Writings of Cyril - The Catechetical Lectures g

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The Catechetical Lectures of St. Cyril, Archbishop of Jerusalem,

with a revised translation, introduction, notes, and indices,

by Edwin Hamilton Gifford, D.D.
formerly archdeacon of london, and canon of S. Paul's.

Under the editorial supervision of Philip Schaff, D.D., LL.D., Professor of Church History in the Union Theological Semimary, New York, and Henry Wace, D.D., Principal of King's College, London

Published in 1893 by Philip Schaff, New York: Christian Literature Publishing Co.

Lecture XV.

On the Clause, And Shall Come in Glory to Judge the Quick and the Dead; Of Whose Kingdom There Shall Be No End.

Daniel vii. 9-14

I beheld till thrones were placed, and one that was ancient of days did sit, and then, I saw in a vision of the night, and behold one like unto the Son of Man came with the clouds of heaven, &c.

1. We preach not one advent only of Christ, but a second also, far more glorious than the former. For the former gave a view of His patience; but the latter brings with it the crown of a divine kingdom. For all things, for the most part, are twofold in our Lord Jesus Christ: a twofold generation; one, of God, before the ages; and one, of a Virgin, at the close of the ages: His descents twofold; one, the unobserved, like rain on a fleece [1811] ; and a second His open coming, which is to be. In His former advent, He was wrapped in swaddling clothes in the manger; in His second, He covereth Himself with light as with a garment [1812] . In His first coming, He endured the Cross, despising shame [1813] ; in His second, He comes attended by a host of Angels, receiving glory [1814] . We rest not then upon His first advent only, but look also for His second. And as at His first coming we said, Blessed is He that cometh in the Name of the Lord [1815] , so will we repeat the same at His second coming; that when with Angels we meet our Master, we may worship Him and say, Blessed is He that cometh in the Name of the Lord. The Saviour comes, not to be judged again, but to judge them who judged Him; He who before held His peace when judged [1816] , shall remind the transgressors who did those daring deeds at the Cross, and shall say, These things hast thou done, and I kept silence [1817] . Then, He came because of a divine dispensation, teaching men with persuasion; but this time they will of necessity have Him for their King, even though they wish it not.

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2. And concerning these two comings, Malachi the Prophet says, And the Lord whom ye seek shall suddenly come to His temple [1818] ; behold one coming. And again of the second coming he says, And the Messenger of the covenant whom ye delight in. Behold, He cometh, saith [1819] the Lord Almighty. But who shall abide the day of His coming? or who shall stand when He appeareth? Because He cometh in like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' herb; and He shall sit as a refiner and purifier. And immediately after the Saviour Himself says, And I will draw near to you in judgment; and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against the adulteresses, and against those who swear falsely in My Name [1820] , and the rest. For this cause Paul warning us beforehand says, If any man buildeth on the foundation gold, and silver, and precious stones, wood, hay, stubble; every man's work shall be made manifest; for the day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed in fire [1821] . Paul also knew these two comings, when writing to Titus and saying, The grace of God hath appeared which bringeth salvation unto all men, instructing us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, and godly, and righteously in this present world; looking for the blessed hope, and appearing of the glory of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ [1822] . Thou seest how he spoke of a first, for which he gives thanks; and of a second, to which we look forward. Therefore the words also of the Faith which we are announcing were just now delivered thus [1823] ; that we believe in Him, who also ascended into the heavens, and sat down on the right hand of the Father, and shall come in glory to judge quick and dead; whose kingdom shall have no end.

3. Our Lord Jesus Christ, then, comes from heaven; and He comes with glory at the end of this world, in the last day. For of this world there is to be an end, and this created world is to be re-made anew [1824] . For since corruption, and theft, and adultery, and every sort of sins have been poured forth over the earth, and blood has been mingled with blood [1825] in the world, therefore, that this wondrous dwelling-place may not remain filled with iniquity, this world passeth away, that the fairer world may be made manifest. And wouldest thou receive the proof of this out of the words of Scripture? Listen to Esaias, saying, And the heaven shall be rolled together as a scroll; and all the stars shall fall, as leaves from a vine, and as leaves fall from a fig-tree [1826] . The Gospel also says, The sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven [1827] . Let us not sorrow, as if we alone died; the stars also shall die; but perhaps rise again. And the Lord rolleth up the heavens, not that He may destroy them, but that He may raise them up again more beautiful. Hear David the Prophet saying, Thou, Lord, in the beginning didst lay the foundations of the earth, and the heavens are the work of Thy hands; they shall perish, but Thou remainest [1828] . But some one will say, Behold, he says plainly that they shall perish. Hear in what sense he says, they shall perish; it is plain from what follows; And they all shall wax old as doth a garment; and as a vesture shalt Thou fold them up, and they shall be changed. For as a man is said to "perish," according to that which is written, Behold, how the righteous perisheth, and no man layeth it to heart [1829] , and this, though the resurrection is looked for; so we look for a resurrection, as it were, of the heavens also. The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood [1830] . Here let converts from the Manichees gain instruction, and no longer make those lights their gods; nor impiously think, that this sun which shall be darkened is Christ [1831] . And again hear the Lord saying, Heaven and earth shall pass away, but My words shall not pass away [1832] ; for the creatures are not as precious as the Master's words.

4. The things then which are seen shall pass away, and there shall come the things which are looked for, things fairer than the present; but as to the time let no one be curious. For it is not for you, He says, to know times or seasons, which the Father hath put in His own power [1833] . And venture not thou to declare when these things shall be, nor on the other hand supinely slumber. For he saith, Watch, for in such an hour as ye expect not the Son of Man cometh [1834] . But since it was needful for us to know the signs of the end, and since we are looking for Christ, therefore, that we may not die deceived and be led astray by that false Antichrist, the Apostles, moved by the divine will, address themselves by a providential arrangement to the True Teacher, and say, Tell us, when shall these things be, and what shall be the sign of Thy coming, and of the end of the world [1835] ? We look for Thee to come again, but Satan transforms himself into an Angel of light; put us therefore on our guard, that we may not worship another instead of Thee. And He, opening His divine and blessed mouth, says, Take heed that no man mislead you. Do you also, my hearers, as seeing Him now with the eyes of your mind, hear Him saying the same things to you; Take heed that no man mislead you. And this word exhorts you all to give heed to what is spoken; for it is not a history of things gone by, but a prophecy of things future, and which will surely come. Not that we prophesy, for we are unworthy; but that the things which are written will be set before you, and the signs declared. Observe thou, which of them have already come to pass, and which yet remain; and make thyself safe.

5. Take heed that no man mislead you: for many shall come in My name, saying, I am Christ, and shall mislead many. This has happened in part: for already Simon Magus has said this, and Menander [1836] , and some others of the godless leaders of heresy; and others will say it in our days, or after us.

6. A second sign. And ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars [1837] . Is there then at this time war between Persians and Romans for Mesopotamia, or no? Does nation rise up against nation and kingdom against kingdom, or no? And there shall be famines and pestilences and earthquakes in divers places. These things have already come to pass; and again, And fearful sights from heaven, and mighty storms [1838] . Watch therefore, He says; for ye know not at what hour your Lord doth come [1839] .

7. But we seek our own sign of His coming; we Churchmen seek a sign proper to the Church [1840] . And the Saviour says, And then shall many be offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another [1841] . If thou hear that bishops advance against bishops, and clergy against clergy, and laity against laity even unto blood, be not troubled [1842] ; for it has been written before. Heed not the things now happening, but the things which are written; and even though I who teach thee perish, thou shalt not also perish with me; nay, even a hearer may become better than his teacher, and he who came last may be first, since even those about the eleventh hour the Master receives. If among Apostles there was found treason, dost thou wonder that hatred of brethren is found among bishops? But the sign concerns not only rulers, but the people also; for He says, And because iniquity shall abound, the love of the many shall wax cold [1843] . Will any then among those present boast that he entertains friendship unfeigned towards his neighbour? Do not the lips often kiss, and the countenance smile, and the eyes brighten forsooth, while the heart is planning guile, and the man is plotting mischief with words of peace?

8. Thou hast this sign also: And this Gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations, and then shall the end come [1844] . And as we see, nearly the whole world is now filled with the doctrine of Christ.

9. And what comes to pass after this? He says next, When therefore ye see the abomination of desolation, which was spoken of by Daniel the Prophet, standing in the Holy Place, let him that readeth understand [1845] . And again, Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is the Christ, or, Lo, there; believe it not [1846] . Hatred of the brethren makes room next for Antichrist; for the devil prepares beforehand the divisions among the people, that he who is to come may be acceptable to them. But God forbid that any of Christ's servants here, or elsewhere, should run over to the enemy! Writing concerning this matter, the Apostle Paul gave a manifest sign, saying, For that day shall not come, except there came first the falling away, and the man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition, who opposeth and exalteth himself against all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God. Remember ye not that when I was yet with you, I told you these things? And now ye know that which restraineth, to the end that he may be revealed in his own season. For the mystery of iniquity doth already work, only there is one that restraineth now, until he be taken out of the way. And then shall the lawless one be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus shall slay with the breath of His mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of His coming. Even him, whose coming is after the working of Satan, with all power and signs and lying wonders, and with all deceit of unrighteousness for them that are perishing [1847] . Thus wrote Paul, and now is the falling away. For men have fallen away from the right faith [1848] ; and some preach the identity of the Son with the Father [1849] , and others dare to say that Christ was brought into being out of nothing [1850] . And formerly the heretics were manifest; but now the Church is filled with heretics in disguise [1851] . For men have fallen away from the truth, and have itching ears [1852] . Is it a plausible discourse? all listen to it gladly. Is it a word of correction? all turn away from it. Most have departed from right words, and rather choose the evil, than desire the good [1853] . This therefore is the falling away, and the enemy is soon to be looked for: and meanwhile he has in part begun to send forth his own forerunners [1854] , that he may then come prepared upon the prey. Look therefore to thyself, O man, and make safe thy soul. The Church now charges thee before the Living God; she declares to thee the things concerning Antichrist before they arrive. Whether they will happen in thy time we know not, or whether they will happen after thee we know not; but it is well that, knowing these things, thou shouldest make thyself secure beforehand.

10. The true Christ, the Only-begotten Son of God, comes no more from the earth. If any come making false shows [1855] in the wilderness, go not forth; if they say, Lo, here is the Christ, Lo, there, believe it not [1856] . Look no longer downwards and to the earth; for the Lord descends from heaven; not alone as before, but with many, escorted by tens of thousands of Angels; nor secretly as the dew on the fleece [1857] ; but shining forth openly as the lightning. For He hath said Himself, As the lightning cometh out of the east, and shineth even unto the west, so shall also the coming of the Son of Man be [1858] ; and again, And they shall see the Son of Man coming upon the clouds with power and great glory, and He shall send forth His Angels with a great trumpet [1859] ; and the rest.

11. But as, when formerly He was to take man's nature, and God was expected to be born of a Virgin, the devil created prejudice against this, by craftily preparing among idol-worshippers [1860] fables of false gods, begetting and begotten of women, that, the falsehood having come first, the truth, as he supposed, might be disbelieved; so now, since the true Christ is to come a second time, the adversary, taking occasion by [1861] the expectation of the simple, and especially of them of the circumcision, brings in a certain man who is a magician [1862] , and most expert in sorceries and enchantments of beguiling craftiness; who shall seize for himself the power of the Roman empire, and shall falsely style himself Christ; by this name of Christ deceiving the Jews, who are looking for the Anointed [1863] , and seducing those of the Gentiles by his magical illusions.

12. But this aforesaid Antichrist is to come when the times of the Roman empire shall have been fulfilled, and the end of the world is now drawing near [1864] . There shall rise up together ten kings of the Romans, reigning in different parts perhaps, but all about the same time; and after these an eleventh, the Antichrist, who by his magical craft shall seize upon the Roman power; and of the kings who reigned before him, three he shall humble [1865] , and the remaining seven he shall keep in subjection to himself. At first indeed he will put on a show of mildness (as though he were a learned and discreet person), and of soberness and benevolence [1866] : and by the lying signs and wonders of his magical deceit [1867] having beguiled the Jews, as though he were the expected Christ, he shall afterwards be characterized by all kinds of crimes of inhumanity and lawlessness, so as to outdo all unrighteous and ungodly men who have gone before him; displaying against all men, but especially against us Christians, a spirit murderous and most cruel, merciless and crafty [1868] . And after perpetrating such things for three years and six months only, he shall be destroyed by the glorious second advent from heaven of the only-begotten Son of God, our Lord and Saviour Jesus, the true Christ, who shall slay Antichrist with the breath of His mouth [1869] , and shall deliver him over to the fire of hell.

13. Now these things we teach, not of our own invention, but having learned them out of the divine Scriptures used in the Church [1870] , and chiefly from the prophecy of Daniel just now read; as Gabriel also the Archangel interpreted it, speaking thus: The fourth beast shall be a fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall surpass all kingdoms [1871] . And that this kingdom is that of the Romans, has been the tradition of the Church's interpreters. For as the first kingdom which became renowned was that of the Assyrians, and the second, that of the Medes and Persians together, and after these, that of the Macedonians was the third, so the fourth kingdom now is that of the Romans [1872] . Then Gabriel goes on to interpret, saying, His ten horns are ten kings that shall arise; and another king shall rise up after them, who shall surpass in wickedness all who were before him [1873] ; (he says, not only the ten, but also all who have been before him;) and he shall subdue three kings; manifestly out of the ten former kings: but it is plain that by subduing three of these ten, he will become the eighth king; and he shall speak words against the Most High [1874] . A blasphemer the man is and lawless, not having received the kingdom from his fathers, but having usurped the power by means of sorcery.

14. And who is this, and from what sort of working? Interpret to us, O Paul. Whose coming, he says, is after the working of Satan, with all power and signs and lying wonders [1875] ; implying, that Satan has used him as an instrument, working in his own person through him; for knowing that his judgment shall now no longer have respite, he wages war no more by his ministers, as is his wont, but henceforth by himself more openly [1876] . And with all signs and lying wonders; for the father of falsehood will make a show [1877] of the works of falsehood, that the multitudes may think that they see a dead man raised, who is not raised, and lame men walking, and blind men seeing, when the cure has not been wrought.

15. And again he says, Who opposeth and exalteth himself against all that is called God, or that is worshipped; (against every God; Antichrist forsooth will abhor the idols,) so that he seateth himself in the temple of God [1878] . What temple then? He means, the Temple of the Jews which has been destroyed. For God forbid that it should be the one in which we are! Why say we this? That we may not be supposed to favour ourselves. For if he comes to the Jews as Christ, and desires to be worshipped by the Jews, he will make great account of the Temple, that he may more completely beguile them; making it supposed that he is the man of the race of David, who shall build up the Temple which was erected by Solomon [1879] . And Antichrist will come at the time when there shall not be left one stone upon another in the Temple of the Jews, according to the doom pronounced by our Saviour [1880] ; for when, either decay of time, or demolition ensuing on pretence of new buildings, or from any other causes, shall have overthrown all the stones, I mean not merely of the outer circuit, but of the inner shrine also, where the Cherubim were, then shall he come with all signs and lying wonders, exalting himself against all idols; at first indeed making a pretence of benevolence, but afterwards displaying his relentless temper, and that chiefly against the Saints of God. For he says, I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints [1881] ; and again elsewhere, there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation upon earth, even to that same time [1882] . Dreadful is that beast, a mighty dragon, unconquerable by man, ready to devour; concerning whom though we have more things to speak out of the divine Scriptures, yet we will content ourselves at present with thus much, in order to keep within compass.

16. For this cause the Lord knowing the greatness of the adversary grants indulgence to the godly, saying, Then let them which be in Judæa flee to the mountains [1883] . But if any man is conscious that he is very stout-hearted, to encounter Satan, let him stand (for I do not despair of the Church's nerves), and let him say, Who shall separate us from the love of Christ and the rest [1884] ? But, let those of us who are fearful provide for our own safety; and those who are of a good courage, stand fast: for then shall be great tribulation, such as hath not been from the beginning of the world until now, no, nor ever shall be [1885] . But thanks be to God who hath confined the greatness of that tribulation to a few days; for He says, But for the elect's sake those days shall be shortened [1886] ; and Antichrist shall reign for three years and a half only. We speak not from apocryphal books, but from Daniel; for he says, And they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and half a time [1887] . A time is the one year in which his coming shall for a while have increase; and the times are the remaining two years of iniquity, making up the sum of the three years; and the half a time is the six months. And again in another place Daniel says the same thing, And he sware by Him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, and times, and half a time [1888] . And some peradventure have referred what follows also to this; namely, a thousand two hundred and ninety days [1889] ; and this, Blessed is he that endureth and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days [1890] . For this cause we must hide ourselves and flee; for perhaps we shall not have gone over the cities of Israel, till the Son of Man be come [1891] .

17. Who then is the blessed man, that shall at that time devoutly witness for Christ? For I say that the Martyrs of that time excel all martyrs. For the Martyrs hitherto have wrestled with men only; but in the time of Antichrist they shall do battle with Satan in his own person [1892] . And former persecuting kings only put to death; they did not pretend to raise the dead, nor did they make false shows [1893] of signs and wonders. But in his time there shall be the evil inducement both of fear and of deceit, so that if it be possible the very elect shall be deceived [1894] . Let it never enter into the heart of any then alive to ask, "What did Christ more? For by what power does this man work these things? Were it not God's will, He would not have allowed them." The Apostle warns thee, and says beforehand, And for this cause God shall send them a working of error; (send, that is, shall allow to happen;) not that they might make excuse, but that they might be condemned [1895] . Wherefore? They, he says, who believed not the truth, that is, the true Christ, but had pleasure in unrighteousness, that is, in Antichrist. But as in the persecutions which happen from time to time, so also then God will permit these things, not because He wants power to hinder them, but because according to His wont He will through patience crown His own champions like as He did His Prophets and Apostles; to the end that having toiled for a little while they may inherit the eternal kingdom of heaven, according to that which Daniel says, And at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book (manifestly, the book of life); and many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and same to shame and everlasting contempt; and they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and of the many righteous [1896] , as the stars for ever and ever.

18. Guard thyself then, O man; thou hast the signs of Antichrist; and remember them not only thyself, but impart them also freely to all. If thou hast a child according to the flesh, admonish him of this now; if thou hast begotten one through catechizing [1897] , put him also on his guard, lest he receive the false one as the True. For the mystery of iniquity doth already work [1898] . I fear these wars of the nations [1899] ; I fear the schisms of the Churches; I fear the mutual hatred of the brethren. But enough on this subject; only God forbid that it should be fulfilled in our days; nevertheless, let us be on our guard. And thus much concerning Antichrist.

19. But let us wait and look for the Lord's coming upon the clouds from heaven. Then shall Angelic trumpets sound; the dead in Christ shall rise first [1900] ,--the godly persons who are alive shall be caught up in the clouds, receiving as the reward of their labours more than human honour, inasmuch as theirs was a more than human strife; according as the Apostle Paul writes, saying, For the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the Archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first. Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air; and so shall we ever be with the Lord [1901] .

20. This coming of the Lord, and the end of the world, were known to the Preacher; who says, Rejoice, O young man, in thy youth, and the rest [1902] ; Therefore remove anger [1903] from thy heart, and put away evil from thy flesh;...and remember thy Creator...or ever the evil days come [1904] ,....or ever the sun, and the light, and the moon, and the stars be darkened [1905] ,....and they that look out of the windows be darkened [1906] ; (signifying the faculty of sight;) or ever the silver cord be loosed; (meaning the assemblage of the stars, for their appearance is like silver;) and the flower of gold be broken [1907] ; (thus veiling the mention of the golden sun; for the camomile is a well-known plant, having many ray-like leaves shooting out round it;) and they shall rise up at the voice of the sparrow, yea, they shall look away from the height, and terrors shall be in the way [1908] . What shall they see? Then shall they see the Son of man coming on the clouds of heaven; and they shall mourn tribe by tribe [1909] . And what shall come to pass when the Lord is come? The almond tree shall blossom, and the grasshopper shall grow heavy, and the caper-berry shall be scattered abroad [1910] . And as the interpreters say, the blossoming almond signifies the departure of winter; and our bodies shall then after the winter blossom with a heavenly flower [1911] . And the grasshopper shall grow in substance (that means the winged soul clothing itself with the body [1912] ,) and the caper-berry shall be scattered abroad (that is, the transgressors who are like thorns shall be scattered [1913] ).

21. Thou seest how they all foretell the coming of the Lord. Thou seest how they know the voice of the sparrow. Let us know what sort of voice this is. For the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the Archangel, and with the trump of God [1914] . The Archangel shall make proclamation and say to all, Arise to meet the Lord [1915] . And fearful will be that descent of our Master. David says, God shall manifestly come, even our God, and shall not keep silence; a fire shall burn before Him, and a fierce tempest round about Him, and the rest [1916] . The Son of Man shall come to the Father, according to the Scripture which was just now read, on the clouds of heaven, drawn by a stream of fire [1917] , which is to make trial of men. Then if any man's works are of gold, he shall be made brighter; if any man's course of life be like stubble, and unsubstantial, it shall be burnt up by the fire [1918] . And the Father shall sit, having His garment white as snow, and the hair of His head like pure wool [1919] . But this is spoken after the manner of men; wherefore? Because He is the King of those who have not been defiled with sins; for, He says, I will make your sins white as snow, and as wool [1920] , which is an emblem of forgiveness of sins, or of sinlessness itself. But the Lord who shall come from heaven on the clouds, is He who ascended on the clouds; for He Himself hath said, And they shall see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven, with power and great glory [1921] .

22. But what is the sign of His coming? lest a hostile power dare to counterfeit it. And then shall appear, He says, the sign of the Son of Man in heaven [1922] . Now Christ's own true sign is the Cross; a sign of a luminous Cross shall go before the King [1923] , plainly declaring Him who was formerly crucified: that the Jews who before pierced Him and plotted against Him, when they see it, may mourn tribe by tribe [1924] , saying, "This is He who was buffeted, this is He whose face they spat on, this is He whom they bound with chains, this is He whom of old they crucified, and set at nought [1925] . Whither, they will say, shall we flee from the face of Thy wrath?" But the Angel hosts shall encompass them, so that they shall not be able to flee anywhere. The sign of the Cross shall be a terror to His foes; but joy to His friends who have believed in Him, or preached Him, or suffered for His sake. Who then is the happy man, who shall then be found a friend of Christ? That King, so great and glorious, attended by the Angel-guards, the partner of the Father's throne, will not despise His own servants. For that His Elect may not be confused with His foes, He shall send forth His Angels with a great trumpet, and they shall gather together His elect from the four winds [1926] . He despised not Lot, who was but one; how then shall He despise many righteous? Come, ye blessed of My Father [1927] , will He say to them who shall then ride on chariots of clouds, and be assembled by Angels.

23. But some one present will say, "I am a poor man," or again, "I shall perhaps be found at that time sick in bed;" or, "I am but a woman, and I shall be taken at the mill: shall we then be despised?" Be of good courage, O man; the Judge is no respecter of persons; He will not judge according to a man's appearance, nor reprove according to his speech [1928] . He honours not the learned before the simple, nor the rich before the needy. Though thou be in the field, the Angels shall take thee; think not that He will take the landowners, and leave thee the husbandman. Though thou be a slave, though thou be poor, be not any whit distressed; He who took the form of a servant [1929] despises not servants. Though thou be lying sick in bed, yet it is written, Then shall two be in one bed; the one shall be taken, and the other left [1930] . Though thou be of compulsion put to grind, whether thou be man or woman [1931] ; though thou be in fetters [1932] , and sit beside the mill, yet He who by His might bringeth out them that are bound [1933] , will not overlook thee. He who brought forth Joseph out of slavery and prison to a kingdom, shall redeem thee also from thy afflictions into the kingdom of heaven. Only be of good cheer, only work, only strive earnestly; for nothing shall be lost. Every prayer of thine, every Psalm thou singest is recorded; every alms-deed, every fast is recorded; every marriage duly observed is recorded; continence [1934] kept for God's sake is recorded; but the first crowns in the records are those of virginity and purity; and thou shalt shine as an Angel. But as thou hast gladly listened to the good things, so listen again without shrinking to the contrary. Every covetous deed of thine is recorded; thine every act of fornication is recorded, thine every false oath is recorded, every blasphemy, and sorcery, and theft, and murder. All these things are henceforth to be recorded, if thou do the same now after having been baptized; for thy former deeds are blotted out.

24. When the Son of Man, He says, shall come in His glory, and all the Angels with Him [1935] . Behold, O man, before what multitudes thou shalt come to judgment. Every race of mankind will then be present. Reckon, therefore, how many are the Roman nation; reckon how many the barbarian tribes now living, and how many have died within the last hundred years; reckon how many nations have been buried during the last thousand years; reckon all from Adam to this day. Great indeed is the multitude; but yet it is little, for the Angels are many more. They are the ninety and nine sheep, but mankind is the single one [1936] . For according to the extent of universal space, must we reckon the number of its inhabitants. The whole earth is but as a point in the midst of the one heaven, and yet contains so great a multitude; what a multitude must the heaven which encircles it contain? And must not the heaven of heavens contain unimaginable numbers [1937] ? And it is written, Thousand thousands ministered unto Him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before Him [1938] ; not that the multitude is only so great, but because the Prophet could not express more than these. So there will be present at the judgment in that day, God, the Father of all, Jesus Christ being seated with Him, and the Holy Ghost present with Them; and an angel's trumpet shall summon us all to bring our deeds with us. Ought we not then from this time forth to be sore troubled? Think it not a slight doom, O man, even apart from punishment, to be condemned in the presence of so many. Shall we not choose rather to die many deaths, than be condemned by friends?

25. Let us dread then, brethren, lest God condemn us; who needs not examination or proofs, to condemn. Say not, In the night I committed fornication, or wrought sorcery, or did any other thing, and there was no man by. Out of thine own conscience shalt thou be judged, thy thoughts the meanwhile accusing or else excusing, in the day when God shall judge the secrets of men [1939] . The terrible countenance of the Judge will force thee to speak the truth; or rather, even though thou speak not, it will convict thee. For thou shalt rise clothed with thine own sins, or else with thy righteous deeds. And this has the Judge Himself declared--for it is Christ who judges--for neither doth the Father judge any man, but he hath given all judgment unto the Son [1940] , not divesting Himself of His power, but judging through the Son; the Son therefore judgeth by the will [1941] of the Father; for the wills of the Father and of the Son are not different, but one and the same. What then says the Judge, as to whether thou shalt bear thy works, or no? And before Him shall they gather all nations [1942] : (for in the presence of Christ every knee must bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth [1943] :) and He shall separate them one from another, as the shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats. How does the shepherd make the separation? Does he examine out of a book which is a sheep and which a goat? or does he distinguish by their evident marks? Does not the wool show the sheep, and the hairy and rough skin the goat? In like manner, if thou hast been just now cleansed from thy sins, thy deeds shall be henceforth as pure wool; and thy robe shall remain unstained, and thou shalt ever say, I have put off my coat, how shall I put it on [1944] ? By thy vesture shalt thou be known for a sheep. But if thou be found hairy, like Esau, who was rough with hair, and wicked in mind, who for food lost his birthright and sold his privilege, thou shalt be one of those on the left hand. But God forbid that any here present should be cast out from grace, or for evil deeds be found among the ranks of the sinners on the left hand!

26. Terrible in good truth is the judgment, and terrible the things announced. The kingdom of heaven is set before us, and everlasting fire is prepared. How then, some one will say, are we to escape the fire? And how to enter into the kingdom? I was an hungered, He says, and ye gave Me meat. Learn hence the way; there is here no need of allegory, but to fulfil what is said. I was an hungered, and ye gave Me meat; I was thirsty, and ye gave Me drink; I was a stranger, and ye took Me in; naked, and ye clothed Me; I was sick, and ye visited Me; I was in prison, and ye came unto Me [1945] . These things if thou do, thou shalt reign together with Him; but if thou do them not, thou shalt be condemned. At once then begin to do these works, and abide in the faith; lest, like the foolish virgins, tarrying to buy oil, thou be shut out. Be not confident because thou merely possessest the lamp, but constantly keep it burning. Let the light of thy good works shine before men [1946] , and let not Christ be blasphemed on thy account. Wear thou a garment of incorruption [1947] , resplendent in good works; and whatever matter thou receivest from God to administer as a steward, administer profitably. Hast thou been put in trust with riches? Dispense them well. Hast thou been entrusted with the word of teaching? Be a good steward thereof. Canst thou attach the souls of the hearers [1948] ? Do this diligently. There are many doors of good stewardship. Only let none of us be condemned and cast out; that we may with boldness meet Christ the Everlasting King, who reigns for ever. For He doth reign for ever, who shall be judge of quick and dead, because for quick and dead He died. And as Paul says, For to this end Christ both died and lived again, that He might be Lord both of the dead and living [1949] .

27. And shouldest thou ever hear any say that the kingdom of Christ shall have an end, abhor the heresy; it is another head of the dragon, lately sprung up in . A certain one has dared to affirm, that after the end of the world Christ shall reign no longer [1950] ; he has also dared to say, that the Word having come forth from the Father shall be again absorbed into the Father, and shall be no more [1951] ; uttering such blasphemies to his own perdition. For he has not listened to the Lord, saying, The Son abideth for ever [1952] . He has not listened to Gabriel, saying, And He shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever, and of His kingdom there shall be no end [1953] . Consider this text. Heretics of this day teach in disparagement of Christ, while Gabriel the Archangel taught the eternal abiding of the Saviour; whom then wilt thou rather believe? wilt thou not rather give credence to Gabriel? Listen to the testimony of Daniel in the text [1954] ; I saw in a vision of the night, and behold, one like the Son of Man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days.....And to Him was given the honour, and the dominion, and the kingdom: and all peoples, tribes, and languages shall serve Him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom shall not be destroyed [1955] . These things rather hold fast, these things believe, and cast away from thee the words of heresy; for thou hast heard most plainly of the endless kingdom of Christ.

28. The like doctrine thou has also in the interpretation of the Stone, which was cut out of a mountain without hands, which is Christ according to the flesh [1956] ; And His kingdom shall not be left to another people. David also says in one place, Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever [1957] ; and in another place, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundations of the earth, &c., they shall perish, but Thou remainest, &c.; but Thou art the same, and Thy years shall not fail [1958] : words which Paul has interpreted of the Son [1959] .

29. And wouldest thou know how they who teach the contrary ran into such madness? They read wrongly that good word of the Apostle, For He must reign, till He hath put all enemies under His feet [1960] ; and they say, when His enemies shall have been put under His feet, He shall cease to reign, wrongly and foolishly alleging this. For He who is king before He has subdued His enemies, how shall He not the rather be king, after He has gotten the mastery over them.

30. They have also dared to say that the Scripture, When all things shall be subjected unto Him, then shall the Son also Himself be subjected unto Him that subjected all things unto Him [1961] ,--that this Scripture shews that the Son also shall be absorbed into the Father. Shall ye then, O most impious of all men, ye the creatures of Christ, continue? and shall Christ perish, by whom both you and all things were made? Such a word is blasphemous. But further, how shall all things be made subject unto Him? By perishing, or by abiding? Shall then the other things, when subject to the Son abide, and shall the Son, when subject to the Father, not abide? For He shall be subjected, not because He shall then begin to do the Father's will (for from eternity He doth always those things that please Him [1962] ), but because, then as before, He obeys the Father, yielding, not a forced obedience, but a self-chosen accordance; for He is not a servant, that He should be subjected by force, but a Son, that He should comply of His free choice and natural love.

31. But let us examine them; what is the meaning of "until" or "as long as?" For with the very phrase will I close with them, and try to overthrow their error. Since they have dared to say that the words, till He hath put His enemies under His feet, shew that He Himself shall have an end, and have presumed to set bounds to the eternal kingdom of Christ, and to bring to an end, as far as words go, His never-ending sovereignty, come then, let us read the like expressions in the Apostle: Nevertheless, death reigned from Adam till Moses [1963] . Did men then die up to that time, and did none die any more after Moses, or after the Law has there been no more death among men? Well then, thou seest that the word "unto" is not to limit time; but that Paul rather signified this,--"And yet, though Moses was a righteous and wonderful man, nevertheless the doom of death, which was uttered against Adam, reached even unto him, and them that came after him; and this, though they had not committed the like sins as Adam, by his disobedience in eating of the tree."

32. Take again another similar text. For until this day...when Moses is read, a vail lieth upon their heart [1964] . Does until this day mean only "until Paul?" Is it not until this day present, and even to the end? And if Paul say to the Corinthians, For we came even as far as unto you in preaching the Gospel of Christ, having hope when your faith increases to preach the Gospel in the regions beyond you [1965] , thou seest manifestly that as far as implies not the end, but has something following it. In what sense then shouldest thou remember that Scripture, till He hath put all enemies under His feet [1966] ? According as Paul says in another place, And exhort each other daily, while it is called to-day [1967] ; meaning, "continually." For as we may not speak of the "beginning of the days" of Christ, so neither suffer thou that any should ever speak of the end of His kingdom. For it is written, His kingdom is an everlasting kingdom [1968] .

33. And though I have many more testimonies out of the divine Scriptures, concerning the kingdom of Christ which has no end for ever, I will be content at present with those above mentioned, because the day is far spent. But thou, O hearer, worship only Him as thy King, and flee all heretical error. And if the grace of God permit us, the remaining Articles also of the Faith shall be in good time declared to you. And may the God of the whole world keep you all in safety, bearing in mind the signs of the end, and remaining unsubdued by Antichrist. Thou hast received the tokens of the Deceiver who is to come; thou hast received the proofs of the true Christ, who shall openly come down from heaven. Flee therefore the one, the False one; and look for the other, the True. Thou hast learnt the way, how in the judgment thou mayest be found among those on the right hand; guard that which is committed to thee [1969] concerning Christ, and be conspicuous in good works, that thou mayest stand with a good confidence before the Judge, and inherit the kingdom of heaven:--Through whom, and with whom, be glory to God with the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever. Amen.


[1811] Ps. lxxii. 6. See xii. 9; and § 10, below. [1812] Ps. civ. 2. [1813] Heb. xii. 2. [1814] Cyril's contrast of the two Advents seems to be partly borrowed from Justin M. (Apol. i. 52; Tryph. 110). See also Tertullian (Adv. Judæos, c. 14); Hippolytus (De Antichristo, 44). [1815] Matt. xxi. 9; xxiii. 39. [1816] Ib. xxvi. 63. [1817] Ps. l. 21. [1818] Mal. iii. 1-3. [1819] The Benedictine Editor by omitting legei, obtains the sense, He cometh, even the Lord Almighty. But legei is supported by the mss. of Cyril, as well as by the Septuagint and Hebrew. [1820] Mal. iii. 5. [1821] 1 Cor. iii. 12. [1822] Titus ii. 11. The Benedictine Editor adopts tou Soteros instead of he soterios against the authority of the best mss. of Cyril. [1823] nun paredothe. Cyril means that at the beginning of this present Lecture he had delivered to the Catechumens those articles of the Creed which he was going to explain. Compare Cat. xviii. 21, where we see that Cyril first announces (epangello) the words which the learners repeat after him (apangello). The clause, Whose Kingdom shall have no end, was not contained in the original form of the Creed of Nicæa, a.d. 325, but its substance is found in many earlier writings. Compare Justin M. (Tryph. § 46: kai autou estin he aionios basileia); Const. Apost. vii. 41; the Eusebian Confessions 1st and 4th Antioch, and the Macrostich, a.d. 341, 342, 344. Bp. Bull asserts that the Creed of Jerusalem, containing this clause, was no other than the ancient Eastern Creed, first directed against the Gnostics of the Sub-Apostolic age (Judicium Eccl. Cathol. vi. 16). [1824] The Benedictine Editor suggests that Cyril "is refuting those who said that the Universe was to perish utterly, an opinion which seems to be somehow imputed to Origen by Methodius, or Proclus, in Epiphanius (Hæres. lxiv. 31, 32)." On Origen's much controverted opinions concerning the beginning and end of the world, see Huet. Origeniana, II. 4-6: and Bp. Westcott, Dictionary of Christian Biography, "Origen," pp. 137, 138. [1825] Hos. iv. 2. [1826] Is. xxxiv. 4. [1827] Matt. xxiv. 29. [1828] Ps. cii. 25, 26; Heb. i. 10-12. [1829] Is. lvii. 1. [1830] Joel ii. 31. [1831] Cat. vi. 13; xi. 21. [1832] Matt. xxiv. 35. [1833] Acts i. 7. [1834] Matt. xxiv. 42, 44; Ib. v. 3. [1835] Ib. vv. 3 and 4. [1836] Cat. vi. 14, 16. [1837] Matt. xxiv. 6. The war with Sapor II., King of Persia, which broke out immediately on the death of Constantine, and continued throughout the reign of Constantius, was raging fiercely at the date of these Lectures, the great battle of Singara being fought in the year 348 a.d. [1838] Luke xxi. 11. Jerome in the Chronicon mentions a great earthquake in 346 a.d., by which Dyrrachium was destroyed, and Rome and other cities of Italy greatly injured (Ben. Ed.). Cyril substitutes cheimones for semeia, the better reading in Luke xxi. 11. [1839] Matt. xxiv. 42. [1840] hekklesiastikos, when applied to persons, means either, as here, an orthodox member of the Church in contrast to a heretic, pagan, or Jew (Origen, in Job xx. 6), or more particularly a Cleric as opposed to a layman (Cat. xvii. 10). [1841] Matt. xxiv. 10. [1842] "S. Cyril here describes the state of the Church, when orthodoxy was for a while trodden under foot, its maintainers persecuted, and the varieties of Arianism, which took its place, were quarreling for the ascendancy. Gibbon quotes two passages, one from a pagan historian of the day, another from a Father of the Church, which fully bear out S. Cyril's words. What made the state of things still more deplorable, was the defection of some of the orthodox party, as Marcellus, into opposite errors: while the subsequent secessions of Apollinaris and Lucifer show what lurking disorders there were within it at the time when S. Cyril wrote. (Vid. infr. 9.) The passages referred to are as follows: `The Christian Religion,' says Ammianus, `in itself plain and simple, he (Constantius) confounded by the dotage of superstition. Instead of reconciling the parties by the weight of his authority, he cherished and propagated, by vain disputes, the differences which his vain curiosity had excited. The highways were covered with troops of Bishops, galloping from every side to the assemblies, which they called synods; and while they laboured to reduce the whole sect to their own particular opinions, the public establishment of the posts was almost ruined by their hasty and repeated journeys.' Hist. xxi. 16. S. Hilary of Poictiers thus speaks of Asia Minor, the chief seat of the Arian troubles: `It is a thing equally deplorable and dangerous, that there are as many creeds as opinions among men, as many doctrines as inclinations, and as many sources of blasphemy as there are faults among us; because we make creeds arbitrarily, and explain them as arbitrarily. The Homoousion is rejected and received and explained away by successive synods. The partial or total resemblance of the Father and of the Son is a subject of dispute for these unhappy divines. Every year, nay, every moon, we make new creeds to describe invisible mysteries. We repent of what we have done, we defend those who repent, we anathematize those whom we defended. We condemn either the doctrine of others in ourselves, or our own in that of others; and reciprocally tearing one another to pieces, we have been the cause of each other's ruin,' ad Constant. ii. 4, 5. Gibbon's translations are used, which, though diffuse, are faithful in their matter. What a contrast do these descriptions present to Athanasius' uniform declaration, that the whole question was really settled at Nicæa, and no other synod or debate was necessary!"--(R.W.C.). Compare, for example, the account of the seditions in Antioch and in Constantinople, in Socrates, Eccles. Hist. i. 24; i., 12-14, and Athanas. Hist. Arianorum, passim. [1843] Matt. xxiv. 12. [1844] Matt. xxiv. 14. [1845] Ib. v. 15. [1846] Ib. v. 23. [1847] 2 Thess. ii. 3-10. [1848] The prediction was supposed by earlier Fathers to refer to a personal Antichrist whom they expected to come speedily. See Justin M. (Tryph. § 110: ho tes apostasias anthropos; ib. § 32: "He who is to speak blasphemous and daring things against the Most High is already at the doors." Iren. Hær. V. 25. Cyril in this passage regards the heresies of his time as the apostasy in general, but looks also for a personal Antichrist: (§§ 11, 12). [1849] huiopatoria . On this contemptuous name for Sabellianism, see Cat. iv. 8; xi. 16. The Third (Eusebian) Confession, or Third of Antioch, a.d. 341, anathematizes any who hold the doctrines of Marcellus of Ancyra or Sabellius, or Paul of Samosata (Athan. de Synodis, § 24 note 10, p. 462, in this Series, and Mr. Robertson's Prolegomena, p. xliv.). In the Ecthesis, or Statement of Faith, § 2, Athanasius writes: "Neither do we hold a Son-Father, as do the Sabellians, calling Him of one but (a sole and?) not the same essence, and thus destroying the existence of the Son." As to Marcellus, see Athanasius, Hist. Arian. § 6 (p. 271), and the letter of Julius in the Apologia c. Arian. § 32 (p. 116): also notes 3, 4 on § 27 below. [1850] See Athanasius, De Synod. § 15: "Arius and those with him thought and professed thus: `God made the Son out of nothing, and called Him His Son:'" and Expos. Fidei, § 2: "We do not regard as a creature, or thing made, or as made out of nothing, God the Creator of all, the Son of God, the true Being from the true Being, the Alone from the Alone, inasmuch as the like glory and power was eternally and conjointly begotten of the Father." The 4th (Eusebian) Confession, or 4th of Antioch, a.d. 342, ends thus: "Those who say that the Son was from nothing,....the Catholic Church regards as aliens." [1851] Athan. Adversus Arianos, Or. i. 1: "One heresy and that the last which has now risen as forerunner of Antichrist, the Arian as it is called, considering that other heresies, her elder sisters, have been openly proscribed, in her craft and cunning affects to array herself in Scripture language, like her father the devil, and is forcing her way back into the Church's paradise, &c." The supposed date of this Oration is 8 or 10 years later than that of Cyril's Lectures. [1852] 2 Tim. iv. 3. [1853] A reading supported by the best mss. and approved by the Benedictine Editor gives a different sense, "and rather choose to seem than resolve to be," inverting the proverb "esse quam videri." [1854] In the passage quoted above in note 5 the Arian heresy is called a "forerunner" (prodromos) of Antichrist. [1855] phantasiokopon, a rare word, rendered "frantic" in Ecclus. iv. 30: its more precise meaning seems to be "making a false show," which is here applied to a false Christ, and again in § 14 to the father of lies who makes a vain show of false miracles. [1856] Matt. xxiv. 23. [1857] Ps. lxxii. 6. Cf. § 1, note 1. [1858] Matt. xxiv. 27. [1859] Matt. xxiv. v. 30. [1860] en eidololatreia may mean either "in idol-worship," or "among idolaters," the abstract being used for the concrete, as in Rom. iii. 30: dikaiosei peritomen. [1861] ephodion, "provision for a journey," is here equivalent in meaning to aphorme, "a starting point," or "favourable occasion." [1862] Antichrist is described by Hippolytus (De Christo et Antichristo, § 57, as "a son of the devil, and a vessel of Satan," who will rule and govern "after the manner of the law of Augustus, by whom the Roman empire was established, sanctioning everything thereby." Cf. Iren. Hær. V. 30, § 3; Dictionary of Christian Biography, Antichrist: "The sharp precision with which St. Paul had pointed to `the man of sin,' `the lawless one,' `the adversary,' `the son of perdition,' led men to dwell on that thought rather than on the many pseudochristoi of whom Christ Himself had spoken." [1863] ton 'Eleimuenon, Aquila's rendering of X+J+ShM+, adopted by the Jews in preference to ton Christon, from hatred of the name Christ or Christian. Hippolytus, ubi supra, § 6: "The Saviour came into the world in the Circumcision, and he (Antichrist) will come in the same manner:" ib. § 14: "As Christ springs from the tribe of Judah, so Antichrist is to spring from the tribe of Dan." This expectation was grounded by Hippolytus on Gen. xlix. 17. [1864] The fourth kingdom in the prophecy of Daniel (vii. 7, 23) was generally understood by early Christian writers to be the Roman Empire; and its dissolution was to be speedily followed by the end of the world. See § 13 below; Irenæus, V. 26; and Hippolytus, ubi supra, §§ 19, 28. [1865] Dan. vii. 24: and he shall put down three kings (R.V.). [1866] The Jerusalem Editor quotes as from Hippolytus a similar description of Antichrist (§ 23): "In his first steps he will be gentle, loveable, quiet, pious, pacific, hating injustice, detesting gifts, not allowing idolatry, &c." But the treatise is a forgery of unknown date, apparently much later than Cyril. [1867] Iren. V. 28, § 2: "Since the demons and apostate spirits are at his service, he through their means performs wonders, by which he leads the inhabitants of the earth astray." [1868] Iren. V. 25, § 4: "He shall remove his kingdom into that city (Jerusalem), and shall sit in the Temple of God, leading astray those who worship him as if he were Christ." According to the genuine treatise of Hippolytus Antichrist was to restore the kingdom of the Jews (De Antichristo, § 25), to collect the Jews out of every country of the Dispersion, making them his own, as though they were his own children, and promising to restore their country, and establish again their kingdom and nation, in order that he may be worshipped by them as God (§ 54), and he will lead them on to persecute the saints, i.e. the Christians (§ 56). Compare the elaborate description of Antichrist and his cruelty in Lactantius, Div. Inst. vii. 17; Epit. § 71. [1869] 2 Thess ii. 8. Cf. Iren. V. 25, § 3: Hippol. § 64. [1870] ekklesiazomenon. Cf. Cat. iv. 35, 36, where Cyril distinguishes the Scriptures has kai en 'Ekklesia meta parresias anaginoskomen from hosa en 'Ekklesiais me anaginosketai. [1871] Dan. vii. 23: (R.V.) shall be diverse from all the kingdoms. [1872] Irenæus (V. 26) identifies the fourth kingdom with "the empire which now rules." Hippolytus, de Antichristo, § 25: "A fourth beast dreadful and terrible: it had iron teeth and claws of brass. And who are these but the Romans?" [1873] Dan. vii. 24. [1874] Dan. v. 25. Dean Church compares Rev. xvii. 11: And the beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition. See also Iren. V. 26, § 1. [1875] 2 Thess. ii. 9. Lactantius (a.d. 300 circ.), Div. Inst. vii. 17: "that king....will also be a prophet of lies; and he will constitute and call himself God, and will order himself to be worshipped as the Son of God; and power will be given him to do signs and wonders, by the sight of which he may entice men to adore him." Cf. Epitome, lxxi. [1876] "Vid. Iren. Hær V. 26, 2" (R.W.C.). The passage is quoted by Eusebius (Eccl. Hist. iv. 18), from a lost work of Justin M. Against Marcion: "Justin well said that before the coming of the Lord Satan never dared to blaspheme God, as not yet knowing his own condemnation, because it was started by the prophets in parables and allegories. But after our Lord's advent having learnt plainly from His words and those of the Apostles that everlasting fire is prepared for him,....he by means of such men as these blasphemes the Lord who brings the judgment upon him, as being already condemned." S. Cyril seems to expect that Antichrist will be an incarnation of Satan, as did Hippolytus (de Antichr. § 6): "The Saviour appeared in the form of man, and he too will come in the form of a man." [1877] phantasiokopei. See above, § 10, note 9, and the equivalent phrase in § 17: semeion kai teraton phantasias edeiknuon. [1878] 2 Thess. ii. 4. [1879] See § 12, notes 3, 4, and Hippolytus, ubi supra: "The Saviour raised up and shewed His holy flesh like a temple; and he will raise a temple of stone in Jerusalem." "Cyril wrote this before Julian's attempt to rebuild the Jewish Temple" (R.W.C.). [1880] Matt. xxiv. 2. Cyril refers the whole prophecy to the time of Christ's second coming at the end of the world, not regarding the destruction of Jerusalem and its Temple by Titus as fulfilling any part of the prediction. [1881] Dan. vii. 21. Here again Cyril follows Hippolytus, § 25: "And under this (horn) was signified none other than Antichrist. [1882] Ib. xii. 1. [1883] Matt. xxiv. 16. [1884] Rom. viii. 35. [1885] Matt. xxiv. 21. [1886] Ib. v. 22. [1887] Dan. vii. 25. By "apocryphal" books Cyril probably means all such as were not allowed to be read in the public service of the Church: see Cat. iv. 33, note 3; and Bp. Westcott's note on the various meanings of the word apokruphos, Hist. of the Canon, P. III. c. 1. That the Apocalypse of St. John is included under this term by Cyril, appears probable from the following reasons suggested by the Benedictine Editor. (1) It is not mentioned in the list of the Canonical Scriptures in iv. 36. (2) The earlier writers whom Cyril follows in this Lecture, Irenæus, Hær. V., 26, § 1, and Hippolytus, De Antichristo, § 34, combine the testimony of the Apocalypse with that of Daniel. The omission in Cyril therefore cannot have been accidental. [1888] Dan. xii. 7. [1889] Ib. v. 11. [1890] Ib. v. 12. [1891] Matt. x. 23. [1892] autoprosopos . See above, § 14, note 2. Some mss. read antiprosopos, "face to face," as in xii. 32, antiprosopos. [1893] See above, § 14, note 3. [1894] Matt. xxiv. 24. [1895] 2 Thess. ii. 11, 12: (R.V.) That they all might be judged. Cyril has katakrithosi [1896] Dan. xii. 1, 2: (R.V.) they that turn many to righteousness. Cyril follows the rendering of the Septuagint, apo ton dikaion ton pollon, which gives no proper construction. [1897] Compare 1 Cor. iv. 15: I begat you through the gospel. Clem. Alex. Strom. iii. c. 15: to dia tes alethous katecheseos gennesanti keitai tis misthos. [1898] 2 Thess. ii. 7. [1899] See above, §§ 6, 7. [1900] 1 Thes. iv. 16. [1901] Ib. vv. 16, 17. [1902] Eccles. xi. 9. The Preacher's description of old age and death is interpreted by Cyril of the end of the world, as it had been a century before by Gregory Thaumaturgus, in his paraphrase of the book. [1903] Ib. v. 10: (R.V.) sorrow. Marg. Or, vexation, Or, provocation. [1904] Ib. xii. 1. [1905] Ib. v. 2. [1906] Ib. v. 3. [1907] Ib. v. 6. According to the usual interpretation death is here represented by the breaking of a chain and the lamp which hangs from it. Cf. Delitzsch, and Speaker's Commentary, in loc. for other interpretations. to anthemion tou chrusiou (Sept.), by which Cyril understood camomile (anthemis), more probably meant a pattern of flowers embossed on the vessel of gold: vid. Xenoph. Anab. V. 4, § 32: estigmenous anthemia, "damasked with flowers." [1908] Eccles. xii. 5. Cyril means rightly that the aged shrink from a giddy height, and from imaginary dangers of the road. For the voice of the sparrow, see below, § 21, note 4. [1909] Matt. xxiv. 30; Zech. xii. 12. [1910] Eccles. xii. 5. [1911] "Dr. Thomson (The Land and the Book, p. 319) says of the almond tree, "It is the type of old age, whose hair is white" (Speaker's Commentary). [1912] The step, once as active as a grasshopper, or locust, shall grow heavy and slow. For other interpretations see Delitzsch. [1913] The caper-berry (kapparis) shall fail, i.e. no longer stimulate appetite. But diaschedasthesetai (Sept. Cyril) means that the old man shall be like a caper-berry which when fully ripe bursts it husks and scatters its seeds: so R.V. (Margin); The caper-berry shall burst. Greg. Thaumat. Metaphr. Eccles. "The transgressors are cast out of the way, like a black and despicable caper-plant." [1914] 1 Thes. ii. 16. [1915] Compare the spurious Apocalypse of John: "And at the voice of the bird every plant shall arise; that is, At the voice of the Archangel all the human race shall arise" (English Trs. Ante-Nic. Libr. p. 496). According to the Talmud the meaning is, "Even a bird awakes him" (Delitzsch). [1916] Ps. l. 3. [1917] Dan. vii. 13, 10. [1918] 1 Cor. iii. 12, 13. On anupostaton, see Index. On dokimastikon, compare The Teaching of the Apostles, § 16: "Then all created mankind shall come to the fire of testing (dokimasias), and many shall be offended and perish." [1919] Dan. vii. 9. [1920] Is. i. 18. [1921] Matt. xxiv. 30. [1922] Ib. [1923] Cat. xiii. 4. In the letter to Constantius, three or four years later than this Lecture, Cyril treats the appearance at that time of a luminous Cross in the sky as a fulfilment of Matt. xxiv. 30: but he there adds (Ep. ad Constantium, § 6) that our Lord's prediction "was both fulfilled at that present time, and shall again be fulfilled more largely." On the opinion that "the sign of the Son of Man in heaven" should be the Cross, see Suicer, Thesaurus, Stauros. It is not improbable that the earliest trace of this interpretation is found in The Teaching of the Apostles, § 16: "Then shall appear the signs of the Truth: the first the sign of a (cross) spreading out (ekpetaseos) in heaven." [1924] Zech. xii. 12. [1925] Cf. Barnab. Epist. c. vii.: "For they shall see Him in that day wearing the long scarlet robes about His flesh, and shall say, Is not this He, whom once we crucified, and set at nought, and spat upon (al. and pierced, and mocked)?" [1926] Matt. xxiv. 31. [1927] Ib. xxv. 34. [1928] Is. xi. 3: (R.V.) He shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, nor reprove after the hearing of his ears. [1929] Phil. ii. 7. [1930] Luke xvii. 34. [1931] Ib. v. 35. [1932] The Jerusalem ms. (A) alone has the true reading pedas, which is confirmed by pepedemenous in the quotation following, instead of paidas, which is quite inappropriate, and evidently an itacism. [1933] Ex. xi. 5. [1934] 'Enkrateia. "Id est viduitas" (Ben. Ed.). This special reference of the word to widowhood is to some extent confirmed by 1 Cor. vii. 9: ei de ouk enkrateuontai, and is rendered highly probable by Cyril's separate mention of marriage and virginity. [1935] Matt. xxv. 31. [1936] Matt. xviii. 12; Luke xv. 4. Ambrose, Expos. in Luc. VII. 210: "Rich is that shepherd of whose flock we are but the one hundredth part. Of Angels and Archangels, of Dominions, Powers, Thrones, and others He hath countless flocks, whom He hath left upon the mountains." Cf. Gregor, Nyss. Contra Eunom. Or. xii. [1937] There is much variation in the reading and punctuation of this passage. I have followed the text adopted by the Jerusalem Editor with Codd. A. Roe. Casaub. and Grodecq, in preference to the Benedictine text, with which the Editor himself is dissatisfied. [1938] Dan. vii. 10. [1939] Rom. ii. 15, 16. [1940] John v. 22. [1941] neumati. Cat. xi. 22. [1942] Matt. xxv. 32. [1943] Phil. ii. 10. [1944] Cant. V. 3. Compare Cat. iii. 7; xx. (Mystag. ii.) 2. [1945] Matt. xxv. 35. [1946] Matt. v. 16. [1947] The prayer for the Catechumens in the Apostolic Constitutions, viii. 6, contains a petition that God would "vouchsafe to them the laver of regeneration, and the garment of incorruption, which is the true life." [1948] prostheinai. Cf. Acts ii. 41: prosetethesan . According to some mss. the sentence would run thus: "Hast thou been entrusted with the word of teaching? Be a good steward of thy hearers' souls. Hast thou power to rule (prostenai)? Do this diligently." [1949] Rom. xiv. 9. [1950] Marcellus, Bishop of Ancyra, and his pupil Photinus, are anathematized in the Creed called Makrostichos as holding that Christ first became "Son of God when He took our flesh from the Virgin....For they will have it that then Christ began His Kingdom, and that it will have an end after the consummation of all and the judgment. Such are the disciples of Marcellus and Scotinus of Galatian Ancyra, &c." See Newman on Athanasius, de Synodis, § 26, (5), notes a and b. Compare the description of Marcellus in the Letter of the Oriental Bishops who had withdrawn from the Council of Sardica to Philippopolis (a.d. 344). "There has arisen in our days a certain Marcellus of Galatia, the most execrable pest of all heretics, who with sacrilegious mind, and impious mouth, and wicked argument seeks to set bounds to the perpetual, eternal, and timeless kingdom of our Lord Christ, saying that He began to reign four hundred years since, and shall end at the dissolution of the present world" (Hilar. Pictav. Ex Opere Hist. Fragm. iii.). [1951] "The person meant by Cyril, though he withholds the name, is Marcellus of Ancyra; who having written a book against the Arian Sophist Asterius to explain the Apostle's statement concerning the subjection of the Son to the Father, was thought to be renewing the heresy of Paul of Samosata. On this account he was reproved by the Bishops at the Council of Jerusalem, a.d. 335, for holding false opinions, and being ordered to recant his opinions promised to burn his book. Afterwards he applied to Constantine, by whom he was remitted to the Council of Constantinople, a.d. 336, and deposed by the Bishops. As however he was acquitted by the Councils of Rome, a.d. 342, and of Sardica, a.d. 347, it became a matter of dispute whether he was really heretical....From the fragments of his books transcribed by Eusebius, you may possibly acquit him of the Sabellian heresy and the confusion of the Father and the Son, but certainly not of the heresy concerning the end of Christ's kingdom, and the abandonment by the Word of the human nature which He assumed for our sake; so express are his words recorded by Eusebius in the beginning of the 2nd Book Contra Marcellum, pp. 50, 51." (Ben. Ed.) Cf. Dict. Chr. Biogr. "Eusebius of Cæsarea," p. 341; and note 3 on § 9 above. [1952] John viii. 25. [1953] Luke i. 33. [1954] ten parousan. [1955] Dan. vii. 13, 14. [1956] Ib. ii. 45; Rom. ix. 5. [1957] Ps. xlv. 6. [1958] Ib. cii. 25-27. [1959] Heb. i. 10-12. [1960] 1 Cor. xv. 25. [1961] 1 Cor. xv. 28. Theodoret Comment. in Epist. i. ad Cor. xv. 28: "This passage the followers of Arius and Eunomius carry continually on their tongue, thinking in this way to disparage the dignity of the Only-begotten." [1962] John viii. 29. [1963] Rom. v. 14. "achri from akros, as mechri from mekos, makros" (L. and Sc.). It is not always possible to mark this distinction in translation: cf. Lobeck, Phrynichus, p. 14; Viger, De Idiot. Gr. p. 419. [1964] 2 Cor. iii. 14, 15. [1965] Ib. x. 14, 15, 16. [1966] 1 Cor. xv. 25. [1967] Heb. iii. 13. [1968] Dan. vii. 14, 27. [1969] 1 Tim. vi. 20.


Lecture XVI.

On the Article, And in One Holy Ghost, the Comforter, Which Spake in the Prophets.

1 Corinthians xii. 1, 4

Now concerning spiritual gifts, brethren, I would not have you ignorant....Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit, &c.

1. Spiritual in truth is the grace we need, in order to discourse concerning the Holy Spirit; not that we may speak what is worthy of Him, for this is impossible, but that by speaking the words of the divine Scriptures, we may run our course without danger. For a truly fearful thing is written in the Gospels, where Christ has plainly said, Whosoever shall speak a word against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in that which is to come [1970] . And there is often fear, lest a man should receive this condemnation, through speaking what he ought not concerning Him, either from ignorance, or from supposed reverence. The Judge of quick and dead, Jesus Christ, declared that he hath no forgiveness; if therefore any man offend, what hope has he?

2. It must therefore belong to Jesus Christ's grace itself to grant both to us to speak without deficiency, and to you to hear with discretion; for discretion is needful not to them only who speak, but also to them that hear, lest they hear one thing, and misconceive another in their mind. Let us then speak concerning the Holy Ghost nothing but what is written; and whatsoever is not written, let us not busy ourselves about it. The Holy Ghost Himself spoke the Scriptures; He has also spoken concerning Himself as much as He pleased, or as much as we could receive. Let us therefore speak those things which He has said; for whatsoever He has not said, we dare not say.

3. There is One Only Holy Ghost, the Comforter; and as there is One God the Father, and no second Father;--and as there is One Only-begotten Son and Word of God, who hath no brother;--so is there One Only Holy Ghost, and no second spirit equal in-honour to Him. Now the Holy Ghost is a Power most mighty, a Being divine and unsearchable; for He is living and intelligent, a sanctifying principle of all things made by God through Christ. He it is who illuminates the souls of the just; He was in the Prophets, He was also in the Apostles in the New Testament. Abhorred be they who dare to separate the operation of the Holy Ghost! There is One God, the Father, Lord of the Old and of the New Testament: and One Lord, Jesus Christ, who was prophesied of in the Old Testament, and came in the New; and One Holy Ghost, who through the Prophets preached of Christ, and when Christ was come, descended, and manifested Him [1971] .

4. Let no one therefore separate the Old from the New Testament [1972] ; let no one say that the Spirit in the former is one, and in the latter another; since thus he offends against the Holy Ghost Himself, who with the Father and the Son together is honoured, and at the time of Holy Baptism is included with them in the Holy Trinity. For the Only-begotten Son of God said plainly to the Apostles, Go ye, and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost [1973] . Our hope is in Father, and Son, and Holy Ghost. We preach not three Gods [1974] ; let the Marcionites be silenced; but with the Holy Ghost through One Son, we preach One God. The Faith is indivisible; the worship inseparable. We neither separate the Holy Trinity, like some; nor do we as Sabellius work confusion. [1975]But we know according to godliness One Father, who sent His Son to be our Saviour; we know One Son, who promised that He would send the Comforter from the Father; we know the Holy Ghost, who spake in the Prophets, and who on the day of Pentecost descended on the Apostles in the form of fiery tongues, here, in Jerusalem, in the Upper Church of the Apostles [1976] ; for in all things the choicest privileges are with us. Here Christ came down from heaven; here the Holy Ghost came down from heaven. And in truth it were most fitting, that as we discourse concerning Christ and Golgotha here in Golgotha, so also we should speak concerning the Holy Ghost in the Upper Church; yet since He who descended there jointly partakes of the glory of Him who was crucified here, we here speak concerning Him also who descended there: for their worship is indivisible.

5. We would now say somewhat concerning the Holy Ghost; not to declare His substance with exactness, for this were impossible; but to speak of the diverse mistakes of some concerning him, lest from ignorance we should fall into them; and to block up the paths of error, that we may journey on the King's one highway. And if we now for caution's sake repeat any statement of the heretics, let it recoil on their heads, and may we be guiltless, both we who speak, and ye who hear.

6. For the heretics, who are most profane in all things, have sharpened their tongue [1977] against the Holy Ghost also, and have dared to utter impious things; as Irenæus the interpreter has written in his injunctions against heresies [1978] . For some of them have dared to say that they were themselves the Holy Ghost;--of whom the first was Simon [1979] , the sorcerer spoken of in the Acts of the Apostles; for when he was cast out, he presumed to teach such doctrines: and they who are called Gnostics, impious men, have spoken other things against the Spirit [1980] , and the wicked Valentinians [1981] again something else; and the profane Manes dared to call himself the Paraclete sent by Christ [1982] . Others again have taught that the Spirit is different in the Prophets and in the New Testament. [1983]Yea, and great is their error, or rather their blasphemy. Such therefore abhor, and flee from them who blaspheme the Holy Ghost, and have no forgiveness. For what fellowship hast thou with the desperate, thou, who art now to be baptized, into the Holy Ghost also [1984] ? If he who attaches himself to a thief, and consenteth with him, is subject to punishment, what hope shall he have, who offends against the Holy Ghost?

7. Let the Marcionists also be abhorred, who tear away from the New Testament the sayings of the Old [1985] . For Marcion first, that most impious of men, who first asserted three Gods [1986] , knowing that in the New Testament are contained testimonies of the Prophets concerning Christ, cut out the testimonies taken from the Old Testament, that the King might be left without witness. Abhor those above-mentioned Gnostics, men of knowledge by name, but fraught with ignorance; who have dared to say such things of the Holy Ghost as I dare not repeat.

8. Let the Cataphrygians [1987] also be thy abhorrence, and Montanus, their ringleader in evil, and his two so-called prophetesses, Maximilla and Priscilla. For this Montanus, who was out of his mind and really mad (for he would not have said such things, had he not been mad), dared to say that he was himself the Holy Ghost,--he, miserable man, and filled with all uncleanness and lasciviousness; for it suffices but to hint at this, out of respect for the women who are present. And having taken possession of Pepuza, a very small hamlet of Phrygia, he falsely named it Jerusalem; and cutting the throats of wretched little children, and chopping them up into unholy food, for the purpose of their so-called mysteries [1988] ,--(wherefore till but lately in the time of persecution we were suspected of doing this, because these Montanists were called, falsely indeed, by the common name of Christians;)--yet he dared to call himself the Holy Ghost, filled as he was with all impiety and inhuman cruelty, and condemned by an irrevocable sentence.

9. And he was seconded, as was said before, by that most impious Manes also, who combined what was bad in every heresy [1989] ; who being the very lowest pit of destruction, collected the doctrines of all the heretics, and wrought out and taught a yet more novel error, and dared to say that he himself was the Comforter, whom Christ promised to send. But the Saviour when He promised Him, said to the Apostles, But tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high [1990] . What then? did the Apostles who had been dead two hundred years, wait for Manes, until they should be endued with the power; and will any dare to say, that they were not forthwith full of the Holy Ghost? Moreover it is written, Then they laid their hands on and they received the Holy Ghost [1991] ; was not this before Manes, yea, many years before, when the Holy Ghost descended on the day of Pentecost?

10. Wherefore was Simon the sorcerer condemned? Was it not that he came to the Apostles, and said, Give me also this power, that on whomsoever I lay hands, he may receive the Holy Ghost? For he said not, "Give me also the fellowship of the Holy Ghost," but "Give me the power;" that he might sell to others that which could not be sold, and which he did not himself possess. He offered money also to them who had no possessions [1992] ; and this, though he saw men bringing the prices of the things sold, and laying them at the Apostles' feet. And he considered not that they who trod under foot the wealth which was brought for the maintenance of the poor, were not likely to give the power of the Holy Ghost for a bribe. But what say they to Simon? Thy money perish with thee, because thou hast thought to purchase the gift of God with money [1993] ; for thou art a second Judas, for expecting to buy the grace of the Spirit with money. If then Simon, for wishing to get this power for a price, is to perish, how great is the impiety of Manes, who said that he was the Holy Ghost? Let us hate them who are worthy of hatred; let us turn away from them from whom God turns away; let us also ourselves say unto God with all boldness concerning all heretics, Do not I hate them, O Lord, that hate Thee, and am not I grieved with Thine enemies [1994] ? For there is also an enmity which is right, according as it is written, I will put enmity between thee and her seed [1995] ; for friendship with the serpent works enmity with God, and death.

11. Let then thus much suffice concerning those outcasts; and now let us return to the divine Scriptures, and let us drink waters out of our own cisterns [that is, the holy Fathers [1996] ], and out of our own springing wells [1997] . Drink we of living water, springing up into everlasting life [1998] ; but this spake the Saviour of the Spirit, which they that believe on Him should receive [1999] . For observe what He says, He that believeth on Me (not simply this, but), as the Scripture hath said (thus He hath sent thee back to the Old Testament), out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water, not rivers perceived by sense, and merely watering the earth with its thorns and trees, but bringing souls to the light. And in another place He says, But the water that I shall give him, shall be in him a well of living water springing up into everlasting life,--a new kind of water living and springing up, springing up unto them who are worthy.

12. And why did He call the grace of the Spirit water? Because by water all things subsist; because water brings forth grass and living things; because the water of the showers comes down from heaven; because it comes down one in form, but works in many forms. For one fountain watereth the whole of Paradise, and one and the same rain comes down upon all the world, yet it becomes white in the lily, and red in the rose, and purple in violets and hyacinths, and different and varied in each several kind: so it is one in the palm-tree, and another in the vine, and all in all things; and yet is one in nature, not diverse from itself; for the rain does not change itself, and come down first as one thing, then as another, but adapting itself to the constitution of each thing which receives it, it becomes to each what is suitable [2000] . Thus also the Holy Ghost, being one, and of one nature, and indivisible, divides to each His grace, according as He will [2001] : and as the dry tree, after partaking of water, puts forth shoots, so also the soul in sin, when it has been through repentance made worthy of the Holy Ghost, brings forth clusters of righteousness. And though He is One in nature, yet many are the virtues which by the will of God and in the Name of Christ He works. For He employs the tongue of one man for wisdom; the soul of another He enlightens by Prophecy; to another He gives power to drive away devils; to another He gives to interpret the divine Scriptures. He strengthens one man's self-command; He teaches another the way to give alms; another He teaches to fast and discipline himself; another He teaches to despise the things of the body; another He trains for martyrdom: diverse in different men, yet not diverse from Himself, as it is written, But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal. For to one is given through the Spirit the word of wisdom; and to another the word of knowledge according to the same Spirit; to another faith, in the same Spirit; and to another gifts of healing, in the same Spirit; and to another workings of miracles; and to another prophecy; and to another discernings of spirits; and to another divers kinds of tongues; and to another the interpretation of tongues: but all these worketh that one and the same Spirit, dividing to every man severally as He will [2002] .

13. But since concerning spirit in general many diverse things are written in the divine Scriptures, and there is fear lest some out of ignorance fall into confusion, not knowing to what sort of spirit the writing refers; it will be well now to certify you, of what kind the Scripture declares the Holy Spirit to be. For as Aaron is called Christ, and David and Saul and others are called Christs [2003] , but there is only one true Christ, so likewise since the name of spirit is given to different things, it is right to see what is that which is distinctively called the Holy Spirit. For many things are called spirits. Thus an Angel is called spirit, our soul is called spirit, and this wind which is blowing is called spirit; great virtue also is spoken of as spirit; and impure practice is called spirit; and a devil our adversary is called spirit. Beware therefore when thou hearest these things, lest from their having a common name thou mistake one for another. For concerning our soul the Scripture says, His spirit shall go forth, and he shall return to his earth [2004] : and of the same soul it says again, Which formeth the spirit of man within him [2005] . And of the Angels it is said in the Psalms, Who maketh His Angels spirits, and His ministers a flame of fire [2006] . And of the wind it saith, Thou shalt break the ships of Tarshish with a violent spirit [2007] ; and, As the tree in the wood is shaken by the spirit [2008] ; and, Fire, hail, snow, ice, spirit of storm [2009] . And of good doctrine the Lord Himself says, The words that I have spoken unto you, they are spirit [2010] , and they are life; instead of, "are spiritual." But the Holy Spirit is not pronounced by the tongue; but He is a Living Spirit, who gives wisdom of speech, Himself speaking and discoursing.

14. And wouldest thou know that He discourses and speaks? Philip by revelation of an Angel went down to the way which leads to Gaza, when the Eunuch was coming; and the Spirit said to Philip, Go near, and join thyself to this chariot [2011] . Seest thou the Spirit talking to one who hears Him? Ezekiel also speaks thus, The Spirit of the Lord came upon me, and said unto me, Thus saith the Lord [2012] . And again, The Holy Ghost said [2013] , unto the Apostles who were in Antioch, Separate me now Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them. Beholdest thou the Spirit living, separating, calling, and with authority sending forth? Paul also said, Save that the Holy Ghost witnesseth in every city, saying that bonds and afflictions await me [2014] . For this good Sanctifier of the Church, and her Helper, and Teacher, the Holy Ghost, the Comforter, of whom the Saviour said, He shall teach you all things (and He said not only, He shall teach, but also, He shall bring to your remembrance whatever I have said unto you [2015] ; for the teachings of Christ and of the Holy Ghost are not different, but the same)--He, I say, testified before to Paul what things should befall him, that he might be the more stout-hearted, from knowing them beforehand. Now I have spoken these things unto you because of the text, The words which I have spoken unto you, they are spirit; that thou mayest understand this, not of the utterance of the lips [2016] , but of the good doctrine in this passage.

15. But sin also is called spirit, as I have already said; only in another and opposite sense, as when it is said, The spirit of whoredom caused them to err [2017] . The name "spirit" is given also to the unclean spirit, the devil; but with the addition of, "the unclean;" for to each is joined its distinguishing name, to mark its proper nature. If the Scripture speak of the soul of man, it says the spirit with the addition, of the man; if it mean the wind, it says, spirit of storm; if sin, it says, spirit of whoredom; if the devil, it says, an unclean spirit: that we may know which particular thing is spoken of, and thou mayest not suppose that it means the Holy Ghost; God forbid! For this name of spirit is common to many things; and every thing which has not a solid body is in a general way called spirit [2018] . Since, therefore, the devils have not such bodies, they are called spirits: but there is a great difference; for the unclean devil, when he comes upon a man's soul (may the Lord deliver from him every soul of those who hear me, and of those who are not present), he comes like a wolf upon a sheep, ravening for blood, and ready to devour. His coming is most fierce; the sense of it most oppressive; the mind becomes darkened; his attack is an injustice also, and so is his usurpation of another's possession. For he makes forcible use of another's body, and another's instruments, as if they were his own; he throws down him who stands upright (for he is akin to him who fell from heaven [2019] ); he twists the tongue and distorts the lips; foam comes instead of words; the man is filled with darkness; his eye is open, yet the soul sees not through it; and the miserable man gasps convulsively at the point of death. The devils are verily foes of men, using them foully and mercilessly.

16. Such is not the Holy Ghost; God forbid! For His doings tend the contrary way, towards what is good and salutary. First, His coming is gentle; the perception of Him is fragrant; His burden most light; beams of light and knowledge gleam forth before His coming [2020] . He comes with the bowels of a true guardian: for He comes to save, and to heal, to teach, to admonish, to strengthen, to exhort, to enlighten the mind, first of him who receives Him, and afterwards of others also, through him. And as a man, who being previously in darkness then suddenly beholds the sun, is enlightened in his bodily sight, and sees plainly things which he saw not, so likewise he to whom the Holy Ghost is vouchsafed, is enlightened in his soul, and sees things beyond man's sight, which he knew not; his body is on earth, yet his soul mirrors forth the heavens. He sees, like Esaias, the Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up [2021] ; he sees, like Ezekiel, Him who is above the Cherubim [2022] ; he sees like Daniel, ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands [2023] ; and the man, who is so little, beholds the beginning of the world, and knows the end of the world, and the times intervening, and the successions of kings,--things which he never learned: for the True Enlightener is present with him. The man is within the walls of a house; yet the power of his knowledge reaches far and wide, and he sees even what other men are doing.

17. Peter was not with Ananias and Sapphira when they sold their possessions, but he was present by the Spirit; Why, he says, hath Satan filled thine heart to lie to the Holy Ghost [2024] ? There was no accuser; there was no witness; whence knew he what had happened? Whiles it remained was it not thine own? and after it was sold, was it not in thine own power? why hast thou conceived this thing in thine heart [2025] ? The unlettered [2026] Peter, through the grace of the Spirit, learnt what not even the wise men of the Greeks had known. Thou hast the like in the case also of Elisseus. For when he had freely healed the leprosy of Naaman, Gehazi received the reward, the reward of another's achievement; and he took the money from Naaman, and bestowed it in a dark place. But the darkness is not hidden from the Saints [2027] . And when he came, Elisseus asked him; and like Peter, when he said, Tell me whether ye sold the land for so much [2028] ? he also enquires, Whence comest thou, Gehazi [2029] ? Not in ignorance, but in sorrow ask I whence comest thou? From darkness art thou come, and to darkness shalt thou go; thou hast sold the cure of the leper, and the leprosy is thy heritage. I, he says, have fulfilled the bidding of Him who said to me, Freely ye have received, freely give [2030] ; but thou hast sold this grace; receive now the condition of the sale. But what says Elisseus to him? Went not mine heart with thee? I was here shut in by the body, but the spirit which has been given me of God saw even the things afar off, and shewed me plainly what was doing elsewhere. Seest thou how the Holy Ghost not only rids of ignorance, but invests with knowledge? Seest thou how He enlightens men's souls?

18. Esaias lived nearly a thousand years ago; and he beheld Zion as a booth. The city was still standing, and beautified with public places, and robed in majesty; yet he says, Zion shall be ploughed as a field [2031] , foretelling what is now fulfilled in our days [2032] . And observe the exactness of the prophecy; for he said, And the daughter of Zion shall be left as a booth in a vineyard, as a lodge in a garden of cucumbers [2033] . And now the place is filled with gardens of cucumbers. Seest thou how the Holy Spirit enlightens the saints? Be not therefore carried away to other things, by the force of a common term, but keep fast the exact meaning.

19. And if ever, while thou hast been sitting here, a thought concerning chastity or virginity has come into thy mind, it has been His teaching. Has not often a maiden, already at the bridal threshold [2034] , fled away, He teaching her the doctrine of virginity? Has not often a man distinguished at court [2035] , scorned wealth and rank, under the teaching of the Holy Ghost? Has not often a young man, at the sight of beauty, closed his eyes, and fled from the sight, and escaped the defilement? Askest thou whence this has come to pass? The Holy Ghost taught the soul of the young man. Many ways of covetousness are there in the world; yet Christians refuse possessions: wherefore? because of the teaching of the Holy Ghost. Worthy of honour is in truth that Spirit, holy and good; and fittingly are we baptized into Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. A man, still clothed with a body, wrestles with many fiercest demons; and often the demon, whom many men could not master with iron bands, has been mastered by the man himself with words of prayer, through the power which is in him of the Holy Ghost; and the mere breathing of the Exorcist [2036] becomes as fire to that unseen foe. A mighty ally and protector, therefore, have we from God; a great Teacher of the Church, a mighty Champion on our behalf. Let us not be afraid of the demons, nor of the devil; for mightier is He who fighteth for us. Only let us open to Him our doors; for He goeth about seeking such as are worthy [2037] and searching on whom He may confer His gifts.

20. And He is called the Comforter, because He comforts and encourages us, and helpeth our infirmities; for we know not what we should pray for as we ought; but the Spirit Himself maketh intercession for us, with groanings which cannot be uttered [2038] , that is, makes intercession to God. Oftentimes a man for Christ's sake has been outraged and dishonoured unjustly; martyrdom is at hand; tortures on every side, and fire, and sword, and savage beasts, and the pit. But the Holy Ghost softly whispers to him, "Wait thou on the Lord [2039] , O man; what is now befalling thee is a small matter, the reward will be great. Suffer a little while, and thou shalt be with Angels for ever. The sufferings of this present time art not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us [2040] ." He portrays to the man the kingdom of heaven; He gives him a glimpse of the paradise of delight; and the martyrs, whose bodily countenances are of necessity turned to their judges, but who in spirit are already in Paradise, despise those hardships which are seen.

21. And wouldest thou be sure that by the power of the Holy Ghost the Martyrs bear their witness? The Saviour says to His disciples, And when they bring you unto the synagogues, and the magistrates, and authorities, be not anxious how ye shall answer, or what ye shall say; for the Holy Ghost shall teach you in that very hour, what ye ought to say [2041] . For it is impossible to testify as a martyr for Christ's sake, except a man testify by the Holy Ghost; for if no man can say that Jesus Christ is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost [2042] , how shall any man give his own life for Jesus' sake, but by the Holy Ghost?

22. Great indeed, and all-powerful in gifts, and wonderful, is the Holy Ghost. Consider, how many of you are now sitting here, how many souls of us are present. He is working suitably for each, and being present in the midst, beholds the temper of each, beholds also his reasoning and his conscience, and what we say, and think, and believe [2043] . Great indeed is what I have now said, and yet is it small. For consider, I pray, with mind enlightened by Him, how many Christians there are in all this diocese, and how many in the whole province [2044] of Palestine, and carry forward thy mind from this province, to the whole Roman Empire; and after this, consider the whole world; races of Persians, and nations of Indians, Garbs and Sarmatians, Gauls and Spaniards, and Moors, Libyans and Ethiopians, and the rest for whom we have no names; for of many of the nations not even the names have reached us. Consider, I pray, of each nation, Bishops, Presbyters, Deacons, Solitaries, Virgins, and laity besides; and then behold their great Protector, and the Dispenser of their gifts;--how throughout the world He gives to one chastity, to another perpetual virginity, to another almsgiving, to another voluntary poverty, to another power of repelling hostile spirits. And as the light, with one touch of its radiance sheds brightness on all things, so also the Holy Ghost enlightens those who have eyes; for if any from blindness is not vouchsafed His grace, let him not blame the Spirit, but his own unbelief.

23. Thou hast seen His power, which is in all the world; tarry now no longer upon earth, but ascend on high. Ascend, I say, in imagination even unto the first heaven, and behold there so many countless myriads of Angels. Mount up in thy thoughts, if thou canst, yet higher; consider, I pray thee, the Archangels, consider also the Spirits; consider the Virtues, consider the Principalities, consider the Powers, consider the Thrones, consider the Dominions [2045] ;--of all these the Comforter is the Ruler from God, and the Teacher, and the Sanctifier. Of Him Elias has need, and Elisseus, and Esaias, among men; of Him Michael and Gabriel have need among Angels. Naught of things created is equal in honour to Him: for the families of the Angels, and all their hosts assembled together, have no equality with the Holy Ghost. All these the all-excellent power of the Comforter overshadows. And they indeed are sent forth to minister [2046] , but He searches even the deep things of God, according as the Apostle says, For the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. For what man knoweth the thing of a man, save the spirit of the man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God [2047] .

24. He preached concerning Christ in the Prophets; He wrought in the Apostles; He to this day seals the souls in Baptism. And the Father indeed gives to the Son; and the Son shares with the Holy Ghost. For it is Jesus Himself, not I, who says, All things are delivered unto Me of My Father [2048] ; and of the Holy Ghost He says, When He, the Spirit of Truth, shall come, and the rest....He shall glorify Me; for He shall receive of Mine, and shall shew it unto you [2049] . The Father through the Son, with the Holy Ghost, is the giver of all grace; the gifts of the Father are none other than those of the Son, and those of the Holy Ghost; for there is one Salvation, one Power, one Faith; One God, the Father; One Lord, His only-begotten Son; One Holy Ghost, the Comforter. And it is enough for us to know these things; but inquire not curiously into His nature or substance [2050] : for had it been written, we would have spoken of it; what is not written, let us not venture on; it is sufficient for our salvation to know, that there is Father, and Son, and Holy Ghost.

25. This Spirit descended upon the seventy Elders in the days of Moses. (Now let not the length of the discourse, beloved, produce weariness in you: but may He the very subject of our discourse grant strength to every one, both to us who speak, and to you who listen!) This Spirit, as I was saying, came down upon the seventy Elders in the time of Moses; and this I say to thee, that I may now prove, that He knoweth all things, and worketh as He will [2051] .The seventy Elders were chosen; And the Lord came down in a cloud, and took of the Spirit that was upon Moses, and put it upon the seventy Elders [2052] ; not that the Spirit was divided, but that His grace was distributed in proportion to the vessels, and the capacity of the recipients. Now there were present sixty and eight, and they prophesied; but Eldad and Modad were not present: therefore that it might be shewn that it was not Moses who bestowed the gift, but the Spirit who wrought, Eldad and Modad, who though called, had not as yet presented themselves, did also prophesy [2053] .

26. Jesus the Son of Nun, the successor of Moses, was amazed; and came to him and said, "Hast thou heard that Eldad and Modad are prophesying? They were called, and they came not; my lord Moses, forbid them [2054] ." "I cannot forbid them," he says, "for this grace is from Heaven; nay, so far am I from forbidding them, that I myself am thankful for it. I think not, however, that thou hast said this in envy; art thou jealous for my sake, because that they prophesy, and thou prophesiest not yet? Wait for the proper season; and oh that all the Lord's people may be prophets, whenever the Lord shall give His Spirit upon them [2055] !" saying this also prophetically, whenever the Lord shall give; "For as yet then He has not given it; so thou hast it not yet."--Had not then Abraham this, and Isaac, and Jacob, and Joseph? And they of old, had they it not? Nay, but the words, "whenever the Lord shall give" evidently mean "give it upon all; as yet indeed the grace is partial, then it shall be given lavishly." And he secretly alluded to what was to happen among us on the day of Pentecost; for He Himself came down among us. He had however also come down upon many before. For it is written, And Jesus the son of Nun was filled with a spirit of wisdom; for Moses had laid his hands upon him [2056] . Thou seest the figure everywhere the same in the Old and New Testament;--in the days of Moses, the Spirit was given by laying on of hands; and by laying on of hands Peter [2057] also gives the Spirit. And on thee also, who art about to be baptized, shall His grace come; yet in what manner I say not, for I will not anticipate the proper season.

27. He also came down upon all righteous men and Prophets; Enos, I mean, and Enoch, and Noah, and the rest; upon Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; for as regards Joseph, even Pharaoh perceived that he had the Spirit of God within him [2058] . As to Moses, and the wonderful works wrought by the Spirit in his days, thou hast heard often: This Spirit Job also had, that most enduring man, and all the saints, though we repeat not all their names. He also was sent forth when the Tabernacle was in making, and filled with wisdom the wise-hearted men who were with Bezaleel [2059] .

28. In the might of this Spirit, as we have it in the Book of Judges, Othniel judged [2060] ; Gideon [2061] waxed strong; Jephtha conquered [2062] ; Deborah, a woman, waged war; and Samson, so long as he did righteously, and grieved Him not, wrought deeds above man's power. And as for Samuel and David, we have it plainly in the Books of the Kingdoms, how by the Holy Ghost they prophesied themselves, and were rulers of the prophets;--and Samuel was called the Seer [2063] ; and David says distinctly, The Spirit of the Lord spake by me [2064] , and in the Psalms, And take not thy Holy Spirit from me [2065] , and again, Thy good Spirit shall lead me in the land of righteousness [2066] . And as we have it in Chronicles, Azariah [2067] , in the time of King Asa, and Jahaziel [2068] in the time of King Jehoshaphat, partook of the Holy Ghost; and again, another Azariah, he who was stoned [2069] . And Ezra says, Thou gavest also Thy good Spirit to instruct them [2070] . But as touching Elias who was taken up, and Elisseus, those inspired [2071] and wonder-working men, it is manifest, without our saying so, that they were full of the Holy Ghost.

29. And if further a man peruse all the books of the Prophets, both of the Twelve, and of the others, he will find many testimonies concerning. the Holy Ghost; as when Micah says in the person of God, surely I will perfect power by the Spirit the Lord [2072] ; and Joel cries, And it shall come to pass afterwards, saith God, that I will pour out My Spirit upon all flesh [2073] , and the rest; and Haggai, Because I am with you, saith the Lord of Hosts [2074] ; and My Spirit remaineth in the midst of you [2075] ; and in like manner Zechariah, But receive My words and My statutes which I command by My Spirit, to My servants the Prophets [2076] ; and other passages.

30. Esaias too, with his majestic voice, says, And the Spirit of God shall rest upon Him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and godliness; and the Spirit of the fear of God shall fill Him [2077] ; signifying that the Spirit is one and undivided, but His operations various. So again, Jacob My servant,.....I have put My Spirit upon Him [2078] . And again, I will pour My Spirit upon thy seed [2079] ; and again, And now the Lord Almighty and His Spirit hath sent Me [2080] ; and again, This is My covenant with them, saith the Lord, My Spirit which is upon thee [2081] ; and again, The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me, because He hath anointed Me [2082] , and the rest; and again in his charge against the Jews, But they rebelled and vexed His Holy Spirit [2083] , and Where is He that put His Holy Spirit within them [2084] ? Also thou hast in Ezekiel (if thou be not now weary of listening), what has already been quoted, And the Spirit fell upon me, and said unto me, Speak; Thus saith the Lord [2085] . But the words, fell upon me we must understand in a good sense, that is "lovingly;" and as Jacob, when he had found Joseph, fell upon his neck; as also in the Gospels, the loving father, on seeing his son who had returned from his wandering, had compassion, and ran and fell on his neck, and kissed him [2086] . And again in Ezekiel, And he brought me in a vision by the Spirit of God into Chaldæa, to them of the captivity [2087] . And other texts thou heardest before, in what was said about Baptism; Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you [2088] , and the rest; a new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you [2089] ; and then immediately, And I will put My Spirit within you [2090] . And again, The hand of the Lord was upon me, and carried me out in the Spirit of the Lord [2091] .

31. He endued with wisdom the soul of Daniel, that young as he was he should become a judge of Elders. The chaste Susanna was condemned as a wanton; there was none to plead her cause; for who was to deliver her from the rulers? She was led away to death, she was now in the hands of the executioners. But her Helper was at hand, the Comforter, the Spirit who sanctifies every rational nature. Come hither to me, He says to Daniel; young though thou be, convict old men infected with the sins of youth; for it is written, God raised up the Holy Spirit upon a young stripling [2092] ; and nevertheless, (to pass on quickly,) by the sentence of Daniel that chaste lady was saved. We bring this forward as a testimony; for this is not the season for expounding. Nebuchadnezzar also knew that the Holy Spirit was in Daniel; for he says to him, O Belteshazzar, master of the magicians, of whom I know, that the Holy Spirit of God is in thee [2093] . One thing he said truly, and one falsely; for that he had the Holy Spirit was true, but he was not the master of the magicians, for he was no magician, but was wise through the Holy Ghost. And before this also, he interpreted to him the vision of the Image, which he who had seen it himself knew not; for he says, Tell me the vision, which I who saw it know not [2094] . Thou seest the power of the Holy Ghost; that which they who saw it, know not, they who saw it not, know and interpret.

32. And indeed it were easy to collect very many texts out of the Old Testament, and to discourse more largely concerning the Holy Ghost. But the time is short; and we must be careful of the proper length of the lecture. Wherefore, being for the present content awhile with passages from the Old Testament, we will, if it be God's pleasure, proceed in the next Lecture to the remaining texts out of the New Testament. And may the God of peace, through our Lord Jesus Christ, and through the love of the Spirit, count all of you worthy of His spiritual and heavenly gifts:--To whom be glory and power for ever and ever. Amen.


[1970] Matt. xii. 32. [1971] At the end of this section there follows in the Coislin ms. a long interpolation consisting of two parts. The former is an extract taken word for word from Gregory of Nyssa, Oratio Catechetica, ii. c, which may be read in this series: 'All' hos Theou Logon akousantes ....sundromon echousan te boulesei ten dunamin. Of the second passage the Benedictine Editor says: "I have not been able to discover who is the author. No one can assign it to our Cyril, although the doctrine it contains is in full agreement with his: but he explains all the same points more at large in his two Lectures (xvi. xvii.). The passage is very ancient and undoubtedly older than the eleventh century, which is the date of the Cod. Coislin. Therefore in the controversy of the Latins against the Greeks concerning the Procession of the Holy Ghost it is important to notice what is taught in this passage, and also brought forward as a testimony by S. Thomas (Aquinas), that "The Holy Ghost is of the Godhead of the Father and the Son (ex Patris et Filii divinitate existere)." To me indeed these words seem to savour altogether not of the later but of the more ancient theology of the Greeks, and to be earlier than the controversies of the Greeks against the Latins." This second passage is as follows:-- "For the Spirit of God is good. And Thy good Spirit, says David, shall lead me in the land of righteousness. This then is the Spirit of God in which we believe: the blessed Spirit, the eternal, immutable, unchangeable, ineffable: which rules and reigns over all productive being, both visible and invisible natures: which is Lord both of Angels and Archangels, Powers, Principalities, Dominions, Thrones: the Creator of all being, enthroned with the glory of the Father and the Son, reigning without beginning and without end with the Father and the Son, before the created substances: Who sanctifies the ministering spirits sent forth for the sake of those who are to inherit salvation: Who came down upon the holy and blessed Virgin Mary, of whom was born Christ according to the flesh; came down also upon the Lord Himself in bodily form of a dove in the river Jordan: Who came upon the Apostles on the day of Pentecost in form of fiery tongues; Who gives and supplies all spiritual gifts in the Church, Who Proceedeth from the Father: Who is of the Godhead of the Father and the Son; Who is of one substance with the Father and the Son, inseparable and indivisible." [1972] Cf. Cat. iv. 33; vii. 6. Irenæus, Hæres. III. xxi. 4; IV. ix. 1. In Eusebius, E.H. V. 13, Rhodon says that Apelles attributed the prophecies to an adverse spirit and rejected them as false and self-contradictory. Similar blasphemies against the holy Prophets are imputed to Manes by Epiphanius (Hæres. lxvi. 30). [1973] Matt. xxviii. 19. The same text is used with much force by S. Basil (De Spir. S. cap. xxiv.). [1974] Cat. xi. 4, note 3. See Newman's notes on Athanasius, Contra Arian. Or. I. viii. 1; Ib. Or. III. xxv. 9; Ib. xxvii. 3. Marcion's doctrine of three first principles (trion archon logos) is discussed by Epiphanius (Hæres. xlii. 6, 7). See also Tertull. Contra Marcion. I. 15; Euseb. Hist. Eccles. V. 13. [1975] sunaloiphen, iv. 8; xi. 16; xv. 9. [1976] Cat. xvii. 13. Epiphanius (De Mensuris et Ponder. c. 14): "And he (Hadrian) found the city all levelled to the ground, except a few houses, and the Church of God which was small: where the Disciples, on their return after the Saviour was taken up from the Mount of Olives, went up into the upper chamber: for there it had been built, that is on Sion." Cf. Stanley, Sinai and Palestine, c. xiv. 3: "Within the precincts of that Mosque (of the Tomb of David) is a vaulted Gothic chamber, which contains within its four walls a greater confluence of traditions than any other place of like dimensions in Palestine. It is startling to hear that this is the scene of the Last Supper, of the meeting after the Resurrection, of the miracle of Pentecost, of the residence and death of the Virgin, of the burial of Stephen." [1977] Ps. cxl. 3. [1978] Irenæus is called "the interpreter" in the same general sense as other ecclesiastical authors (Cat. xiii. 21; xv. 20), on account of his frequent comments upon the Scriptures. The full title of his work was A Refutation and Subversion of Knowledge falsely so called (Euseb. Hist. Eccles. V. c. 7). Cyril's expression (en tois prostagmasi) is sufficiently appropriate to the hortatory purpose professed by Irenæus in his preface. But the Benedictine Editor thinks that the word prostagmasi may be an interpolation arising from the following words pros tas....The meaning would then be "in his writings Against Heresies," the usual short title of the work. [1979] Cat. vi. 14, note 10. [1980] Irenæus (I. xxix § 4; xxx. § 1). [1981] Ib. I. ii. §§ 5, 6. [1982] Cat. vi. 25. [1983] Cat. iv. 33. See § 3, note 3, above. [1984] i.e. as well as into the Father and the Son. [1985] See Dict. Christ. Biography, Marcion, p. 283; and Tertullian (Adv. Marcion. IV. 6): "His whole aim centres in this that he may establish a diversity between the Old and New Testaments, so that his own Christ may be separate from the Creator, as belonging to the rival god, and as alien from the Law and the Prophets. [1986] Cf. § 4, note 5, above. [1987] Phrygians, or Cataphrygians (hoi kata phrugas) was the name given to the followers of the Phrygian Montanus. See the account of Montanism in Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. V. xvi., and the note there in this Series. [1988] The charges of lust and cruelty brought against the Montanists by Cyril and Epiphanius (Hær 48) seem to rest on no trustworthy evidence, and are not mentioned by Eusebius, a bitter foe to the sect. [1989] On Manes, see Cat. vi. 20. ff. [1990] Luke xxiv. 49. [1991] Acts viii. 17. [1992] Acts viii. 19. aktemosi. Cf. § 19: aktemonousi, and § 22: aktemosunen. [1993] Ib. v. 20. [1994] Ps. cxxxix. 21. [1995] Gen. iii. 15. [1996] The words hagion pateron are not found in the mss. Mon. 1. Mon. 2. Vind. Roe. Casaub. nor in Grodecq. Whether meant to refer, as the Benedictine Editor thinks, to the writers of the Old Testament, or to Christian authors, they are an evident gloss. [1997] Prov. v. 15. [1998] John iv. 14, quoted more fully at the end of the section. [1999] Ib. vii. 38, 39. [2000] Compare a similar passage on rain in Cat. ix. 9, 10. [2001] 1 Cor. xii. 11. [2002] Ib. vv. 7-11. [2003] See Cat. x. 11; xi. 1. [2004] Ps. cxlvi. 4. [2005] Zech. xii. 1. [2006] Ps. civ. 4. [2007] Ps. xlviii. 7. [2008] Is. vii. 2. [2009] Ps. cxlviii. 8. [2010] John vi. 63. [2011] Acts viii. 29. [2012] Ezek. xi. 5. [2013] Acts xiii. 2. [2014] Ib. xx. 23. [2015] John xiv. 26. [2016] Ib. vi. 63. The Holy Spirit is more than words pronounced by the tongue, even than our Lord's own words, which he called spirit. [2017] Hosea iv. 12. [2018] Origen, de Principiis, i. § 2: "It is the custom of Holy Scripture, when it would designate anything contrary to this more dense and solid body, to call it spirit." [2019] Luke x. 18. [2020] In this contrast between the evil spirit and the Spirit of God Cyril's language rises to true eloquence, far surpassing a somewhat similar description, which may have been known to him, in Euseb. Dem. Evang. V. 132. [2021] Is. vi. 1. [2022] Ezek. x. 1. [2023] Dan. vii. 10. [2024] Acts v. 3. [2025] Ib. v. 4. [2026] Ib. iv. 13. [2027] Ps. cxxxix. 12. [2028] Acts v. 8. [2029] 2 Kings v. 25. [2030] Matt. x. 8. [2031] Micah iii. 12; ascribed by Cyril to Isaiah. [2032] Cf. Euseb. Dem. Evang. vi. 13: "In our own time we have seen with our eyes the Sion of old renown being ploughed by Romans with yokes of oxen, and Jerusalem in a state of utter desolation as the oracle itself says, like a lodge in a garden of cucumbers. As Cyril at that time saw the Prophet's prediction fulfilled, so we also to the present day see most plainly the fulfilment of the divine oracle, and Sion ploughed before our eyes: for except the Church of the Apostles, with the houses lying around it, and the house of Caiaphas and the cemeteries, all the remaining space of this hill, lying without the city, is under plough." (Jerusalem Editor). [2033] Isa. i. 8. oporophulakion is the hut of the watchman who guarded the crop when ripening for harvest. Sikuelaton is explained by Basil in his comment on the passage of Isaiah as "A place that produces quick-growing and perishable fruits." This agrees with the etymological sense of the word as "a forcing-bed for cucumbers" (Hippocrates apud Fritzsche, "Der Brief des Jeremia," v. 70). On the form sikuerato, see the notes on the Epistle of Jeremy in the Speaker's Commentary. [2034] pastadas. On the meaning of pastas see the notes on Herodotus, II. 148, 169 in Bähr, and Rawlinson. Here it appears to mean the cloister or colonnade which gave access to the bridal chamber, thalamos. [2035] en palatiois. [2036] Compare Procat. § 9; Cat. xx. 3. [2037] Wisdom vi. 16. Compare the saying in Clem. Alex. Quis dives salvetur? § 31: auton zetein tous eu peisomenous axious te ontas tou Soteros mathetas. The Jerusalem Editor quotes from Origen (Prolog. in Cantic.) a passage which may have been known to Cyril: "This Comforter therefore goeth about seeking if He may discover any worthy and receptive souls to whom He may reveal the greatness of the love which is in God." [2038] Rom. viii. 26. [2039] Ps. xxviii. 14; xxxvii. 34. [2040] Rom. viii. 18. [2041] Luke xii. 11, 12. [2042] 1 Cor. xii. 3. Marturesai, "to bear witness by death." [2043] Codd. Monac. Vind. Roe. Casaub. add kai ti pisteuomen. [2044] The terms paroikia, the See of a Bishop, and eparchia, the Province of a Metropolitan, were both adopted from the corresponding divisions of the Roman Empire. See Bingham, Antt. Book IX. i. §§ 2-6. [2045] S. Basil (De Spiritu S. c. xvi. § 38), after quoting the same passage, Col. i. 16, proceeds--eite kuriotetes, kai ei tines eisin heterai logikai phuseis hakatonomastoi. The last word shews that Basil had in mind this passage of Cyril, who after the names of nations in § 22, adds kai tous loipous akatonomastous hemin. [2046] Heb. i. 14. [2047] 1 Cor. ii. 10, 11. [2048] Matt. xi. 27. [2049] John xvi. 13, 14. [2050] In regard to the caution with which St. Cyril here speaks, we must remember that the heresy of Macedonius had not yet given occasion to the formal discussion and determination of the "nature and substance" of the Holy Ghost. [2051] 1 Cor. xii. 11. [2052] Num. xi. 24, 25. "Modad" is the form of the name in the LXX. [2053] The apocryphal book of Eldad and Modad is mentioned by Hermas, Shepherd, Vis. ii. § 3. S. Basil, Liber de Spir. S. cap. 61, referring to Num. xi. 26, says that the Spirit rested permanently only upon Eldad and Modad. [2054] Num. xi. 28. [2055] Num. xi. 29. [2056] Deut. xxxiv. 9. [2057] Acts viii. 18. On this passage of Cyril, see the section on "Chrism" in the Introduction. [2058] Gen. xli. 38. [2059] Ex. xxxi. 1-6; xxxvi. 1. [2060] Judges iii. 10. [2061] Ib. vi. 34. [2062] Ib. xi. 29. [2063] 1 Sam. ix. 9. [2064] 2 Sam. xxiii. 2. [2065] Ps. li. 11. [2066] Ps. cxliii. 10. [2067] 2 Chron. xv. 1. [2068] Ib. xx. 14. [2069] Ib. xxiv. 20, 21. [2070] Neh. ix. 20. Ezra and Nehemiah form one book "Ezra" in the Hebrew Canon. [2071] pneumatophoron, used only twice in the Sept. (Hosea ix. 7; Zeph. iii. 4), and in an unfavourable sense. With Cyril's use of it compare Theophilus, Ad Autolyc. ii. 9: Theou anthropous pneumatophorous Pneumatos hagiou. [2072] Mic. iii. 8. [2073] Joel ii. 28. [2074] Haggai ii. 4. [2075] Ib. v. 5. [2076] Zech. i. 6. [2077] Is. xi. 2. [2078] Ib. xliv. 1; xlii. 1. [2079] Ib. xliv. 3. [2080] Ib. xlviii. 16. [2081] Is. lix. 21. [2082] Is. lxi. 1. [2083] Ib. lxiii. 10. [2084] v. 11. [2085] Ezek. xi. 5. [2086] Gen. xlvi. 29; Luke xv. 20. [2087] Ezek. xi. 24. [2088] Ib. xxxvi. 25; Cat. iii. 16. [2089] Ib. v. 26. [2090] Ib. v. 27. [2091] Ezek. xxxvii. 1. [2092] Susanna, v. 45. [2093] Dan. iv. 9. [2094] Ib. ii. 26, 31.


Lecture XVII.

Continuation of the Discourse on the Holy Ghost.

1 Corinthians xii. 8

For to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom, &c.

1. In the preceding Lecture, according to our ability we set before you, our beloved hearers [2095] , some small portion of the testimonies concerning the Holy Ghost; and on the present occasion, we will, if it be God's pleasure, proceed to treat, as far as may be, of those which remain out of the New Testament: and as then to keep within due limit of your attention we restrained our eagerness (for there is no satiety in discoursing concerning the Holy Ghost), so now again we must say but a small part of what remains. For now, as well as then, we candidly own that our weakness is overwhelmed by the multitude of things written. Neither to-day will we use the subtleties of men, for that is unprofitable; but merely call to mind what comes from the divine Scriptures; for this is the safest course, according to the blessed Apostle Paul, who says, Which things also we speak, not in words which man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth, comparing spiritual things with spiritual [2096] . Thus we act like travellers or voyagers, who having one goal to a very long journey, though hastening on with eagerness, yet by reason of human weakness are wont to touch in their way at divers cities or harbours.

2. Therefore though our discourses concerning the Holy Ghost are divided, yet He Himself is undivided, being one and the same. For as in speaking concerning the Father, at one time we taught how He is the one only Cause [2097] ; and at another, how He is called Father [2098] , or Almighty [2099] ; and at another, how He is the Creator [2100] of the universe; and yet the division of the Lectures made no division of the Faith, in that He, the Object of devotion, both was and is One;--and again, as in discoursing concerning the Only-begotten Son of God we taught at one time concerning His Godhead [2101] , and at another concerning His Manhood [2102] , dividing into many discourses the doctrines concerning our Lord Jesus Christ, yet preaching undivided faith towards Him;--so now also though the Lectures concerning the Holy Spirit are divided, yet we preach faith undivided towards Him. For it is one and the Self-same Spirit who divides His gifts to every man severally as He will [2103] , Himself the while remaining undivided. For the Comforter is not different from the Holy Ghost, but one and the self-same, called by various names; who lives and subsists, and speaks, and works; and of all rational natures made by God through Christ, both of Angels and of men, He is the Sanctifier [2104] .

3. But lest any from lack of learning, should suppose from the different titles of the Holy Ghost that these are divers spirits, and not one and the self-same, which alone there is, therefore the Catholic Church guarding thee beforehand hath delivered to thee in the profession of the faith, that thou "believe in one Holy Ghost the Comforter, who spake by the Prophets;" that thou mightest know, that though His names be many, the Holy Spirit is but one;--of which names, we will now rehearse to you a few out of many.

4. He is called the Spirit, according to the Scripture just now read, For to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom [2105] . He is called the Spirit of Truth, as the Saviour says, When He, the Spirit of Truth, is come [2106] . He is called also the Comforter, as He said, For if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you [2107] .But that He is one and the same, though called by different titles, is shewn plainly from the following. For that the Holy Spirit and the Comforter are the same, is declared in those words, But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost [2108] ; and that the Comforter is the same as the Spirit of Truth, is declared, when it is said, And I will give you another Comforter, that He may abide with you for ever, even the Spirit of Truth [2109] ; and again, But when the Comforter is come whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of Truth [2110] . And He is called the Spirit of God, according as it is written, And I saw the Spirit of God descending [2111] ; and again, For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God [2112] . He is called also the Spirit of the Father, as the Saviour says, For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh in you [2113] ; and again Paul saith, For this cause I bow my knees unto the Father, and the rest;...that He would grant you to be strengthened by His Spirit [2114] . He is also called the Spirit of the Lord, according to that which Peter spake, Why is it that ye have agreed together to tempt the Spirit of the Lord [2115] ? He is called also the Spirit of God and Christ, as Paul writes, But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. But if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of His [2116] . He is called also the Spirit of the Son of God, as it is said, And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of His Son [2117] . He is called also the Spirit of Christ, as it is written, Searching what or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify [2118] ; and again, Through your prayer, and the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ [2119] .

5. Thou wilt find many other titles of the Holy Ghost besides. Thus He is called the Spirit of Holiness, as it is written, According to the Spirit of Holiness [2120] . He is also called the Spirit of adoption, as Paul saith, For ye received not the spirit of bondage again unto fear, but ye received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father [2121] . He is also called the Spirit of revelation, as it is written, May give you the Spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of Him [2122] . He is also called the Spirit of promise, as the same Paul says, In whom ye also after that ye believed, were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise [2123] . He is also called the Spirit of grace, as when he says again, And hath done despite to the Spirit of grace [2124] . And by many other such-like titles is He named. And thou heardest plainly in the foregoing Lecture, that in the Psalms He is called at one time the good Spirit [2125] , and at another the princely Spirit [2126] ; and in Esaias He was styled the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, of counsel, and might, of knowledge, and of godliness, and of the fear of God [2127] . By all which Scriptures both those before and those now alleged, it is established, that though the titles of the Holy Ghost be different, He is one and the same; living and subsisting, and always present together with the Father and the Son [2128] ; not uttered or breathed from the mouth and lips of the Father or the Son, nor dispersed into the air, but having a real substance [2129] , Himself speaking, and working, and dispensing, and sanctifying; even as the Economy of salvation which is to usward from the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost, is inseparable and harmonious and one, as we have also said before. For I wish you to keep in mind those things which were lately spoken, and to know clearly that there is not one Spirit in the Law and the Prophets, and another in the Gospels and Apostles; but that it is One and the Self-same Holy Spirit, which both in the Old and in the New Testament, spoke the divine Scriptures [2130] .

6. This is the Holy Ghost, who came upon the Holy Virgin Mary; for since He who was conceived was Christ the Only-begotten, the power of the Highest overshadowed her, and the Holy Ghost came upon her [2131] , and sanctified her, that she might be able to receive Him, by whom all things were made [2132] . But I have no need of many words to teach thee that generation was without defilement or taint, for thou hast learned it. It is Gabriel who says to her, I am the herald of what shall be done, but have no part in the work. Though an Archangel, I know my place; and though I joyfully bid thee All hail, yet how thou shalt bring forth, is not of any grace of mine. The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee; therefore also that Holy Thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God [2133] .

7. This Holy Spirit wrought in Elisabeth; for He recognises not virgins only, but matrons also, so that their marriage be lawful. And Elisabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost [2134] , and prophesied; and that noble hand-maiden says of her own Lord, And whence is this to me, that the Mother of my Lord should come to me [2135] ? For Elisabeth counted herself blessed. Filled with this Holy Spirit, Zacharias also, the father of John, prophesied [2136] , telling how many good things the Only-begotten should procure, and that John should be His harbinger [2137] through baptism. By this Holy Ghost also it was revealed to just Symeon, that he should not see death, till he had seen the Lord's Christ [2138] ; and he received Him in his arms, and bore clear testimony in the Temple concerning Him.

8. And John also, who had been filled with the Holy Ghost from his mother's womb [2139] , was for this cause sanctified, that he might baptize the Lord; not giving the Spirit himself, but preaching glad tidings of Him who gives the Spirit. For he says, I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance, but He that cometh after me, and the rest; He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire [2140] . But wherefore with fire? Because the descent of the Holy Ghost was in fiery tongues; concerning which the Lord says joyfully, I am come to send fire on the earth; and what will I, if it be already kindled [2141] ?

9. This Holy Ghost came down when the Lord was baptized, that the dignity of Him who was baptized might not be hidden; as John says, But He which sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon whomsoever thou shalt see the Spirit descending and remaining upon Him, the same is He which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost [2142] . But see what saith the Gospel; the heavens were opened; they were opened because of the dignity of Him who descended; for, lo, he says, the heavens were opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, and lighting upon Him [2143] : that is, with voluntary motion in His descent. For it was fit, as some have interpreted, that the primacy and first-fruits [2144] of the Holy Spirit promised to the baptized should be conferred upon the manhood of the Saviour, who is the giver of such grace. But perhaps He came down in the form of a dove, as some say, to exhibit a figure of that dove who is pure and innocent and undefiled, and also helps the prayers for the children she has begotten, and for forgiveness of sins [2145] ; even as it was emblematically foretold that Christ should be thus manifested in the appearance of His eyes; for in the Canticles she cries concerning the Bridegroom, and says, Thine eyes are as doves by the rivers of water [2146] .

10. Of this dove, the dove of Noe, according to some, was in part a figure [2147] . For as in his time by means of wood and of water there came salvation to themselves, and the beginning of a new generation, and the dove returned to him towards evening with an olive branch; thus, say they, the Holy Ghost also descended upon the true Noe, the Author of the second birth, who draws together into one the wills of all nations, of whom the various dispositions of the animals in the ark were a figure:--Him at whose coming the spiritual wolves feed with the lambs, in whose Church the calf, and the lion, and the ox, feed in the same pasture, as we behold to this day the rulers of the world guided and taught by Churchmen. The spiritual dove therefore, as some interpret, came down at the season of His baptism, that He might shew that it is He who by the wood of the Cross saves them who believe, He who at eventide should grant salvation through His death.

11. And these things perhaps should be otherwise explained; but now again we must hear the words of the Saviour Himself concerning the Holy Ghost. For He says, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God [2148] . And that this grace is from the Father, He thus states, How much more shall your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him [2149] . And that we ought to worship God in the Spirit, He shews thus, But the hour cometh and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in Spirit and in truth; for the Father also seeketh such to worship Him. God is a Spirit; and they that worship Him must worship Him in spirit and in truth [2150] . And again, But if I by the Spirit of God cast out devils [2151] ; and immediately afterwards, Therefore I say unto you, All manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men; but the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven. And whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him; but whosoever shall speak a word against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come [2152] . And again He says, And I will pray the Father, and He shall give you another Comforter, that He may be with you for ever, the Spirit of Truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth Him not, neither knoweth Him; but ye know Him, for He abideth with you, and shall be in you [2153] . And again He says, These things have I spoken unto you being yet present with you. But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in My name, He shall teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance all things that I said unto you [2154] . And again He says, But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of Truth, which proceedeth from the Father, He shall testify of Me [2155] . And again the Saviour says, For if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you [2156] .....And when He is come, He will convince the world of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment [2157] ; and afterwards again, I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. Howbeit, when He the Spirit of Truth is come, He will declare unto you all the truth; for He shall not speak from Himself; but whatsoever He shall hear that shall He speak, and He shall announce unto you the things to come. He shall glorify Me, for He shall take of Mine, and shall announce it unto you. All things that the Father hath are mine; therefore said I, That He shall take of Mine, and shall announce it unto you [2158] . I have read to thee now the utterances of the Only-begotten Himself, that thou mayest not give heed to men's words.

12. The fellowship of this Holy Spirit He bestowed on the Apostles; for it is written, And when He had said this, He breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost: whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained [2159] . This was the second time He breathed on man (His first breath [2160] having been stifled through wilful sins); that the Scripture might be fulfilled, He went up breathing upon thy face, and delivering thee from affliction [2161] . But whence went He up? From Hades; for thus the Gospel relates, that then after His resurrection He breathed on them. But though He bestowed His grace then, He was to lavish it yet more bountifully; and He says to them, "I am ready to give it even now, but the vessel cannot yet hold it; for a while therefore receive ye as much grace as ye can bear; and look forward for yet more; but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be clothed with power from on high [2162] . Receive it in part now; then, ye shall wear it in its fulness. For he who receives, often possesses the gift but in part; but he who is clothed, is completely enfolded by his robe. "Fear not," He says, "the weapons and darts of the devil; for ye shall bear with you the power of the Holy Ghost." But remember what was lately said, that the Holy Ghost is not divided, but only the grace which is given by Him.

13. Jesus therefore went up into heaven, and fulfilled the promise. For He said to them, I will pray the Father, and He shall give you another Comforter [2163] . So they were sitting, looking for the coming of the Holy Ghost; and when the day of Pentecost was fully come, here, in this city of Jerusalem,--(for this honour also belongs to us [2164] ; and we speak not of the good things which have happened among others, but of those which have been vouchsafed among ourselves,)--on the day of Pentecost, I say, they were sitting, and the Comforter came down from heaven, the Guardian and Sanctifier of the Church, the Ruler of souls, the Pilot of the tempest-tossed, who leads the wanderers to the light, and presides over the combatants, and crowns the victors.

14. But He came down to clothe the Apostles with power, and to baptize them; for the Lord says, ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost not many days hence [2165] . This grace was not in part, but His power was in full perfection; for as he who plunges into the waters and is baptized is encompassed on all sides by the waters, so were they also baptized completely by the Holy Ghost. The water however flows round the outside only, but the Spirit baptizes also the soul within, and that completely. And wherefore wonderest thou? Take an example from matter; poor indeed and common, yet useful for the simpler sort. If the fire passing in through the mass of the iron makes the whole of it fire, so that what was cold becomes burning and what was black is made bright,--if fire which is a body thus penetrates and works without hindrance in iron which is also a body, why wonder that the Holy Ghost enters into the very inmost recesses of the soul?

15. And lest men should be ignorant of the greatness of the mighty gift coming down to them, there sounded as it were a heavenly trumpet, For suddenly there came from heaven a sound as of the rushing of a mighty wind [2166] , signifying the presence of Him who was to grant power unto men to seize with violence the kingdom of God; that both their eyes might see the fiery tongues, and their ears hear the sound. And it filled all the house where they were sitting; for the house became the vessel of the spiritual water; as the disciples sat within, the whole house was filled. Thus they were entirely baptized according to the promise, and invested soul and body with a divine garment of salvation. And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them; and they were all filled with the Holy Ghost. They partook of fire, not of burning but of saving fire; of fire which consumes the thorns of sins, but gives lustre to the soul. This is now coming upon you also, and that to strip away and consume your sins which are like thorns, and to brighten yet more that precious possession of your souls, and to give you grace; for He gave it then to the Apostles. And He sat upon them in the form of fiery tongues, that they might crown themselves with new and spiritual diadems by fiery tongues upon their heads. A fiery sword barred of old the gates of Paradise; a fiery tongue which brought salvation restored the gift.

16. And they began to speak with other tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance [2167] . The Galilean Peter or Andrew spoke Persian or Median. John and the rest of the Apostles spoke every tongue to those of Gentile extraction; for not in our time have multitudes of strangers first begun to assemble here from all quarters, but they have done so since that time. What teacher can be found so great as to teach men all at once things which they have not learned? So many years are they in learning by grammar and other arts to speak only Greek well; nor yet do all speak this equally well; the Rhetorician perhaps succeeds in speaking well, and the Grammarian sometimes not well, and the skilful Grammarian is ignorant of the subjects of philosophy. But the Holy Spirit taught them many languages at once, languages which in all their life they never knew. This is in truth vast wisdom, this is power divine. What a contrast of their long ignorance in time past to their sudden, complete and varied and unaccustomed exercise of these languages!

17. The multitude of the hearers was confounded;--it was a second confusion, in the room of that first evil one at Babylon. For in that confusion of tongues there was division of purpose, because their thought was at enmity with God; but here minds were restored and united, because the object of interest was godly. The means of falling were the means of recovery. Wherefore they marvelled, saying [2168] , How hear we them speaking? No marvel if ye be ignorant; for even Nicodemus was ignorant of the coming of the Spirit, and to him it was said, The Spirit breatheth where it listeth, and thou hearest the voice thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth [2169] ; but if, even though I hear His voice, I know not whence he cometh, how can I explain, what He is Himself in substance?

18. But others mocking said, They are full of new wine [2170] , and they spoke truly though in mockery. For in truth the wine was new, even the grace of the New Testament; but this new wine was from a spiritual Vine, which had oftentimes ere this borne fruit in Prophets, and had budded in the New Testament. For as in things sensible, the vine ever remains the same, but bears new fruits in its seasons, so also the self-same Spirit continuing what He is, as He had often wrought in Prophets, now manifested a new and marvellous work. For though His grace had come before to the Fathers also, yet here it came exuberantly; for formerly men only partook of the Holy Ghost, but now they were baptized completely.

19. But Peter who had the Holy Ghost, and who knew what he possessed, says, "Men of Israel, ye who preach Joel, but know not the things which are written, these men are not drunken as ye suppose [2171] . Drunken they are, not however as ye suppose, but according to that which is written, They shall be drunken with the fatness of thy house; and thou shalt make them drink of the torrents of thy pleasure [2172] . They are drunken, with a sober drunkenness, deadly to sin and life-giving to the heart, a drunkenness contrary to that of the body; for this last causes forgetfulness even of what was known, but that bestows the knowledge even of what was not known. They are drunken, for they have drunk the wine of the spiritual vine, which says, I am the vine and ye are the branches [2173] . But if ye are not persuaded by me, understand what I tell you from the very time of the day; for it is the third hour of the day [2174] . For He who, as Mark relates, was crucified at the third hour, now at the third hour sent down His grace. For His grace is not other than the Spirit's grace, but He who was then crucified, who also gave the promise, made good that which He promised. And if ye would receive a testimony also, Listen, he says: "But this is that which was spoken by the prophet Joel; And it shall come to pass after this, saith God, I will pour forth of My Spirit [2175] --(and this word, I will pour forth, implied a rich gift; for God giveth not the Spirit by measure, for the Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into His hand [2176] ; and He has given Him the power also of bestowing the grace of the All-holy Spirit on whomsoever He will);--I will pour forth of My Spirit unto all flesh, and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy; and afterwards, Yea, and on My servants and on My handmaidens I will pour out in those days of My Spirit, and they shall prophesy [2177] ." The Holy Ghost is no respecter of persons; for He seeks not dignities, but piety of soul. Let neither the rich be puffed up, nor the poor dejected, but only let each prepare himself for reception of the Heavenly gift.

20. We have said much to-day, and perchance you are weary of listening; yet more still remains. And in truth for the doctrine of the Holy Ghost there were need of a third lecture; and of many besides. But we must have your indulgence on both points. For as the Holy Festival of Easter is now at hand we have this day lengthened our discourse and yet we had not room to bring before you all the testimonies from the New Testament which we ought. For many passages are still to come from the Acts of the Apostles in which the grace of the Holy Ghost wrought mightily in Peter and in all the Apostles together; many also from the Catholic Epistles, and the fourteen Epistles of Paul; out of all which we will now endeavour to gather a few, like flowers from a large meadow, merely by way of remembrance.

21. For in the power of the Holy Ghost, by the will of Father and Son, Peter stood with the Eleven, and lifting up his voice, (according to the text, Lift up thy voice with strength, thou that bringest good tidings to Jerusalem [2178] ), captured in the spiritual net of his words, about three thousand souls. So great was the grace which wrought in all the Apostles together, that, out of the Jews, those crucifiers of Christ, this great number believed, and were baptized in the Name of Christ, and continued steadfastly in the Apostles' doctrine and in the prayers [2179] . And again in the same power of the Holy Ghost, Peter and John went up into the Temple at the hour of prayer, which was the ninth hour [2180] , and in the Name of Jesus healed the man at the Beautiful gate, who had been lame from his mother's womb for forty years; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken, Then shall the lame man leap as an hart [2181] . And thus, as they captured in the spiritual net of their doctrine five thousand believers at once, so they confuted the misguided rulers of the people and chief priests, and that, not through their own wisdom, for they were unlearned and ignorant men [2182] , but through the mighty power of the Holy Ghost; for it is written, Then Peter filled with the Holy Ghost said to them [2183] . So great also was the grace of the Holy Ghost, which wrought by means of the Twelve Apostles in them who believed, that they were of one heart and of one soul [2184] , and their enjoyment of their goods was common, the possessors piously offering the prices of their possessions, and no one among them wanting aught; while Ananias and Sapphira, who attempted to lie to the Holy Ghost, underwent their befitting punishment.

22. And by the hands of the Apostles were many signs and wonders wrought among the people [2185] . And so great was the spiritual grace shed around the Apostles, that gentle as they were, they were the objects of dread; for of the rest durst no man join himself to them; but the people magnified them; and multitudes were added of those who believed on the Lord, both of men and women; and the streets were filled with the sick on their beds and couches, that as Peter passed by, at least his shadow might overshadow some of them. And the multitude also of the cities round about came unto this holy Jerusalem, bringing sick folk, and them that were vexed with unclean spirits, and they were healed every one in this power of the Holy Ghost [2186] .

23. Again, after the Twelve Apostles had been cast into prison by the chief priests for preaching Christ, and had been marvellously delivered from it at night by an Angel, and were brought before them in the judgment hall from the Temple, they fearlessly rebuked them in their discourse to them concerning Christ, and added this, that God hath also given His Holy Spirit to them that obey Him [2187] . And when they had been scourged, they went their way rejoicing, and ceased not to teach and preach Jesus as the Christ [2188] .

24. And it was not in the Twelve Apostles only that the grace of the Holy Spirit wrought, but also in the first-born children of this once barren Church, I mean the seven Deacons; for these also were chosen, as it is written, being full of the Holy Ghost and of wisdom [2189] . Of whom Stephen, rightly so named [2190] , the first fruits of the Martyrs, a man full of faith and of the Holy Ghost, wrought great wonders and miracles among the people, and vanquished those who disputed with him; for they were not able to resist the wisdom and the Spirit by which he spake [2191] . But when he was maliciously accused and brought to the judgment hall, he was radiant with angelic brightness; for all they who sat in the council, looking steadfastly on him, saw his face, as it had been the face of an Angel [2192] . And having by his wise defence confuted the Jews, those stiffnecked men, uncircumcised in heart and ears, ever resisting the Holy Ghost [2193] , he beheld the heavens opened, and saw the Son of Man standing on the right hand of God. He saw Him, not by his own power, but, as the Divine Scripture says, being full of the Holy Ghost, he looked up steadfastly into heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God [2194] .

25. In this power of the Holy Ghost, Philip also in the Name of Christ at one time in the city of Samaria drove away the unclean spirits, crying out with a loud voice; and healed the palsied and the lame, and brought to Christ great multitudes of them that believe. To whom Peter and John came down, and with prayer, and the laying on of hands, imparted the fellowship of the Holy Ghost, from which Simon Magus alone was declared an alien, and that justly. And at another time Philip was called by the Angel of the Lord in the way, for the sake of that most godly Ethiopian, the Eunuch, and heard distinctly the Spirit Himself saying, Go near, and join thyself to this chariot [2195] . He instructed the Eunuch, and baptized him, and so having sent into Ethiopia a herald of Christ, according as it is written, Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hand unto God [2196] , he was caught away by the Angel, and preached the Gospel in the cities in succession.

26. With this Holy Spirit Paul also had been filled after his calling by our Lord Jesus Christ. Let godly Ananias come as a witness to what we say, he who in Damascus said to him, The Lord, even Jesus who appeared to thee in the way which thou camest, hath sent me, that thou mayest receive thy sight, and be filled with the Holy Ghost [2197] . And straightway the Spirit's mighty working changed the blindness of Paul's eyes into newness of sight; and having vouchsafed His seal unto his soul, made him a chosen vessel to bear the Name of the Lord who had appeared to him, before kings and the children of Israel, and rendered the former persecutor an ambassador and good servant,--one, who from Jerusalem, and even unto Illyricum, fully preached the Gospel [2198] , and instructed even imperial Rome, and carried the earnestness of his preaching as far as Spain, undergoing conflicts innumerable, and performing signs and wonders. Of him for the present enough.

27. In the power of the same Holy Spirit Peter also, the chief of the Apostles and the bearer of the keys [2199] of the kingdom of heaven, healed Æneas the paralytic in the Name of Christ at Lydda, which is now Diospolis, and at Joppa raised from the dead Tabitha rich in good works. And being on the housetop in a trance, he saw heaven opened, and by means of the vessel let down as it were a sheet full of beasts of every shape and sort, he learnt plainly to call no man common or unclean, though he should be of the Greeks [2200] . And when he was sent for by Cornelius, he heard clearly the Holy Ghost Himself saying, Behold, men seek thee; but arise and get thee down, and go with them, nothing doubting; for I have sent them [2201] . And that it might be plainly shewn that those of the Gentiles also who believe are made partakers of the grace of the Holy Ghost, when Peter was come to Cesarea, and was teaching the things concerning Christ, the Scripture says concerning Cornelius and them who were with him; While Peter yet spake these words, the Holy Ghost fell on all them which heard the word; so that they of the circumcision also which came with Peter were astonished, and when they understood it said that on the Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Ghost [2202] .

28. And in Antioch also, a most renowned city of Syria, when the preaching of Christ took effect, Barnabas was sent hence as far as Antioch to help on the good work, being a good man, and full of the Holy Ghost, and of faith [2203] ; who seeing a great harvest of believers in Christ, brought Paul from Tarsus to Antioch, as his fellow-combatant. And when crowds had been instructed by them and assembled in the Church, it came to pass that the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch [2204] ; the Holy Ghost, methinks, bestowing on the believers that new Name, which had been promised before by the Lord. And the grace of the Spirit being shed forth by God more abundantly in Antioch, there were there prophets and teachers of whom Agabus was one [2205] . And as they ministered to the Lord and fasted, the Holy Ghost said, Separate Me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them. And after hands had been laid on them, they were sent forth by the Holy Ghost [2206] . Now it is manifest, that the Spirit which speaks and sends, is a living Spirit, subsisting, and operating, as we have said.

29. This Holy Spirit, who in unison with Father and Son has established the New Covenant in the Church Catholic, has set us free from the burdens of the law grievous to be borne,--those I mean, concerning things common and unclean, and meats, and sabbaths, and new moons, and circumcision, and sprinklings, and sacrifices; which were given for a season, and had a shadow of the good things to come [2207] , but which, when the truth had come, were rightly withdrawn. For when Paul and Barnabas were sent to the Apostles, because of the question moved at Antioch by them who said that it was necessary to be circumcised and to keep the customs of Moses, the Apostles who were here at Jerusalem by a written injunction set free the whole world from all the legal and typical observances; yet they attributed not to themselves the full authority in so great a matter, but send an injunction in writing, and acknowledge this: For it hath seemed good unto the Holy Ghost and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things; that ye abstain from things sacrificed to idols, and from blood, and from things strangled, and from fornication [2208] ; shewing evidently by what they wrote, that though the writing was by the hands of human Apostles, yet the decree is universal from the Holy Ghost: which decree Paul and Barnabas took and confirmed unto all the world.

30. And now, having proceeded thus far in my discourse, I ask indulgence from your love [2209] , or rather from the Spirit who dwelt in Paul, if I should not be able to rehearse everything, by reason of my own weakness, and your weariness who listen. For when shall I in terms worthy of Himself declare the marvellous deeds wrought by the operation of the Holy Ghost in the Name of Christ? Those wrought in Cyprus upon Elymas the sorcerer, and in Lystra at the healing of the cripple, and in Cilicia and Phrygia and Galatia and Mysia and Macedonia? or those at Philippi (the preaching, I mean, and the driving out of the spirit of divination in the Name of Christ; and the salvation by baptism of the jailer with his whole house at night after the earthquake); or the events at Thessalonica; and the address at Areopagus in the midst of the Athenians; or the instructions at Corinth, and in all Achaia? How shall I worthily recount the mighty deeds which were wrought at Ephesus through Paul, by the Holy Ghost [2210] ? Whom they of that City knew not before, but came to know Him by the doctrine of Paul; and when Paul had laid his hands on them, and the Holy Ghost had come upon them, they spake with tongues, and prophesied. And so great spiritual grace was upon him, that not only his touch wrought cures, but even the handkerchiefs and napkins [2211] , brought from his body, healed diseases, and scared away the evil spirits; and at last they also who practised curious arts brought their books together, and burned them before all men [2212] .

31. I pass by the work wrought at Troas on Eutychus, who being borne down by his sleep fell down from the third loft, and was taken up dead; yet was saved alive by Paul [2213] . I also pass by the prophecies addressed to the Elders of Ephesus whom he called to him in Miletus, to whom he openly said, That the Holy Ghost witnesseth in every city, saying [2214] --and the rest; for by saying, in every city, Paul made manifest that the marvellous works done by him in each city, were from the operative power of the Holy Ghost, by the will of God, and in the Name of Christ who spoke in him. By the power of this Holy Ghost, the same Paul was hastening to this holy city Jerusalem, and this, though Agabus by the Spirit foretold what should befall him; and yet he spoke to the people with confidence, declaring the things concerning Christ. And when brought to Cesarea, and set amid tribunals of justice, at one time before Felix, and at another before Festus the governor and King Agrippa, Paul obtained of the Holy Ghost grace so great, and triumphant in wisdom, that at last Agrippa himself the king of the Jews said, Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian [2215] . This Holy Spirit granted to Paul, when he was in the island of Melita also, to receive no harm when bitten by the viper, and to effect divers cures on the diseased. This Holy Spirit guided him, the persecutor of old, as a herald of Christ, even as far as imperial Rome, and there he persuaded many of the Jews to believe in Christ, and to them who gainsaid he said plainly, Well spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the Prophet, saying unto your fathers, and the rest [2216] .

32. And that Paul was full of the Holy Ghost, and all his fellow Apostles, and they who after them believed in Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, hear from himself as he writes plainly in his Epistles; And my speech, he says, and my preaching was not in persuasive words of man's wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power [2217] . And again, But He who sealed us for this very purpose is God, who gave us the earnest of the Spirit [2218] . And again, He that raised up Jesus from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies by His Spirit which dwelleth in you [2219] . And again, writing to Timothy, That good thing which was committed to thee guard through the Holy Ghost which was given to us [2220] .

33. And that the Holy Ghost subsists, and lives, and speaks, and foretells, I have often said in what goes before, and Paul writes it plainly to Timothy: Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in later times some shall depart from the faith [2221] ,--which we see in the divisions not only of former times but also of our own; so motley and diversified are the errors of the heretics. And again the same Paul says, Which in other generations was not made known unto the sons of men, as it hath now been revealed unto His Holy Apostles and Prophets in the Spirit [2222] . And again, Wherefore, as saith the Holy Ghost [2223] ; and again, The Holy Ghost also witnesseth to us [2224] . And again he calls unto the soldiers of righteousness, saying, And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God, with all prayer and supplication [2225] . And again, Be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit, speaking to yourselves in psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs [2226] . And again, The grace of the Lord Jesus, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost be with you all [2227] .

34. By all these proofs, and by more which have been passed over, is the personal, and sanctifying, and effectual power of the Holy Ghost established for those who can understand; for the time would fail me in my discourse if I wished to quote what yet remains concerning the Holy Ghost from the fourteen Epistles of Paul, wherein he has taught with such variety, completeness, and reverence. And to the power of the Holy Ghost Himself it must belong, to grant to us forgiveness for what we have omitted because the days are few, and upon you the hearers to impress more perfectly the knowledge of what yet remains; while from the frequent reading of the sacred Scriptures those of you who are diligent come to understand these things, and by this time, both from these present Lectures, and from what has before been told you, hold more steadfastly the Faith in "One God the Father Almighty; and in our Lord Jesus Christ, His Only-Begotten Son; and in the Holy Ghost the Comforter." Though the word itself and title of Spirit is applied to Them in common in the sacred Scriptures,--for it is said of the Father, God is a Spirit [2228] , as it is written in the Gospel according to John; and of the Son, A Spirit before our face, Christ the Lord [2229] , as Jeremias the prophet says; and of the Holy Ghost, the Comforter, the Holy Ghost [2230] , as was said;--yet the arrangement of articles in the Faith, if religiously understood, disproves the error of Sabellius also [2231] . Return we therefore in our discourse to the point which now presses and is profitable to you.

35. Beware lest ever like Simon thou come to the dispensers of Baptism in hypocrisy, thy heart the while not seeking the truth. It is ours to protest, but it is thine to secure thyself. If thou standest in faith [2232] , blessed art thou; if thou hast fallen in unbelief, from this day forward cast away thine unbelief, and receive full assurance. For, at the season of baptism, when thou art come before the Bishops, or Presbyters, or Deacons [2233] ,--(for its grace is everywhere, in villages and in cities, on them of low as on them of high degree, on bondsmen and on freemen, for this grace is not of men, but the gift is from God through men,)--approach the Minister of Baptism, but approaching, think not of the face of him thou seest, but remember this Holy Ghost of whom we are now speaking. For He is present in readiness to seal thy soul, and He shall give thee that Seal at which evil spirits tremble, a heavenly and sacred seal, as also it is written, In whom also ye believed, and were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise [2234] .

36. Yet He tries the soul. He casts not His pearls before swine; if thou play the hypocrite, though men baptize thee now, the Holy Spirit will not baptize thee [2235] . But if thou approach with faith, though men minister in what is seen, the Holy Ghost bestows that which is unseen. Thou art coming to a great trial, to a great muster [2236] , in that one hour, which if thou throw away, thy disaster is irretrievable; but if thou be counted worthy of the grace, thy soul will be enlightened, thou wilt receive a power which thou hadst not, thou wilt receive weapons terrible to the evil spirits; and if thou cast not away thine arms, but keep the Seal upon thy soul, no evil spirit will approach thee; for he will be cowed; for verily by the Spirit of God are the evil spirits cast out.

37. If thou believe, thou shalt not only receive remission of sins, but also do things which pass man's power [2237] . And mayest thou be worthy of the gift of prophecy also! For thou shalt receive grace according to the measure of thy capacity and not of my words; for I may possibly speak of but small things, yet thou mayest receive greater; since faith is a large affair [2238] . All thy life long will thy guardian the Comforter abide with thee; He will care for thee, as for his own soldier; for thy goings out, and thy comings in, and thy plotting foes. And He will give thee gifts of grace of every kind, if thou grieve Him not by sin; for it is written, And grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye were sealed unto the day of redemption [2239] . What then, beloved, is it to preserve grace? Be ye ready to receive grace, and when ye have received it, cast it not away.

38. And may the very God of All, who spake by the Holy Ghost through the prophets, who sent Him forth upon the Apostles on the day of Pentecost in this place, Himself send Him forth at this time also upon you; and by Him keep us also, imparting His benefit in common to us all, that we may ever render up the fruits of the Holy Ghost, love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance [2240] , in Christ Jesus our Lord:--By whom and with whom, together with the Holy Ghost, be glory to the Father, both now, and ever, and for ever and ever. Amen.


[2095] tais tes humeteras agapes akoais. Compare § 30, below: sungomen aito para tes humeteras agapes. Ignat. Philadelph. c. iv. (Long recension): tharron grapho te axiotheo agape humon. "Caritas" is constantly used in the same manner. [2096] 1 Cor. ii. 13. [2097] Cat. vi. [2098] Ib. vii. [2099] Ib. viii. [2100] Ib. ix. [2101] Cat. x. xi. [2102] Ib. xii. xv. [2103] 1 Cor. xii. 11. [2104] Compare Basil. de Sp. Sancto, c. 38: "By the Father's will the ministering spirits subsist, and by the operation of the Son they are brought into existence, and by the presence of the Holy Ghost are perfected: and the perfection of Angels is sanctification and continuance therein." [2105] 1 Cor. xii. 8. [2106] John xvi. 13. [2107] Ib. v. 7. [2108] John xiv. 26. [2109] Ib. vv. 16, 17. [2110] Ib. xv. 26. [2111] John i. 32. [2112] Rom. viii. 14. [2113] Matt. x. 20. [2114] Eph. iii. 14-16. [2115] Acts v. 9. [2116] Rom. viii. 9. [2117] Gal. iv. 6. [2118] 1 Pet. i. 11. [2119] Phil. i. 19. [2120] Rom. i. 4. [2121] Ib. viii. 15. [2122] Eph. i. 17. [2123] Ib. v. 13. [2124] Heb. x. 29. [2125] Cat. xvi. 28; Ps. cxliii. 10. [2126] hegemoniko, Sept. Ps. li. 12: R.V. Uphold me with a free spirit. [2127] Is. xi. 2. [2128] Origen, in the Catena on St. John iii. 8: "This also shews that the Spirit is a Being (ousian): for He is not, as some suppose, an energy of God, having according to them no individuality of subsistence. And the Apostle also, after enumerating the gifts of the Spirit, immediately added, But all these worketh the one and the same Spirit, dividing to each one severally as He will. Now if He willeth and worketh and divideth, He is surely an energizing Being, but not an energy" (Suicer, Thesaurus, Pneuma). [2129] enupostaton. Cf. Cat. xi. 10; xvi. 13, note 5. [2130] Cat. iv. 16; xvi. 4. [2131] Luke i. 35. [2132] John i. 3. [2133] Luke i. 35. [2134] Luke i. 41. [2135] Ib. v. 43. [2136] Ib. v. 67. [2137] Ib. v. 76. [2138] Luke ii. 26-35. [2139] Cat. iii. 6. [2140] Matt. iii. 11. [2141] Luke xii. 49. [2142] John i. 33. [2143] Matt. iii. 16. [2144] tas aparchas kai ta proteia. The order is inverted in the translation. Cf. Hermas, Sim. viii. 7 echontes zelon tina en allelois peri proteion. [2145] The Benedictine Editor adds the two last words tupon paradeloun from mss. Roe. Casaub. as necessary to the construction, and adds the following note. "The text thus emended is capable of two senses. The first, that the Holy Spirit came down in the form of a dove, a pure and harmless bird, to shew that He is Himself as it were a mystic dove in His simplicity and love of children, for whose new birth and remission of sins at Baptism He unites His prayers with Christ's, as Cyril teaches in Cat. xvi. 20: and that Christ was for the like cause mystically foreshown in Canticles as having eyes like a dove's. The other sense is, that the Spirit descended in the form of a dove on Christ's Humanity in order to shew this to be as it were a dove in innocence, holiness, love of children, and concurrence with the Holy Spirit in their regeneration....Either sense is admissible, and maintained by many of the Fathers: but I prefer the former." This interpretation is confirmed by Tertullian (de Baptismo, c. viii.), who says that the Holy Spirit glided down on the Lord "in the shape of a dove" in order that the nature of the Holy Spirit might be declared by means of a creature of simplicity and innocence." [2146] Cant. v. 12. epi pleromata hudaton (Sept.). The usual meaning of ophthalmophanos is "manifestly to the eyes," Esther viii. 13. [2147] Tertullian, ibid. "Just as after the waters of the deluge, by which the old iniquity was purged--after the baptism, so to say, of the world--a dove was the herald which announced to the earth the assuagement of celestial wrath,....so to our flesh, as it emerges from the font after its old sins, flies the dove of the Holy Spirit, bringing us the peace of God, sent out from heaven where the Church is, the typified ark." Compare also Hippolytus, The Holy Theophany, §§ 8, 9, a treatise with which Cyril has much in common. [2148] John iii. 5. [2149] Luke xi. 13. [2150] John iv. 23. [2151] Matt. xii. 28. [2152] Ib. v. 31. [2153] John xiv. 16. [2154] Ib. v. 25. [2155] Ib. xv. 26. [2156] Ib. xvi. 7. [2157] Ib. v. 8. [2158] Ib. v. 12-15. [2159] John xx. 22. [2160] Gen. ii. 7: and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life. Compare Cat. xiv. 10. [2161] Nahum ii. 1. The Septuagint, followed by Cyril, differs widely from the Hebrew: (R.V.) He that dasheth in pieces is come up before thy face. [2162] Luke xxiv. 39. [2163] John xiv. 16. [2164] Cat. iii. 7; xvi. 5. Bp. Pearson (Lectiones in Acta Apost. I. § 18): "Rightly said Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem, `All prerogatives are with us.' And the Emperor Justin called her `Mother of the Christian name.' Jerome also (Ep. 17, 3), said: `The whole mystery of our Faith is native of that province and city.`" [2165] Acts i. 5. [2166] Acts ii. 2. [2167] Ib. v. 4. [2168] Acts ii. 8. [2169] John iii. 8: (R.V.) The wind bloweth: (Marg.) Or, The Spirit breatheth. It is impossible to preserve the double meaning in English. [2170] Acts ii. 13. [2171] Ib. v. 15. [2172] Ps. xxxvi. 8. [2173] John xv. 5. [2174] Acts ii. 25, and 15. [2175] Joel ii. 28. [2176] John iii. 34, 35. [2177] Joel ii. 29. [2178] Is. xl. 9. [2179] Acts ii. 42. [2180] Ib. iii. 1. [2181] Is. xxxv. 6. [2182] Acts iv. 13. [2183] Ib. v. 8. [2184] Ib. v. 32. [2185] Acts v. 12. [2186] Ib. vv. 13-16. [2187] Ib. v. 32. [2188] Acts v. 42. [2189] Ib. vi. 3. [2190] Ib. v. 8. Stephanos, "a crown." [2191] Ib. v. 10. [2192] Ib. v. 15. [2193] Ib. vii. 51. [2194] Ib. v. 55. [2195] Ib. viii. 5. [2196] Ps. lxviii. 31. [2197] Acts ix. 17. [2198] Rom. xv. 19. [2199] kleidouchos. Cf. Matt. xvi. 19; Cat. ii. 19; xi. 3. [2200] Acts x. 11-16. [2201] Ib. v. 19. [2202] Ib. v. 44. [2203] Ib. xi. 24. [2204] Ib. v. 26. Cf. Is. lxv. 15. [2205] Acts xi. 28. [2206] Ib. xiii. 2-4. [2207] Heb. x. 1. [2208] Acts xv. 28, 29. epistole means a message or injunction whether verbal or written. [2209] See note 1 on § 1, above. [2210] Acts xix. 1-6. [2211] Ib. v. 12. [2212] Ib. v. 19. [2213] Ib. xx. 9-12. [2214] Ib. v. 23. [2215] Ib. xxvi. 28. Cyril evidently understood en oligo to mean "almost" (A.V.): but the more correct rendering is, "In brief thou wouldest persuade me to become a Christian." [2216] Ib. xxviii. 25. [2217] 1 Cor. ii. 4. [2218] 2 Cor. i. 22. [2219] Rom. viii. 11. [2220] 2 Tim. i. 14: (R.V.) by the Holy Ghost which dwelleth in us. [2221] 1 Tim. iv. 1. [2222] Eph. iii. 5. [2223] Heb. iii. 7. [2224] Ib. x. 15. [2225] Eph. vi. 17. [2226] Ib. v. 18, 19. [2227] 2 Cor. xiii. 14. [2228] John iv. 24. [2229] Lam. iv. 20. The breath of our nostrils, the anointed of the Lord: referring to the captive king. [2230] John xiv. 25. [2231] The distinct mention in the Creed of three Persons excludes the error of Sabellius in confusing them. Cf. Cat. iv. 8; xvi. 14. [2232] Rom. xi. 20. [2233] Cf. Bingham, Antiquities, II. xx. 9. "When Cyril directs his Catechumens how they should behave themselves at the time of Baptism, when they came either before a bishop, or presbyter, or deacon, in city or village,--this may be presumed a fair intimation that then deacons were ordinarily allowed to minister Baptism in country places." See further `Of the power granted anciently to deacons to baptize,' Bingham, Lay Baptism, I. i. 5. [2234] Eph. i. 13. Cf. Cat. i. 2, 3. [2235] Cf. Procat. § 4: "The water will receive, but the Spirit will not accept thee." [2236] stratologia. Cf. Cat. iii. 3, mellete stratologeisthai. [2237] The same twofold grace is ascribed to Baptism in Cat. xiii. 23: "Thou receivest now remission of thy sins, and the gifts of the King's spiritual bounty." [2238] pragmateia. Cf. 2 Tim. ii. 4; and Luke xix. 13: Trade (pragmateueothe) till I come. [2239] Eph. iv. 30. [2240] Gal. v. 22, 23.


Lecture XVIII.

On the Words, And in One Holy Catholic Church, and in the Resurrection of the Flesh, and the Life Everlasting.

Ezekiel xxxvii. 1

The hand of the Lord was upon me, and carried me out in the Spirit of the Lord, and set me down in the midst of the valley which was full of bones.

1. The root of all good works is the hope of the Resurrection; for the expectation of the recompense nerves the soul to good works. For every labourer is ready to endure the toils, if he sees their reward in prospect; but when men weary themselves for nought, their heart soon sinks as well as their body. A soldier who expects a prize is ready for war, but no one is forward to die for a king who is indifferent about those who serve under him, and bestows no honours on their toils. In like manner every soul believing in a Resurrection is naturally careful of itself; but, disbelieving it, abandons itself to perdition. He who believes that his body shall remain to rise again, is careful of his robe, and defiles it not with fornication; but he who disbelieves the Resurrection, gives himself to fornication, and misuses his own body, as though it were not his own. Faith therefore in the Resurrection of the dead, is a great commandment and doctrine of the Holy Catholic Church; great and most necessary, though gainsaid by many, yet surely warranted by the truth. Greeks contradict it [2241] , Samaritans [2242] disbelieve it, heretics [2243] mutilate it; the contradiction is manifold, but the truth is uniform.

2. Now Greeks and Samaritans together argue against us thus. The dead man has fallen, and mouldered away, and is all turned into worms; and the worms have died also; such is the decay and destruction which has overtaken the body; how then is it to be raised? The shipwrecked have been devoured by fishes, which are themselves devoured. Of them who fight with wild beasts the very bones are ground to powder, and consumed by bears and lions. Vultures and ravens feed on the flesh of the unburied dead, and then fly away over all the world; whence then is the body to be collected? For of the fowls who have devoured it some may chance to die in India, some in Persia, some in the land of the Goths. Other men again are consumed by fire, and their very ashes scattered by rain or wind; whence is the body to be brought together again [2244] ?

3. To thee, poor little feeble man, India is far from the land of the Goths, and Spain from Persia; but to God, who holds the whole earth in the hollow of His hand [2245] , all things are near at hand. Impute not then weakness to God, from a comparison of thy feebleness, but rather dwell on His power [2246] . Does then the sun, a small work of God, by one glance of his beams give warmth to the whole world; does the atmosphere, which God has made, encompass all things in the world; and is God, who is the Creator both of the sun, and of the atmosphere, far off from the world? Imagine a mixture of seeds of different plants (for as thou art weak concerning the faith, the examples which I allege are weak also), and that these different seeds are contained in thy single hand; is it then to thee, who art a man, a difficult or an easy matter to separate what is in thine hand, and to collect each seed according to its nature, and restore it to its own kind? Canst thou then separate the things in thine hand, and cannot God separate the things contained in His hand, and restore them to their proper place? Consider what I say, whether it is not impious to deny it?

4. But further, attend, I pray, to the very principle of justice, and come to thine own case. Thou hast different sorts of servants: and some are good and some bad; thou honourest therefore the good, and smitest the bad. And if thou art a judge, to the good thou awardest praise, and to the transgressors, punishment. Is then justice observed by thee a mortal man; and with God, the ever changeless King of all, is there no retributive justice [2247] ? Nay, to deny it is impious. For consider what I say. Many murderers have died in their beds unpunished; where then is the righteousness of God? Yea, ofttimes a murderer guilty of fifty murders is beheaded once; where then shall he suffer punishment for the forty and nine? Unless there is a judgment and a retribution after this world, thou chargest God with unrighteousness. Marvel not, however, because of the delay of the judgment; no combatant is crowned or disgraced, till the contest is over; and no president of the games ever crowns men while yet striving, but he waits till all the combatants are finished, that then deciding between them he may dispense the prizes and the chaplets [2248] . Even thus God also, so long as the strife in this world lasts, succours the just but partially, but afterwards He renders to them their rewards fully.

5. But if according to thee there is no resurrection of the dead, wherefore condemnest thou the robbers of graves? For if the body perishes, and there is no resurrection to be hoped for, why does the violator of the tomb undergo punishment? Thou seest that though thou deny it with thy lips, there yet abides with thee an indestructible instinct of the resurrection.

6. Further, does a tree after it has been cut down blossom again, and shall man after being cut down blossom no more? And does the corn sown and reaped remain for the threshing floor, and shall man when reaped from this world not remain for the threshing? And do shoots of vine or other trees, when clean cut off and transplanted, come to life and bear fruit; and shall man, for whose sake all these exist, fall into the earth and not rise again? Comparing efforts, which is greater, to mould from the beginning a statue which did not exist, or to recast in the same shape that which had fallen? Is God then, who created us out of nothing, unable to raise again those who exist and are fallen [2249] ? But thou believest not what is written of the resurrection, being a Greek: then from the analogy of nature consider these matters, and understand them from what is seen to this day. Wheat, it may be, or some other kind of grain, is sown; and when the seed has fallen, it dies and rots, and is henceforth useless for food. But that which has rotted, springs up in verdure; and though small when sown, springs up most beautiful. Now wheat was made for us; for wheat and all seeds were created not for themselves, but for our use; are then the things which were made for us quickened when they die, and do we for whom they were made, not rise again after our death [2250] ?

7. The season is winter [2251] , as thou seest; the trees now stand as if they were dead: for where are the leaves of the fig-tree? where are the clusters of the vine? These in winter time are dead, but green in spring; and when the season is come, there is restored to them a quickening as it were from a state of death. For God, knowing thine unbelief, works a resurrection year by year in these visible things; that, beholding what happens to things inanimate, thou mayest believe concerning things animate and rational. Further, flies and bees are often drowned in water, yet after a while revive [2252] ; and species of dormice [2253] , after remaining motionless during the winter, are restored in the summer (for to thy slight thoughts like examples are offered); and shall He who to irrational and despised creatures grants life supernaturally, not bestow it upon us, for whose sake He made them?

8. But the Greeks ask for a resurrection of the dead still manifest; and say that, even if these creatures are raised, yet they had not utterly mouldered away; and they require to see distinctly some creature rise again after complete decay. God knew men's unbelief, and provided for this purpose a bird, called a Phoenix [2254] . This bird, as Clement writes, and as many more relate, being the only one of its kind [2255] , arrives in the land of the Egyptians at periods of five hundred years, shewing forth the resurrection, not in desert places, lest the occurrence of the mystery should remain unknown, but appearing in a notable city [2256] , that men might even handle what would otherwise be disbelieved. For it makes itself a coffin [2257] of frankincense and myrrh and other spices, and entering into this when its years are fulfilled, it evidently dies and moulders away. Then from the decayed flesh of the dead bird a worm is engendered, and this worm when grown large is transformed into a bird;--and do not disbelieve this, for thou seest the offspring of bees also fashioned thus out of worms [2258] , and from eggs which are quite fluid thou hast seen wings and bones and sinews of birds issue. Afterwards the aforesaid Phoenix, becoming fledged and a full-grown Phoenix, like the former one, soars up into the air such as it had died, shewing forth to men a most evident resurrection of the dead. The Phoenix indeed is a wondrous bird, yet it is irrational, nor ever sang praise to God; it flies abroad through the sky, but it knows not who is the Only-begotten Son of God. Has then a resurrection from the dead been given to this irrational creature which knows not its Maker, and to us who ascribe glory to God and keep His commandments, shall there no resurrection be granted?

9. But since the sign of the Phoenix is remote and uncommon, and men still disbelieve our resurrection, take again the proof of this from what thou seest every day. A hundred or two hundred years ago, we all, speakers and hearers, where were we? Know we not the groundwork of the substance of our bodies? Knowest thou not how from weak and shapeless and simple [2259] elements we are engendered, and out of what is simple and weak a living man is formed? and how that weak element being made flesh is changed into strong sinews, and bright eyes, and sensitive nose, and hearing ears, and speaking tongue, and beating heart, and busy hands, and swift feet, and into members of all kinds [2260] ? and how that once weak element becomes a shipwright, and a builder, and an architect, and a craftsman of various arts, and a soldier, and a ruler, and a lawgiver, and a king? Cannot God then, who has made us out of imperfect materials, raise us up when we have fallen into decay? He who thus flames a body out of what is vile, cannot He raise the fallen body again? And He who fashions that which is not, shall He not raise up that which is and is fallen?

10. Take further a manifest proof of the resurrection of the dead, witnessed month by month in the sky and its luminaries [2261] . The body of the moon vanishes completely, so that no part of it is any more seen, yet it fills again, and is restored to its former state [2262] ; and for the perfect demonstration of the matter, the moon at certain revolutions of years suffering eclipse and becoming manifestly changed into blood, yet recovers its luminous body: God having provided this, that thou also, the man who art formed of blood, mightest not refuse credence to the resurrection of the dead, but mightest believe concerning thyself also what thou seest in respect of the moon. These therefore use thou as arguments against the Greeks; for with them who receive not what is written fight thou with unwritten weapons, by reasonings only and demonstrations; for these men know not who Moses is, nor Esaias, nor the Gospels, nor Paul.

11. Turn now to the Samaritans, who, receiving the Law only, allow not the Prophets. To them the text just now read from Ezekiel appears of no force, for, as I said, they admit no Prophets; whence then shall we persuade the Samaritans also? Let us go to the writings of the Law. Now God says to Moses, I am the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob [2263] ; this must mean of those who have being and subsistence. For if Abraham has come to an end, and Isaac and Jacob, then He is the God of those who have no being. When did a king ever say, I am the king of soldiers, whom he had not? When did any display wealth which he possessed not? Therefore Abraham and Isaac and Jacob must subsist, that God may be the God of those who have being; for He said not, "I was their God," but I am. And that there is a judgment, Abraham shews in saying to the Lord, He who judgeth all the earth, shall He not execute judgment [2264] ?

12. But to this the foolish Samaritans object again, and say that the souls possibly of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob continue, but that their bodies cannot possibly rise again. Was it then possible that the rod of righteous Moses should become a serpent, and is it impossible that the bodies of the righteous should live and rise again? And was that done contrary to nature, and shall they not be restored according to nature? Again, the rod of Aaron, though cut off and dead, budded, without the scent of waters [2265] , and though under a roof, sprouted forth into blossoms as in the fields; and though set in dry places, yielded in one night the flowers and fruit of plants watered for many years. Did Aaron's rod rise, as it were, from the dead, and shall not Aaron himself be raised? And did God work wonders in wood, to secure to him the high-priesthood, and will He not vouchsafe a resurrection to Aaron himself? A woman also was made salt contrary to nature; and flesh was turned into salt; and shall not flesh be restored to flesh? Was Lot's wife made a pillar of salt, and shall not Abraham's wife be raised again? By what power was Moses' hand changed, which even within one hour became as snow, and was restored again? Certainly by God's command. Was then His command of force then, and has it no force now?

13. And whence in the beginning came man into being at all, O ye Samaritans, most senseless of all men? Go to the first book of the Scripture, which even you receive; And God formed man of the dust of the ground [2266] . Is dust transformed into flesh, and shall not flesh be again restored to flesh? You must be asked too, whence the heavens had their being, and earth, and seas? Whence sun, and moon, and stars? How from the waters were made the things which fly and swim? And how from earth all its living things? Were so many myriads brought from nothing into being, and shall we men, who bear God's image, not be raised up? Truly this course is full of unbelief, and the unbelievers are much to be condemned; when Abraham addresses the Lord as the Judge of all the earth, and the learners of the Law disbelieve; when it is written that man is of the earth, and the readers disbelieve it [2267] .

14. These questions, therefore, are for them, the unbelievers: but the words of the Prophets are for us who believe. But since some who have also used the Prophets believe not what is written, and allege against us that passage, The ungodly shall not rise up in judgment [2268] , and, For if man go down to the grave he shall come up no more [2269] , and, The dead shall not praise Thee, O Lord [2270] ,--for of what is well written, they have made ill use--it will be well in a cursory manner, and as far as is now possible, to meet them. For if it is said, that the ungodly shall not rise up in judgment, this shews that they shall rise, not in judgment, but in condemnation; for God needs not long scrutiny, but close on the resurrection of the ungodly follows also their punishment. And if it is said, The dead shall not praise Thee, O Lord, this shews, that since in this life only is the appointed time for repentance and pardon, for which they who enjoy it shall praise the Lord, it remains not after death for them who have died in sins to give praise as the receivers of a blessing, but to bewail themselves; for praise belongs to them who give thanks, but to them who are under the scourge, lamentation. Therefore the just then offer praise; but they who have died in sins have no further season for confession [2271] .

15. And respecting that passage, If a man go down to the grave, he shall come up no more, observe what follows, for it is written, He shall come up no more, neither shall he return to his own house. For since the whole world shall pass away, and every house shall be destroyed, how shall he return to his own house, there being henceforth a new and different earth? But they ought to have heard Job, saying, For there is hope of a tree; for if it be cut down, it will sprout again, and the tender branch thereof will not cease. For though the root thereof wax old in the earth, and the stock thereof die in the rocky ground; yet from the scent of water it will bud, and bring forth a crop like a new plant. But man when he dies, is gone; and when mortal man falls, is he no more [2272] ? As it were remonstrating and reproving (for thus ought we to read the words is no more with an interrogation [2273] ); he says since a tree falls and revives, shall not man, for whom all trees were made, himself revive? And that thou mayest not suppose that I am forcing the words, read what follows; for after saying by way of question, When mortal man falls, is he no more? he says, For if a man die, he shall live again [2274] ; and immediately he adds, I will wait till I be made again [2275] ; and again elsewhere, Who shall raise up on the earth my skin, which endures these things [2276] . And Esaias the Prophet says, The dead men shall rise again, and they that are in the tombs shall awake [2277] . And the Prophet Ezekiel now before us, says most plainly, Behold I will open your graves, and bring you up out of your graves [2278] . And Daniel says, Many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall arise, some to everlasting life, and some to everlasting shame [2279] .

16. And many Scriptures there are which testify of the Resurrection of the dead; for there are many other sayings on this matter. But now, by way of remembrance only, we will make a passing mention of the raising of Lazarus on the fourth day; and just allude, because of the shortness of the time, to the widow's son also who was raised, and merely for the sake of reminding you, let me mention the ruler of the synagogue's daughter, and the rending of the rocks, and how there arose many bodies of the saints which slept [2280] , their graves having been opened. But specially be it remembered that Christ has been raised from the dead [2281] . I speak but in passing of Elias, and the widow's son whom he raised; of Elisseus also, who raised the dead twice; once in his lifetime, and once after his death. For when alive he wrought the resurrection by means of his own soul [2282] ; but that not the souls only of the just might be honoured, but that it might be believed that in the bodies also of the just there lies a power, the corpse which was cast into the sepulchre of Elisseus, when it touched the dead body of the prophet, was quickened, and the dead body of the prophet did the work of the soul, and that which was dead and buried gave life to the dead, and though it gave life, yet continued itself among the dead. Wherefore? Lest if Elisseus should rise again, the work should be ascribed to his soul alone; and to shew, that even though the soul is not present, a virtue resides in the body of the saints, because of the righteous soul which has for so many years dwelt in it, and used it as its minister [2283] . And let us not foolishly disbelieve, as though this thing had not happened: for if handkerchiefs and aprons, which are from without, touching the bodies of the diseased, raised up the sick, how much more should the very body of the Prophet raise the dead?

17. And with respect to these instances we might say much, rehearsing in detail the marvellous circumstances of each event: but as you have been already wearied both by the superposed fast of the Preparation [2284] , and by the watchings [2285] , let what has been cursorily spoken concerning them suffice for a while; these words having been as it were sown thinly, that you, receiving the seed like richest ground, may in bearing fruit increase them. But be it remembered, that the Apostles also raised the dead; Peter raised Tabitha in Joppa, and Paul raised Eutychus in Troas; and thus did all the other Apostles, even though the wonders wrought by each have not all been written. Further, remember all the sayings in the first Epistle to the Corinthians, which Paul wrote against them who said, How are the dead raised, and with what manner of body do they come [2286] ? And how he says, For if the dead rise not, then is not Christ raised [2287] ; and how he called them fools [2288] , who believed not; and remember the whole of his teaching there concerning the resurrection of the dead, and how he wrote to the Thessalonians, But we would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which are asleep, that ye sorrow not, even as the rest which have no hope [2289] , and all that follows: but chiefly that, And the dead in Christ shall rise first [2290] .

18. But especially mark this, how very pointedly [2291] Paul says, For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality [2292] . For this body shall be raised not remaining weak as now; but raised the very same body, though by putting on incorruption it shall be fashioned anew [2293] ,--as iron blending with fire becomes fire, or rather as He knows how, the Lord who raises us. This body therefore shall be raised, but it shall abide not such as it now is, but an eternal body; no longer needing for its life such nourishment as now, nor stairs for its ascent, for it shall be made spiritual, a marvellous thing, such as we cannot worthily speak of. Then, it is said, shall the righteous shine forth as the sun [2294] , and the moon, and as the brightness of the firmament [2295] . And God, fore-knowing men's unbelief, has given to little worms in the summer to dart beams of light from their body [2296] , that from what is seen, that which is looked for might be believed; for He who gives in part is able to give the whole also, and He who made the worm radiant with light, will much more illuminate a righteous man.

19. We shall be raised therefore, all with our bodies eternal, but not all with bodies alike: for if a man is righteous, he will receive a heavenly body, that he may be able worthily to hold converse with Angels; but if a man is a sinner, he shall receive an eternal body, fitted to endure the penalties of sins, that he may burn eternally in fire, nor ever be consumed [2297] . And righteously will God assign this portion to either company; for we do nothing without the body. We blaspheme with the mouth, and with the mouth we pray. With the body we commit fornication, and with the body we keep chastity. With the hand we rob, and by the hand we bestow alms; and the rest in like manner. Since then the body has been our minister in all things, it shall also share with us in the future the fruits of the past [2298] .

20. Therefore, brethren, let us be careful of our bodies, nor misuse them as though not our own. Let us not say like the heretics, that this vesture of the body belongs not to us, but let us be careful of it as our own; for we must give account to the Lord of all things done through the body. Say not, none seeth me; think not, that there is no witness of the deed. Human witness oftentimes there is not; but He who fashioned us, an unerring witness, abides faithful in heaven [2299] , and beholds what thou doest. And the stains of sin also remain in the body; for as when a wound has gone deep into the body, even if there has been a healing, the scar remains, so sin wounds soul and body, and the marks of its scars remain in all; and they are removed only from those who receive the washing of Baptism. The past wounds therefore of soul and body God heals by Baptism; against future ones let us one and all jointly guard ourselves, that we may keep this vestment of the body pure, and may not for practising fornication and sensual indulgence or any other sin for a short season, lose the salvation of heaven, but may inherit the eternal kingdom of God; of which may God, of His own grace, deem all of you worthy.

21. Thus much in proof of the Resurrection of the dead; and now, let me again recite to you the profession of the faith, and do you with all diligence pronounce it while I speak [2300] , and remember it.

22. The Faith which we rehearse contains in order the following, "And in one Baptism of repentance for the remission of sins; and in one Holy Catholic Church; and in the resurrection of the flesh; and in eternal life." Now of Baptism and repentance I have spoken in the earliest Lectures; and my present remarks concerning the resurrection of the dead have been made with reference to the Article "In the resurrection of the flesh." Now then let me finish what still remains to be said for the Article, "In one Holy Catholic Church," on which, though one might say many things, we will speak but briefly.

23. It is called Catholic then because it extends over all the world, from one end of the earth to the other; and because it teaches universally and completely one and all the doctrines which ought to come to men's knowledge, concerning things both visible and invisible, heavenly and earthly [2301] ; and because it brings into subjection to godliness the whole race of mankind, governors and governed, learned and unlearned; and because it universally treats and heals the whole class of sins, which are committed by soul or body, and possesses in itself every form of virtue which is named, both in deeds and words, and in every kind of spiritual gifts.

24. And it is rightly named (Ecclesia) because it calls forth [2302] and assembles together all men; according as the Lord says in Leviticus, And make an assembly for all the congregation at the door of the tabernacle of witness [2303] . And it is to be noted, that the word assemble, is used for the first time in the Scriptures here, at the time when the Lord puts Aaron into the High-priesthood. And in Deuteronomy also the Lord says to Moses, Assemble the people unto Me, and let them hear My words, that they may learn to fear Me [2304] . And he again mentions the name of the Church, when he says concerning the Tables, And on them were written all the words which the Lord spake with you in the mount out of the midst of the fire in the day of the Assembly [2305] ; as if he had said more plainly, in the day in which ye were called and gathered together by God. The Psalmist also says, I will give thanks unto Thee, O Lord, in the great Congregation; I will praise Thee among much people [2306] .

25. Of old the Psalmist sang, Bless ye God in the congregations, even the Lord, (ye that are) from the fountains of Israel [2307] . But after the Jews for the plots which they made against the Saviour were cast away from His grace, the Saviour built out of the Gentiles a second Holy Church, the Church of us Christians, concerning which he said to Peter, And upon this rock I will build My Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it [2308] . And David prophesying of both these, said plainly of the first which was rejected, I have hated the Congregation of evil doers [2309] ; but of the second which is built up he says in the same Psalm, Lord, I have loved the beauty of Thine house [2310] ; and immediately afterwards, In the Congregations will I bless thee, O Lord [2311] . For now that the one Church in Judæa is cast off, the Churches of Christ are increased over all the world; and of them it is said in the Psalms, Sing unto the Lord a new song, His praise in the Congregation of Saints [2312] . Agreeably to which the prophet also said to the Jews, I have no pleasure in you, saith the Lord Almighty [2313] ; and immediately afterwards, For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same, My name is glorified among the Gentiles [2314] . Concerning this Holy Catholic Church Paul writes to Timothy, That thou mayest know how thou oughtest to behave thyself in the House of God, which is the Church of the Living God, the pillar and ground of the truth [2315] .

26. But since the word Ecclesia is applied to different things (as also it is written of the multitude in the theatre of the Ephesians, And when he had thus spoken, he dismissed the Assembly [2316] ), and since one might properly and truly say that there is a Church of evil doers, I mean the meetings of the heretics, the Marcionists and Manichees, and the rest, for this cause the Faith has securely delivered to thee now the Article, "And in one Holy Catholic Church;" that thou mayest avoid their wretched meetings, and ever abide with the Holy Church Catholic in which thou wast regenerated. And if ever thou art sojourning in cities, inquire not simply where the Lord's House is (for the other sects of the profane also attempt to call their own dens houses of the Lord), nor merely where the Church is, but where is the Catholic Church. For this is the peculiar name of this Holy Church, the mother of us all, which is the spouse of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-begotten Son of God (for it is written, As Christ also loved the Church and gave Himself for it [2317] , and all the rest,) and is a figure and copy of Jerusalem which is above, which is free, and the mother of us all [2318] ; which before was barren, but now has many children.

27. For when the first Church was cast off, in the second, which is the Catholic Church, God hath set, as Paul says, first Apostles, secondly Prophets, thirdly teachers, then miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, divers kinds of tongues [2319] , and every sort of virtue, I mean wisdom and understanding, temperance and justice, mercy and loving-kindness, and patience unconquerable in persecutions. She, by the armour of righteousness on the right hand and on the left, by honour and dishonour [2320] , in former days amid persecutions and tribulations crowned the holy martyrs with the varied and blooming chaplets of patience, and now in times of peace by God's grace receives her due honours from kings and those who are in high place [2321] , and from every sort and kindred of men. And while the kings of particular nations have bounds set to their authority, the Holy Church Catholic alone extends her power without limit over the whole world; for God, as it is written, hath made her border peace [2322] . But I should need many more hours for my discourse, if I wished to speak of all things which concern her.

28. In this Holy Catholic Church receiving instruction and behaving ourselves virtuously, we shall attain the kingdom of heaven, and inherit eternal life; for which also we endure all toils, that we may be made partakers thereof from the Lord. For ours is no trifling aim, but our endeavour is for eternal life. Wherefore in the profession of the Faith, after the words, "And in the resurrection of the flesh," that is, of the dead (of which we have discoursed), we are taught to believe also "in the life eternal," for which as Christians we are striving.

29. The real and true life then is the Father, who through the Son in the Holy Spirit pours forth as from a fountain His heavenly gifts to all; and through His love to man, the blessings of the life eternal are promised without fail to us men also. We must not disbelieve the possibility of this, but having an eye not to our own weakness but to His power, we must believe; for with God all things are possible. And that this is possible, and that we may look for eternal life, Daniel declares, And of the many righteous shall they shine as the stars for ever and ever [2323] . And Paul says, And so shall we be ever with the Lord [2324] : for the being for ever with the Lord implies the life eternal. But most plainly of all the Saviour Himself says in the Gospel, And these shall go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into life eternal [2325] .

30. And many are the proofs concerning the life eternal. And when we desire to gain this eternal life, the sacred Scriptures suggest to us the ways of gaining it; of which, because of the length of our discourse, the texts we now set before you shall be but few, the rest being left to the search of the diligent. They declare at one time that it is by faith; for it is written, He that believeth on the Son hath eternal life [2326] , and what follows; and again He says Himself, Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth My word, and believeth Him that sent Me, hath eternal life [2327] , and the rest. At another time, it is by the preaching of the Gospel; for He says, that He that reapeth receiveth wages, and gathereth fruit unto life eternal [2328] . At another time, by martyrdom and confession in Christ's name; for He says, And he that hateth his life in this world, shall keep it unto life eternal [2329] . And again, by preferring Christ to riches or kindred; And every one that hath forsaken brethren, or sisters [2330] , and the rest, shall inherit eternal life. Moreover it is by keeping the commandments, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill [2331] , and the rest which follow; as He answered to him that came to Him, and said, Good Master, what shall I do that I may have eternal life [2332] ? But further, it is by departing from evil works, and henceforth serving God; for Paul says, But now being made free from sin, and become servants to God, ye have your fruit unto sanctification, and the end eternal life [2333] .

31. And the ways of finding eternal life are many, though I have passed over them by reason of their number. For the Lord in His loving-kindness has opened, not one or two only, but many doors, by which to enter into the life eternal, that, as far as lay in Him, all might enjoy it without hindrance. Thus much have we for the present spoken within compass concerning the life eternal, which is the last doctrine of those professed in the Faith, and its termination; which life may we all, both teachers and hearers, by God's grace enjoy!

32. And now, brethren beloved, the word of instruction exhorts you all, to prepare your souls for the reception of the heavenly gifts. As regards the Holy and Apostolic Faith delivered to you to profess, we have spoken through the grace of the Lord as many Lectures, as was possible, in these past days of Lent; not that this is all we ought to have said, for many are the points omitted; and these perchance are thought out better by more excellent teachers. But now the holy day of the Passover is at hand, and ye, beloved [2334] in Christ, are to be enlightened by the Laver of regeneration. Ye shall therefore again be taught what is requisite, if God so will; with how great devotion and order you must enter in when summoned, for what purpose each of the holy mysteries of Baptism is performed, and with what reverence and order you must go from Baptism to the Holy Altar of God, and enjoy its spiritual and heavenly mysteries; that your souls being previously enlightened by the word of doctrine, ye may discover in each particular the greatness of the gifts bestowed on you by God.

33. And after Easter's Holy Day of salvation, ye shall come on each successive day, beginning from the second day of the week, after the assembly into the Holy Place of the Resurrection [2335] , and there, if God permit, ye shall hear other Lectures; in which ye shall again be taught the reasons of every thing which has been done, and shall receive the proofs thereof from the Old and New Testaments,--first, of the things done just before Baptism,--next, how ye were cleansed from your sins by the Lord, by the washing of water with the word [2336] ,--and how like Priests ye have become partakers of the Name of Christ,--and how the Seal of the fellowship of the Holy Ghost was given to you,--and concerning the mysteries at the Altar of the New Testament, which have taken their beginning from this place, both what the Divine Scriptures have delivered to us, and what is the power of these mysteries, and how ye must approach them, and when and how receive them;--and at the end of all, how for the time to come ye must behave yourselves worthily of this grace both in words and deeds, that you may all be enabled to enjoy the life everlasting. And these things shall be spoken, if it be God's pleasure.

34. Finally, my brethren, rejoice in the Lord alway; again I will say, Rejoice: for your redemption hath drawn nigh [2337] , and the heavenly host of the Angels is waiting for your salvation. And there is now the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord [2338] ; and the Prophet cries, Ho, ye that thirst, come ye to the water [2339] ; and immediately afterwards, Hearken unto me, and ye shall eat that which is good, and your soul shall delight itself in good things [2340] . And within a little while ye shall hear that excellent lesson which says, Shine, shine, O thou new Jerusalem; for thy light is come [2341] . Of this Jerusalem the prophet hath said, And afterwards thou shalt be called the city of righteousness, Zion, the faithful mother of cities [2342] ; because of the law which went forth out of Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem [2343] , which word has from hence been showered forth on the whole world. To her the Prophet also says concerning you, Lift up thine eyes round about, and behold thy children gathered together [2344] ; and she answers, saying, Who are these that fly as a cloud, and as doves with their young ones to me [2345] ? (clouds because of their spiritual nature, and doves, from their purity). And again, she says, Who knoweth such things? or who hath seen it thus? did ever a land bring forth in one day? or was ever a nation born all at once? for as soon as Zion travailed, she brought forth her children [2346] . And all things shall be filled with joy unspeakable because of the Lord who said, Behold, I create Jerusalem a rejoicing, and her people a joy [2347] .

35. And may these words be spoken now again over you also, Sing, O heavens, and be joyful, O earth; and then; for the Lord hath had mercy on His people, and comforted the lowly of His people [2348] . And this shall come to pass through the loving-kindness of God, who says to you, Behold, I will blot out as a cloud thy transgressions, and as a thick cloud thy sins [2349] . But ye who have been counted worthy of the name of Faithful (of whom it is written, Upon My servants shall be called a new name which shall be blessed on the earth [2350] ,) ye shall say with gladness, Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ [2351] : in whom we have our redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our sins, according to the riches of His grace, wherein He abounded towards us [2352] , and what follows; and again, But God being rich in mercy, for His great love wherewith He loved us, when we were dead through our trespasses, quickened us together with Christ [2353] , and the rest. And again in like manner praise ye the Lord of all good things, saying, But when the kindness of God our Saviour, and His love towards man appeared, not by works of righteousness which we had done, but according to His mercy He saved us, through the washing of regeneration, and the renewing of the Holy Ghost, which He shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour, that being justified by His grace, we might be made heirs, according to hope, of eternal life [2354] . And may God Himself the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, give unto you a spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of Himself, the eyes of your understanding being enlightened [2355] , and may He ever keep you in good works, and words, and thoughts; to Whom be glory, honour, and power, through our Lord Jesus Christ, with the Holy Ghost, now and ever, and unto all the endless ages of eternity. Amen [2356] .


[2241] Acts xvii. 32; xxvi. 24. [2242] Cf. § 12, below. [2243] Tertull. De Resurr. carnis, cap. 2: "They acknowledge a half-resurrection, to wit of the soul only." Compare Iren. I. xxiii. 5, on Menander's assertion that his disciples attain to the resurrection by being baptized into him, and can die no more, but retain immortal youth: ib. xxiv. 5. Basilides taught that "salvation belongs to the soul alone." On the other forms of heresy concerning the Resurrection, see Suicer, Thesaurus, 'Anastasis. [2244] The objections noticed in § 2 are discussed by Athenagoras, De Resurr. capp. ii., iv.--viii.; Tatian. Or. ad Græcos, cap. vi., Tertull. De Resurr. Carn. cap. 63. [2245] Is. xl. 12. [2246] On the argument from God's power compare Athenagoras, De Resurr. c. ix; Justin. M. De Resurr. c. v; Theophil. ad Autolyc. c. xiii.; Iren. V. iii. 2. [2247] The argument from God's justice is treated by Athenagor. De Resurr. c. x. and xx.-xxiii.; Justin M. De Resurr. c. viii. [2248] ten stephanephorian. Roe. Cas. A. Cf. Pind. Ol. viii. 13; Eurip. Electr. 862. [2249] Athenag. De Resurr. c. iii.: "If, when they did not exist, He made at their first formation the bodies of men, and their original elements, He will, when they are dissolved, in whatever manner that may take place, raise them again with equal ease." Lactant. Institt. VII. 23 fin.: Apost. Const. V. 7. [2250] An eloquent statement of the argument for the resurrection from the analogies of nature occurs in Tertull. De Resurr. c. xii. That it was not unknown to Cyril, seems probable from the concluding sentence: "And surely if all things rise again for man, for whom they have been provided--but not for man unless for his flesh also--how can the flesh itself perish utterly, for the sake and service of which nothing is allowed to perish." Tertullian himself was probably indebted, as Bp. Lightfoot suggests, to Clemens. Rom. Epist. ad Corinth. xxiv. Cf. Lactant. Div. Inst. vii. 4. [2251] Cf. Cat. iv. 30. These passages shew that the Lectures were delivered in a year when Easter fell early, as was the case in 348 a.d. [2252] In such cases there is, of course, no actual death. [2253] The muoxos is supposed by the Benedictine Editor to be the toad ("Inventusque cavis bufo," Virg. Georg. i. 185), by others the marmot (mus Alpinus). More probably it is the dormouse (myoxis glis), which stores up provisions for the winter, though it sleeps through much of that season. [2254] The story of the Phoenix as told by Herodotus, II. 73, is as follows: "They have also another sacred bird called the Phoenix, which I myself have never seen, except in pictures. Indeed it is a great rarity even in Egypt, only coming there (according to the accounts of the people of Heliopolis) once in five hundred years, when the old phoenix dies....They tell a story of what this bird does, which does not seem to me to be credible; that he comes all the way from Arabia, and brings the parent bird, all plastered over with myrrh, to the temple of the Sun, and there buries the body." The many variations and fabulous accretions of the story are detailed by Suicer, Thesaurus, Phoinix, and by Bp. Lightfoot in a long and interesting note on Clemens Rom. Epist. ad Cor. xxv. Cyril borrows the story from Clement almost verbally, yet not without some variations, which will be noticed below. The legend with all its miraculous features is told by Ovid, Metamorph. xv. 392, by Claudian, Phoenix, and by the Pseudo-Lactantius in an Elegiac poem, Phoenix, included in Weber's Corpus Poetarum Latinorum, and literally translated in Clark's Ante-Nicene Library. See also Tertull. De Resurr. Carn. c. xiii. [2255] monogenes huparchon, Clem. Rom. ubi supra. Cf. Origen, contra Celsum, iv. 98: Apost. Const. V. 7: "a bird single in its kind, which they say is without a mate, and the only one in the creation." Pseudo-Lactant. v. 30. "Hoc nemus hos lucos avis incolit unica, phoenix, Unica, sed vivit morte refecta suâ" [2256] "By day, in the sight of all" (Clem. R.) The city was Heliopolis, according to Herodotus and the other ancient authors. But Milton, Paradise Lost, V. 272-- `A phoenix gaz'd by all, as that sole bird, When to enshrine his reliques in the Sun's Bright temple to Ægyptian Thebes he flies.' Why does Milton despatch his bird to Thebes rather than Heliopolis?" (Lightfoot). [2257] Ovid, Met. xv. 405: "Fertque pius cunasque suas patriumque sepulcrum." See the Commentaries on Job xxix. 18: I shall die in my nest, and I shall multiply my days as the sand. Margin R.V. Or, the phoenix. [2258] The mode of reproduction in bees was regarded by Aristotle as mysterious, having in it something supernatural (theion): De Generatione Animal. III. 10. 1, 27. In the story of the phoenix Herodotus makes no mention of the "worm." [2259] monoeides. [2260] For a similar argument, see Lactant. De Resurr. c xvii. [2261] Clem. Rom. Epist. ad Cor. xxiv: "Day and night shew unto us the resurrection. The night falleth asleep, and day ariseth; the day departeth, and night cometh on." [2262] Tertull. de Resurr. Carnis, xii.: "Readorned also are the mirrors of the moon, which her monthly course had worn away."..."The whole of this revolving order of things bears witness to the resurrection of the dead." [2263] Ex. iii. 6. Cf. Matt. xxii. 32: "He is not the God of the dead, but of the living." [2264] Gen. xviii. 25. [2265] Job xiv. 9. [2266] Gen. ii. 7. [2267] The anomalous construction hotan gegraptai ....kai apistosin may be explained by the consideration, that the uncertainty expressed in hotan attaches only to the latter Verb. See Winer's Grammar of N.T. Greek, P. III. sect. xlii. 5. [2268] Ps. i. 5: The wicked shall not stand in the judgment (R.V.). [2269] Job vii. 9. [2270] Ps. cxv. 17. [2271] As to the bearing of this passage on the doctrine of Purgatory and prayer for the dead see note on xxiii. 10. [2272] Job xiv. 7-10. [2273] There is no indication of a question in the Septuagint version of the passage, which means in the Hebrew, and where is he? (A.V. and R.V.): Vulg. ubi, quæso, est? [2274] Job xiv. 14: For if a man die, shall he live again? (A.V. and R.V.). By omitting the interrogation here, and inserting it above in v. 10, Cyril exactly inverts the meaning. [2275] Ib. v. 14: (A.V.) All the days of my appointed time (R.V. of my warfare) will I wait, till my change (R.V. release) come. [2276] Job xix. 26: (R.V.) and that he shall stand up at the last upon the earth: and after my skin hath been thus destroyed, &c. Cyril, as usual, follows the Septuagint. [2277] Is. xxvi. 19. [2278] Ezek. xxxvii. 12. [2279] Dan. xii. 2. [2280] Matt. xxvii. 52. [2281] 1 Cor. xv. 20. [2282] 2 Kings iv. 34. [2283] "The worship of relics, and the belief in them as remedies and a protection against evil, originated in the 4th century. They first (?) appear in writings, none of which are earlier than the year 370: but they prevailed rapidly when they had once taken root" (Scudamore, Dict. Chr. Antiq. "Relics," p. 1770). Bingham (Ant. xxiii. 4, § 7) quotes a law of Theodosius, "that no one should remove any dead body that was buried, from one place to another; that no one should sell or buy the relics of Martyrs: but if any one was minded to build over the grave where a martyr was buried, a church to be called a martyrium, in respect to him, he should have liberty to do it." The law wholly failed to suppress a superstition which was sanctioned by such men as Cyril, Basil, Chrysostom, Ambrose, and Augustine. [2284] ek tes hupertheseos tes nesteias tes paraskeues, Ed. Bened. "The ecclesiastical term tes hupertheseos we have rendered, according to the interpretation received among the Latins, by the word `superpositio.' The ancients meant by it a fast continued for two or three days without food. Moreover, since the great week was observed with severer fastings, there were many who passed either the whole week or four, three, or two days, namely the Preparation and the Holy Sabbath (Easter Eve), entirely fasting as is testified by S. Irenæus (Euseb. Hist. V. 24) and others. The continuance of the fast throughout the Friday and Saturday was highly approved, as may be seen from the Apostolical Constitutions, V. 18." The passage referred to is as follows: "Do you therefore fast on the days of the Passover, beginning from the second day of the week until the Preparation and the Sabbath, six days, making use only of bread, and salt, and herbs, and water for your drink: but abstain on these days from wine and flesh, for they are days of lamentation and not of fasting. Do ye who are able fast throughout the Preparation and the Sabbath entirely, tasting nothing till the cockcrowing at night; but if any one is not able to combine them both, let the Sabbath at least be observed." [2285] The fast of the Great Sabbath was to be continued through the night, as prescribed in the Apost. Const. V. 19: "Continue until cock-crowing and break off your fast at dawn of the first day of the week, which is the Lord's day, keeping awake from evening until cock-crowing: and assembling together in the Church, watch and pray and beseech God, in your night-long vigil, reading the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms, until the crowing of the cocks: and after baptizing your Catechumens, and reading the Gospel in fear and trembling, and speaking to the people the things pertaining to salvation, so cease from your mourning." A chief reason for the watching was that Christ was expected to return at the same hour in which He rose. On the meaning of "superposition" see Routh's note on the Synodical Epistle of Irenæus to Victor of Rome (Rell. Sac. ii. p. 45, ss.), and the passage of Dionysius of Alexandria there quoted. [2286] 1 Cor. xv. 35. [2287] Ib. v. 16. [2288] Ib. v. 36. [2289] 1 Thess. iv. 13. [2290] Ib. v. 16. [2291] mononouchi daktulodeikton. [2292] 1 Cor. xv. 53. [2293] metapoieitai. The meaning of this word as applied to the Eucharistic elements is fully discussed, and illustrated from its use by Cyril and other Fathers, by Dr. Pusey (Real Presence, p. 189). [2294] Matt. xiii. 43. [2295] Dan. xii. 3. [2296] Cyril refers to the glow-worm (pugolampis, Aristot. Hist. Animal. V. 19, 14), or some other species of Lampyris (Arist. de Partilus Animal. I. 3. 3). [2297] Cf. Cat. iv. 31. [2298] ton genomenon. With the reading ginomenon (Codd. Monn. Vind.), the meaning will be--"share with us in the future what shall happen to us then." On the argument of this section compare the passages quoted on § 4, note 7. [2299] Ps. lxxxix. 37. [2300] Cat. V. 12, notes 7 and 4. Cf. Plat. Theaet. 204 C: eph' hekastes lexeos, "each time we speak." [2301] Bishop Lightfoot (Ignatius, ad Smyrnæos, viii.) traces the original and later senses of the word "Catholic" very fully. "In its earliest usages, therefore, as a fluctuating epithet of ekklesia, `catholic' means `universal,' as opposed to `individual,' `particular.' In its later sense, as a fixed attribute, it implies orthodoxy as opposed to heresy, conformity as opposed to dissent." Commenting on this passage of Cyril, the Bishop adds that "these two latter reasons, that it (the Church) is comprehensive in doctrine, and that it is universal in application, can only be regarded as secondary glosses." [2302] ekkaleisthai. Cf. Heb. xii. 23. [2303] Lev. viii. 3: ekklesiason. [2304] Deut. iv. 10. [2305] Ib. ix. 10: ekklesias. [2306] Ps. xxxv. 18; Heb. ii. 12. [2307] Ps. lxviii. 26: en ekklesiais. [2308] Matt. xvi. 18. [2309] Ps. xxvi. 5. [2310] Ps. xxvi. 8: Sept. euprepeian . R.V. and A.V. "habitation." [2311] Ib. v. 12. [2312] Ps. cxlix. 1. [2313] Mal. i. 10. [2314] Ib. v. 11. [2315] 1 Tim. iii. 15. [2316] Acts xix. 14. [2317] Eph. v. 25. [2318] Gal. iv. 26. [2319] 1 Cor. xii. 28. [2320] 2 Cor. vi. 7, 8. [2321] 1 Tim. ii. 2. [2322] Ps. cxlvii. 14. [2323] Dan. xii. 3, Sept. [2324] 1 Thess. iv. 17. [2325] Matt. xxv. 46. [2326] John iii. 36. [2327] Ib. v. 24. [2328] Ib. iv. 36. [2329] Ib. xii. 25. [2330] Matt. xix. 29. [2331] Ib. vv. 16-18. [2332] Mark. x. 17. [2333] Rom. vi. 22. [2334] tes humeteras en Christo agapes. Cf. Cat. xvii. 1, note 1. Athan. Epist. ad Epict. § 2: para te se theosebeia. ad Serap. iv. 1: para tes ses eulabeias. [2335] The place meant is not the Church of the Resurrection in which the Service had been held, but the Anastasis or actual cave of the Resurrection, which Constantine had so enlarged by additional works that a discourse to the people could be held there: for Jerome (Epist. 61) relates that Epiphanius had preached in that place in front of the Lord's sepulchre to clergy and people in the hearing of John the Bishop (Ben. Ed.). [2336] Eph. v. 26. [2337] Phil. iii. 1; and iv. 4; Luke xxi. 28. [2338] Is. xl. 3. [2339] Ib. lv. 1. [2340] Ib. v. 2. [2341] Is. lx. 1. [2342] Ib. i. 26. [2343] Ib. ii. 3. [2344] Ib. xlix. 18. [2345] Ib. lx. 8. [2346] Ib. lxvi. 8. [2347] Ib. lxv. 18. [2348] Ib. xlix. 13. [2349] Is. xliv. 22. [2350] Ib. lxv. 15. [2351] Eph. i. 3. [2352] Ib. v. 7. [2353] Ib. ii. 4. [2354] Tit. iii. 4. [2355] Eph. i. 17, 18. [2356] "At the end of this Lecture in the older of the Munich mss. there is the following addition: Many other Lectures were delivered year by year, both before Baptism and after the neophytes had been baptized. But these alone were taken down when spoken and written by some of the earnest students in the year 352 of the advent of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. And in these you will find partly discussions of all the necessary doctrines of the Faith which ought to be known to men, and answers to the Greeks, and to those of the Circumcision, and to the Heresies, and the moral precepts of Christians of all kinds, by the grace of God. The year 352 according to the computation of the Greeks is the year 360 of the Christian era" (Rupp). The date at which the Lectures were delivered cannot possibly be so late as is here stated. See the section of the Introduction on the "Date."

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