Writings of Cyril - The Catechetical Lectures d

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The Catechetical Lectures of St. Cyril, Archbishop of Jerusalem,

with a revised translation, introduction, notes, and indices,

by Edwin Hamilton Gifford, D.D.
formerly archdeacon of london, and canon of S. Paul's.

Under the editorial supervision of Philip Schaff, D.D., LL.D., Professor of Church History in the Union Theological Semimary, New York, and Henry Wace, D.D., Principal of King's College, London

Published in 1893 by Philip Schaff, New York: Christian Literature Publishing Co.

Lecture IV.

On the Ten [638] Points of Doctrine.

Colossians ii. 8.

Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, &c.

1. Vice mimics virtue, and the tares strive to be thought wheat, growing like the wheat in appearance, but being detected by good judges from the taste. The devil also transfigures himself into an angel of light [639] ; not that he may reascend to where he was, for having made his heart hard as an anvil [640] , he has henceforth a will that cannot repent; but in order that he may envelope those who are living an Angelic life in a mist of blindness, and a pestilent condition of unbelief. Many wolves are going about in sheeps' clothing [641] , their clothing being that of sheep, not so their claws and teeth: but clad in their soft skin, and deceiving the innocent by their appearance, they shed upon them from their fangs the destructive poison of ungodliness. We have need therefore of divine grace, and of a sober mind, and of eyes that see, lest from eating tares as wheat we suffer harm from ignorance, and lest from taking the wolf to be a sheep we become his prey, and from supposing the destroying Devil to be a beneficent Angel we be devoured: for, as the Scripture saith, he goeth about as a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour [642] . This is the cause of the Church's admonitions, the cause of the present instructions, and of the lessons which are read.

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2. For the method of godliness consists of these two things, pious doctrines, and virtuous practice: and neither are the doctrines acceptable to God apart from good works, nor does God accept the works which are not perfected with pious doctrines. For what profit is it, to know well the doctrines concerning God, and yet to be a vile fornicator? And again, what profit is it, to be nobly temperate, and an impious blasphemer? A most precious possession therefore is the knowledge of doctrines: also there is need of a wakeful soul, since there are many that make spoil through philosophy and vain deceit [643] . The Greeks on the one hand draw men away by their smooth tongue, for honey droppeth from a harlot's lips [644] : whereas they of the Circumcision deceive those who come to them by means of the Divine Scriptures, which they miserably misinterpret though studying them from childhood to old age [645] , and growing old in ignorance. But the children of heretics, by their good words and smooth tongue, deceive the hearts of the innocent [646] , disguising with the name of Christ as it were with honey the poisoned arrows [647] of their impious doctrines: concerning all of whom together the Lord saith, Take heed lest any man mislead you [648] . This is the reason for the teaching of the Creed and for expositions upon it.

3. But before delivering you over to the Creed [649] , I think it is well to make use at present of a short summary of necessary doctrines; that the multitude of things to be spoken, and the long interval of the days of all this holy Lent, may not cause forgetfulness in the mind of the more simple among you; but that, having strewn some seeds now in a summary way, we may not forget the same when afterwards more widely tilled. But let those here present whose habit of mind is mature, and who have their senses already exercised to discern good and evil [650] , endure patiently to listen to things fitted rather for children, and to an introductory course, as it were, of milk: that at the same time both those who have need of the instruction may be benefited, and those who have the knowledge may rekindle the remembrance of things which they already know. I. Of God. 4. First then let there be laid as a foundation in your soul the doctrine concerning God; that God is One, alone unbegotten, without beginning, change, or variation [651] ; neither begotten of another, nor having another to succeed Him in His life; who neither began to live in time, nor endeth ever: and that He is both good and just; that if ever thou hear a heretic say, that there is one God who is just, and another who is good [652] , thou mayest immediately remember, and discern the poisoned arrow of heresy. For some have impiously dared to divide the One God in their teaching: and some have said that one is the Creator and Lord of the soul, and another of the body [653] ; a doctrine at once absurd and impious. For how can a man become the one servant of two masters, when our Lord says in the Gospels, No man can serve two masters [654] ? There is then One Only God, the Maker both of souls and bodies: One the Creator of heaven and earth, the Maker of Angels and Archangels: of many the Creator, but of One only the Father before all ages,--of One only, His Only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, by Whom He made all things visible and invisible [655] . 5. This Father of our Lord Jesus Christ is not circumscribed in any place [656] , nor is He less than the heaven; but the heavens are the works of His fingers [657] , and the whole earth is held in His grasp [658] : He is in all things and around all. Think not that the sun is brighter than He [659] , or equal to Him: for He who at first formed the sun must needs be incomparably greater and brighter. He foreknoweth the things that shall be, and is mightier than all, knowing all things and doing as He will; not being subject to any necessary sequence of events, nor to nativity, nor chance, nor fate; in all things perfect, and equally possessing every absolute form [660] of virtue, neither diminishing nor increasing, but in mode and conditions ever the same; who hath prepared punishment for sinners, and a crown for the righteous. 6. Seeing then that many have gone astray in divers ways from the One God, some having deified the sun, that when the sun sets they may abide in the night season without God; others the moon, to have no God by day [661] ; others the other parts of the world [662] ; others the arts [663] ; others their various kinds of food [664] ; others their pleasures [665] ; while some, mad after women, have set up on high an image of a naked woman, and called it Aphrodite [666] , and worshipped their own lust in a visible form; and others dazzled by the brightness of gold have deified it [667] and the other kinds of matter;--whereas if one lay as a first foundation in his heart the doctrine of the unity [668] of God, and trust to Him, he roots out at once the whole crop [669] of the evils of idolatry, and of the error of the heretics: lay thou, therefore, this first doctrine of religion as a foundation in thy soul by faith. Of Christ. 7. Believe also in the Son of God, One and Only, our Lord Jesus Christ, Who was begotten God of God, begotten Life of Life, begotten Light of Light [670] , Who is in all things like [671] to Him that begat, Who received not His being in time, but was before all ages eternally and incomprehensibly begotten of the Father: The Wisdom and the Power of God, and His Righteousness personally subsisting [672] : Who sitteth on the right hand of the Father before all ages. For the throne at God's right hand He received not, as some have thought, because of His patient endurance, being crowned as it were by God after His Passion; but throughout His being,--a being by eternal generation [673] ,--He holds His royal dignity, and shares the Father's seat, being God and Wisdom and Power, as hath been said; reigning together with the Father, and creating all things for the Father, yet lacking nothing in the dignity of Godhead, and knowing Him that hath begotten Him, even as He is known of Him that hath begotten; and to speak briefly, remember thou what is written in the Gospels, that none knoweth the Son but the Father, neither knoweth any the Father save the Son [674] . 8. Further, do thou neither separate [675] the Son from the Father, nor by making a confusion believe in a Son-Fatherhood [676] ; but believe that of One God there is One Only-begotten Son, who is before all ages God the Word; not the uttered [677] word diffused into the air, nor to be likened to impersonal words [678] ; but the Word the Son, Maker of all who partake of reason, the Word who heareth the Father, and Himself speaketh. And on these points, should God permit, we will speak more at large in due season; for we do not forget our present purpose to give a summary introduction to the Faith. Concerning His Birth of the Virgin. 9. Believe then that this Only-begotten Son of God for our sins came down from heaven upon earth, and took upon Him this human nature of like passions [679] with us, and was begotten of the Holy Virgin and of the Holy Ghost, and was made Man, not in seeming and mere show [680] , but in truth; nor yet by passing through the Virgin as through a channel [681] ; but was of her made truly flesh, [and truly nourished with milk [682] ], and did truly eat as we do, and truly drink as we do. For if the Incarnation was a phantom, salvation is a phantom also. The Christ was of two natures, Man in what was seen, but God in what was not seen; as Man truly eating like us, for He had the like feeling of the flesh with us; but as God feeding the five thousand from five loaves; as Man truly dying, but as God raising him that had been dead four days; truly sleeping in the ship as Man, and walking upon the waters as God. Of the Cross. 10. He was truly crucified for our sins. For if thou wouldest deny it, the place refutes thee visibly, this blessed Golgotha [683] , in which we are now assembled for the sake of Him who was here crucified; and the whole world has since been filled with pieces of the wood of the Cross [684] . But He was crucified not for sins of His own, but that we might be delivered from our sins. And though as Man He was at that time despised of men, and was buffeted, yet He was acknowledged by the Creation as God: for when the sun saw his Lord dishonoured, he grew dim and trembled, not enduring the sight. Of His Burial. 11. He was truly laid as Man in a tomb of rock; but rocks were rent asunder by terror because of Him. He went down into the regions beneath the earth, that thence also He might redeem the righteous [685] . For, tell me, couldst thou wish the living only to enjoy His grace, and that, though most of them are unholy; and not wish those who from Adam had for a long while been imprisoned to have now gained their liberty? Esaias the Prophet proclaimed with loud voice so many things concerning Him; wouldst thou not wish that the King should go down and redeem His herald? David was there, and Samuel, and all the Prophets [686] , John himself also, who by his messengers said, Art thou He that should come, or look we for another [687] ? Wouldst thou not wish that He should descend and redeem such as these? Of the Resurrection. 12. But He who descended into the regions beneath the earth came up again; and Jesus, who was buried, truly rose again the third day. And if the Jews ever worry thee, meet them at once by asking thus: Did Jonah come forth from the whale on the third day, and hath not Christ then risen from the earth on the third day? Is a dead man raised to life on touching the bones of Elisha, and is it not much easier for the Maker of mankind to be raised by the power of the Father? Well then, He truly rose, and after He had risen was seen again of the disciples: and twelve disciples were witnesses of His Resurrection, who bare witness not in pleasing words, but contended even unto torture and death for the truth of the Resurrection. What then, shall every word be established at the mouth of two of three witnesses [688] , according to the Scripture, and, though twelve bear witness to the Resurrection of Christ, art thou still incredulous in regard to His Resurrection? Concerning the Ascension. 13. But when Jesus had finished His course of patient endurance, and had redeemed mankind from their sins, He ascended again into the heavens, a cloud receiving Him up: and as He went up Angels were beside Him, and Apostles were beholding. But if any man disbelieves the words which I speak, let him believe the actual power of the things now seen. All kings when they die have their power extinguished with their life: but Christ crucified is worshipped by the whole world. We proclaim The Crucified, and the devils tremble now. Many have been crucified at various times; but of what other who was crucified did the invocation ever drive the devils away? 14. Let us, therefore, not be ashamed of the Cross of Christ; but though another hide it, do thou openly seal it upon thy forehead, that the devils may behold the royal sign and flee trembling far away [689] . Make then this sign at eating and drinking, at sitting, at lying down, at rising up, at speaking, at walking: in a word, at every act [690] . For He who was here crucified is in heaven above. If after being crucified and buried He had remained in the tomb, we should have had cause to be ashamed; but, in fact, He who was crucified on Golgotha here, has ascended into heaven from the Mount of Olives on the East. For after having gone down hence into Hades, and come up again to us, He ascended again from us into heaven, His Father addressing Him, and saying, Sit Thou on My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool [691] . Of Judgment to Come. 15. This Jesus Christ who is gone up shall come again, not from earth but from heaven: and I say, "not from earth," because there are many Antichrists to come at this time from earth. For already, as thou hast seen, many have begun to say, I am the Christ [692] : and the abomination of desolation [693] is yet to come, assuming to himself the false title of Christ. But look thou for the true Christ, the Only-begotten Son of God, coming henceforth no more from earth, but from heaven, appearing to all more bright than any lightning and brilliancy of light, with angel guards attended, that He may judge both quick and dead, and reign in a heavenly, eternal kingdom, which shall have no end. For on this point also, I pray thee, make thyself sure, since there are many who say that Christ's Kingdom hath an end [694] . Of the Holy Ghost. 16. Believe thou also in the Holy Ghost, and hold the same opinion concerning Him, which thou hast received to hold concerning the Father and the Son, and follow not those who teach blasphemous things of Him [695] . But learn thou that this Holy Spirit is One, indivisible, of manifold power; having many operations, yet not Himself divided; Who knoweth the mysteries, Who searcheth all things, even the deep things of God [696] : Who descended upon the Lord Jesus Christ in form of a dove; Who wrought in the Law and in the Prophets; Who now also at the season of Baptism sealeth thy soul; of Whose holiness also every intellectual nature hath need: against Whom if any dare to blaspheme, he hath no forgiveness, neither in this world, nor in that which is to come [697] : "Who with the Father and the Son together [698] " is honoured with the glory of the Godhead: of Whom also thrones, and dominions, principalities, and powers have need [699] . For there is One God, the Father of Christ; and One Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-begotten Son of the Only God; and One Holy Ghost, the sanctifier and deifier of all [700] , Who spake in the Law and in the Prophets, in the Old and in the New Testament. 17. Have thou ever in thy mind this seal [701] , which for the present has been lightly touched in my discourse, by way of summary, but shall be stated, should the Lord permit, to the best of my power with the proof from the Scriptures. For concerning the divine and holy mysteries of the Faith, not even a casual statement must be delivered without the Holy Scriptures; nor must we be drawn aside by mere plausibility and artifices of speech. Even to me, who tell thee these things, give not absolute credence, unless thou receive the proof of the things which I announce from the Divine Scriptures. For this salvation which we believe depends not on ingenious reasoning [702] , but on demonstration of the Holy Scriptures. Of the Soul. 18. Next to the knowledge of this venerable and glorious and all-holy Faith, learn further what thou thyself art: that as man thou art of a two-fold nature, consisting of soul and body; and that, as was said a short time ago, the same God is the Creator both of soul and body [703] . Know also that thou hast a soul self-governed, the noblest work of God, made after the image of its Creator [704] : immortal because of God that gives it immortality; a living being, rational, imperishable, because of Him that bestowed these gifts: having free power to do what it willeth [705] . For it is not according to thy nativity that thou sinnest, nor is it by the power of chance that thou committest fornication, nor, as some idly talk, do the conjunctions of the stars compel thee to give thyself to wantonness [706] . Why dost thou shrink from confessing thine own evil deeds, and ascribe the blame to the innocent stars? Give no more heed, pray, to astrologers; for of these the divine Scripture saith, Let the stargazers of the heaven stand up and save thee, and what follows: Behold, they all shall be consumed as stubble on the fire, and shall not deliver their soul from the flame [707] . 19. And learn this also, that the soul, before it came into this world, had committed no sin [708] , but having come in sinless, we now sin of our free-will. Listen not, I pray thee, to any one perversely interpreting the words, But if I do that which I would not [709] : but remember Him who saith, If ye be willing, and hearken unto Me, ye shall eat the good things of the land: but if ye be not willing, neither hearken unto Me, the sword shall devour you, &c. [710] : and again, As ye presented your members as servants to uncleanness and to iniquity unto iniquity, even so now present your members as servants to righteousness unto sanctification [711] . Remember also the Scripture, which saith, Even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge [712] : and, That which may be known of God is manifestin them [713] ; and again, their eyes they have closed [714] . Also remember how God again accuseth them, and saith, Yet I planted thee a fruitful vine, wholly true: how art thou turned to bitterness, thou the strange vine [715] ? 20. The soul is immortal, and all souls are alike both of men and women; for only the members of the body are distinguished [716] . There is not a class of souls sinning by nature, and a class of souls practising righteousness by nature [717] : but both act from choice, the substance of their souls being of one kind only, and alike in all. I know, however, that I am talking much, and that the time is already long: but what is more precious than salvation? Art thou not willing to take trouble in getting provisions for the way against the heretics? And wilt thou not learn the bye-paths of the road, lest from ignorance thou fall down a precipice? If thy teachers think it no small gain for thee to learn these things, shouldest not thou the learner gladly receive the multitude of things told thee? 21. The soul is self-governed: and though the devil can suggest, he has not the power to compel against the will. He pictures to thee the thought of fornication: if thou wilt, thou acceptest it; if thou wilt not, thou rejectest. For if thou wert a fornicator by necessity, then for what cause did God prepare hell? If thou were a doer of righteousness by nature and not by will, wherefore did God prepare crowns of ineffable glory? The sheep is gentle, but never was it crowned for its gentleness: since its gentle quality belongs to it not from choice but by nature. Of the Body. 22. Thou hast learned, beloved, the nature of the soul, as far as there is time at present: now do thy best to receive the doctrine of the body also. Suffer none of those who say that this body is no work of God [718] : for they who believe that the body is independent of God, and that the soul dwells in it as in a strange vessel, readily abuse it to fornication [719] . And yet what fault have they found in this wonderful body? For what is lacking in comeliness? And what in its structure is not full of skill? Ought they not to have observed the luminous construction of the eyes? And how the ears being set obliquely receive the sound unhindered? And how the smell is able to distinguish scents, and to perceive exhalations? And how the tongue ministers to two purposes, the sense of taste, and the power of speech? How the lungs placed out of sight are unceasing in their respiration of the air? Who imparted the incessant pulsation of the heart? Who made the distribution into so many veins and arteries? Who skilfully knitted together the bones with the sinews? Who assigned a part of the food to our substance, and separated a part for decent secretion, and hid away the unseemly members in more seemly places? Who when the human race must have died out, rendered it by a simple intercourse perpetual? 23. Tell me not that the body is a cause of sin [720] . For if the body is a cause of sin, why does not a dead body sin? Put a sword in the right hand of one just dead, and no murder takes place. Let beauties of every kind pass before a youth just dead, and no impure desire arises. Why? Because the body sins not of itself, but the soul through the body. The body is an instrument, and, as it were, a garment and robe of the soul: and if by this latter it be given over to fornication, it becomes defiled: but if it dwell with a holy soul, it becomes a temple of the Holy Ghost. It is not I that say this, but the Apostle Paul hath said, Know ye not, that your bodies are the temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you [721] ? Be tender, therefore, of thy body as being a temple of the Holy Ghost. Pollute not thy flesh in fornication: defile not this thy fairest robe: and if ever thou hast defiled it, now cleanse it by repentance: get thyself washed, while time permits. 24. And to the doctrine of chastity let the first to give heed be the order of Solitaries [722] and of Virgins, who maintain the angelic life in the world; and let the rest of the Church's people follow them. For you, brethren, a great crown is laid up: barter not away a great dignity for a petty pleasure: listen to the Apostle speaking: Lest there be any fornicator or profane person, as Esau, who for one mess of meat sold his own birthright [723] . Enrolled henceforth in the Angelic books for thy profession of chastity, see that thou be not blotted out again for thy practice of fornication. 25. Nor again, on the other hand, in maintaining thy chastity be thou puffed up against those who walk in the humbler path of matrimony. For as the Apostle saith, Let marriage be had in honour among all, and let the bed be undefiled [724] . Thou too who retainest thy chastity, wast thou not begotten of those who had married? Because thou hast a possession of gold, do not on that account reprobate the silver. But let those also be of good cheer, who being married use marriage lawfully; who make a marriage according to God's ordinance, and not of wantonness for the sake of unbounded license; who recognise seasons of abstinence, that they may give themselves unto prayer [725] ; who in our assemblies bring clean bodies as well as clean garments into the Church; who have entered upon matrimony for the procreation of children, but not for indulgence. 26. Let those also who marry but once not reprobate those who have consented to a second marriage [726] : for though continence is a noble and admirable thing, yet it is also permissible to enter upon a second marriage, that the weak may not fall into fornication. For it is good for them, saith the Apostle, if they abide even as I. But if they have not continency, let them marry: for it is better to marry than to burn [727] . But let all the other practices be banished afar, fornication, adultery, and every kind of licentiousness: and let the body be kept pure for the Lord, that the Lord also may have respect unto the body. And let the body be nourished with food, that it may live, and serve without hindrance; not, however, that it may be given up to luxuries. Concerning Meats. 27. And concerning food let these be your ordinances, since in regard to meats also many stumble. For some deal indifferently with things offered to idols [728] , while others discipline themselves, but condemn those that eat: and in different ways men's souls are defiled in the matter of meats, from ignorance of the useful reasons for eating and not eating. For we fast by abstaining from wine and flesh, not because we abhor them as abominations, but because we look for our reward; that having scorned things sensible, we may enjoy a spiritual and intellectual feast; and that having now sown in tears we may reap in joy [729] in the world to come. Despise not therefore them that eat, and because of the weakness of their bodies partake of food: nor yet blame these who use a little wine for their stomach's sake and their often infirmities [730] : and neither condemn the men as sinners, nor abhor the flesh as strange food; for the Apostle knows some of this sort, when he says: forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God created to be received with thanksgiving by them that believe [731] . In abstaining then from these things, abstain not as from things abominable [732] , else thou hast no reward: but as being good things disregard them for the sake of the better spiritual things set before thee. 28. Guard thy soul safely, lest at any time thou eat of things offered to idols: for concerning meats of this kind, not only I at this time, but ere now Apostles also, and James the bishop of this Church, have had earnest care: and the Apostles and Elders write a Catholic epistle to all the Gentiles, that they should abstain first from things offered to idols, and then from blood also and from things strangled [733] . For many men being of savage nature, and living like dogs, both lap up blood [734] , in imitation of the manner of the fiercest beasts, and greedily devour things strangled. But do thou, the servant of Christ, in eating observe to eat with reverence. And so enough concerning meats. Of Apparel. 29. But let thine apparel be plain, not for adornment, but for necessary covering: not to minister to thy vanity, but to keep thee warm in winter, and to hide the unseemliness of the body: lest under pretence of hiding the unseemliness, thou fall into another kind of unseemliness by thy extravagant dress. Of the Resurrection. 30. Be tender, I beseech thee, of this body, and understand that thou wilt be raised from the dead, to be judged with this body. But if there steal into thy mind any thought of unbelief, as though the thing were impossible, judge of the things unseen by what happens to thyself. For tell me; a hundred years ago or more, think where wast thou thyself: and from what a most minute and mean substance thou art come to so great a stature, and so much dignity of beauty [735] . What then? Cannot He who brought the non-existent into being, raise up again that which already exists and has decayed [736] ? He who raises the corn, which is sown for our sakes, as year by year it dies,--will He have difficulty in raising us up, for whose sakes that corn also has been raised [737] ? Seest thou how the trees stand now for many months without either fruit or leaves: but when the winter is past they spring up whole into life again as if from the dead [738] : shall not we much rather and more easily return to life? The rod of Moses was transformed by the will of God into the unfamiliar nature of a serpent: and cannot a man, who has fallen into death, be restored to himself again? 31. Heed not those who say that this body is not raised; for it is raised: and Esaias is witness, when he says: The dead shall arise, and they that are in the tombs shall awake [739] : and according to Daniel, Many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall arise, some to everlasting life, and some to everlasting shame [740] . But though to rise again is common to all men, yet the resurrection is not alike to all: for the bodies received by us all are eternal, but not like bodies by all: for the just receive them, that through eternity they may join the Choirs of Angels; but the sinners, that they may endure for ever the torment of their sins. Of the Laver. 32. For this cause the Lord, preventing us according to His loving-kindness, has granted repentance at Baptism [741] , in order that we may cast off the chief--nay rather the whole burden of our sins, and having received the seal by the Holy Ghost, may be made heirs of eternal life. But as we have spoken sufficiently concerning the Laver the day before yesterday, let us now return to the remaining subjects of our introductory teaching. Of the Divine Scriptures. 33. Now these the divinely-inspired Scriptures of both the Old and the New Testament teach us. For the God of the two Testaments is One, Who in the Old Testament foretold the Christ Who appeared in the New; Who by the Law and the Prophets led us to Christ's school. For before faith came, we were kept in ward under the law, and, the law hath been our tutor to bring us unto Christ [742] . And if ever thou hear any of the heretics speaking evil of the Law or the Prophets, answer in the sound of the Saviour's voice, saying, Jesus came not to destroy the Law, but to fulfil it [743] . Learn also diligently, and from the Church, what are the books of the Old Testament, and what those of the New. And, pray, read none of the apocryphal writings [744] : for why dost thou, who knowest not those which are acknowledged among all, trouble thyself in vain about those which are disputed? Read the Divine Scriptures, the twenty-two books of the Old Testament, these that have been translated by the Seventy-two Interpreters [745] . 34. For after the death of Alexander, the king of the Macedonians, and the division of his kingdom into four principalities, into Babylonia, and Macedonia, and Asia, and Egypt, one of those who reigned over Egypt, Ptolemy Philadelphus, being a king very fond of learning, while collecting the books that were in every place, heard from Demetrius Phalereus, the curator of his library, of the Divine Scriptures of the Law and the Prophets, and judged it much nobler, not to get the books from the possessors by force against their will, but rather to propitiate them by gifts and friendship; and knowing that what is extorted is often adulterated, being given unwillingly, while that which is willingly supplied is freely given with all sincerity, he sent to Eleazar, who was then High Priest, a great many gifts for the Temple here at Jerusalem, and caused him to send him six interpreters from each of the twelve tribes of Israel for the translation [746] . Then, further, to make experiment whether the books were Divine or not, he took precaution that those who had been sent should not combine among themselves, by assigning to each of the interpreters who had come his separate chamber in the island called Pharos, which lies over against Alexandria, and committed to each the whole Scriptures to translate. And when they had fulfilled the task in seventy-two days, he brought together all their translations, which they had made in different chambers without sending them one to another, and found that they agreed not only in the sense but even in words. For the process was no word-craft, nor contrivance of human devices: but the translation of the Divine Scriptures, spoken by the Holy Ghost, was of the Holy Ghost accomplished. 35. Of these read the two and twenty books, but have nothing to do with the apocryphal writings. Study earnestly these only which we read openly in the Church. Far wiser and more pious than thyself were the Apostles, and the bishops of old time, the presidents of the Church who handed down these books. Being therefore a child of the Church, trench [747] thou not upon its statutes. And of the Old Testament, as we have said, study the two and twenty books, which, if thou art desirous of learning, strive to remember by name, as I recite them. For of the Law the books of Moses are the first five, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy. And next, Joshua the son of Nave [748] , and the book of Judges, including Ruth, counted as seventh. And of the other historical books, the first and second books of the Kings [749] are among the Hebrews one book; also the third and fourth one book. And in like manner, the first and second of Chronicles are with them one book; and the first and second of Esdras are counted one. Esther is the twelfth book; and these are the Historical writings. But those which are written in verses are five, Job, and the book of Psalms, and Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs, which is the seventeenth book. And after these come the five Prophetic books: of the Twelve Prophets one book, of Isaiah one, of Jeremiah one, including Baruch and Lamentations and the Epistle [750] ; then Ezekiel, and the Book of Daniel, the twenty-second of the Old Testament. 36. Then of the New Testament there are the four Gospels only, for the rest have false titles [751] and are mischievous. The Manichæans also wrote a Gospel according to Thomas, which being tinctured with the fragrance of the evangelic title corrupts the souls of the simple sort. Receive also the Acts of the Twelve Apostles; and in addition to these the seven Catholic Epistles of James, Peter, John, and Jude; and as a seal upon them all, and the last work of the disciples, the fourteen Epistles of Paul [752] . But let all the rest be put aside in a secondary rank. And whatever books are not read in Churches, these read not even by thyself, as thou hast heard me say. Thus much of these subjects. 37. But shun thou every diabolical operation, and believe not the apostate Serpent, whose transformation from a good nature was of his own free choice: who can over-persuade the willing, but can compel no one. Also give heed neither to observations of the stars nor auguries, nor omens, nor to the fabulous divinations of the Greeks [753] . Witchcraft, and enchantment, and the wicked practices of necromancy, admit not even to a hearing. From every kind of intemperance stand aloof, giving thyself neither to gluttony nor licentiousness, rising superior to all covetousness and usury. Neither venture thyself at heathen assemblies for public spectacles, nor ever use amulets in sicknesses; shun also all the vulgarity of tavern-haunting. Fall not away either into the sect of the Samaritans, or into Judaism: for Jesus Christ henceforth hath ransomed thee. Stand aloof from all observance of Sabbaths [754] , and from calling any indifferent meats common or unclean. But especially abhor all the assemblies of wicked heretics; and in every way make thine own soul safe, by fastings, prayers, almsgivings, and reading the oracles of God; that having lived the rest of thy life in the flesh in soberness and godly doctrine, thou mayest enjoy the one salvation which flows from Baptism; and thus enrolled in the armies of heaven by God and the Father, mayest also be deemed worthy of the heavenly crowns, in Christ Jesus our Lord, to Whom be the glory for ever and ever. Amen.


[638] The number "ten" is confirmed by Theodoret, who quotes the article on Christ's "Birth of the Virgin" as from Cyril's fourth Catechetical Lecture "On the ten Doctrines." The mss. vary between "ten" and "eleven," and differ also in the special titles and numeration of the separate Articles. [639] 2 Cor. xi. 14. [640] Job xli. 24, Sept.; xli. 15: he kardia autou...hesteken hosper akmon anelatos. These statements concerning the Devil seem to be directed against Origen's opinion (De Principiis I. 2), that the Angels "who have been removed from their primal state of blessedness have not been removed irrecoverably." The question is discussed, and the opinions of several Fathers quoted, by Huet, Origeniana, II. c. 25. [641] Matt. vii. 15. The same text is applied to Heretics by Ignatius, Philadelph. ii. and by Irenæus, L. I. c. i. § 2. [642] 1 Pet. v. 8. [643] Col. ii. 8. [644] Prov. v. 3. [645] Is. xlvi. 3. Sept. paideuomenoi ek paidiou heos geros. [646] Rom. xvi. 17. Cyril has euglottias in place of eulogias. [647] Compare Ignatius, Trall. vi. [648] Matt. xxiv. 4. [649] Compare Rom. vi. 17: "that form of teaching whereunto ye were delivered." The instruction of Catechumens in the Articles of the Faith was commonly called the "Traditio Symboli," or "Delivery of the Creed." [650] Heb. v. 14. [651] Compare Hermas, Mandat. I. Athan. Epist. de Decretis Nic. Syn. xxii.: houto kai to atrepton kai analloioton auton einai sothesetai. So Aristotle (Metaphys. XI. c. iv. 13) describes the First Cause as apathes kai analloioton. [652] Irenæus, I. c. xxvii. says that Cerdo taught that the God of the Law and the Prophets was not the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ: for that He is known, but the other unknown, and the one is just, but the other good. Also III. c. 25, § 3: "Marcion himself, therefore, by dividing God into two, and calling the one good, and the other judicial, on both sides puts an end to Deity." Compare Tertullian, c. Marcion. I. 2, and 6; Origen, c. Cels. iv. 54. [653] This tenet was held by the Manichæans and other heretics, and is traced back to the Apostolic age by Bishop Pearson (Exposition of the Creed, Art. i. p. 79, note c). Compare Athanasius c. Apollinarium, I. 21; II. 8; c. Gentes, § 6; de Incarnatione, § 2, in this series, and Augustine (c. Faustum, xx. 15, 21, and xxi. 4). [654] Matt. vi. 24; Luke xvi. 13. [655] John i. 3; Col. i. 16. [656] S. Aug. in Ps. lxxv. 6: Si in aliquo loco esset, non esset Deus. Sermo 342: Deus habitando continet non continetur. Origen, c. Cels. vii. 34: "God is of too excellent a nature for any place: He holds all things in His power, and is Himself not confined by anything whatever." Compare the quotation from Sir Isaac Newton's Principia, in the note on Cat. vi. 8. [657] Ps. viii. 3. [658] Is. xl. 12. [659] See Cat. xv. 3, and note there. [660] idean. Cyril uses the word in the Platonic sense, as in the next sentence he adopts the formula, which Plato commonly uses in describing the "idea:" aei kata ta auta kai hosautos echein. Phaed. 78 c. [661] Job xxxi. 26, 27. The worship of Sun and Moon under various names was almost universal. [662] Gaea or Tellus, the earth; Zeus or Jupiter, the sky; rivers, fountains, &c. [663] Music, Medicine, Hunting, War, Agriculture, Metallurgy, &c., represented by Apollo, Æsculapius, Diana, Mars, Ceres, Vulcan. [664] Herodotus, Book II., describes the Egyptian worship of various birds, fishes, and quadrupeds. Leeks and onions also were held sacred: Porrum et caepe nefas violare, Juv. Sat. xv. 9. Compare Clement of Alexandria, Protrept. c. ii. § 39, Klotz. [665] Eros, Dionysus. [666] Clement of Alexandria (Protrept. c. iv. § 53, Klotz) states that the courtesan Phryne was taken as a model for Aphrodite. "Praxiteles when fashioning the statue of Aphrodite of Cnidus made it like the form of Cratine his paramour." Ibid. [667] Plutus. [668] tes monarchias tou theou. See note on the title of Cat. VI. Praxeas made use of the term "Monarchy" to exclude the Son (and the Spirit) from the Godhead. Tertullian in his treatise against Praxeas maintains the true doctrine that the Son is no obstacle to the "Monarchy," because He is of the substance of the Father, does nothing without the Father's will, and has received all power from the Father, to Whom He will in the end deliver up the kingdom. In this sense Dionysius, Bishop of Rome, speaks of the Divine Monarchy as "that most sacred doctrine of the Church of God." Compare Athanas. de Decretis, Nic. Syn. c. vi. § 3 and Dr. Newman's note. In Orat. iv. c. Arian. p 606 (617), Athanasius derives the term from arche, in the sense of "beginning:" houtos mia arche theotetos kai ou duo archai, hothen kurios kai monarchia estin. See the full discussion of Monarchianism in Athanasius, p. xxiii. ff. in this series, and Newman's Introduction to Athan. Or. iv. [669] For phoran (Bened.) many mss. read phthoran, "corruption." [670] Compare xi. 4, 9, 18. [671] Ton homoion kata panta to gennesanti. On the meaning and history of this phrase, proposed by the Semi-Arians at the Council of Ariminum as a substitute for homoousion, see Athan. de Syn. § 8, sqq. [672] enupostatos. Cf. xi. 10; Athan. c. Apollinar. I. 20, 21. [673] The mss. vary much, but I have followed the Benedictine text. [674] Matt. xi. 27; John x. 15; xvii. 25. [675] This was a point earnestly maintained by the orthodox Bishops at Nicæa, that the Son begotten of the substance of the Father is ever inseparably in the Father. Athan. de Decretis Syn. c. 20 ; Tertullian c. Marc. IV. c. 6. Cf. Ignat. ad Trall. vi. (Long Recension): ton men gar Christon allotriousi tou Patros. [676] huiopatoria. A term of derision applied to the doctrine of Sabellius. Compare Athanas. Expositio Fidei, c. 2: "neither do we imagine a Son-Father, as the Sabellians." See Index, Uiopator. [677] Logos prophorikos, the term used by Paul of Samosata, implied that the Word was impersonal, being conceived as a particular activity of God. See Dorner, Person of Christ, Div. I. vol. ii. p. 436 (English Tr.): and compare Athanasius, Expositio Fidei, c. 1; huion ek tou Patros anarchos kai aidios gegennemenon, logon de ou prophorikon, ouk endiatheton. Cardinal Newman (Athan. c. Arianos, I. 7, note) observes that some Christian writers of the 2nd Century "seem to speak of the Divine generation as taking place immediately before the creation of the world, that is, as if not eternal, though at the same time they teach that our Lord existed before that generation. In other words they seem to teach that He was the Word from eternity, and became the Son at the beginning of all things; some of them expressly considering Him, first as the logos endiathetos, or Reason, in the Father, or (as may be speciously represented) a mere attribute; next, as the logos prophorikos, or Word." The terms logos endiathetos, or `word conceived in the mind,' and logos prophorikos, or `word expressed' (emissum, or prolalivum), were in use among the Gnostics (Iren. II. c. 12, § 5). As applied to the Son both terms, though sometimes used in a right sense, were condemned as inadequate. Compare xi. 10. [678] anupostatois logois. Athan. c. Arianos Orat. iv. c. 8: palin hoi legontes monon onoma einai huiou, anousion de kai anupostaton einai ton huion tou Theou, k.t.l. [679] homoiopathe. Compare Acts xiv. 15; Jas. v. 17. [680] On the origin of the Docetic heresy, see vi. 14. [681] Valentinus the Gnostic taught that God produced a Son of an animal nature who "passed through Mary just as water through a tube, and that on him the Saviour descended at his Baptism." Irenæus, I. vii. 2. [682] The words which the Benedictine Editor introduces in the brackets are found in Theodoret, and adopted by recent Editors, with Codd. M.A. [683] Eusebius, Life of Constantine, iii. 28. [684] The discovery of the "True Cross" is related with many marvellous particulars by Socrates, Eccles. Hist. i. 17; and Sozomen, E. H. ii. 1. A portion was said to have been left by Helena at Jerusalem, enclosed in a silver case; and another portion sent to Constantinople, where Constantine privately enclosed it in his own statue, to be a safeguard to the city. Eusebius, Life of Constantine, iii. 25-30 , gives a long account of the discovery of the Holy Sepulchre, but makes no mention of the Cross. Cyril seems to have been the first to record it, 25 years after. Cf. Greg. Nyss. Bapt. Christi (p. 519). [685] Compare xiv. 18, 19, on the Descent into Hades. [686] The same Old Testament saints are named in xiv. 19, as redeemed by Christ in Hades. [687] Matt. xi. 3. [688] Deut. xix. 15. [689] Justin M. Dialogue with Trypho, 247 C: We call Him Helper and Redeemer, the power of whose Name even demons do fear; and at this day, when exorcised in the name of Jesus Christ, crucified under Pontius Pilate, Governor of Judæa, they are overcome. [690] Tertullian, de Coronâ, 3: At every forward step and movement, at every going in and out, when we put on our clothes and shoes, when we bathe, when we sit at table, when we light the lamps, on couch, on seat, in all the ordinary actions of daily life, we trace upon the forehead the Sign. If for these, and other such rules, you insist upon having positive Scripture injunction, you will find none. Tradition will be held forth to you as the originator of them, custom as their strengthener, and faith as their observer. [691] Ps. cx. 1. [692] Matt. xxiv. 5. [693] Matt. xxiv. 15. Compare Cat. xv. 9, 15. [694] Compare xv. 27, where the followers of Marcellus of Ancyra are indicated as holding this opinion. [695] In xvi. 6-10, Cyril gives a long list of heresies concerning the Holy Ghost. [696] 1 Cor. ii. 10. [697] Matt. xii. 32. [698] This clause is not in the Creed of Nicæa, but is added in the Creed of Constantinople, a.d. 381. [699] Col. i. 16. [700] theopoion is omitted in Codd. Roe, Casaubon, and A. [701] The Benedictine Editor argues from Cat. i. 5, "that thou mayest by faith seal up the things that are spoken;" and xxiii. 18: "sealing up the Prayer by the Amen," that Cyril means by "this seal" the firm belief of Christian doctrine. Compare John iii. 33. But Milles understands by the "seal" the Creed itself, which agrees better with the following context. [702] he soteria gar haute tes pisteos hemon, which might be rendered, "this our salvation by faith," or, with Milles, "this safety of our Faith." For the rendering in the text compare Heb. iii. 1: archierea tes homologias hemon. On heuresilogia, see Polybius xviii. 29, § 3: dia tes pros allelous heuresilogias. [703] iv. 4. [704] In the Clementine Homily xvi. 16, the soul having come forth from God, clothed with His breath, is said to be of the same substance, and yet not God. In Tertull. c. Marcion II. c. 9, the soul is the affatus (pnoe not pneuma) of God, i.e. the image of the Spirit, and inferior to it, though possessing the true lineaments of divinity, immortality, freedom, its own mastery over itself. [705] Tertull. c. Marc. II. 6: It was proper that he who is the image and likeness of God should be formed with a free will, and a mastery of himself, so that this very thing, namely freedom of will and self-command, might be reckoned as the image and likeness of God in him. [706] Compare Aug. de Civ. Dei. v. 1, where he says that the astrologers (Mathematici) say, not merely such or such a position of Mars signifies that a man will be a murderer, but makes him a murderer. See Dict. of Christian Antiq., "Astrology." [707] Is. xlvii. 13. [708] "The Orphic poets were under the impression that the soul is suffering the punishment of sin, and that the body is an enclosure or prison in which the soul is incarcerated and kept (sozetai) as the name soma implies, until the penalty is paid." Plato, Cratyl. 400. Clement of Alexandria (Strom. III. iii. 17), after referring to this passage of Plato, quotes Philolaus the Pythagorean, as saying: "The ancient theologians and soothsayers also testify that the soul has been chained to the body for a kind of punishment, and is buried in it as in a tomb." [709] Rom. vii. 16. [710] Is. i. 19, 20. [711] Rom. vi. 19. [712] Rom. i. 28. [713] Rom. i. 19. [714] Matt. xiii. 15. [715] Jer. ii. 21. [716] Apelles, the heretic, attributed the difference of sex to the soul, which existing before the body impressed its sex upon it. Tertull. On the Soul, c. xxxvi. [717] Irenæus I. vii. 5: "They (the Valentinians) conceive of three kinds of men, spiritual, material, and animal....These three natures are no longer found in one person, but constitute various kinds of men....And again subdividing the animal souls themselves, they say that some are by nature good, and others by nature evil." Origen on Romans, Lib. VIII. § 10: "I know not how those who come from the School of Valentinus and Basilides...suppose that there are souls of one nature which are always safe and never perish, and others which always perish, and are never saved." [718] See iv. 18. [719] On the impure practices of the Manichees, see vi. 33, 34. [720] Fortunatus, the Manichee, in August. Disput. ii. 20, contra Fortunat. is represented as saying, What we assert is this, that the soul is compelled to sin by a substance of contrary nature. [721] 1 Cor. vi. 19. [722] monazontes. Compare xii. 33; xvi. 22. The origin of Monasticism is usually traced to the time of the Decian persecution, the middle of the third century. Previously "there were no monks, but only ascetics in the Church; from that time to the reign of Constantine, Monachism was confined to the anchorets living in private cells in the wilderness: but when Pachomius had erected monasteries in Egypt, other countries presently followed the example....Hilarion, who was scholar to Antonius, was the first monk that ever lived in Palestine or Syria." Bingham, VII. i. 4. [723] Heb. xii. 16. [724] Heb. xiii. 4. [725] 1 Cor. vii. 5. [726] The condemnation of a second marriage, which the Benedictine Editor and others import into this passage, is not to be found in it. tous deutero gamo sumperienechthentas neither means "qui ad secundas nuptias ultro se dejecere," nor even "who have involved themselves" (R.W.C.), but simply "who have consented to,"--or, "consented together in--a second marriage," without any intimation of censure. See V. 9; VI. 13: Ecclus. xxv. 1; gune kai haner heautois sumperipheromenoi; 2 Macc. ix. 27; Euseb. H. E. ix. 9, 7: anexikakos kai summetros sumperipherointo autois; Zeno, ap. Diog. Laert. vii. 18; to sumperipheresthai tois philois. Diog. Laert. vii. 13: eusumperiphoros. Polyb. IV. 35, § 7, and II. 17, § 12. The gentleness with which Cyril here speaks of second marriages is in striking contrast with the passionate vehemence of Tertullian in the treatise de Monogamia, and elsewhere. Aug. de Hæresibus, cc. 26, 38, reckons the condemnation of second marriage among the heretical doctrines of the Montanists and Cathari. In the treatise de Bono Viduitatis, c. 6, he argues that a second marriage is not to be condemned, but is less honourable than widowhood, and severely rebukes the heretical teaching on this point of Tertullian, the Montanists, and the Novatians. De Bono Conjugali, c. 21: Sacramentum nuptiarum temporis nostri sic ad unum virum et unam uxorem redactum est, ut Ecclesiæ dispensatorem non liceat ordinare nisi unius uxoris virum. On the practice of the Church at various times see Bingham, IV. v. 1-4; Suicer, Thesaur. Digamia. [727] 1 Cor. vii. 8, 9. [728] The Nicolaitans (Apocal. ii. 14, 20); and the Valentinians, of whom Irenæus (II. xiv. 5), says that they derived their opinion as to the indifference of meats from the Cynics. See also Irenæus I. vi. 3; and xxvi. 3. [729] Ps. cxxvi. 5. [730] 1 Tim. v. 23. [731] 1 Tim. iv. 3. [732] The various sects of Gnostics, and the Manichees, considered certain meats and drinks, as flesh and wine, to be polluting. Vid. Iren. Hær. i. 28. Clem. Pæd. ii. 2. p. 186. Epiph. Hær. xlvi. 2, xlvii. 1, &c., &c. August. Hær. 46, vid. Canon. Apost. 43. "If any Bishop, &c., abstain from marriage, flesh, and wine, not for discipline (di' askesin) but as abhorring them, forgetting that they are all very good, &c., and speaking blasphemy against the creation, let him amend or be deposed," &c. R.W.C. [733] Acts xv. 20, 29. The prohibition of blood and things strangled has continued to the present day in the Eastern Church, though already disregarded by the Latins in the time of S. Augustine (c. Faustum. xxxii. 13). [734] Tertullian (Apologeticus, c. 9) speaks of those "who at the gladiator shows, for the cure of epilepsy, quaff with greedy thirst the blood of criminals slain in the arena," and of others "who make meals on the flesh of wild beasts at the place of combat:" and contrasts the habits of Christians, who abstain from things strangled, to avoid pollution by the blood. [735] XVIII. 9. [736] Compare xviii. 6, 9; Athenagoras, On the Resurrection of the Dead, c. 3. [737] XVIII. 6. John xii. 24; 1 Cor. xv. 36. [738] XVIII. 7. [739] Is. xxvi. 19. [740] Dan. xii. 2. [741] Gr. loutrou metanoian. Other readings are lutron metanoias, "redemption by repentance," and loutron metanoias "a laver (baptism) of repentance." [742] Gal. iii. 24. The Paidagogos is described by Clement of Alexandria (Paedag. i. 7) as one who both conducts a boy to school, and helps to teach him,--an usher: "under-master" (Wicliff). [743] Matt. v. 17. [744] ton apokruphon. The sense in which Cyril uses this term may be learned from Rufinus (Expositio Symboli, § 38), who distinguishes three classes of books: (1) The Canonical Books of the Old and New Testaments, which alone are to be used in proof of doctrine; (2) Ecclesiastical, which may be read in Churches, including Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Tobit, Judith, and the Books of the Maccabees, in the Old Testament, and The Shepherd of Hermas, and The Two Ways in the New Testament; (3) The other writings they called "Apocryphal," which they would not have read in Churches. The distinction is useful, though the second class is not complete. [745] The original source of this account of the Septuagint version is a letter purporting to have been written by Aristeas, or Aristæus, a confidential minister of Ptolemy Philadelphus, to his brother Philocrates. Though the letter is not regarded as genuine its statements are in part admitted to be true, being confirmed by a fragment, preserved by Eusebius (Præparatio Evangelica, ix. 6.), of a work of Aristobulus, a Jewish philosopher who wrote in the reign of Ptolemy Philometor, 181-146, b.c. Upon these testimonies it is generally admitted that "the whole Law," i.e. the Pentateuch was translated into Greek at Alexandria in the reign either of Ptolemy Soter (323-285, b.c.), or of his son Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-247, b.c.), under the direction of Demetrius Phalereus, curator of the King's library. [746] Up to this point Cyril's account is based upon the statements of the Pseudo-Aristeas. The fabulous incidents which follow, concerning the separate cells, the completion of the whole version by each translator, the miraculous agreement in the very words, proving a Divine inspiration, are found in Philo Judæus, Life of Moses, II. 7. Josephus, Antiquities, XII. c. ii. 3-14, following the letter of Aristeas, gives long descriptions of the magnificent presents sent by Philadelphus to Jerusalem, and of his splendid hospitality to the translators, but makes no allusion to the separate cells or miraculous agreement. On the contrary he represents the 72 interpreters as meeting together for consultation, agreeing on the text to be adopted, and completing their joint labours in 72 days. The slightest comparison of the Version with the original Hebrew must convince any reasonable person that the idea of divine inspiration or supernatural assistance, borrowed by Justin Martyr, Irenæus, and other Fathers, apparently from Philo, is a mere invention of the imagination, disproved by the facts. Compare the article "Septuagint" in Murray's Dictionary of the Bible. [747] The rendering "trench not" (R.W.C.) agrees well with the etymology of the verb (paracharasso). Its more usual signification seems to be "counterfeit," "forge." The sense required here, apart from any metaphor, is "transgress" (Heurtley). [748] The name "Nun" is represented by "Nave" in the Septuagint, which Cyril used. [749] The two books of Samuel. [750] The Epistle of Jeremy, which now appears in the Apocrypha as the last chapter of Baruch. On the number and arrangement of the Books of the Old and New Testaments the student should consult an interesting Essay by Professor Sanday (Studia Biblica, vol. iii.), who traces the introduction of a fixed order to the time when papyrus rolls were superseded by codices, in which the sheets of skin were folded and bound together, as in printed books. This change had commenced before the Diocletian persecution, a.d. 303, when among the sacred books taken from the Christians codices were much more numerous than rolls. On the contents of the Jewish Canon, see Dictionary of the Bible, "Canon." B.F.W. "Josephus enumerates 20 books `which are justly believed to be divine.'" One of the earliest attempts by a Christian to ascertain correctly the number and order of the Books of the O.T. was made by Melito, Bishop of Sardis, who travelled for this purpose to Palestine, in the latter part of the 2nd Century. His list is as follows:--"Of Moses five (books); Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, Jesus son of Nave, Judges, Ruth, four Books of Kings, two of Chronicles, Psalms of David, Solomon's Proverbs, which is also called Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Job, Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, the Twelve in one Book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." (Eusebius, H.E. III. cap. 10, note I, in this series.) Cyril's List agrees with that of Athanasius (Festal Epistle, 373 a.d.), except that Job is placed by Ath. after Canticles instead of before Psalms. [751] Gr. pseudepigrapha. For an account of the many Apocryphal Gospels, see the article by Lipsius in the "Dictionary of Christian Biography," Smith and Wace, and the English translations in Clark's Ante-Nicene Library. [752] Cyril includes in this list all the books which we receive, except the Apocalypse. See Bishop Westcott's Article "Canon," in the Dictionary of the Bible, and Origen's Catalogue in Euseb. Hist. vi. 25 (Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, vol. i.). [753] Compare xix. 8. where all such acts of divination are said to be service of the devil. [754] Compare Gal. iv. 10, "Ye observe days." .

Lecture V.

Of Faith.

Hebrews xi. 1, 2 Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen. For by it the elders obtained a good report. 1. How great a dignity the Lord bestows on you in transferring you from the order of Catechumens to that of the Faithful, the Apostle Paul shews, when he affirms, God is faithful, by Whom ye were called into the fellowship of His Son Jesus Christ [755] . For since God is called Faithful, thou also in receiving this title receivest a great dignity. For as God is called Good, and Just, and Almighty, and Maker of the Universe, so is He also called Faithful. Consider therefore to what a dignity thou art rising, seeing thou art to become partaker of a title of God [756] . 2. Here then it is further required, that each of you be found faithful in his conscience: for a faithful man it is hard to find [757] : not that thou shouldest shew thy conscience to me, for thou art not to be judged of man's judgment [758] ; but that thou shew the sincerity of thy faith to God, who trieth the reins and hearts [759] , and knoweth the thoughts of men [760] . A great thing is a faithful man, being richest of all rich men. For to the faithful man belongs the whole world of wealth [761] , in that he disdains and tramples on it. For they who in appearance are rich, and have many possessions, are poor in soul: since the more they gather, the more they pine with longing for what is still lacking. But the faithful man, most strange paradox, in poverty is rich: for knowing that we need only to have food and raiment, and being therewith content [762] , he has trodden riches under foot. 3. Nor is it only among us, who bear the name of Christ, that the dignity of faith is great [763] : but likewise all things that are accomplished in the world, even by those who are aliens [764] from the Church, are accomplished by faith. By faith the laws of marriage yoke together those who have lived as strangers: and because of the faith in marriage contracts a stranger is made partner of a stranger's person and possessions. By faith husbandry also is sustained, for he who believes not that he shall receive a harvest endures not the toils. By faith sea-faring men, trusting to the thinnest plank, exchange that most solid element, the land, for the restless motion of the waves, committing themselves to uncertain hopes, and carrying with them a faith more sure than any anchor. By faith therefore most of men's affairs are held together: and not among us only has there been this belief, but also, as I have said, among those who are without [765] . For if they receive not the Scriptures, but bring forward certain doctrines of their own, even these they accept by faith. 4. The lesson also which was read to-day invites you to the true faith, by setting before you the way in which you also must please God: for it affirms that without faith it is impossible to please Him [766] . For when will a man resolve to serve God, unless he believes that He is a giver of reward? When will a young woman choose a virgin life, or a young man live soberly, if they believe not that for chastity there is a crown that fadeth not away [767] ? Faith is an eye that enlightens every conscience, and imparts understanding; for the Prophet saith, And if ye believe not, ye shall not understand [768] . Faith stoppeth the mouths of lions [769] , as in Daniel's case: for the Scripture saith concerning him, that Daniel was brought up out of the den, and no manner of hurt was found upon him, because he believed in his God [770] . Is there anything more fearful than the devil? Yet even against him we have no other shield than faith [771] , an impalpable buckler against an unseen foe. For he sends forth divers arrows, and shoots down in the dark night [772] those that watch not; but, since the enemy is unseen, we have faith as our strong armour, according to the saying of the Apostle, In all things taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked one [773] . A fiery dart of desire of base indulgence is often cast forth from the devil: but faith, suggesting a picture of the judgment, cools down the mind, and quenches the dart. 5. There is much to tell of faith, and the whole day would not be time sufficient for us to describe it fully. At present let us be content with Abraham only, as one of the examples from the Old Testament, seeing that we have been made his sons through faith. He was justified not only by works, but also by faith [774] : for though he did many things well, yet he was never called the friend of God [775] , except when he believed. Moreover, his every work was performed in faith. Through faith he left his parents; left country, and place, and home through faith [776] . In like manner, therefore, as he was justified be thou justified also. In his body he was already dead in regard to offspring, and Sarah his wife was now old, and there was no hope left of having children. God promises the old man a child, and Abraham without being weakened in faith, though he considered his own body now as good as dead [777] , heeded not the weakness of his body, but the power of Him who promised, because he counted Him faithful who had promised [778] , and so beyond all expectation gained the child from bodies as it were already dead. And when, after he had gained his son, he was commanded to offer him up, although he had heard the word, In Isaac shall thy seed be called [779] , he proceeded to offer up his son, his only son, to God, believing that God is able to raise up even from the dead [780] . And having bound his son, and laid him on the wood, he did in purpose offer him, but by the goodness of God in delivering to him a lamb instead of his child, he received his son alive. Being faithful in these things, he was sealed for righteousness, and received circumcision as a seal of the faith which he had while he was in uncircumcision [781] , having received a promise that he should be the father of many nations [782] . 6. Let us see, then, how Abraham is the father of many nations [783] . Of Jews he is confessedly the father, through succession according to the flesh. But if we hold to the succession according to the flesh, we shall be compelled to say that the oracle was false. For according to the flesh he is no longer father of us all: but the example of his faith makes us all sons of Abraham. How? and in what manner? With men it is incredible that one should rise from the dead; as in like manner it is incredible also that there should be offspring from aged persons as good as dead. But when Christ is preached as having been crucified on the tree, and as having died and risen again, we believe it. By the likeness therefore of our faith we are adopted into the sonship of Abraham. And then, following upon our faith, we receive like him the spiritual seal, being circumcised by the Holy Spirit through Baptism, not in the foreskin of the body, but in the heart, according to Jeremiah, saying, And ye shall be circumcised unto God in the foreskin of your heart [784] : and according to the Apostle, in the circumcision of Christ, having been buried with Him in baptism, and the rest [785] . 7. This faith if we keep we shall be free from condemnation, and shall be adorned with all kinds of virtues. For so great is the strength of faith, as even to buoy men up in walking on the sea. Peter was a man like ourselves, made up of flesh and blood, and living upon like food. But when Jesus said, Come [786] , he believed, and walked upon the waters, and found his faith safer upon the waters than any ground; and his heavy body was upheld by the buoyancy of his faith. But though he had safe footing over the water as long as he believed, yet when he doubted, at once he began to sink: for as his faith gradually relaxed, his body also was drawn down with it. And when He saw his distress, Jesus who remedies the distresses of our souls, said, O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt [787] ? And being nerved again by Him who grasped his right hand, he had no sooner recovered his faith, than, led by the hand of the Master, he resumed the same walking upon the waters: for this the Gospel indirectly mentioned, saying, when they were gone up into the ship [788] . For it says not that Peter swam across and went up, but gives us to understand that, after returning the same distance that he went to meet Jesus, he went up again into the ship. 8. Yea, so much power hath faith, that not the believer only is saved, but some have been saved by others believing. The paralytic in Capernaum was not a believer, but they believed who brought him, and let him down through the tiles [789] : for the sick man's soul shared the sickness of his body. And think not that I accuse him without cause: the Gospel itself says, when Jesus saw, not his faith, but their faith, He saith to the sick of the palsy, Arise [790] ! The bearers believed, and the sick of the palsy enjoyed the blessing of the cure. 9. Wouldest thou see yet more surely that some are saved by others' faith? Lazarus died [791] : one day had passed, and a second, and a third: his sinews [792] were decayed, and corruption was preying already upon his body. How could one four days dead believe, and entreat the Redeemer on his own behalf? But what the dead man lacked was supplied by his true sisters. For when the Lord was come, the sister fell down before Him, and when He said, Where have ye laid him? and she had made answer, Lord, by this time he stinketh; for he hath been four days dead, the Lord said, If thou believe, thou shalt see the glory of God; as much as saying, Supply thou the dead man's lack of faith: and the sisters' faith had so much power, that it recalled the dead from the gates of hell. Have then men by believing, the one on behalf of the other, been able to raise [793] the dead, and shalt not thou, if thou believe sincerely on thine own behalf, be much rather profited? Nay, even if thou be faithless, or of little faith, the Lord is loving unto man; He condescends to thee on thy repentance: only on thy part say with honest mind, Lord, I believe, help thou mine unbelief [794] . But if thou thinkest that thou really art faithful, but hast not yet the fulness of faith, thou too hast need to say like the Apostles, Lord, increase our faith [795] : for some part thou hast of thyself, but the greater part thou receivest from Him. 10. For the name of Faith is in the form of speech [796] one, but has two distinct senses. For there is one kind of faith, the dogmatic, involving an assent of the soul on some particular point: and it is profitable to the soul, as the Lord saith: He that heareth My words, and believeth Him that sent Me, hath everlasting life, and cometh not into judgment [797] : and again, He that believeth in the Son is not judged, but hath passed from death unto life [798] . Oh the great loving-kindness of God! For the righteous were many years in pleasing Him: but what they succeeded in gaining by many years of well-pleasing [799] , this Jesus now bestows on thee in a single hour. For if thou shalt believe that Jesus Christ is Lord, and that God raised Him from the dead, thou shalt be saved, and shalt be transported into Paradise by Him who brought in thither the robber. And doubt not whether it is possible; for He who on this sacred Golgotha saved the robber after one single hour of belief, the same shall save thee also on thy believing [800] . 11. But there is a second kind of faith, which is bestowed by Christ as a gift of grace. For to one is given through the Spirit the word of wisdom, and to another the word of knowledge according to the same Spirit: to another faith, by the same Spirit, and to another gifts of healing [801] . This faith then which is given of grace from the Spirit is not merely doctrinal, but also worketh things above man's power. For whosoever hath this faith, shall say to this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place, and it shall remove [802] . For whenever any one shall say this in faith, believing that it cometh to pass, and shall not doubt in his heart, then receiveth he the grace. And of this faith it is said, If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed [803] . For just as the grain of mustard seed is small in size, but fiery in its operation, and though sown in a small space has a circle of great branches, and when grown up is able even to shelter the fowls [804] ; so, likewise, faith in the swiftest moment works the greatest effects in the soul. For, when enlightened by faith, the soul hath visions of God, and as far as is possible beholds God, and ranges round the bounds of the universe, and before the end of this world already beholds the Judgment, and the payment of the promised rewards. Have thou therefore that faith in Him which cometh from thine own self, that thou mayest also receive from Him that faith which worketh things above man [805] . 12. But in learning the Faith and in professing it, acquire and keep that only, which is now delivered [806] to thee by the Church, and which has been built up strongly out of all the Scriptures. For since all cannot read the Scriptures, some being hindered as to the knowledge of them by want of learning, and others by a want of leisure, in order that the soul may not perish from ignorance, we comprise the whole doctrine of the Faith in a few lines. This summary I wish you both to commit to memory when I recite it [807] , and to rehearse it with all diligence among yourselves, not writing it out on paper [808] , but engraving it by the memory upon your heart [809] , taking care while you rehearse it that no Catechumen chance to overhear the things which have been delivered to you. I wish you also to keep this as a provision [810] through the whole course of your life, and beside this to receive no other, neither if we ourselves should change and contradict our present teaching, nor if an adverse angel, transformed into an angel of light [811] should wish to lead you astray. For though we or an angel from heaven preach to you any other gospel than that ye have received, let him be to you anathema [812] . So for the present listen while I simply say the Creed [813] , and commit it to memory; but at the proper season expect the confirmation out of Holy Scripture of each part of the contents. For the articles of the Faith were not composed as seemed good to men; but the most important points collected out of all the Scripture make up one complete teaching of the Faith. And just as the mustard seed in one small grain contains many branches, so also this Faith has embraced in few words all the knowledge of godliness in the Old and New Testaments. Take heed then, brethren, and hold fast the traditions [814] which ye now receive, and write them an the table of your heart [815] . 13. Guard them with reverence, lest per chance the enemy despoil any who have grown slack; or lest some heretic pervert any of the truths delivered to you. For faith is like putting money into the bank [816] , even as we have now done; but from you God requires the accounts of the deposit. I charge you, as the Apostle saith, before God, who quickeneth all things, and Christ Jesus, who before Pontius Pilate witnessed the good confession, that ye keep this faith which is committed to you, without spot, until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ [817] . A treasure of life has now been committed to thee, and the Master demandeth the deposit at His appearing, which in His own times He shall shew, Who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords; Who only hath immortality, dwelling in light which no man can approach unto; Whom no man hath seen nor can see. To Whom be glory, honour, and power [818] for ever and ever. Amen.


[755] 1 Cor. i. 9. [756] See Procatechesis 6, and Index, Faithful. [757] Prov. xx. 6. [758] 1 Cor. iv. 3. See Index, Confession. [759] Ps. vii. 9. [760] Ps. xciv. 11. [761] This sentence is a spurious addition to the text of the Septuagint, variously placed after Prov. xvii. 4, and xvii. 6. The thought is there completed by the antithesis, but to the faithless not even an obol. The origin of the interpolation is unknown. [762] 1 Tim. vi. 8. [763] It was a common objection of Pagan philosophers that the Christian religion was not founded upon reason but only on faith. Cyril's answer that faith is necessary in the ordinary affairs of life is the same which Origen had employed against Celsus (I. 11): "Why should it not be more reasonable, since all human affairs are dependent upon faith, to believe God rather than men? For who takes a voyage, or marries, or begets children, or casts seeds into the ground, without believing that better things will result, although the contrary might and sometimes does happen?" See also Arnobius, adversus Gentes, II. 8; and Hooker's allusion to the scornful reproach of Julian the Apostate, "The highest point of your wisdom is believe" (Eccles. Pol. V. lxiii. 1.). [764] By "aliens from the Church," and "those who are without," S. Cyril here means Pagans: so Tertullian, de Idololatriâ, c. xiv. But the latter term is applied to a Catechumen in Procatechesis. c. 12, and was also a common description of heretics: see Tertullian, de Baptismo, c. xv. [765] By "aliens from the Church," and "those who are without," S. Cyril here means Pagans: so Tertullian, de Idololatriâ, c. xiv. But the latter term is applied to a Catechumen in Procatechesis. c. 12, and was also a common description of heretics: see Tertullian, de Baptismo, c. xv. [766] Heb. xi. 6. [767] 1 Pet. v. 4. [768] Is. vii. 9, according to the Septuagint. But A.V. and R.V. both render: If ye will not believe, surely ye shall not be established. [769] Heb. xi. 34. [770] Dan. vi. 23. [771] 1 Pet. v. 9: Whom resist, stedfast in the faith. [772] Ps. xi. 2, that they may shoot in darkness at the upright in heart (R.V.). The Hebrew word L+P+¶#, signifying deep darkness (Job iii. 6; x. 22) is vigorously rendered by the Seventy skotomene, which is explained by the Scholiast on Homer (Od. xiv. 457: Nux d' ar' epelthe kake skotomenios) to be the deep darkness of the night preceding the new moon. [773] Eph. vi. 16. [774] James ii. 21. Casaubon omitted monon, which is found in every ms., thus making the meaning to be, "He was justified not by works but by faith," which directly contradicts the statement of S. James, and is inconsistent with the following context in S. Cyril. [775] James ii. 23; 2 Chron. xx. 7; Is. xli. 8; Gen. xv. 6. [776] Heb. xi. 8-10. [777] Rom. iv. 19. [778] Heb. xi. 11, 12. [779] Gen. xxi. 12; xxii. 2. [780] Heb. xi. 19. [781] Rom. iv. 11. [782] Gen. xvii. 5. [783] Rom. iv. 17, 18. [784] Jer. iv. 4: Circumcise yourselves to the Lord, and take away the foreskins of your heart. The Septuagint agrees closely with the Hebrew, but Cyril quotes freely from memory. [785] Col. ii. 11, 12. [786] Matt. xiv. 29. [787] Mark xiv. 31. [788] Ib. 32. [789] Mark ii. 4. [790] Matt. ix. 2, 6. [791] John xi. 14-44. [792] neura. "Sinews" is the original meaning, the application to "nerves," as distinct organs of sensation, being later. [793] For anastenai, retained by the Benedictine Editor and Reischl, read anastesai, with Roe, Casaubon, and Alexandrides. [794] Mark ix. 24. [795] Luke xvii. 5. [796] kata ten prosegorian. Compare Aristotle, Categories, V. 30: to schemati tes prosegorias. Cyril's description of faith as twofold, and of dogmatic faith as an assent (sunkatathesis) of the soul to something as credible, seems to be derived from Clement of Alexandria, Strom. II. c. 12. Compare by all means Pearson on the Creed, Art. I. and his Notes a, b, c. [797] John v. 24. [798] Ib. iii. 18; v. 24. [799] euaresteseos , Bened. and Reischl, with best mss. Milles and the earlier editions have ereuneseos, "searching." [800] Luke xxiii. 43; the argument is used again in Cat. xiii. 31. [801] 1 Cor. xii. 8, 9. [802] Mark xi. 23. [803] Matt. xvii. 20. [804] Matt. xiii. 32. [805] S. Chrysostom (Hom. xxix. in 1 Cor. xii. 9, 10) in like manner distinguishes dogmatic faith from the faith which is "the mother of miracles." The former S. Cyril calls our own, not meaning that God's help is not needed for it, but because, as he has shewn in § 10, it consists in the mind's assent, and voluntary approval of the doctrines set before it: but the latter is a pure gift of grace working in man without his own help. Compare Apostolic Constitutions, VIII. c. 1. [806] This Lecture was to be immediately followed by a first recitation of the Creed. See Index, Creed. [807] ep' autes tes lexeos. "in ipsâ lectione" (Milles): "ipsis verbis" (Bened.): "in the very phrase" (R.W.C.). See below, note 4. [808] Compare S. August. Serm. ccxii., "At the delivery of the Creed," and Index, Creed. [809] Compare Æschylus, Prometheus V. 789: hen engraphou su mnemosin deltois phrenon. [810] ephodion, Viaticum, i.e. provision for a journey, and here for the journey through this life. It is applied metaphorically by other Fathers (a) in this general sense, to the reading of Holy Scripture, Prayer, and Baptism, and (b) in a special sense to the Holy Eucharist when administered to the sick and dying, as a preparation for departure to the life after death. Council of Nicæa (a.d. 325), Canon xiii. "With respect to the dying, the old rule of the Church should continue to be observed, which forbids that any one who is on the point of death should be deprived of the last and most necessary viaticum (ephodion)." [811] 2 Cor. xi. 14. [812] Gal. i. 8, 9. [813] ep' autes tes lexeos. (Bened. Reischl. with best mss.). tautes tes lexeos, "this my recitation," (Milles). [814] 2 Thess. ii. 15. Compare Cat. xxiii. 23. [815] Prov. vii. 3. Note 9, above. [816] Matt. xxv. 27; Luke xix. 23. See note on Catech. vi. 36: "Be thou a good banker." [817] 1 Tim. v. 21; vi. 13, 14. [818] 1 Tim. vi. 15, 16. .

Lecture VI.

Concerning the Unity of God [819] . On the Article, I Believe in One God. Also Concerning Heresies.

Isaiah xlv. 16, 17. (Sept.) Sanctify yourselves unto Me, O islands. Israel is saved by the Lord with an everlasting salvation; they shall not be ashamed, neither shall they be confounded for ever, &c. 1. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ [820] . Blessed also be His Only-begotten Son [821] . For with the thought of God let the thought of Father at once be joined, that the ascription of glory to the Father and the Son may be made indivisible. For the Father hath not one glory, and the Son another, but one and the same, since He is the Father's Only-begotten Son; and when the Father is glorified, the Son also shares the glory with Him, because the glory of the Son flows from His Father's honour: and again, when the Son is glorified, the Father of so great a blessing is highly honoured. 2. Now though the mind is most rapid in its thoughts, yet the tongue needs words, and a long recital of intermediary speech. For the eye embraces at once a multitude of the `starry quire;' but when any one wishes to describe them one by one, which is the Morning-star, and which, the Evening-star, and which each one of them, he has need of many words. In like manner again the mind in the briefest moment compasses earth and sea and all the bounds of the universe; but what it conceives in an instant, it uses many words to describe [822] . Yet forcible as is the example I have mentioned, still it is after all weak and inadequate. For of God we speak not all we ought (for that is known to Him only), but so much as the capacity of human nature has received, and so much as our weakness can bear. For we explain not what God is but candidly confess that we have not exact knowledge concerning Him. For in what concerns God to confess our ignorance is the best knowledge [823] . Therefore magnify the Lord with me, and let us exalt His Name together [824] ,--all of us in common, for one alone is powerless; nay rather, even if we be all united together, we shall yet not do it as we ought. I mean not you only who are here present, but even if all the nurslings of the whole Church throughout the world, both that which now is and that which shall be, should meet together, they would not be able worthily to sing the praises of their Shepherd. 3. A great and honourable man was Abraham, but only great in comparison with men; and when he came before God, then speaking the truth candidly he saith, I am earth and ashes [825] . He did not say `earth,' and then cease, lest he should call himself by the name of that great element; but he added `and ashes,' that he might represent his perishable and frail nature. Is there anything, he saith, smaller or lighter than ashes? For take, saith he, the comparison of ashes to a house, of a house to a city, a city to a province, a province to the Roman Empire, and the Roman Empire to the whole earth and all its bounds, and the whole earth to the heaven in which it is embosomed;--the earth, which bears the same proportion to the heaven as the centre to the whole circumference of a wheel, for the earth is no more than this in comparison with the heaven [826] : consider then that this first heaven which is seen is less than the second, and the second than the third, for so far Scripture has named them, not that they are only so many, but because it was expedient for us to know so many only. And when in thought thou hast surveyed all the heavens, not yet will even the heavens be able to praise God as He is, nay, not if they should resound with a voice louder than thunder. But if these great vaults of the heavens cannot worthily sing God's praise, when shall `earth and ashes,' the smallest and least of things existing, be able to send up a worthy hymn of praise to God, or worthily to speak of God, that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and holdeth the inhabitants thereof as grasshoppers [827] . 4. If any man attempt to speak of God, let him first describe the bounds of the earth. Thou dwellest on the earth, and the limit of this earth which is thy dwelling thou knowest not: how then shalt thou be able to form a worthy thought of its Creator? Thou beholdest the stars, but their Maker thou beholdest not: count these which are visible, and then describe Him who is invisible, Who telleth the number of the stars, and calleth them all by their names [828] . Violent rains lately came pouring down upon us, and nearly destroyed us: number the drops in this city alone: nay, I say not in the city, but number the drops on thine own house for one single hour, if thou canst: but thou canst not. Learn then thine own weakness; learn from this instance the mightiness of God: for He hath numbered the drops of rain [829] , which have been poured down on all the earth, not only now but in all time. The sun is a work of God, which, great though it be, is but a spot in comparison with the whole heaven; first gaze stedfastly upon the sun, and then curiously scan the Lord of the sun. Seek not the things that are too deep for thee, neither search out the things that are above thy strength: what is commanded thee, think thereupon [830] . 5. But some one will say, If the Divine substance is incomprehensible, why then dost thou discourse of these things? So then, because I cannot drink up all the river, am I not even to take in moderation what is expedient for me? Because with eyes so constituted as mine I cannot take in all the sun, am I not even to look upon him enough to satisfy my wants? Or again, because I have entered into a great garden, and cannot eat all the supply of fruits, wouldst thou have me go away altogether hungry? I praise and glorify Him that made us; for it is a divine command which saith, Let every breath praise the Lord [831] . I am attempting now to glorify the Lord, but not to describe Him, knowing nevertheless that I shall fall short of glorifying Him worthily, yet deeming it a work of piety even to attempt it at all. For the Lord Jesus encourageth my weakness, by saying, No man hath seen God at any time [832] . 6. What then, some man will say, is it not written, The little ones' Angels do always behold the face of My Father which is in heaven [833] ? Yes, but the Angels see God not as He is, but as far as they themselves are capable. For it is Jesus Himself who saith, Not that any man hath seen the Father, save He which is of God, He hath seen the Father [834] . The Angels therefore behold as much as they can bear, and Archangels as much as they are able; and Thrones and Dominions more than the former, but yet less than His worthiness: for with the Son the Holy Ghost alone can rightly behold Him: for He searcheth all things, and knoweth even the deep things of God [835] : as indeed the Only-begotten Son also, with the Holy Ghost, knoweth the Father fully: For neither, saith He, knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal Him [836] . For He fully beholdeth, and, according as each can bear, revealeth God through the Spirit: since the Only-begotten Son together with the Holy Ghost is a partaker of the Father's Godhead. He, who [837] was begotten knoweth Him who begat; and He Who begat knoweth Him who is begotten. Since Angels then are ignorant (for to each according to his own capacity doth the Only-begotten reveal Him through the Holy Ghost, as we have said), let no man be ashamed to confess his ignorance. I am speaking now, as all do on occasion: but how we speak, we cannot tell: how then can I declare Him who hath given us speech? I who have a soul, and cannot tell its distinctive properties, how shall I be able to describe its Giver? 7. For devotion it suffices us simply to know that we have a God; a God who is One, a living [838] , an ever-living God; always like unto Himself [839] ; who has no Father, none mightier than Himself, no successor to thrust Him out from His kingdom: Who in name is manifold, in power infinite, in substance uniform [840] . For though He is called Good, and Just, and Almighty and Sabaoth [841] , He is not on that account diverse and various; but being one and the same, He sends forth countless operations of His Godhead, not exceeding here and deficient there, but being in all things like unto Himself. Not great in loving-kindness only, and little in wisdom, but with wisdom and loving-kindness in equal power: not seeing in part, and in part devoid of sight; but being all eye, and all ear, and all mind [842] : not like us perceiving in part and in part not knowing; for such a statement were blasphemous, and unworthy of the Divine substance. He foreknoweth the things that be; He is Holy, and Almighty, and excelleth all in goodness, and majesty, and wisdom: of Whom we can declare neither beginning, nor form, nor shape. For ye have neither heard His voice at any time, nor seen His shape [843] , saith Holy Scripture. Wherefore Moses saith also to the Israelites: And take ye good heed to your own souls, for ye saw no similitude [844] . For if it is wholly impossible to imagine His likeness, how shall thought come near His substance? 8. There have been many imaginations by many persons, and all have failed. Some have thought that God is fire; others that He is, as it were, a man with wings, because of a true text ill understood, Thou shalt hide me under the shadow of Thy wings [845] . They forgot that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-begotten, speaks in like manner concerning Himself to Jerusalem, How often would I have gathered thy children together even as a hen doth gather her chickens under her wings, and ye would not [846] . For whereas God's protecting power was conceived as wings, they failing to understand this sank down to the level of things human, and supposed that the Unsearchable exists in the likeness of man. Some again dared to say that He has seven eyes, because it is written, seven eyes of the Lord looking upon the whole earth [847] . For if He has but seven eyes surrounding Him in part, His seeing is therefore partial and not perfect: but to say this of God is blasphemous; for we must believe that God is in all things perfect, according to our Saviour's word, which saith, Your Father in heaven is perfect [848] : perfect in sight, perfect in power, perfect in greatness, perfect in foreknowledge, perfect in goodness, perfect in justice, perfect in loving-kindness: not circumscribed in any space, but the Creator of all space, existing in all, and circumscribed by none [849] . Heaven is His throne, but higher is He that sitteth thereon: and earth is His footstool [850] , but His power reacheth unto things under the earth. 9. One He is, everywhere present, beholding all things, perceiving all things, creating all things through Christ: For all things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made [851] . A fountain of every good, abundant and unfailing, a river of blessings, an eternal light of never-failing splendour, an insuperable power condescending to our infirmities: whose very Name we dare not hear [852] . Wilt thou find a footstep of the Lord? saith Job, or hast thou attained unto the least things which the Almighty hath made [853] ? If the least of His works are incomprehensible, shall He be comprehended who made them all? Eye hath not seen, and ear hath not heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love Him [854] . If the things which God hath prepared are incomprehensible to our thoughts, how can we comprehend with our mind Himself who hath prepared them? O the depth of the riches, and wisdom, and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are His judgments, and His ways past finding out [855] ! saith the Apostle. If His judgments and His ways are incomprehensible, can He Himself be comprehended? 10. God then being thus great, and yet greater, (for even were I to change my whole substance into tongue, I could not speak His excellence: nay more, not even if all Angels should assemble, could they ever speak His worth), God being therefore so great in goodness and majesty, man hath yet dared to say to a stone that he hath graven, Thou art my God [856] ! O monstrous blindness, that from majesty so great came down so low! The tree which was planted by God, and nourished by the rain, and afterwards burnt and turned into ashes by the fire,--this is addressed as God, and the true God is despised. But the wickedness of idolatry grew yet more prodigal, and cat, and dog, and wolf [857] were worshipped instead of God: the man-eating lion [858] also was worshipped instead of God, the most loving friend of man. The snake and the serpent [859] , counterfeit of him who thrust us out of Paradise, were worshipped, and He who planted Paradise was despised. And I am ashamed to say, and yet do say it, even onions [860] were worshipped among some. Wine was given to make glad the heart of man [861] : and Dionysus (Bacchus) was worshipped instead of God. God made corn by saying, Let the earth bring forth grass, yielding seed after his kind and after his likeness [862] , that bread may strengthen man's heart [863] : why then was Demeter (Ceres) worshipped? Fire cometh forth from striking stones together even to this day: how then was Hephæstus (Vulcan) the creator of fire? 11. Whence came the polytheistic error of the Greeks [864] ? God has no body: whence then the adulteries alleged among those who are by them called gods? I say nothing of the transformations of Zeus into a swan: I am ashamed to speak of his transformations into a bull: for bellowings are unworthy of a god. The god of the Greeks has been found an adulterer, yet are they not ashamed: for if he is an adulterer let him not be called a god. They tell also of deaths [865] , and falls [866] , and thunder-strokes [867] of their gods. Seest thou from how great a height and how low they have fallen? Was it without reason then that the Son of God came down from heaven? or was it that He might heal so great a wound? Was it without reason that the Son came? or was it in order that the Father might be acknowledged? Thou hast learned what moved the Only-begotten to come down from the throne at God's right hand. The Father was despised, the Son must needs correct the error: for He Through Whom All Things Were Made must bring them all as offerings to the Lord of all. The wound must be healed: for what could be worse than this disease, that a stone should be worshipped instead of God? Of Heresies. 12. And not among the heathen only did the devil make these assaults; for many of those who are falsely called Christians, and wrongfully addressed by the sweet name of Christ, have ere now impiously dared to banish God from His own creation. I mean the brood of heretics, those most ungodly men of evil name, pretending to be friends of Christ but utterly hating Him. For he who blasphemes the Father of the Christ is an enemy of the Son. These men have dared to speak of two Godheads, one good and one evil [868] ! O monstrous blindness! If a Godhead, then assuredly good. But if not good, why called a Godhead? For if goodness is an attribute of God; if loving-kindness, beneficence, almighty power, are proper to God, then of two things one, either in calling Him God let the name and operation be united; or if they would rob Him of His operations, let them not give Him the bare name. 13. Heretics have dared to say that there are two Gods, and of good and evil two sources, and these unbegotten. If both are unbegotten it is certain that they are also equal, and both mighty. How then doth the light destroy the darkness? And do they ever exist together, or are they separated? Together they cannot be; for what fellowship hath light with darkness? saith the Apostle [869] . But if they are far from each other, it is certain that they hold also each his own place; and if they hold their own separate places, we are certainly in the realm of one God, and certainly worship one God. For thus we must conclude, even if we assent to their folly, that we must worship one God. Let us examine also what they say of the good God. Hath He power or no power? If He hath power, how did evil arise against His will? And how doth the evil substance intrude, if He be not willing? For if He knows but cannot hinder it, they charge Him with want of power; but if He has the power, yet hinders not, they accuse Him of treachery. Mark too their want of sense. At one time they say that the Evil One hath no communion with the good God in the creation of the world; but at another time they say that he hath the fourth part only. Also they say that the good God is the Father of Christ; but Christ they call this sun. If, therefore according to them, the world was made by the Evil One, and the sun is in the world, how is the Son of the Good an unwilling slave in the kingdom of the Evil? We bemire ourselves in speaking of these things, but we do it lest any of those present should from ignorance fall into the mire of the heretics. I know that I have defiled my own mouth and the ears of my listeners: yet it is expedient. For it is much better to hear absurdities charged against others, than to fall into them from ignorance: far better that thou know the mire and hate it, than unawares fall into it. For the godless system of the heresies is a road with many branches, and whenever a man has strayed from the one straight way, then he falls down precipices again and again. 14. The inventor of all heresy was Simon Magus [870] : that Simon, who in the Acts of the Apostles thought to purchase with money the unsaleable grace of the Spirit, and heard the words, Thou hast neither part nor lot in this matter [871] , and the rest: concerning whom also it is written, They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would have remained with us [872] . This man, after he had been cast out by the Apostles, came to Rome, and gaining over one Helena a harlot [873] , was the first that dared with blasphemous mouth to say that it was himself who appeared on Mount Sinai as the Father, and afterwards appeared among the Jews, not in real flesh but in seeming [874] , as Christ Jesus, and afterwards as the Holy Spirit whom Christ promised to send as the Paraclete [875] . And he so deceived the City of Rome that Claudius set up his statue, and wrote beneath it, in the language of the Romans, "Simoni Deo Sancto," which being interpreted signifies, "To Simon the Holy God [876] ." 15. As the delusion was extending, Peter and Paul, a noble pair, chief rulers of the Church, arrived and set the error right [877] ; and when the supposed god Simon wished to shew himself off, they straightway shewed him as a corpse. For Simon promised to rise aloft to heaven, and came riding in a dæmons' chariot on the air; but the servants of God fell on their knees, and having shewn that agreement of which Jesus spake, that If two of you shall agree concerning anything that they shall ask, it shall be done unto them [878] , they launched the weapon of their concord in prayer against Magus, and struck him down to the earth. And marvellous though it was, yet no marvel. For Peter was there, who carrieth the keys of heaven [879] : and nothing wonderful, for Paul was there [880] , who was caught up to the third heaven, and into Paradise, and heard unspeakable words, which it is not lawful far a man to utter [881] . These brought the supposed God down from the sky to earth, thence to be taken down to the regions below the earth. In this man first the serpent of wickedness appeared; but when one head had been cut off, the root of wickedness was found again with many heads. 16. For Cerinthus [882] made havoc of the Church, and Menander [883] , and Carpocrates [884] , Ebionites [885] also, and Marcion [886] , that mouthpiece of ungodliness. For he who proclaimed different gods, one the Good, the other the Just, contradicts the Son when He says, O righteous Father [887] . And he who says again that the Father is one, and the maker of the world another, opposes the Son when He says, If then God so clothes the grass of the field which to-day is, and to-morrow is cast into the furnace of fire [888] ; and, Who maketh His sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust [889] . Here again is a second inventor of more mischief, this Marcion. For being confuted by the testimonies from the Old Testament which are quoted in the New, he was the first who dared to cut those testimonies out [890] , and leave the preaching of the word of faith without witness, thus effacing the true God: and sought to undermine the Church's faith, as if there were no heralds of it. 17. He again was succeeded by another, Basilides, of evil name, and dangerous character, a preacher of impurities [891] . The contest of wickedness was aided also by Valentinus [892] , a preacher of thirty gods. The Greeks tell of but few: and the man who was called--but more truly was not--a Christian extended the delusion to full thirty. He says, too, that Bythus the Abyss (for it became him as being an abyss of wickedness to begin his teaching from the Abyss) begat Silence, and of Silence begat the Word. This Bythus was worse than the Zeus of the Greeks, who was united to his sister: for Silence was said to be the child of Bythus. Dost thou see the absurdity invested with a show of Christianity? Wait a little, and thou wilt be shocked at his impiety; for he asserts that of this Bythus were begotten eight Æons; and of them, ten; and of them, other twelve, male and female. But whence is the proof of these things? See their silliness from their fabrications. Whence hast thou the proof of the thirty Æons? Because, saith he, it is written, that Jesus was baptized, being thirty years old [893] . But even if He was baptized when thirty years old, what sort of demonstration is this from the thirty years? Are there then five gods, because He brake five loaves among five thousand? Or because he had twelve Disciples, must there also be twelve gods? 18. And even this is still little compared with the impieties which follow. For the last of the deities being, as he dares to speak, both male and female, this, he says, is Wisdom [894] . What impiety! For the Wisdom of God [895] is Christ His Only-begotten Son: and he by his doctrine degraded the Wisdom of God into a female element, and one of thirty, and the last fabrication. He also says that Wisdom attempted to behold the first God, and not bearing His brightness fell from heaven, and was cast out of her thirtieth place. Then she groaned, and of her groans begat the Devil [896] , and as she wept over her fall made of her tears the sea. Mark the impiety. For of Wisdom how is the Devil begotten, and of prudence wickedness, or of light darkness? He says too that the Devil begat others, some of whom created the world: and that the Christ came down in order to make mankind revolt from the Maker of the world. 19. But hear whom they say Christ Jesus to be, that thou mayest detest them yet more. For they say that after Wisdom had been cast down, in order that the number of the thirty might not be incomplete, the nine and twenty Æons contributed each a little part, and formed the Christ [897] : and they say that He also is both male and female [898] . Can anything be more impious than this? Anything more wretched? I am describing their delusion to thee, in order that thou mayest hate them the more. Shun, therefore, their impiety, and do not even give greeting to [899] a man of this kind, lest thou have fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness [900] : neither make curious inquiries, nor be willing to enter into conversation with them. 20. Hate all heretics, but especially him who is rightly named after mania [901] , who arose not long ago in the reign of Probus [902] . For the delusion began full seventy years ago [903] , and there are men still living who saw him with their very eyes. But hate him not for this, that he lived a short time ago; but because of his impious doctrines hate thou the worker of wickedness, the receptacle of all filth, who gathered up the mire of every heresy [904] . For aspiring to become pre-eminent among wicked men, he took the doctrines of all, and having combined them into one heresy filled with blasphemies and all iniquity, he makes havoc of the Church, or rather of those outside the Church, roaming about like a lion and devouring. Heed not their fair speech, nor their supposed humility: for they are serpents, a generation of vipers [905] . Judas too said Hail! Master [906] , even while he was betraying Him. Heed not their kisses, but beware of their venom. 21. Now, lest I seem to accuse him without reason, let me make a digression to tell who this Manes is, and in part what he teaches: for all time would fail to describe adequately the whole of his foul teaching. But for help in time of need [907] , store up in thy memory what I have said to former hearers, and will repeat to those now present, that they who know not may learn, and they who know may be reminded. Manes is not of Christian origin, God forbid! nor was he like Simon cast out of the Church, neither himself nor the teachers who were before him. For he steals other men's wickedness, and makes their wickedness his own: but how and in what manner thou must hear. 22. There was in Egypt one Scythianus [908] , a Saracen [909] by birth, having nothing in common either with Judaism or with Christianity. This man, who dwelt at Alexandria and imitated the life of Aristotle [910] , composed four books [911] , one called a Gospel which had not the acts of Christ, but the mere name only, and one other called the book of Chapters, and a third of Mysteries, and a fourth, which they circulate now, the Treasure [912] . This man had a disciple, Terebinthus by name. But when Scythianus purposed to come into Judæa, and make havoc of the land, the Lord smote him with a deadly disease, and stayed the pestilence [913] . 23. But Terebinthus, his disciple in this wicked error, inherited his money and books and heresy [914] , and came to Palestine, and becoming known and condemned in Judæa [915] he resolved to pass into Persia: but lest he should be recognised there also by his name he changed it and called himself Buddas [916] . However, he found adversaries there also in the priests of Mithras [917] : and being confuted in the discussion of many arguments and controversies, and at last hard pressed, he took refuge with a certain widow. Then having gone up on the housetop, and summoned the dæmons of the air, whom the Manichees to this day invoke over their abominable ceremony of the fig [918] , he was smitten of God, and cast down from the housetop, and expired: and so the second beast was cut off. 24. The books, however, which were the records of his impiety, remained; and both these and his money the widow inherited. And having neither kinsman nor any other friend, she determined to buy with the money a boy named Cubricus [919] : him she adopted and educated as a son in the learning of the Persians, and thus sharpened an evil weapon against mankind. So Cubricus, the vile slave, grew up in the midst of philosophers, and on the death of the widow inherited both the books and the money. Then, lest the name of slavery might be a reproach, instead of Cubricus he called himself Manes, which in the language of the Persians signifies discourse [920] . For as he thought himself something of a disputant, he surnamed himself Manes, as it were an excellent master of discourse. But though he contrived for himself an honourable title according to the language of the Persians, yet the providence of God caused him to become a self-accuser even against his will, that through thinking to honour himself in Persia, he might proclaim himself among the Greeks by name a maniac. 25. He dared too to say that he was the Paraclete, though it is written, But whosoever shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost, hath no forgiveness [921] . He committed blasphemy therefore by saying that he was the Holy Ghost: let him that communicates with those heretics see with whom he is enrolling himself. The slave shook the world, since by three things the earth is shaken, and the fourth it cannot bear,--if a slave became a king [922] . Having come into public he now began to promise things above man's power. The son of the King of the Persians was sick, and a multitude of physicians were in attendance: but Manes promised, as if he were a godly man, to cure him by prayer. With the departure of the physicians, the life of the child departed: and the man's impiety was detected. So the would-be philosopher was a prisoner, being cast into prison not for reproving the king in the cause of truth, not for destroying the idols, but for promising to save and lying, or rather, if the truth must be told, for committing murder. For the child who might have been saved by medical treatment, was murdered by this man's driving away the physicians, and killing him by want of treatment. 26. Now as there are very many wicked things which I tell thee of him, remember first his blasphemy, secondly his slavery (not that slavery is a disgrace, but that his pretending to be free-born, when he was a slave, was wicked), thirdly, the falsehood of his promise, fourthly, the murder of the child, and fifthly, the disgrace of the imprisonment. And there was not only the disgrace of the prison, but also the flight from prison. For he who called himself the Paraclete and champion of the truth, ran away: he was no successor of Jesus, who readily went to the Cross, but this man was the reverse, a runaway. Moreover, the King of the Persians ordered the keepers of the prison to be executed: so Manes was the cause of the child's death through his vain boasting, and of the gaolers' death through his flight. Ought then he, who shared the guilt of murder, to be worshipped? Ought he not to have followed the example of Jesus, and said, If ye seek Me, let these go their way [923] ? Ought he not to have said, like Jonas, Take me, and cast me into the sea: for this storm is because of me [924] ? 27. He escapes from the prison, and comes into Mesopotamia: but there Bishop Archelaus, a shield of righteousness, encounters him [925] : and having accused him before philosophers as judges, and having assembled an audience of Gentiles, lest if Christians gave judgment, the judges might be thought to shew favour,--Tell us what thou preachest, said Archelaus to Manes. And he, whose mouth was as an open sepulchre [926] , began first with blasphemy against the Maker of all things, saying, The God of the Old Testament is the author of evils, as He says of Himself, I am a consuming fire [927] . But the wise Archelaus undermined his blasphemous argument by saying, "If the God of the Old Testament, as thou sayest, calls Himself a fire, whose Son is He who saith, I came to send fire on the earth [928] ? If thou findest fault with Him who saith, The Lord killeth, and maketh alive [929] , why dost thou honour Peter, who raised up Tabitha, but struck Sapphira dead? If again thou findest fault, because He prepared fire, wherefore dost thou not find fault with Him who saith, Depart from Me into everlasting fire [930] ? If thou findest fault with Him who saith, I am God that make peace, and create evil [931] , explain how Jesus saith, I came not to send peace but a sword [932] . Since both speak alike, of two things one, either both are good, because of their agreement, or if Jesus is blameless in so speaking. why blamest thou Him that saith the like in the Old Testament?" 28. Then Manes answers him: "And what sort of God causes blindness? For it is Paul who saith, In whom the God of this world hath blinded the minds of them that believe not, lest the light of the Gospel should shine unto them [933] ." But Archelaus made a good retort, saying, "Read a little before: But if our Gospel is veiled, it is veiled in them that are perishing [934] . Seest thou that in them that are perishing it is veiled? For it is not right to give the things which are holy unto the dogs [935] . Again, Is it only the God of the Old Testament that hath blinded the minds of them that believe not? Hath not Jesus Himself said, For this cause speak I unto them in parables, that seeing they may not see [936] ? Was it from hating them that He wished them not to see? Or because of their unworthiness, since their eyes they had closed [937] . For where there is wilful wickedness, there is also a withholding of grace: for to him that hath shall be given; but from him that hath not shall be taken even that which he seemeth to have [938] . 29. "But if some are right in their interpretation, we must say as follows [939] (for it is no unworthy expression)--If indeed He blinded the thoughts of them that believe not he blinded them for a good purpose, that they might look with new sight on what is good. For he said not, He blinded their soul, but, the thoughts of them that believe not [940] . And the meaning is something of this kind: `Blind the lewd thoughts of the lewd, and the man is saved: blind the grasping and rapacious thought of the robber, and the man is saved.' But wilt thou not understand it thus? Then there is yet another interpretation. The sun also blinds those whose sight is dim: and they whose eyes are diseased are hurt by the light and blinded. Not that the sun's nature is to blind, but that the substance of the eyes is incapable of seeing. In like manner unbelievers being diseased in their heart cannot look upon the radiance of the Godhead. Nor hath he said, `He hath blinded their thoughts, that they should not hear the Gospel:' but, that the light of the glory of the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ should not shine unto them. For to hear the Gospel is permitted to all: but the glory of the Gospel is reserved for Christ's true children only. Therefore the Lord spoke in parables to those who could not hear [941] : but to the Disciples he explained the parables in private [942] : for the brightness of the glory is for those who have been enlightened, the blinding for them that believe not." These mysteries, which the Church now explains to thee who art passing out of the class of Catechumens, it is not the custom to explain to heathen. For to a heathen we do not explain the mysteries concerning Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, nor before Catechumens do we speak plainly of the mysteries: but many things we often speak in a veiled way, that the believers who know may understand, and they who know not may get no hurt [943] . 30. By such and many other arguments the serpent was overthrown: thus did Archelaus wrestle with Manes and threw him. Again, he who had fled from prison flees from this place also: and having run away from his antagonist, he comes to a very poor village, like the serpent in Paradise when he left Adam and came to Eve. But the good shepherd Archelaus taking forethought for his sheep, when he heard of his flight, straightway hastened with all speed in search of the wolf. And when Manes suddenly saw his adversary, he rushed out and fled: it was however his last flight. For the officers of the King of Persia searched everywhere, and caught the fugitive: and the sentence, which he ought to have received in the presence of Archelaus, is passed upon him by the king's officers. This Manes, whom his own disciples worship, is arrested and brought before the king. The king reproached him with his falsehood and his flight: poured scorn upon his slavish condition, avenged the murder of his child, and condemned him also for the murder of the gaolers: he commands him to be flayed after the Persian fashion. And while the rest of his body was given over for food of wild beasts, his skin, the receptacle of his vile mind, was hung up before the gates like a sack [944] . He that called himself the Paraclete and professed to know the future, knew not his own flight and capture. 31. This man has had three disciples, Thomas, and Baddas, and Hermas. Let none read the Gospel according to Thomas [945] : for it is the work not of one of the twelve Apostles, but of one of the three wicked disciples of Manes. Let none associate with the soul-destroying Manicheans, who by decoctions of chaff counterfeit the sad look of fasting, who speak evil of the Creator of meats, and greedily devour the daintiest, who teach that the man who plucks up this or that herb is changed into it. For if he who crops herbs or any vegetable is changed into the same, into how many will husbandmen and the tribe of gardeners be changed [946] ? The gardener, as we see, has used his sickle against so many: into which then is he changed? Verily their doctrines are ridiculous, and fraught with their own condemnation and shame! The same man, being the shepherd of a flock, both sacrifices a sheep and kills a wolf. Into what then is he changed? Many men both net fishes and lime birds: into which then are they transformed? 32. Let those children of sloth, the Manicheans, make answer; who without labouring themselves eat up the labourers' fruits: who welcome with smiling faces those who bring them their food, and return curses instead of blessings. For when a simple person brings them anything, "Stand outside a while," saith he, "and I will bless thee." Then having taken the bread into his hands (as those who have repented and left them have confessed), "I did not make thee," says the Manichee to the bread: and sends up curses against the Most High; and curses him that made it, and so eats what was made [947] . If thou hatest the food, why didst thou look with smiling countenance on him that brought it to thee? If thou art thankful to the bringer, why dost thou utter thy blasphemy to God, who created and made it? So again he says, "I sowed thee not: may he be sown who sowed thee! I reaped thee not with a sickle: may he be reaped who reaped thee! I baked thee not with fire: may he be baked who baked thee!" A fine return for the kindness! 33. These are great faults, but still small in comparison with the rest. Their Baptism I dare not describe before men and women [948] . I dare not say what they distribute to their wretched communicants [949] ....Truly we pollute our mouth in speaking of these things. Are the heathen more detestable than these? Are the Samaritans more wretched? Are Jews more impious? Are fornicators more impure [950] ? But the Manichee sets these offerings in the midst of the altar as he considers it [951] . And dost thou, O man, receive instruction from such a mouth? On meeting this man dost thou greet him at all with a kiss? To say nothing of his other impiety, dost thou not flee from the defilement, and from men worse than profligates, more detestable than any prostitute? 34. Of these things the Church admonishes and teaches thee, and touches mire, that thou mayest not be bemired: she tells of the wounds, that thou mayest not be wounded. But for thee it is enough merely to know them: abstain from learning by experience. God thunders, and we all tremble; and they blaspheme. God lightens, and we all bow down to the earth; and they have their blasphemous sayings about the heavens [952] . These things are written in the books of the Manichees. These things we ourselves have read, because we could not believe those who told of them: yes, for the sake of your salvation we have closely inquired into their perdition. 35. But may the Lord deliver us from such delusion: and may there be given to you a hatred against the serpent, that as they lie in wait for the heel, so you may trample on their head. Remember ye what I say. What agreement can there be between our state and theirs? What communion hath light with darkness [953] ? What hath the majesty of the Church to do with the abomination of the Manichees? Here is order, here is discipline [954] , here is majesty, here is purity: here even to look upon a woman to lust after her [955] is condemnation. Here is marriage with sanctity [956] , here steadfast continence, here virginity in honour like unto the Angels: here partaking of food with thanksgiving, here gratitude to the Creator of the world. Here the Father of Christ is worshipped: here are taught fear and trembling before Him who sends the rain: here we ascribe glory to Him who makes the thunder and the lightning. 36. Make thou thy fold with the sheep: flee from the wolves: depart not from the Church. Hate those also who have ever been suspected in such matters: and unless in time thou perceive their repentance, do not rashly trust thyself among them. The truth of the Unity of God has been delivered to thee: learn to distinguish the pastures of doctrine. Be an approved banker [957] , holding fast that which is good, abstaining from every form of evil [958] . Or if thou hast ever been such as they, recognise and hate thy delusion. For there is a way of salvation, if thou reject the vomit, if thou from thy heart detest it, if thou depart from them, not with thy lips only, but with thy soul also: if thou worship the Father of Christ, the God of the Law and the Prophets, if thou acknowledge the Good and the Just to be one and the same God. [959]And may He preserve you all, guarding you from falling or stumbling, stablished in the Faith, in Christ Jesus our Lord, to Whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.


[819] Peri Theou Monarchias. The word monarchia, as used by Plato (Polit. 291 C), Aristotle (Polit. III. xiv. 11. eidos monarchias basilikes), Philo Judæus (de Circumcisione, § 2; de Monarchia, Titul.), means "sole government." Compare Tertullian (adv. Praxean. c. iii.): "If I have gained any knowledge of either language, I am sure that Monarchia has no other meaning than `single and individual rule.'" Athanasius (de Decretis Nicænæ Synodi, § 26) has preserved part of an Epistle of Dionysius, Bishop of Rome (259-269, a.d.), against the Sabellians: "It will be natural for me now to speak against those who divide, and cut into pieces, and destroy that most sacred doctrine of the Church of God, the Monarchia, making it, as it were, three powers and divided hypostases, and three Godheads;" (ibid.): "It is the doctrine of the presumptuous Marcion to sever and divide the Monarchia into three origins (archas)." We see here the sense which Monarchia had acquired in Christian Theology: it meant the "Unity of God," as the one principle and origin of all things. "By the Monarchy is meant the doctrine that the Second and Third Persons in the Ever-blessed Trinity are ever to be referred in our thoughts to the First, as the Fountain of Godhead" (Newman, Athanas. de Decretis Nic. Syn. § 26, note h). Justin Martyr (Euseb. H.E. IV. 18), and Irenæus (ibid. V. 20), had each written a treatise peri Monarchias. On the history of Monarchianism see, in this Series, Athanasius, Prolegomena, p. xxiii. sqq. [820] 2 Cor. i. 3. [821] This clause is omitted in some mss. Various forms of the Doxology were adopted in Cyril's time by various parties in the Church. Thus Theodoret (Hist. Eccles. II. c. 19) relates that Leontius, Bishop of Antioch, a.d. 348-357, observing that the Clergy and the Congregation were divided into two parties, the one using the form "and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost," the other "through the Son, in the Holy Ghost," used to repeat the Doxology silently, so that those who were near could hear only "world without end." The form which was regarded as the most orthodox, and adopted in the Liturgies ran thus: "Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, now and ever, and to the ages of the ages." See Suicer's Thesaurus, Doxologia. [822] Irenæus II. xxviii. 4: "But since God is all mind, all reason, all active Spirit, all light, and always exists as one and the same, such conditions and divisions (of operation) cannot fittingly be ascribed to Him. For our tongue, as being made of flesh, is not able to minister to the rapidity of man's sense, because that is of a spiritual nature; for which reason our speech is restrained (suffocatur) within us, and is not at once expressed as it has been conceived in the mind but is uttered by successive efforts, just as the tongue is able to serve it." [823] Tertullian, Apologeticus, § 17: "That which is infinite is known only to itself. This it is which gives some notion of God, while yet beyond all our conceptions--our very incapacity of fully grasping Him affords us the idea of what He really is. He is presented to our minds in His transcendent greatness, as at once known and unknown." Cf. Phil. Jud. de Monarch. i. 4: Hooker, Eccles. Pol. I. ii. 3: "Whom although to know be life, and joy to make mention of His name; yet our soundest knowledge is to know that we know Him not as He is, neither can know Him." [824] Ps. xxxiv. 3. [825] Gen. xviii. 27. [826] The opinion of Aristarchus of Samos, as stated by Archimedes (Arenarius, p. 320, Oxon), was that the sphere of the fixed stars was so large, that it bore to the earth's orbit the same proportion as a sphere to its centre, or more correctly (as Archimedes explains) the same proportion as the earth's orbit round the sun to the earth itself. Compare Cat. xv. 24. [827] Is. xl. 22. [828] Ps. cxlvii. 4. [829] Job xxxvi. 27: arithmetai de auto stagones huetou. R.V. For He draweth up the drops of water. [830] Ecclus. iii. 21, 22. [831] Ps. cl. 6. [832] John i. 18. They are the Evangelist's own words. [833] Matt. xviii. 10. [834] John vi. 46. [835] 1 Cor. ii. 10. [836] Matt. xi. 27. [837] The Benedictine and earlier printed texts read ho gennetheis [apathos pro ton chronon aionion]: but the words in brackets are not found in the best mss. The false grammar betrays a spurious insertion, which also interrupts the sense. On the meaning of the phrase ho gennetheis apathos, see note on vii. 5: ou pathei pater genomenos. [838] Gr. onta, aei onta. [839] Iren. II. xiii. 3: "He is altogether like and equal to Himself; since He is all sense, and all spirit, and all feeling, and all thought, and all reason, and all hearing, and all ear, and all eye, and all light, and all a fount of every good,--even as the religious and pious are wont to speak of God." [840] monoeide. A Platonic word. Phædo, 80 B: to men theio kai athanato kai noeto kai monoeidei kai adialuto kai aei hosautos kata ta auta echonti heauto homoiotaton einai psuchen. See Index, "Hypostasis." [841] Iren. II. xxxv. 3: "If any object that in the Hebrew language different expressions occur, such as Sabaoth, Elöe, Adonai, and all other such terms, striving to prove from these that there are different powers and Gods, let them learn that all expressions of this kind are titles and announcements of one and the same Being." [842] See the passages of Irenæus quoted above, § 2 note 4, and § 7 note 3. [843] John v. 37. [844] Deut. iv. 15. [845] Ps. xvii. 8. [846] Matt. xxiii. 37. [847] Zech. iv. 10. [848] Matt. v. 48. [849] Philo Judæus (Leg. Alleg. I. 14. p. 52). Theou gar oude ho sumpas kosmos axion an eie chorion kai endiaitema, epei autos heauto tepos. So Sir Isaac Newton, at the end of the Principia, asserts that God by His eternal and infinite existence constitutes Time and Space: "Non est duratio vel spatium, sed durat et adest, et existendo semper et ubique spatium et durationem constituit." [850] Is. lxvi. 1. [851] John i. 3. [852] The sacred name (H+W+H+J+) was not pronounced, but Adonai was substituted. [853] Job xi. 7 (R.V.): Canst thou by searching find out God? Canst thou find out the Almighty unto perfection? Cyril seems to have understood ta eschata as "the least," not as "the utmost." [854] 1 Cor. ii. 9. [855] Rom. xi. 33. [856] Is. xliv. 17. [857] The cat was sacred to the goddess Pasht, called by the Greeks Bubastis, and identified by Herodotus (ii. 137) with Artemis or Diana. Cats were embalmed after death, and their mummies are found at various places, but especially at Bubastis (Herod. ii. 67). "The Dogs are interred in the cities to which they belong, in sacred burial-places" (Herod. ii. 67), but chiefly at Cynopolis ("City of Dogs") where the dog-headed deity Anubis was worshipped. Mummies of wolves are found in chambers excavated in the rocks at Lycopolis, where Osiris was worshipped under the symbol of a wolf. [858] The lion was held sacred at Leontopolis (Strabo, xvii. p. 812). [859] "In the neighbourhood of Thebes there are sacred serpents perfectly harmless to man. These they bury in the temple of Zeus, the god to whom they are sacred." (Herod. ii. 74.) At Epidaurus in Argolis the serpent was held sacred as the symbol of Æsculapius. Clement of Alexandria (Exhort. c. ii.) gives a fuller list of animals worshipped by various nations. Compare also Clement. Recogn. V. 20. [860] Juvenal Sat. xv. 7. Illic aeluros, hic piscem fluminis, illic Oppida tota canem venerantur, nemo Dianam. Possum et caepe nefas violare et frangere morsu. [861] Ps. civ. 15. [862] Gen. i. 11. [863] Ps. civ. 15. [864] The early Creeds of the Eastern Churches, like that which Eusebius of Cæsarea proposed at Nicæa, expressly declare the unity of God, in opposition both to the heathen Polytheism, and to the various heresies which introduced two or more Gods. See below in this Lecture, §§ 12-18; and compare Athan. (contra Gentes, § 6, sqq.) [865] Clement of Alexandria (Exhort. cap. ii. § 37), quotes a passage from a hymn of Callimachus, implying the death of Zeus: "For even thy tomb, O king, The Cretans fashioned." Adonis, or "Thammuz yearly wounded," was said to live and die in alternate years. [866] By the word "falls" (apoptoseis) Cyril evidently refers to the story of Hephæstus, or Vulcan, to which Milton alludes (Paradise Lost, I. 740):-- "Men call'd him Mulciber, and how he fell From heaven they fabled, thrown by angry Jove Sheer o'er the crystal battlements: from morn To noon he fell, from noon to dewy eve, A summer's day." [867] The "thunder-strokes" refer to "Titan heaven's first-born, With his enormous brood" (Par. Lost, I. 510). Cf. Virgil, Æn. vi. 580:-- "Hic genus antiquum Terræ, Titania pubes, Fulmine dejecti fundo volvuntur in imo." Ibid. v. 585:-- "Vidi et crudeles dantem Salmonea poenas, Dum flammas Jovis et sonitus imitatur Olympi." Clem. Alex. (Exhort. II. § 37):--"Æsculapius lies struck with lightning in the regions of Cynosuris." Cf. Virg. Æn. vii. 770 ss. [868] The theory of two Gods, one good and the other evil, was held by Cerdo, and Marcion (Hippolytus, Refut. omnium Hær. VII. cap. 17: Irenæus, III. xxv. 3, quoted in note on Cat. iv. 4). The Manichees also held that the Creator of the world was distinct from the Supreme God (Alexander Lycop. de Manichæorum Sententiis, cap. iii.). [869] 2 Cor. vi. 14. Cyril's description applies especially to the heresy of Manes. See § 36, note 3, at the end of this Lecture; also Cat. xi. 21. and Cat. xv. 3. [870] So Irenæus (I. xxiii. 2) says that "from this Simon of Samaria all kinds of heresies derive their origin." [871] Acts viii. 18-21. [872] 1 John ii. 19. [873] Irenæus (I. xxiii. 2): "Having purchased from Tyre, a city of Phoenicia, a certain harlot named Helena, he used to carry her about with him, declaring that this woman was the first conception of his mind, the mother of all, by whom in the beginning he conceived in his mind the creation of Angels and Archangels." [874] Cf. Epiphan. (Hæres. p. 55, B): "He said that he was the Son and had not really suffered, but only in appearance (dokesei)." [875] Irenæus (I. xxiii. 1): "He taught that it was himself who appeared among the Jews as the Son, and descended in Samaria as the Father, but came to other nations as the Holy Spirit." Cyril here departs from his authority by substituting Mount Sinai for Samaria, and thereby falls into error. Simon had first appeared in Samaria, being a native of Gitton: moreover in claiming to be the Father he meant to set himself far above the inferior Deity who had given the Law on Sinai, saying that he was "the highest of all Powers, that is the Father who is over all." [876] "Justin Martyr in his first Apology, addressed to Antoninus Pius, writes thus (c. 26): `There was one Simon a Samaritan, of the village called Gitton, who in the reign of Claudius Cæsar, and in your royal city of Rome, did mighty feats of magic by the art of dæmons working in him. He was considered a god, and as a god was honoured among you with a statue, which statue was set up in the river Tiber between the two bridges, and bears this inscription in Latin: Simoni Deo Sancto; which is, To Simon the holy God. "The substance of this story is repeated by Irenæus (adv. Hær. I. xxiii. 1), and by Tertullian (Apol. c. 13), who reproaches the Romans for installing Simon Magus in their Pantheon, and giving him a statue and the title `Holy God.' "In a.d. 1574, a stone, which had formed the base of a statue, was dug up on the site described by Justin, the Island in the Tiber, bearing an inscription--`Semoni Sanco Deo Fidio Sacrum, &c.' Hence it has been supposed that Justin mistook a statue of the Sabine God, `Semo Sancus,' for one of Simon Magus. See the notes in Otto's Justin Martyr, and Stieren's Irenæus. "On the other hand Tillemont (Memoires, t. ii. p. 482) maintains that Justin in an Apology addressed to the emperor and written in Rome itself cannot reasonably be supposed to have fallen into so manifest an error. Whichever view we take of Justin's accuracy concerning the inscription and the statue, there is nothing improbable in his statement that Simon Magus was at Rome in the reign of Claudius." (Extracted by permission from the Speaker's Commentary, Introduction to the Epistle to the Romans, p. 4.) [877] "Justin says not one word about St. Peter's alleged visit to Rome, and his encounter with Simon Magus." But "Eusebius in his Ecclesiastical History (c. a.d. 325), quotes Justin Martyr's story about Simon Magus (E. H. ii. c. 13), and then, without referring to any authority, goes on to assert (c. 14) that `immediately in the same reign of Claudius divine Providence led Peter the great Apostle to Rome to encounter this great destroyer of life,' and that he thus brought the light of the Gospel from the East to the West' (ibidem). Eusebius probably borrowed this story "from the strange fictions of the Clementine Recognitions and Homilies, and Apostolic Constitutions." See Recogn. III. 63-65; Hom. I. 15, III. 58; Apost. Constit. VI. 7, 8, 9. Cyril's account of Simon's death is taken from the same untrustworthy sources. [878] Matt. xviii. 19. [879] Ib. xvi. 19. [880] It is certain that S. Paul was not at Rome at this time. This story of Simon Magus and his `fiery car' is told, with variations, by Arnobius (adv. Gentes, II. 12), and in Apost. Constit. VI. 9. [881] 2 Cor. xii. 2, 4. [882] Cerinthus taught that the world was not made by the supreme God, but by a separate Power ignorant of Him. See Irenæus, Hær. I. xxvi., Euseb. E.H. iii. 28, with the notes in this Series. [883] Menander is first mentioned by Justin M. (Apolog. I. cap. 26): "Menander, also a Samaritan, of the town Capparetæa, a disciple of Simon, and inspired by devils, we know to have deceived many while he was in Antioch by his magical art. He persuaded those who adhered to him that they should never die." Irenæus (I. xxiii. 5) adds that Menander announced himself as the Saviour sent by the Invisibles, and taught that the world was created by Angels. See also Tertullian (de Animâ, cap. 50.) [884] Carpocrates, a Platonic philosopher, who taught at Alexandria (125 a.d. circ.), held that the world and all things in it were made by Angels far inferior to the unbegotten (unknown) Father (Iren. I. xxv. 1; Tertullian, Adv. Hær. cap. 3). [885] Irenæus, I. 26: "Those who are called Ebionites agree that the world was made by God; but their opinions with respect to the Lord are like those of Cerinthus and Carpocrates." [886] On Marcion, see note 5, on Cat. iv. 4. [887] John xvii. 25. [888] Luke xii. 28. [889] Matt. v. 45. [890] Marcion accepted only St. Luke's Gospel, and mutilated that (Tertullian, Adv. Marcion. iv. 2). He thus got rid of the testimony of the Apostles and eye-witnesses, Matthew and John, and represented the Law and the Gospel as contradictory revelations of two different Gods. For this Cyril calls him `a second inventor of mischief,' Simon Magus (§ 14) being the first. [891] Basilides was earlier than Marcion, being the founder of a Gnostic sect at Alexandria in the reign of Hadrian (a.d. 117-138). His doctrines are described by Irenæus (I. xxvii. 3-7), and very fully by Hippolytus (Refut. omn. Hær. VII. 2-15). The charge of teaching licentiousness attaches rather to the later followers of Basilides than to himself or his son Isidorus (Clem. Alex. Stromat. III. cap. 1). Basilides wrote a Commentary on the Gospel in 24 books (Exegetica), of which the 23rd is quoted by Clement of Alexandria (Stromat. IV. cap. 12), and against which Agrippa Castor wrote a refutation. Origen (Hom. I. in Lucam.) says that Basilides wrote a Gospel bearing his own name. See Routh, Rell. Sacr. I. p. 85; V. p. 106: Westcott, History of Canon of N.T. iv. § 3. [892] "The doctrines of Valentinus are described fully by Irenæus (I. cap. i.) from whom S. Cyril takes this account. Valentinus, and Basilides, and Bardesanes, and Harmonious, and those of their company admit Christ's conception and birth of the Virgin, but say that God the Word received no addition from the Virgin, but made a sort of passage through her, as through a tube, and made use of a phantom in appearing to men." (Theodoret, Epist. 145.) [893] Luke iii. 23. [894] Irenæus I. ii. 2. [895] 1 Cor. i. 24. [896] Irenæus, l. c., and Hippolytus, who gives an elaborate account of the doctrines of Valentinus (L. VI. capp. xvi.-xxxii.), both represent Sophia, "Wisdom," as giving birth not to Satan, but to a shapeless abortion, which was the origin of matter. According to Irenæus (I. iv. 2), Achamoth, the enthymesis of Sophia, gave birth to the Demiurge, and "from her tears all that is of a liquid nature was formed." In Tertullian's Treatise against the Valentinians chap. xxii., Achamoth is said as by Cyril to have given birth to Satan: but in chap. xxiii. Satan seems to be identified (or interchanged) with the Demiurge. [897] The account in Irenæus (I. ii. 6) is rather different: "The whole Pleroma of the Æons, with one design and desire, and with the concurrence of the Christ and the Holy Spirit, their Father also setting the seal of His approval on their conduct, brought together whatever each one had in himself of the greatest beauty and preciousness; and uniting all these contributions so as skilfully to blend the whole, they produced, to the honour and glory of Bythus, a being of most perfect beauty, the very star of the Pleroma, and its perfect fruit, namely Jesus." Tertullian, Against the Valentinians, chap. 12, gives a sarcastic description of this strange doctrine, deriving his facts (chap. 5) from Justin, Miltiades, "Irenæus, that very exact inquirer into all doctrines," and Proculus. [898] This statement does not agree with Irenæus (I. vii. 1), who says that the Valentinians represented the Saviour, that is Jesus, as becoming the bridegroom of Achamoth or Sophia. [899] 2 John 10, 11: "Neither bid him God speed" (A.V.): "give him no greeting" (R.V.). [900] Ephes. v. 11. [901] Eusebius in his brief notice of the Manichean heresy (Hist. Eccles. vii. 31) plays, like S. Cyril, upon the name Manes as well suited to a madman. [902] Marcus Aurelius Probus, Emperor a.d. 276-282, from being an obscure Illyrian soldier came to be universally esteemed the best and noblest of the Roman Emperors. [903] Routh (R.S. V. p. 12) comes to the conclusion that the famous disputation between Manes and Archelaus took place between July and December, a.d. 277. Accordingly these Lectures, being "full 70 years" later, could not have been delivered before the Spring of a.d. 348. [904] Leo the Great (Serm. xv. cap. 4) speaks of the madness of the later Manichees as including all errors and impieties: "all profanity of Paganism, all blindness of the carnal Jews, the illicit secrets of the magic art, the sacrilege and blasphemy of all heresies, flowed together in that sect as into a sort of cess-pool of all filth." Leo summoned those whom they called the "elect," both men and women, before an assembly of Bishops and Presbyters, and obtained from these witnesses a full account of the execrable practices of the sect, in which, as he declares, "their law is lying, their religion the devil, their sacrifice obscenity." [905] Matt. iii. 7. [906] Ib. xxvi. 49. [907] Heb. iv. 16. [908] Cyril takes his account of Manes from the "Acta Archelai et Manetis Disputationis," of which Routh has edited the Latin translation together with the Fragments of the Greek preserved by Cyril in this Lecture and by Epiphanius. There is an English translation of the whole in Clark's "Ante-Nicene Christian Library." [909] The Saracens are mentioned by both Pliny and Ptolemy. See Dict. of Greek and Roman Geography. [910] There is no mention of Aristotle in the Acta Archelai, but Scythianus is stated (cap. li.) to have founded the sect in the time of the Apostles, and to have derived his duality of Gods from Pythagoras, and to have learned the wisdom of the Egyptians. [911] These four books are stated by Archelaus (Acta, cap. lii.), to have been written for Manes by his disciple Terebinthus. [912] In allusion to this name the history of the Disputation is called (Acta, cap. i.) "The true Treasure." [913] The true reading of this sentence, proairoumenon ton Skuthianon, instead of ton proeiremenon Sk., has been restored by Cleopas from the ms. in the Archiepiscopal library at Jerusalem. This reading agrees with the statement in Acta Archel. cap. li.: "Scythianus thought of making an excursion into Judæa, with the purpose of meeting all those who had a reputation there as teachers; but it came to pass that he suddenly departed this life, without having been able to make any progress." [914] This statement agrees with the reading of the Vatican ms. of the Acta Archelai, "omnibus quæcunque ejus fuerunt congregratis." [915] In the Acta there is no mention of Palestine, but only that he "set out for Babylonia, a province which is now held by the Persians." [916] Clem. Alex. (Strom. i. 15): "Some also of the Indians obey the precepts of Boutta, and honour him as a god for his extraordinary sanctity." [917] Cf. Acta Arch. cap. lii.: "A certain Parcus, however, a prophet, and Labdacus, son of Mithras, charged him with falsehood." On the name Parcus and Labdacus, see Dict. Chr. Biogr., "Barcabbas," and on the Magian worship of the Sun-god Mithras, see Rawlinson (Herodot. Vol. I. p. 426). [918] See below, § 33. [919] Cf. Acta Arch. cap. liii. "A boy about seven years old, named Corbicius." [920] See a different account in Dict. Chr. Biogr., "Manes." [921] Mark iii. 29. [922] Prov. xxx. 21, 22. [923] John xviii. 8. [924] Jonah i. 12. [925] The account of the discussion in this and the two following chapters is not now found in the Latin Version of the "Disputation," but is regarded by Dr. Routh as having been derived by Cyril from some different copies of the Greek. The last paragraph of § 29, "These mysteries, &c.," is evidently a caution addressed to the hearers by Cyril himself (Routh, Rell. Sac. V. 199). [926] Ps. v. 9. [927] Deut. iv. 24. [928] Luke xii. 49. [929] 1 Sam. ii. 6. [930] Matt. xxv. 41. [931] Is. xlv. 7. [932] Matt. x. 34. [933] 2 Cor. iv. 4, noemata, "thoughts." [934] 2 Cor. iv. 3. [935] Matt. vii. 6. [936] Matt. xiii. 13. Both A.V. and R.V. follow the better reading: "because seeing they see not, &c." [937] Matt. xiii. 15. [938] Ib. xxv. 29; Luke viii. 18. [939] Instead of the reading of the Benedictine and earlier editions, ei de dei kai hos tines exegountai touto eipein, the mss. Roe and Casaubon combine dei kai os into the one word dikaios, which is probably the right reading. Something, however, is still wanted to complete the construction, and Petrus Siculus (circ. a.d. 870) who quotes the passage in his History of the Manichees, boldly conjectures esti kai houtos eipein. A simpler emendation would be--ei de dikaios tines exegountai, dei touto eipein--which both completes the construction and explains the reading dei kai hos. [940] noemata, 2 Cor. iv. 4. [941] Matt. xiii. 13. [942] Mark iv. 34. [943] See the note at the end of Procatechesis. [944] Disput. § 55. Compare the account of Manes in Socrates, Eccles. Hist. I. 22, in this series. [945] The Gospel of Thomas, an account of the Childhood of Jesus, is extant in three forms, two in Greek and one in Latin: these are all translated in Clark's Ante-Nicene Library. The work is wrongly attributed by Cyril to a disciple of Manes, being mentioned long before Hippolytus (Refutation of all Heresies, V. 2) and by Origen (Hom. I. in Lucam): "There is extant also the Gospel according to Thomas." [946] In the Disputation, § 9, Turbo describes these transformations: "Reapers must be transformed into hay, or beans, or barley, or corn, or vegetables, that they may be reaped and cut. Again if any one eats bread, he must become bread, and be eaten. If one kills a chicken, he will be a chicken himself. If one kills a mouse, he also will be a mouse." [947] See Turbo's confession, Disput. § 9: "And when they are going to eat bread, they first pray, speaking thus to the bread: `I neither reaped thee, nor ground thee, nor kneaded thee, nor cast thee into the oven: but another did these things and brought thee to me, and I am not to blame for eating thee.' And when he has said this to himself, he says to the Catechumen, `I have prayed for thee,' and so he goes away." [948] On the rites of Baptism and Eucharist employed by the Manichees, see Dict. Chr. Biogr., Manicheans. [949] The original runs: Ou tolmo eipein, tini embaptontes ten ischada, didoasi tois athliois. dia sussemon de monon deloustho. andres gar ta en tois enupniasmois enthumeisthosin, kai gunaikes ta en aphedrois. Miainomen alethas to stoma k.t.l. [950] ;;O men gar porneusas, pros mian horan d epithumian telei ten praxin; kataginoskon de tes praxeos hos miantheis oide loutrou epideomenos, kai ginoskei tes praxeos to musaron. ;;O de Manichaios thusiasteriou meson, hou nomizei, tithesi tauta, kai miainei kai to stoma kai ten glottan. para toioutou stomatos, anthrope k.t.l. [951] hou nomizei. The Manichees boasted of their superiority to the Pagans in not worshipping God with altars, temples, images, victims, or incense (August. contra Faustum XX. cap. 15). Yet they used the names, as Augustine affirms (l. c. cap. 18): "Nevertheless I wish you would tell me why you call all those things which you approve in your own case by these names, temple, altar, sacrifice." [952] Kakeinoi peri ouranon tas dusphemous echousi glossas. 'Iesous legei peri tou patros autou, ;'Ostis ton helion autou anatellei epi dikaious kai adikous, kai brechei epi ponerous kai agathous. kakeinoi legousin, hoti hoi huetoi ex erotikes manias ginontai, kai tolmosi legein, hoti esti tis parthenos en ourano eueides meta neaniskou eueidous, kai kata ten ton kamelon e lukon kairon, tous tes aischras epithumias kairous echein, kai kata ten tou cheimonos kairon, maniodos auton epitrechein te partheno, kai ten men pheugein phasi, ton de epitrechein, eita epitrechonta hidroun, apo de ton hidroton autou einai ton hueton. Tauta gegraptai en tois ton Manichaion bibliois; tauta hemeis anegnomen, k.t.l. [953] 2 Cor. vi. 14. [954] Gr. episteme. See note on Introductory Lect. § 4. [955] Matt. v. 28. [956] semnotatos is the reading of the chief mss. But the printed editions have semnotetos, comparing it with such phrases as stoma atheotetos (vi. 15), and metanoia tes soterias (xiv. 17). [957] This saying is quoted three times in the Clementine Homilies as spoken by our Lord. See Hom. II. § 51; III. § 50; XVIII. § 20: "Every man who wishes to be saved must become, as the Teacher said, a judge of the books written to try us. For thus He spake: Become experienced bankers. Now the need of bankers arises from the circumstance that the spurious is mixed up with the genuine." On the same saying, quoted as Scripture in the Apostolic Constitutions (II. § 36), Cotelerius suggests that in oral tradition, or in some Apocryphal book, the proverb was said to come from the Old Testament, and was added by some transcriber as a gloss in the margin of Matt. xxv. 27, or Luke xix. 23. Dionysius of Alexandria, Epist. VII., speaks of "the Apostolic word, which thus urges all who are endowed with greater virtue, `Be ye skillful money-changers,'" referring apparently as here to 1 Thess. v. 21, 22, "try all things, &c." (See Euseb. E.H. VII. ch. 6 in this series: Suicer. Thesaurus, Trapezites: and Resch. (Agrapha, pp. 233-239.) [958] 1 Thess. v. 21, 22. [959] Compare § 13 of this Lecture, where Cyril seems to refer especially to the heresy of Manes, as described in the Disputatio Archelai, cap. 6: "If you are desirous of being instructed in the faith of Manes, hear it briefly from me. That man worships two gods, unbegotten, self-originate, eternal, opposed one to the other. The one he represents as good, and the other as evil, naming the one Light, and the other Darkness."
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