Marius Victor (Victorius or Victorinus) of Marseilles
 fourA T 31 a e; three 25 30.
Cassianus,  Scythian by race, ordained deacon by bishop John the
Great, at Constantinople, and a presbyter at Marseilles, founded two
monasteries, that is to say one for men and one for women, which are
still standing. He wrote from experience, and in forcible language, or
to speak more clearly, with meaning back of his words, and action back
of his talk. He covered the whole field of practical directions, for
monks of all sorts, in the following works: On dress, also On the
canon of prayers, and the Usage in the saying of Psalms, (for these in
the Egyptian monasteries, are said day and night), three books. One of
Institutes, eight books On the origin, nature and remedies for the
eight principal sins, a book on each sin. He also compiled Conferences
with the Egyptian fathers, as follows: On the aim of a monk and his
creed, On discretion, On three vocations to the service of God, On the
warfare of the flesh against the spirit and the spirit against the
flesh, On the nature of all sins, On the slaughter of the saints, On
fickleness of mind, On principalities, On the nature of prayer, On the
duration of prayer, On perfection, On chastity, On the protection of
God, On the knowledge of spiritual things, On the Divine graces, On
friendship, On whether to define or not to define, On three ancient
kinds of monks and a fourth recently arisen, On the object of
cenobites and hermits, On true satisfaction in repentance, On the
remission of the Quinquagesimal fast, On nocturnal illusions, On the
saying of the apostles, "For the good which I would do, I do not, but
the evil which I would not, that I do," On mortification, and finally
at the request of Leo the archdeacon, afterwards bishop of Rome, he
wrote seven books against Nestorius, On the incarnation of the Lord,
and writing this, made an end, both of writing and living, at
Marseilles, in the reign of Theodosius and Valentinianus.
 Johannes Cassianus died 450.
Philip,  the presbyter Jerome's best pupil, published a
Commentary on Job, written in an unaffected style. I have read his
Familiar letters, exceedingly witty, exhorting the endurance of
poverty and sufferings. He died in the reign of Martianus and Avitus.
 Died about 455.
Eucherius,  bishop of the church at Lyons, wrote to his relative
Valerianus, On contempt for the world and worldly philosophy, a single
letter, written in a style which shows sound learning and reasoning.
He wrote also to his sons, Salonius and Veranius, afterward bishops, a
discussion On certain obscure passages of Holy Scriptures, and
besides, revising and condensing certain works of Saint Cassianus, he
compressed them into one volume, and wrote other works suited to
ecclesiastical or monastic pursuits. He died in the reign of
Valentinianus and Martianus.
 Bishop about 435, died 450.
Vincentius,  the Gaul, presbyter in the Monastery on the Island
of Lerins, a man learned in the Holy Scriptures and very well informed
in matters of ecclesiastical doctrine, composed a powerful
disputation, written in tolerably finished and clear language, which,
suppressing his name, he entitled Peregrinus against heretics. The
greater part of the second book of this work having been stolen, he
composed a brief reproduction of the substance of the original work,
and published in one [book]. He died in the reign of Theodosius and
 Presbyter 434, died before 450.
Syagrius  wrote On faith, against the presumptuous words, which
heretics assume for the purpose of destroying or superseding the names
of the Holy Trinity, for they say that the Father ought not to be
called Father, lest the name, Son should harmonize with that of
Father, but that he should be called the Unbegotten or the
Imperishable and the Absolute, in order that whatever may be distinct
from Him in person, may also be separate in nature, showing that the
Father, who is unchangeable in nature may be called the Unbegotten,
though the Scripture may not call Him so, that the person of the Son
is begotten from Him, not made, and that the person of the Holy Spirit
proceeds from Him not begotten, and not made. Under the name of this
Syagrius I found seven books, entitled On Faith and the rules of
Faith, but as they did not agree in style, I did not believe they were
written by him.
 Syagrius of Lyons, died 486.
Isaac,  presbyter of the church at Antioch, whose many works
cover a long period, wrote in Syriac especially against the Nestorians
and Eutychians. He lamented the downfall of Antioch in an elegiac
poem, taking up the same strain that Ephraim, the deacon, sounded on
the downfall of Nicomedia. He died during the reign of Leo and
 Isaac of Amida (Diarbekir) presbyter died about 460.
Salvianus,  presbyter of Marseilles, well informed both in
secular and in sacred literature, and to speak without invidiousness,
a master among bishops, wrote many things in a scholastic and clear
style, of which I have read the following: four books On the
Excellence of virginity, to Marcellus the presbyter, three books
Against avarice, five books On the present judgment,  and one
book On punishment according to desert, addressed to Salonius the
bishop, also one book of Commentary on the latter part of the book of
Ecclesiastes, addressed to Claudius bishop of Vienne, one book of
Epistles.  He also composed one book in verse after the Greek
fashion, a sort of Hexaemeron, covering the period from the beginning
of Genesis to the creation of man, also many Homilies delivered to the
bishops, and I am sure I do not know how many On the sacraments. He is
still living at a good old age.
 Born about 390, Presbyter about 428, died about 484.
 present judgment more generally known as Divine Providence (De
 one book of epistles a 25 30; omit A T 31 e 21.
Paulinus  composed treatises On the beginning of the
Quadragesimal, of which I have read two, On the Passover Sabbath, On
obedience, On penitence, On neophytes.
 From position evidently flourished about 450.
Hilary,  bishop of the church at Arles, a man learned in Holy
Scriptures, was devoted to poverty, and earnestly anxious to live in
narrow circumstances, not only in religiousness of mind, but also in
labour of body. To secure this estate of poverty, this man of noble
race and very differently brought up, engaged in farming, though it
was beyond his strength, and yet did not neglect spiritual matters. He
was an acceptable teacher also, and without regard to persons
administered correction to all.  He published some few things,
brief, but showing immortal genius, and indicating an erudite mind, as
well as capacity for vigorous speech; among these that work which is
of so great practical value to many, his Life of Saint Honoratus, his
predecessor. He died during the reign of Valentinianus and Martianus.
 Born about 401, bishop 429, died 449.
 correction to all; Her. adds work of preaching but has the
support of no good mss.
Leo,  bishop  of Rome, wrote a letter to Flavianus, bishop
of the church at Constantinople, against Eutyches the presbyter, who
at that time, on account of his ambition for the episcopate was trying
to introduce novelties into the church. In this he advises Flavianus,
if Eutyches confesses his error and promises amendment, to receive
him, but if he should persist in the course he had entered on, that he
should be condemned together with his heresy. He likewise teaches in
this epistle and confirms by divine testimony that as the Lord Jesus
Christ is to be considered the true son of the Divine Father, so
likewise he is to be considered true man with human nature, that is,
that he derived a body of flesh from the flesh of the virgin and not
as Eutyches asserted, that he showed a body from heaven.  He
died in the reign of Leo and Majorianus.
 Leo the Great, Bishop (Pope) 440, died 461.
 bishop: A 30 31 e have pontiff.
 T and 21 add after heaven "and he addressed another letter on
this same subject to the Emperor Leo in whose reign also he died."
Mochimus,  the Mesopotamian, a presbyter at Antioch, wrote an
excellent book Against Eutyches, and is said to be writing others,
which I have not yet read.
 Presbyter 457.
Timotheus,   when Proterius  had been put to death
by the Alexandrians, in response to popular clamour, willingly or
unwillingly allowed himself to be made bishop by a single bishop in
the place of him who had been put to death. And lest he, having been
illegally appointed, should be deservedly deposed at the will of the
people who had hated Proterius, he pronounced all the bishops of his
vicinity to be Nestorians, and boldly presuming to wash out the stain
on his conscience by hardihood, wrote a very persuasive book to the
Emperor Leo, which he attempted to fortify by testimonies of the
Fathers, used in a perverted sense, so far as to show, for the sake of
deceiving the emperor and establishing his heresy, that Leo of Rome,
pontiff of the city, and the synod of Chalcedon, and all the Western
bishops were fundamentally Nestorians. But by the grace of God, the
enemy of the church was refuted and overthrown at the Council of
Chalcedon. He is said to be living in exile, still an heresiarch, and
it is most likely so. This book of his for learning's sake, I
translated by request of the brethren into Latin and prefixed a
 Bishop of Alexandria 380, died 385.
 Timotheus 31 e add Bishop of Alexandria.
 Proterius; 25 30 Fabr. Her. add the bishop.
 This book...caveat A T 25 30 31 a e 21 Fabr.; omit Migne. Her.
Asclepius,  the African, bishop of a large see  within the
borders of Bagais, wrote against the Arians, and is said to be now
writing against the Donatists. He is famous for his extemporaneous
 Bishop of Bagais (Vagen) about 485.
 large see A T 25 30 31 a? e earliest eds.; small village. Fabr.
Peter,  presbyter of the church at Edessa, a famous preacher,
wrote Treatises on various subjects, and Hymns after the manner of
Saint Ephrem, the deacon.
 Flourished 450.
Paul  the presbyter, a Pannonian by nationality, as I learned
from his own mouth, wrote On preserving virginity, and contempt for
the world, and the Ordering of life or the correction of morals,
written in a mediocre style, but flavoured with divine salt. The two
books were addressed to a certain noble virgin devoted to Christ,
Constantia by name, and in them he mentions Jovinian the heretic and
preacher of voluptuousness and lusts, who was so far removed from
leading a continent and chaste life, that he belched forth his life in
the midst of luxurious banquets. 
 Flourished 430?
 T adds several lines.
Pastor  the bishop composed a short work, written in the form of
a creed, and containing pretty much the whole round of Ecclesiastical
doctrine in sentences. In this, among other heresies which he
anathematizes without giving the names of their authors, he condemns
the Priscillians and their author.
 Bishop in Spain? about 400.
Victor,  bishop of Cartenna in Mauritania, wrote one long book
against the Arians, which he sent to king Genseric by his followers,
as I learned from the preface to the work,  and a work On the
repentance of the publican,  in which he drew up a rule of life
for the penitent, according to the authority of Scriptures. He also
wrote a consolatory work to one Basilius, On the death of a son,
filled with resurrection hope and good counsel. He also composed many
Homilies, which have been arranged as continuous works and are as I
know, made use of by brethren anxious for their own salvation.
 Victor of Cartenna (Tenez Afr.) bishop about 450.
 which he sent...work A T 30 31 e 21 Fabr.; omit 25 a Her.
 publican Fabr. Migne, Her.: On public penance, A T 30 31 a? e?:
omit publican 25 Bamb Bern. the oldest editions.
Voconius,  bishop of Castellanum in Mauritania, wrote Against
the enemies of the church, Jews, Arians, and other heretics. He
composed also an excellent work On the Sacraments. 
 Bishop of Castellan in Mauritania about 450.
 Sacraments or of Sacraments i.e. a Sacrementary.
Musaeus,  presbyter of the church at Marseilles, a man learned
in Divine Scriptures and most accurate in their interpretation, as
well as master of an excellent scholastic style, on the request of
Saint Venerius the bishop, selected from Holy Scriptures passages
suited to the various feast days of the year, also passages from the
Psalms for responses suited to the season, and the passages for
reading. The readers in the church found this work of the greatest
value, in that it saved them trouble and anxiety in the selection of
passages, and was useful for the instruction of the people as well as
for the dignity of the service. He also addressed to Saint Eustathius
 the bishop, successor to the above mentioned man of God, an
excellent and sizable volume, a Sacramentary,  divided into
various sections, according to the various offices and seasons,
Readings and Psalms, both for reading and chanting, but also filled
throughout with petitions to the Lord,  and thanksgiving for his
benefits. By this work we know him to have been a man of strong
intelligence and chaste eloquence. He is said to have also delivered
homilies, which are, as I know, valued by pious men, but which I have
not read. He died in the reign of Leo and Majorianus.
 Died before 461.
 Eustathius 31 e; Eustasius A T a. ed. 1512; Eusebius 25, 30;
Eustachius Fabr. Migne, Her.
 Sacramentary or On the Sacraments.
 the Lord T 25 30 31 a e God Fabr. Her.
Vincentius  the presbyter, a native of Gaul, practised in Divine
Scripture and possessed of a style polished by speaking and by wide
reading, wrote a Commentary On the Psalms. A part of this work, he
read in my hearing, to a man of God, at Cannatae, promising at the
same time, that if the Lord should spare his life and strength, he
would treat the whole Psalter in the same way.
 Apparently about 450.
Cyrus,  an Alexandrian by race, and a physician by profession,
at first a philosopher then a monk, an expert speaker, at first wrote
elegantly and powerfully against Nestorius, but afterwards, since he
began to inveigh against him too intemperately  and dealt in
syllogism rather than Scripture, he began to foster the Timothean
doctrine. Finally he declined to accept the decree of the council of
Chalcedon, and did not think the doctrine that after the incarnation
the Son of God comprehended two natures, was to be acquiesced in.
 Flourished 460.
 since he began to inveigh against him too intemperately Norimb.
and the eds., but the other mss. read "nevertheless" inveigh or
"inveighs less" or "more" and "is found" for "inveigh." T 21 25 a
Wolfenb. agree in reading in illo minus invenitur instead of in illum
nimius inventur. Norimb has same with nimius instead of minus. The
reading of T 21 25 a Wolfenb. thus reinforced and in view of the fact
of the easy confusion of minus and nimius in transcribing, is the most
probable reading, but it is hard to decide and harder still to make
sense of it.
Samuel,  presbyter of the church at Edessa, is said to have
written many things in Syriac against the enemies of the church,
especially against the Nestorians, the Eutychians and the Timotheans,
new heresies all, but differing from one another. On this account he
frequently speaks of the triple beast, while he briefly refutes by the
opinion of the church, and the authority of Holy Scriptures, showing
to the Nestorians, that the Son was God in man, not simply man born of
a Virgin, to the Eutychians, that he had true human flesh, taken on by
God, and not merely a body made of thick air, or shown from Heaven; to
the Timotheans, that the Word was made flesh in such wise, that the
Word remains Word in substance, and, human nature remaining human
nature, one person of the Son of God is produced by union, not by
mingling. He is said to be still living at Constantinople, for at the
beginning of the reign of Anthemius, I knew his writings, and knew
that he was in the land of the living.
 Presbyter 467.
Claudianus,  presbyter of the church at Vienne, a master
speaker, and shrewd in argument, composed three books, On the
condition and substance of the soul, in which he discusses how far
anything is incorporeal excepting God.
[He wrote also some other things, among which are, A Hymn on Our
Lord's Passion, which begins "Pange lingua gloriosi." He was moreover
brother of Mamertus, bishop of Vienne.]  (See note.)
 Claudianus Ecdicius Mamertius died 473-4.
 wrote...Vienne is said to be in a certain manuscript of the
Monastery of "St. Michaelis de Tumba" but is omitted by A T 25 30 31 a
e 21 Bamb. Bern. etc etc. and certainly does not belong in text. It is
left in brackets above because given in the editions.
Prosper  of Aquitania, a man scholastic in style and vigorous in
statement, is said to have composed many works, of which I have read a
Chronicle, which bears his name, and which extends from the creation
of the first man, according to Divine Scripture, until the death of
the Emperor Valentinianus and the taking of Rome by Genseric king of
the Vandals. I regard as his also an anonymous book against certain
works of Cassianus, which the church of God finds salutary, but which
he brands as injurious, and in fact, some of the opinions of Cassian
and Prosper on the grace of God and on free will are at variance with
one another. Epistles of Pope Leo against Eutyches, On the true
incarnation of Christ, sent to various persons, are also thought
 to have been dictated by him.
 Born 403, wrote chronicle 445? died 463.
 thought A 25 30 31 a e 21; said T Fabr. Her.
Faustus,  first abbot of the monastery at Lerins, and then made
bishop  of Riez in Gaul, a man studious of the Divine
Scriptures, taking his text from the historic creed of the church,
composed a book On the Holy Spirit, in which he shows from the belief
of the fathers, that the Holy Spirit is consubstantial and coeternal
with the Father and the Son, the fulness of the Trinity and therefore
God.  He published also an excellent work, On the grace of God,
through which we are saved,  in which he teaches that the grace
of God always invites, precedes and helps our will, and whatever gain
that freedom of will may attain for its pious effect, is not its own
desert, but the gift of grace. I have read also a little book of his
Against the Arians and Macedonians, in which he posits a coëssential
Trinity, and another against those who say that there is anything
incorporeal in created things, in which he maintains from the
testimony of Scriptures, and by quotations from the fathers, that
nothing is to be regarded as incorporeal but God. There is also a
letter of his, written in the form of a little book, and addressed to
a certain deacon, named Graecus, who, leaving the Catholic faith, had
gone over to the Nestorian impiety.
In this epistle he admonishes him to believe that the holy Virgin Mary
did not bring forth a mere human being, who afterwards should receive
divinity, but true God in true man. There are still other works by
him, but as I have not read, I do not care to mention them. This
excellent doctor is enthusiastically believed in and admired. He wrote
afterwards also to Felix, the Prætonian prefect, and a man of
Patrician rank, son of Magnus the consul, a very pious letter,
exhorting to the fear of God, a work well fitted to induce one to
repent with his whole heart.
 Abbot of Lerins 433-4, bishop of Riez 462, exiled 477-84, died
 Made bishop A T 31 e 21; bishop a 25 30.
 and therefore God T 25 31 a e 21 [31 A?;] obtaining Fabr. Her.;
Bamb and ed. 1512 read and therefore but join to next sentence.
 savedA T 25; add and the free will of the human mind in which
we are saved 30 31 a e.
Servus Dei  the bishop, wrote against those who say that Christ
while living in this world did not see the Father with his eyes of
flesh--But after his resurrection from the dead and his ascension into
heaven when he had been translated into the glory of God the Father as
in reward so to speak to him for his abnegation and a compensation for
his martyrdom. In this work he showed both from his own argument and
from the testimony of Sacred Scriptures that the Lord Jesus from his
conception by the Holy Spirit and his birth of the Virgin through
which true God in true man himself also man made God was born, always
beheld with his eyes of flesh both the Father and the Holy Spirit
through the special and complete union of God and man.
 Bishop of "Tiburcisen" about 406-11.
Victorius  the Aquitanian, a careful  reckoner, on
invitation of St. Hilary bishop of Rome, composed a Paschal cycle with
the most careful investigation following his four predecessors, that
is Hippolytus, Eusebius, Theophilus and Prosper, and extended the
series of years to the year five hundred and thirty-two, reckoning in
such wise that in the year 533 the paschal festival should take place
again on the same month and day and the same moon as on that first
year when the Passion and resurrection of our Lord took place.
 Wrote 457. 30 a read Victorinus.
 careful T 25 30 31 a Fabr.; most diligent A Norimb?; Bern
Norimb. et alt add of the Scriptures: of measures Her.
Theodoretus   bishop of Cyrus (for the city founded by
Cyrus king of the Persians preserves until the present day in Syria
the name of its founder) is said to have written many works. Such as
have come to my knowledge are the following: On the incarnation of the
Lord, Against Eutyches the presbyter and Dioscorus bishop of
Alexandria who deny that Christ had human flesh; strong works by which
he confirmed through reason and the testimony of Scripture that He had
real flesh from the maternal substance which he derived from His
Virgin mother just as he had true deity which he received at birth by
eternal generation from God the Father. There are ten books of the
ecclesiastical history which he wrote in imitation of Eusebius of
Cæsarea beginning where Eusebius ends and extending to his own time,
that is from the Vicennalia of Constantine until the accession of the
elder Leo in whose reign he died.
 Theodoret born about 393, bishop of Cyrrhaus 423, wrote 450,
 Theodoretus A a e; Theodoritus 31; Theodorus T 25 30.
Gennadius  a Patriarch  of the church of Constantinople, a
man brilliant in speech and of strong genius, was so richly equipped
by his reading of the ancients that he was able to expound the prophet
Daniel entire commenting on every word.
He composed also many Homilies. He died while the elder Leo was
 Bishop (or "Pontiff") 458, died 471.
 Patriarch (Pontiff) A T 30 31 e 21; bishop 25 a Fabr. Her.
Theodulus,   a presbyter in Coelesyria is said to have
written many works, but the only one which has come to my hand, is the
one which he composed On the harmony of divine Scripture, that is, the
Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, against the ancient heretics
who on account of discrepancies in the injunctions of the ritual, say
that the God of the Old Testament is different from the God of the
New. In this work he shows it to have been by the dispensation of one
and the same God, the author of both Scriptures, that one law should
be given by Moses to those of old in a ritual of sacrifices and in
judicial laws, and another to us through the presence of Christ in the
holy mysteries and future promises, that they should not be considered
different, but as dictated by one spirit and one author, since these
things which if observed only according to the letter, would slay, if
observed according to the spirit, would give life to the mind. This
writer died three years since  in the reign of Zeno.
 Died 492 (C)--rather before 491.
 Theodulus A T 31 a e; Theodorus 25 30 21.
 three years since A T 30? 31 21; omit 25 a.
[Sidonius  bishop of the Arverni wrote several acceptable works
and being a man sound in doctrine as well as thoroughly imbued with
divine and human learning and a man of commanding genius wrote a
considerable volume of letters to different persons written in various
metres or in prose and this showed his ability in literature. Strong
in Christian vigour even in the midst of that barbaric ferocity which
at that time oppressed the Gauls he was regarded as a catholic father
and a distinguished doctor. He flourished during the tempest which
marked the rule of Leo and Zenos.] 
 Caius Sollius Apollinaris Sidonius born about 430, bishop 472,
died about 488.
 This Chapter is in Norimb. and three only of the mss. seen by
the translator N. British Museum Harl. 3155, xv cent.; 43 Wolfenbüttel
838 xv cent.; k Paris B. N. Lat. 896. It is omitted by A T 25 30 31 a
e 21 etc. etc. etc. and really has no place in the text, but as it was
early introduced and is in the editions (not however the earliest
ones) it is given here.
John  of Antioch first grammarian, and then Presbyter, wrote
against those who assert that Christ is to be adored in one substance
only and do not admit that two natures are to be recognized in Christ.
He taught according to the Scriptural account that in Him God and man
exist in one person, and not the flesh and the Word in one nature.
He likewise attacked certain sentiments of Cyril, bishop of
Alexandria, unwisely  delivered by Cyril against Nestorius,
which now are an encouragement and give strength to the Timotheans.
 He is said to be still living and preaching.
 Flourished 477-495.
 unwisely T 25 30 31 e; unwisely saying A? a?
 Timotheans A T 25 30 31 a e 21 etc; add which is absurd Fabr.
[Gelasius,   bishop of Rome wrote Against Eutyches and
Nestorius a great and notable volume, also Treatises on various parts
of the scripture and the sacraments written in a polished style. He
also wrote Epistles against Peter and Acacius which are still
preserved in the catholic church. He wrote also Hymns after the
fashion of bishop Ambrosius. He died during the reign of the emperor
 Bishop 492, died 496.
 From this point to the end is bracketed, as a large part of the
mss. end with John of Antioch. Of our mss. Gelasius and Gennadius are
contained in 25 30 e², Honoratus to Pomerius in A 30 31 e² 40.
Honoratus,  bishop of Constantina in Africa wrote a letter to
one Arcadius who on account of his confession of the catholic faith
had been exiled to Africa by King Genseric.  This letter was an
exhortation to endure hardness for Christ and fortified by modern
examples and scripture illustrations showing that perseverance in the
confession of the faith not only purges past sins but also procures
the blessing of martyrdom.
 Bishop of Constantina (Cirta) 437.
 exiled by King Genseric; omit e² 30 31 40.
Cerealis  the bishop, an African by birth, was asked by Maximus
bishop of the Arians whether he could establish the catholic faith by
a few testimonies of Divine Scripture and without any controversial
assertions. This he did in the name of the Lord, truth itself helping
him, not with a few testimonies as Maximus had derisively asked, but
proving by copious proof texts from both Old and New Testaments and
published in a little book.
 Bishop of "Castelli Ripensis" in Africa 484.
Eugenius,  bishop of Carthage in Africa and public confessor,
commanded by Huneric  King of the Vandals to write an exposition
of the catholic faith and especially to discuss the meaning of the
word Homoousian, with the consent of all the bishops and confessors of
Mauritania in Africa and Sardinia and Corsica, who had remained in the
catholic faith, composed a book of faith, fortified not only by
quotations from the Holy Scriptures but by testimonies of the Fathers,
and sent it by his companions in confession. But now, exiled as a
reward for his faithful tongue, like an anxious shepherd over his
sheep he has left behind works urging them to remember the faith and
the one sacred baptism to be preserved at all hazards. He also wrote
out the Discussions which he held through messengers with the leaders
of the Arians and sent them to be given to Huneric by his major domo.
Likewise also he presented to the same, petitions for the peace of the
Christians which were of the nature of an Apology, and he is said to
be still living for the strengthening of the church.
 Bishop 479, died 505.
 Huneric A; omit e² 30 31 40.
Pomerius  the Mauritanian was ordained presbyter in Gaul. He
composed a dialectical treatise in eight books On the nature of the
soul and its properties, also one On the resurrection and its
particular bearing for the faithful in this life and in general for
all men, written in clear language and style, in the form of a
dialogue between Julian the bishop, and Verus the presbyter. The first
book contains discourses on what the soul is and in what sense it is
thought to be created in the image of God, the second, whether the
soul should be thought of as corporeal or incorporeal, the third, how
the soul of the first man  was made, fourth, whether the soul
which is put in the body at birth is newly created and without sin, or
produced from the substance of the first man like a shoot from a root
it brings also with it the original sin of the first man, fifth, a
review of the fourth book of the discussion,  and an inquiry as
to what is the capability of the soul, that is its possibilities, and
that it gains its capability from a single and pure will, the sixth,
whence arises the conflict between flesh and the spirit, spoken of by
the apostle, seventh, on the difference between the flesh and the
spirit in respect of life, of death and of resurrection, the eighth,
answers to questions concerning the things which it is predicted will
happen at the end of the world, to such questions, that is, as are
usually propounded concerning the resurrection. I remember to have
once read a hortatory work of his, addressed to some one named
Principius, On contempt of the world, and of transitory things, and
another entitled, On vices and virtues. He is said to have written yet
other works, which have not come to my knowledge, and to be still
writing. He is still living, and his life is worthy of Christian
profession, and his rank in the church.
 Died 498.
 the first man A; the first man's soul e² 30 31 40.
 discussion 30 40 e²; discussion and definition A 31.
I Gennadius,  a presbyter of Marseilles, have written eight
books Against all heresies, five  books Against Nestorius, ten
 books Against Eutyches, three books Against Pelagius, also
treatises On the Millennium and On the Apocalypse of Saint John, also
an epistle On my creed, sent to the blessed Gelasius, bishop of Rome.]
 Died 496.
 fivee 25 30; six Fabr. Her.
 tene 25 30; six Norimb Her.; eleven Guelefenb.
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