Dialogue of Justin, Philosopher and Martyr, with Trypho, a Jew
"Assuredly," said I, "so we too have believed. But the most  have not
taken thought of this whether there be one or more gods, and whether they
have a regard for each one of us or no, as if this knowledge contributed
nothing to our happiness; nay, they moreover attempt to persuade us that God
takes care of the universe with its genera and species, but not of me and
you, and each individually, since otherwise we would surely not need to pray
to Him night and day. But it is not difficult to understand the upshot of
this; for fearlessness and license in speaking result to such as maintain
these opinions, doing and saying whatever they choose, neither dreading
punishment nor hoping for any benefit from God. For how could they? They
affirm that the same things shall always happen; and, further, that I and
you shall again live in like manner, having become neither better men nor
worse. But there are some others,  who, having supposed the soul to be
immortal and immaterial, believe that though they have committed evil they
will not suffer punishment (for that which is immaterial is insensible), and
that the soul, in consequence of its immortality, needs nothing from God."
Text edited by Rev. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson and
first published by T&T Clark in Edinburgh in 1867. Additional
introductionary material and notes provided for the American
edition by A. Cleveland Coxe, 1886.
Chapter I. Introduction.
While I was going about one morning in the walks of the Xystus,  a
certain man, with others in his company, having met me, and said, "Hail, O
philosopher!" And immediately after saying this, he turned round and walked
along with me; his friends likewise followed him. And I in turn having
addressed him, said, "What is there important?"
And he replied, "I was instructed," says he "by Corinthus the Socratic in
Argos, that I ought not to despise or treat with indifference those who
array themselves in this dress  but to show them all kindness, and to
associate with them, as perhaps some advantage would spring from the
intercourse either to some such man or to myself. It is good, moreover, for
both, if either the one or the other be benefited. On this account,
therefore, whenever I see any one in such costume, I gladly approach him,
and now, for the same reason, have I willingly accosted you; and these
accompany me, in the expectation of hearing for themselves something
profitable from you."
"But who are you, most excellent man?" So I replied to him in jest. 
Then he told me frankly both his name and his family. "Trypho," says he, "I
am called; and I am a Hebrew of the circumcision,  and having escaped
from the war  lately carried on there I am spending my days in Greece,
and chiefly at Corinth."
"And in what," said I, "would you be profited by philosophy so much as by
your own lawgiver and the prophets?"
"Why not?" he replied. "Do not the philosophers turn every discourse on God?
and do not questions continually arise to them about His unity and
providence? Is not this truly the duty of philosophy, to investigate the
And he, smiling gently, said, "Tell us your opinion of these matters, and
what idea you entertain respecting God, and what your philosophy is."
 This Xystus, on the authority of Euseb. (iv. 18), was at Ephesus.
There, Philostratus mentions, Appolonius was wont to have
 Euseb. (iv. 11): "Justin, in philosopher's garb, preached the word of
 In jest, no doubt, because quoting a line from Homer, Il., vi. 123.
tis de su essi, pheriste, katathnētōn anthrōpōn.
 [i.e., "A Hebrew of the Hebrews" (Phil. iii. 5).]
 The war instigated by Bar Cochba.
 The opinions of Stoics. Otto.
 The Platonists.
Chapter I. Justin describes his studies in philosophy.
"I will tell you," said I, "what seems to me; for philosophy is, in fact,
the greatest possession, and most honourable before God,  to whom it
leads us and alone commends us; and these are truly holy men who have
bestowed attention on philosophy. What philosophy is, however, and the
reason why it has been sent down to men, have escaped the observation of
most; for there would be neither Platonists, nor Stoics, nor Peripatetics,
nor Theoretics,  nor Pythagoreans, this knowledge being one.  I
wish to tell you why it has become many-headed. It has happened that those
who first handled it [i.e., philosophy], and who were therefore esteemed
illustrious men, were succeeded by those who made no investigations
concerning truth, but only admired the perseverance and self-discipline of
the former, as well as the novelty of the doctrines; and each thought that
to be true which he learned from his teacher: then, moreover, those latter
persons handed down to their successors such things, and others similar to
them; and this system was called by the name of him who was styled the
father of the doctrine. Being at first desirous of personally conversing
with one of these men, I surrendered myself to a certain Stoic; and having
spent a considerable time with him, when I had not acquired any further
knowledge of God (for he did not know himself, and said such instruction was
unnecessary), I left him and betook myself to another, who was called a
Peripatetic, and as he fancied, shrewd. And this man, after having
entertained me for the first few days, requested me to settle the fee, in
order that our intercourse might not be unprofitable. Him, too, for this
reason I abandoned, believing him to be no philosopher at all. But when my
soul was eagerly desirous to hear the peculiar and choice philosophy, I came
to a Pythagorean, very celebrated a man who thought much of his own wisdom.
And then, when I had an interview with him, willing to become his hearer and
disciple, he said, "What then? Are you acquainted with music, astronomy, and
geometry? Do you expect to perceive any of those things which conduce to a
happy life, if you have not been first informed on those points which wean
the soul from sensible objects, and render it fitted for objects which
appertain to the mind, so that it can contemplate that which is honourable
in its essence and that which is good in its essence? Having commended many
of these branches of learning, and telling me that they were necessary, he
dismissed me when I confessed to him my ignorance. Accordingly I took it
rather impatiently, as was to be expected when I failed in my hope, the more
so because I deemed the man had some knowledge; but reflecting again on the
space of time during which I would have to linger over those branches of
learning, I was not able to endure longer procrastination. In my helpless
condition it occurred to me to have a meeting with the Platonists, for their
fame was great. I thereupon spent as much of my time as possible with one
who had lately settled in our city,  a sagacious man, holding a high
position among the Platonists, and I progressed, and made the greatest
improvements daily. And the perception of immaterial things quite
overpowered me, and the contemplation of ideas furnished my mind with wings,
 so that in a little while I supposed that I had become wise; and such
was my stupidity, I expected forthwith to look upon God, for this is the end
of Plato's philosophy.
 hō some omit, and put theō of prev. cl. in this cl., reading so:
"Philosophy is the greatest possession, and most honourable, and introduces
us to God," etc.
 Maranus thinks that those who are different from the masters of
practical philosophy are called Theoretics. I do not know whether they may
be better designated Sceptics or Pyrrhonists. Otto.
 Julian, Orat., vi., says: "Let no one divide our philosophy into many
parts, or cut it into many parts, and especially let him not make many out
of one: for as truth is one, so also is philosophy."
 Either Flavia Neapolis is indicated, or Ephesus. Otto.
 Narrating his progress in the study of Platonic philosophy, he
elegantly employs this trite phrase of Plato s. Otto.
Chapter II. Justin narrates the manner of his conversion.
"And while I was thus disposed, when I wished at one period to be filled
with great quietness, and to shun the path of men, I used to go into a
certain field not far from the sea. And when I was near that spot one day,
which having reached I purposed to be by myself, a certain old man, by no
means contemptible in appearance, exhibiting meek and venerable manners,
followed me at a little distance. And when I turned round to him, having
halted, I fixed my eyes rather keenly on him.
"And he said, "Do you know me?
"I replied in the negative.
"Why, then, said he to me, "do you so look at me?
"I am astonished, I said, "because you have chanced to be in my company
in the same place; for I had not expected to see any man here.
"And he says to me, "I am concerned about some of my household. These are
gone away from me; and therefore have I come to make personal search for
them, if, perhaps, they shall make their appearance somewhere. But why are
you here? said he to me.
"I delight, said I, "in such walks, where my attention is not distracted,
for converse with myself is uninterrupted; and such places are most fit for
"Are you, then, a philologian,  said he, "but no lover of deeds or
of truth? and do you not aim at being a practical man so much as being a
"What greater work, said I, "could one accomplish than this, to show the
reason which governs all, and having laid hold of it, and being mounted upon
it, to look down on the errors of others, and their pursuits? But without
philosophy and right reason, prudence would not be present to any man.
Wherefore it is necessary for every man to philosophize, and to esteem this
the greatest and most honourable work; but other things only of second-rate
or third-rate importance, though, indeed, if they be made to depend on
philosophy, they are of moderate value, and worthy of acceptance; but
deprived of it, and not accompanying it, they are vulgar and coarse to those
who pursue them.
"Does philosophy, then, make happiness? said he, interrupting.
"Assuredly, I said, "and it alone.
"What, then, is philosophy? he says; "and what is happiness? Pray tell
me, unless something hinders you from saying.
"Philosophy, then, said I, "is the knowledge of that which really exists,
and a clear perception of the truth; and happiness is the reward of such
knowledge and wisdom.
"But what do you call God? said he.
"That which always maintains the same nature, and in the same manner, and
is the cause of all other things that, indeed, is God. So I answered him;
and he listened to me with pleasure, and thus again interrogated me:
"Is not knowledge a term common to different matters? For in arts of all
kinds, he who knows any one of them is called a skilful man in the art of
generalship, or of ruling, or of healing equally. But in divine and human
affairs it is not so. Is there a knowledge which affords understanding of
human and divine things, and then a thorough acquaintance with the divinity
and the righteousness of them?
"Assuredly, I replied.
"What, then? Is it in the same way we know man and God, as we know music,
and arithmetic, and astronomy, or any other similar branch?
"By no means, I replied.
"You have not answered me correctly, then, he said; "for some [branches
of knowledge] come to us by learning, or by some employment, while of others
we have knowledge by sight. Now, if one were to tell you that there exists
in India an animal with a nature unlike all others, but of such and such a
kind, multiform and various, you would not know it before you saw it; but
neither would you be competent to give any account of it, unless you should
hear from one who had seen it.
"Certainly not, I said.
"How then, he said, "should the philosophers judge correctly about God,
or speak any truth, when they have no knowledge of Him, having neither seen
Him at any time, nor heard Him?
"But, father, said I, "the Deity cannot be seen merely by the eyes, as
other living beings can, but is discernible to the mind alone, as Plato
says; and I believe him.
 Philology, used here to denote the exercise of reason.
 Philology, used her to denote the exercise of speech. The two-fold
use of logos oratio and ratio ought to be kept in view. The old man uses it
in the former, Justin in the latter, sense.
Chapter IV. The soul of itself cannot see God.
"Is there then, says he, "such and so great power in our mind? Or can a
man not perceive by sense sooner? Will the mind of man see God at any time,
if it is uninstructed by the Holy Spirit?
"Plato indeed says, replied I, "that the mind's eye is of such a nature,
and has been given for this end, that we may see that very Being when the
mind is pure itself, who is the cause of all discerned by the mind, having
no colour, no form, no greatness nothing, indeed, which the bodily eye looks
upon; but It is something of this sort, he goes on to say, that is beyond
all essence, unutterable and inexplicable, but alone honourable and good,
coming suddenly into souls well-dispositioned, on account of their affinity
to and desire of seeing Him.
"What affinity, then, replied he, "is there between us and God? Is the
soul also divine and immortal, and a part of that very regal mind? And even
as that sees God, so also is it attainable by us to conceive of the Deity in
our mind, and thence to become happy?
"Assuredly, I said.
"And do all the souls of all living beings comprehend Him? he asked; "or
are the souls of men of one kind and the souls of horses and of asses of
"No; but the souls which are in all are similar, I answered.
"Then, says he, "shall both horses and asses see, or have they seen at
some time or other, God?
"No, I said; "for the majority of men will not, saving such as shall live
justly, purified by righteousness, and by every other virtue.
"It is not, therefore, said he, "on account of his affinity, that a man
sees God, nor because he has a mind, but because he is temperate and
"Yes, said I; "and because he has that whereby he perceives God.
"What then? Do goats or sheep injure any one?
"No one in any respect, I said.
"Therefore these animals will see [God] according to your account, says
"No; for their body being of such a nature, is an obstacle to them.
"He rejoined, "If these animals could assume speech, be well assured that
they would with greater reason ridicule our body; but let us now dismiss
this subject, and let it be conceded to you as you say. Tell me, however,
this: Does the soul see [God] so long as it is in the body, or after it has
been removed from it?
"So long as it is in the form of a man, it is possible for it, I
continue, "to attain to this by means of the mind; but especially when it
has been set free from the body, and being apart by itself, it gets
possession of that which it was wont continually and wholly to love.
"Does it remember this, then [the sight of God], when it is again in the
"It does not appear to me so, I said.
"What, then, is the advantage to those who have seen [God]? or what has he
who has seen more than he who has not seen, unless he remember this fact,
that he has seen?
"I cannot tell, I answered.
"And what do those suffer who are judged to be unworthy of this
spectacle? said he.
"They are imprisoned in the bodies of certain wild beasts, and this is
"Do they know, then, that it is for this reason they are in such forms,
and that they have committed some sin?
"I do not think so.
"Then these reap no advantage from their punishment, as it seems:
moreover, I would say that they are not punished unless they are conscious
of the punishment.
"Therefore souls neither see God nor transmigrate into other bodies; for
they would know that so they are punished, and they would be afraid to
commit even the most trivial sin afterwards. But that they can perceive that
God exists, and that righteousness and piety are honourable, I also quite
agree with you, said he.
"You are right, I replied.
Chapter V. The soul is not in its own nature immortal.
"These philosophers know nothing, then, about these things; for they
cannot tell what a soul is.
"It does not appear so.
"Nor ought it to be called immortal; for if it is immortal, it is plainly
"It is both unbegotten and immortal, according to some who are styled
"Do you say that the world is also unbegotten?
"Some say so. I do not, however, agree with them.
"You are right; for what reason has one for supposing that a body so
solid, possessing resistance, composite, changeable, decaying, and renewed
every day, has not arisen from some cause? But if the world is begotten,
souls also are necessarily begotten; and perhaps at one time they were not
in existence, for they were made on account of men and other living
creatures, if you will say that they have been begotten wholly apart, and
not along with their respective bodies.
"This seems to be correct.
"They are not, then, immortal?
"No; since the world has appeared to us to be begotten.
"But I do not say, indeed, that all souls die; for that were truly a piece
of good fortune to the evil. What then? The souls of the pious remain in a
better place, while those of the unjust and wicked are in a worse, waiting
for the time of judgment. Thus some which have appeared worthy of God never
die; but others are punished so long as God wills them to exist and to be
"Is what you say, then, of a like nature with that which Plato in Timæus
hints about the world, when he says that it is indeed subject to decay,
inasmuch as it has been created, but that it will neither be dissolved nor
meet with the fate of death on account of the will of God? Does it seem to
you the very same can be said of the soul, and generally of all things? For
those things which exist after  God, or shall at any time exist,
 these have the nature of decay, and are such as may be blotted out
and cease to exist; for God alone is unbegotten and incorruptible, and
therefore He is God, but all other things after Him are created and
corruptible. For this reason souls both die and are punished: since, if they
were unbegotten, they would neither sin, nor be filled with folly, nor be
cowardly, and again ferocious; nor would they willingly transform into
swine, and serpents, and dogs and it would not indeed be just to compel
them, if they be unbegotten. For that which is unbegotten is similar to,
equal to, and the same with that which is unbegotten; and neither in power
nor in honour should the one be preferred to the other, and hence there are
not many things which are unbegotten: for if there were some difference
between them, you would not discover the cause of the difference, though you
searched for it; but after letting the mind ever wander to infinity, you
would at length, wearied out, take your stand on one Unbegotten, and say
that this is the Cause of all. Did such escape the observation of Plato and
Pythagoras, those wise men, I said, "who have been as a wall and fortress
of philosophy to us?
 Otto says: If the old man begins to speak here, then echei must be
read for echein. The received text makes it appear that Justin continues a
quotation, or the substance of it, from Plato.
Chapter VI. These things were unknown to Plato and other philosophers.
"It makes no matter to me, said he, "whether Plato or Pythagoras, or, in
short, any other man held such opinions. For the truth is so; and you would
perceive it from this. The soul assuredly is or has life. If, then, it is
life, it would cause something else, and not itself, to live, even as motion
would move something else than itself. Now, that the soul lives, no one
would deny. But if it lives, it lives not as being life, but as the partaker
of life; but that which partakes of anything, is different from that of
which it does partake. Now the soul partakes of life, since God wills it to
live. Thus, then, it will not even partake [of life] when God does not will
it to live. For to live is not its attribute, as it is God s; but as a man
does not live always, and the soul is not for ever conjoined with the body,
since, whenever this harmony must be broken up, the soul leaves the body,
and the man exists no longer; even so, whenever the soul must cease to
exist, the spirit of life is removed from it, and there is no more soul, but
it goes back to the place from whence it was taken.
Chapter VII. The knowledge of truth to be sought from the prophets alone.
"Should any one, then, employ a teacher? I say, "or whence may any one be
helped, if not even in them there is truth?
"There existed, long before this time, certain men more ancient than all
those who are esteemed philosophers, both righteous and beloved by God, who
spoke by the Divine Spirit, and foretold events which would take place, and
which are now taking place. They are called prophets. These alone both saw
and announced the truth to men, neither reverencing nor fearing any man, not
influenced by a desire for glory, but speaking those things alone which they
saw and which they heard, being filled with the Holy Spirit. Their writings
are still extant, and he who has read them is very much helped in his
knowledge of the beginning and end of things, and of those matters which the
philosopher ought to know, provided he has believed them. For they did not
use demonstration in their treatises, seeing that they were witnesses to the
truth above all demonstration, and worthy of belief; and those events which
have happened, and those which are happening, compel you to assent to the
utterances made by them, although, indeed, they were entitled to credit on
account of the miracles which they performed, since they both glorified the
Creator, the God and Father of all things, and proclaimed His Son, the
Christ [sent] by Him: which, indeed, the false prophets, who are filled with
the lying unclean spirit, neither have done nor do, but venture to work
certain wonderful deeds for the purpose of astonishing men, and glorify the
spirits and demons of error. But pray that, above all things, the gates of
light may be opened to you; for these things cannot be perceived or
understood by all, but only by the man to whom God and His Christ have
Chapter VIII. Justin by his colloquy is kindled with love to Christ.
"When he had spoken these and many other things, which there is no time for
mentioning at present, he went away, bidding me attend to them; and I have
not seen him since. But straightway a flame was kindled in my soul; and a
love of the prophets, and of those men who are friends of Christ, possessed
me; and whilst revolving his words in my mind, I found this philosophy alone
to be safe and profitable. Thus, and for this reason, I am a philosopher.
Moreover, I would wish that all, making a resolution similar to my own, do
not keep themselves away from the words of the Saviour. For they possess a
terrible power in themselves, and are sufficient to inspire those who turn
aside from the path of rectitude with awe; while the sweetest rest is
afforded those who make a diligent practice of them. If, then, you have any
concern for yourself, and if you are eagerly looking for salvation, and if
you believe in God, you may since you are not indifferent to the matter
 become acquainted with the Christ of God, and, after being
initiated,  live a happy life."
When I had said this, my beloved friends  those who were with Trypho
laughed; but he, smiling, says, "I approve of your other remarks, and admire
the eagerness with which you study divine things; but it were better for you
still to abide in the philosophy of Plato, or of some other man, cultivating
endurance, self-control, and moderation, rather than be deceived by false
words, and follow the opinions of men of no reputation. For if you remain in
that mode of philosophy, and live blamelessly, a hope of a better destiny
were left to you; but when you have forsaken God, and reposed confidence in
man, what safety still awaits you? If, then, you are willing to listen to me
(for I have already considered you a friend), first be circumcised, then
observe what ordinances have been enacted with respect to the Sabbath, and
the feasts, and the new moons of God; and, in a word, do all things which
have been written in the law: and then perhaps you shall obtain mercy from
God. But Christ if He has indeed been born, and exists anywhere is unknown,
and does not even know Himself, and has no power until Elias come to anoint
Him, and make Him manifest to all. And you, having accepted a groundless
report, invent a Christ for yourselves, and for his sake are inconsiderately
 According to one interpretation, this clause is applied to God: "If
you believe in God, seeing He is not indifferent to the matter," etc.
Maranus says that it means: A Jew who reads so much of Christ in the Old
Testament, cannot be indifferent to the things which pertain to Him.
 Literally: having become perfect. Some refer the words to perfection
of character; some initiation by baptism.
 Latin version, "beloved Pompeius."
ChapterX. The Christians have not believed groundless stories.
"I excuse and forgive you, my friend," I said. "For you know not what you
say, but have been persuaded by teachers who do not understand the
Scriptures; and you speak, like a diviner, whatever comes into your mind.
But if you are willing to listen to an account of Him, how we have not been
deceived, and shall not cease to confess Him, although men's reproaches be
heaped upon us, although the most terrible tyrant compel us to deny Him, I
shall prove to you as you stand here that we have not believed empty fables,
or words without any foundation but words filled with the Spirit of God, and
big with power, and flourishing with grace."
Then again those who were in his company laughed, and shouted in an unseemly
manner. Then I rose up and was about to leave; but he, taking hold of my
garment, said I should not accomplish that  until I had performed what
I promised. "Let not, then, your companions be so tumultuous, or behave so
disgracefully," I said. "But if they wish, let them listen in silence; or,
if some better occupation prevent them, let them go away; while we, having
retired to some spot, and resting there, may finish the discourse." It
seemed good to Trypho that we should do so; and accordingly, having agreed
upon it, we retired to the middle space of the Xystus. Two of his friends,
when they had ridiculed and made game of our zeal, went off. And when we
were come to that place, where there are stone seats on both sides, those
with Trypho, having seated themselves on the one side, conversed with each
other, some one of them having thrown in a remark about the war waged in
 According to another reading, "I did not leave."
Chapter X. Trypho blames the Christians for this alone the non-observance of
And when they ceased, I again addressed them thus:
"Is there any other matter, my friends, in which we are blamed, than this,
that we live not after the law, and are not circumcised in the flesh as your
forefathers were, and do not observe sabbaths as you do? Are our lives and
customs also slandered among you? And I ask this: have you also believed
concerning us, that we eat men; and that after the feast, having
extinguished the lights, we engage in promiscuous concubinage? Or do you
condemn us in this alone, that we adhere to such tenets, and believe in an
opinion, untrue, as you think?"
"This is what we are amazed at," said Trypho, "but those things about which
the multitude speak are not worthy of belief; for they are most repugnant to
human nature. Moreover, I am aware that your precepts in the so-called
Gospel are so wonderful and so great, that I suspect no one can keep them;
for I have carefully read them. But this is what we are most at a loss
about: that you, professing to be pious, and supposing yourselves better
than others, are not in any particular separated from them, and do not alter
your mode of living from the nations, in that you observe no festivals or
sabbaths, and do not have the rite of circumcision; and further, resting
your hopes on a man that was crucified, you yet expect to obtain some good
thing from God, while you do not obey His commandments. Have you not read,
that that soul shall be cut off from his people who shall not have been
circumcised on the eighth day? And this has been ordained for strangers and
for slaves equally. But you, despising this covenant rashly, reject the
consequent duties, and attempt to persuade yourselves that you know God,
when, however, you perform none of those things which they do who fear God.
If, therefore, you can defend yourself on these points, and make it manifest
in what way you hope for anything whatsoever, even though you do not observe
the law, this we would very gladly hear from you, and we shall make other
Chapter XI. The law abrogated; the New Testament promised and given by God.
"There will be no other God, O Trypho, nor was there from eternity any other
existing" (I thus addressed him), "but He who made and disposed all this
universe. Nor do we think that there is one God for us, another for you, but
that He alone is God who led your fathers out from Egypt with a strong hand
and a high arm. Nor have we trusted in any other (for there is no other),
but in Him in whom you also have trusted, the God of Abraham, and of Isaac,
and of Jacob. But we do not trust through Moses or through the law; for then
we would do the same as yourselves. But now  (for I have read that
there shall be a final law, and a covenant, the chiefest of all, which it is
now incumbent on all men to observe, as many as are seeking after the
inheritance of God. For the law promulgated on Horeb is now old, and belongs
to yourselves alone; but this is for all universally. Now, law placed
against law has abrogated that which is before it, and a covenant which
comes after in like manner has put an end to the previous one; and an
eternal and final law namely, Christ has been given to us, and the covenant
is trustworthy, after which there shall be no law, no commandment, no
ordinance. Have you not read this which Isaiah says: "Hearken unto Me,
hearken unto Me, my people; and, ye kings, give ear unto Me: for a law shall
go forth from Me, and My judgment shall be for a light to the nations. My
righteousness approaches swiftly, and My salvation shall go forth, and
nations shall trust in Mine arm?  And by Jeremiah, concerning this
same new covenant, He thus speaks: "Behold, the days come, saith the Lord,
that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house
of Judah; not according to the covenant which I made with their fathers, in
the day that I took them by the hand, to bring them out of the land of
Egypt  ). If, therefore, God proclaimed a new covenant which was to
be instituted, and this for a light of the nations, we see and are persuaded
that men approach God, leaving their idols and other unrighteousness,
through the name of Him who was crucified, Jesus Christ, and abide by their
confession even unto death, and maintain piety. Moreover, by the works and
by the attendant miracles, it is possible for all to understand that He is
the new law, and the new covenant, and the expectation of those who out of
every people wait for the good things of God. For the true spiritual Israel,
and descendants of Judah, Jacob, Isaac, and Abraham (who in uncircumcision
was approved of and blessed by God on account of his faith, and called the
father of many nations), are we who have been led to God through this
crucified Christ, as shall be demonstrated while we proceed.
 Editors suppose that Justin inserts a long parenthesis here, from
"for" to "Egypt." It is more natural to take this as an anacoluthon. Justin
was going to say, "But now we trust through Christ," but feels that such a
statement requires preliminary explanation.
 According to the LXX, Isa. li. 4, 5.
 Jer. xxxi. 31, 32.
Chapter XII. The Jews violate the eternal law, and interpret ill that of
I also adduced another passage in which Isaiah exclaims: "Hear My words,
and your soul shall live; and I will make an everlasting covenant with you,
even the sure mercies of David. Behold, I have given Him for a witness to
the people: nations which know not Thee shall call on Thee; peoples who know
not Thee shall escape to Thee, because of thy God, the Holy One of Israel;
for He has glorified Thee.  This same law you have despised, and His
new holy covenant you have slighted; and now you neither receive it, nor
repent of your evil deeds. "For your ears are closed, your eyes are blinded,
and the heart is hardened, Jeremiah  has cried; yet not even then do
you listen. The Lawgiver is present, yet you do not see Him; to the poor the
Gospel is preached, the blind see, yet you do not understand. You have now
need of a second circumcision, though you glory greatly in the flesh. The
new law requires you to keep perpetual sabbath, and you, because you are
idle for one day, suppose you are pious, not discerning why this has been
commanded you: and if you eat unleavened bread, you say the will of God has
been fulfilled. The Lord our God does not take pleasure in such observances:
if there is any perjured person or a thief among you, let him cease to be
so; if any adulterer, let him repent; then he has kept the sweet and true
sabbaths of God. If any one has impure hands, let him wash and be pure.
 Isa. lv. 3 ff. according to LXX.
 Not in Jeremiah; some would insert, in place of Jeremiah, Isaiah or
John. [St. John xii. 40; Isa. vi. 10; where see full references in the
English margin. But comp. Jer. vii. 24, 26, Jer. xi. 8, and Jer. xvii. 23.]
Chapter XIII. Isaiah teaches that sins are forgiven through Christ's blood.
"For Isaiah did not send you to a bath, there to wash away murder and other
sins, which not even all the water of the sea were sufficient to purge; but,
as might have been expected, this was that saving bath of the olden time
which followed  those who repented, and who no longer were purified by
the blood of goats and of sheep, or by the ashes of an heifer, or by the
offerings of fine flour, but by faith through the blood of Christ, and
through His death, who died for this very reason, as Isaiah himself said,
when he spake thus: "The Lord shall make bare His holy arm in the eyes of
all the nations, and all the nations and the ends of the earth shall see the
salvation of God. Depart ye, depart ye, depart ye,  go ye out from
thence, and touch no unclean thing; go ye out of the midst of her, be ye
clean that bear the vessels of the Lord, for  ye go not with haste.
For the Lord shall go before you; and the Lord, the God of Israel, shall
gather you together. Behold, my servant shall deal prudently; and He shall
be exalted, and be greatly glorified. As many were astonished at Thee, so
Thy form and Thy glory shall be marred more than men. So shall many nations
be astonished at Him, and the kings shall shut their mouths; for that which
had not been told them concerning Him shall they see, and that which they
had not heard shall they consider. Lord, who hath believed our report? and
to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed? We have announced Him as a child
before Him, as a root in a dry ground. He hath no form or comeliness, and
when we saw Him He had no form or beauty; but His form is dishonoured, and
fails more than the sons of men. He is a man in affliction, and acquainted
with bearing sickness, because His face has been turned away; He was
despised, and we esteemed Him not. He bears our sins, and is distressed for
us; and we esteemed Him to be in toil and in affliction, and in evil
treatment. But He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our
iniquities; the chastisement of our peace was upon Him. With His stripes we
are healed. All we, like sheep, have gone astray. Every man has turned to
his own way; and the Lord laid on Him our iniquities, and by reason of His
oppression He opens not His mouth. He was brought as a sheep to the
slaughter; and as a lamb before her shearer is dumb, so He openeth not His
mouth. In His humiliation His judgment was taken away. And who shall declare
His generation? For His life is taken from the earth. Because of the
transgressions of my people He came unto death. And I will give the wicked
for His grave, and the rich for His death, because He committed no iniquity,
and deceit was not found in His mouth. And the Lord wills to purify Him from
affliction. If he has been given for sin, your soul shall see a long-lived
seed. And the Lord wills to take His soul away from trouble, to show Him
light, and to form Him in understanding, to justify the righteous One who
serves many well. And He shall bear our sins; therefore He shall inherit
many, and shall divide the spoil of the strong, because His soul was
delivered to death; and He was numbered with the transgressors, and He bare
the sins of many, and was delivered for their transgression. Sing, O barren,
who bearest not; break forth and cry aloud, thou who dost not travail in
pain: for more are the children of the desolate than the children of the
married wife. For the Lord said, Enlarge the place of thy tent and of thy
curtains; fix them, spare not, lengthen thy cords, and strengthen thy
stakes; stretch forth to thy right and thy left; and thy seed shall inherit
the Gentiles, and thou shalt make the desolate cities to be inherited. Fear
not because thou art ashamed, neither be thou confounded because thou hast
been reproached; for thou shalt forget everlasting shame, and shalt not
remember the reproach of thy widowhood, because the Lord has made a name for
Himself, and He who has redeemed thee shall be called through the whole
earth the God of Israel. The Lord has called thee as  a woman forsaken
and grieved in spirit, as  a woman hated from her youth. 
 1 Cor. x. 4. Otto reads: which he mentioned and which was for those
 Three times in Justin, not in LXX.
 Deviating slightly from LXX., omitting a clause.
 LXX. "not as," etc.
 LXX. "not as," etc.
 Isa. lii. 10 ff. following LXX. on to liv. 6.
Chapter XIV. Righteousness is not placed in Jewish rites, but in the
conversion of the heart given in baptism by Christ.
"By reason, therefore, of this laver of repentance and knowledge of God,
which has been ordained on account of the transgression of God's people, as
Isaiah cries, we have believed, and testify that that very baptism which he
announced is alone able to purify those who have repented; and this is the
water of life. But the cisterns which you have dug for yourselves are broken
and profitless to you. For what is the use of that baptism which cleanses
the flesh and body alone? Baptize the soul from wrath and from covetousness,
from envy, and from hatred; and, lo! the body is pure. For this is the
symbolic significance of unleavened bread, that you do not commit the old
deeds of wicked leaven. But you have understood all things in a carnal
sense, and you suppose it to be piety if you do such things, while your
souls are filled with deceit, and, in short, with every wickedness.
Accordingly, also, after the seven days of eating unleavened bread, God
commanded them to mingle new leaven, that is, the performance of other
works, and not the imitation of the old and evil works. And because this is
what this new Lawgiver demands of you, I shall again refer to the words
which have been quoted by me, and to others also which have been passed
over. They are related by Isaiah to the following effect: "Hearken to me,
and your soul shall live; and I will make with you an everlasting covenant,
even the sure mercies of David. Behold, I have given Him for a witness to
the people, a leader and commander to the nations. Nations which know not
Thee shall call on Thee; and peoples who know not Thee shall escape unto
Thee, because of Thy God, the Holy One of Israel, for He has glorified Thee.
Seek ye God; and when you find Him, call on Him, so long as He may be nigh
you. Let the wicked forsake his ways, and the unrighteous man his thoughts;
and let him return unto the Lord, and he will obtain mercy, because He will
abundantly pardon your sins. For my thoughts are not as your thoughts,
neither are my ways as your ways; but as far removed as the heavens are from
the earth, so far is my way removed from your way, and your thoughts from my
thoughts. For as the snow or the rain descends from heaven, and shall not
return till it waters the earth, and makes it bring forth and bud, and gives
seed to the sower and bread for food, so shall My word be that goeth forth
out of My mouth: it shall not return until it shall have accomplished all
that I desired, and I shall make My commandments prosperous. For ye shall go
out with joy, and be taught with gladness. For the mountains and the hills
shall leap while they expect you, and all the trees of the fields shall
applaud with their branches: and instead of the thorn shall come up the
cypress, and instead of the brier shall come up the myrtle. And the Lord
shall be for a name, and for an everlasting sign, and He shall not fail!
 Of these and such like words written by the prophets, O Trypho," said
I, "some have reference to the first advent of Christ, in which He is
preached as inglorious, obscure, and of mortal appearance: but others had
reference to His second advent, when He shall appear in glory and above the
clouds; and your nation shall see and know Him whom they have pierced, as
Hosea, one of the twelve prophets, and Daniel, foretold.
 Isa. lv. 3 to end.
Chapter XV. In what the true fasting consists.
"Learn, therefore, to keep the true fast of God, as Isaiah says, that you
may please God. Isaiah has cried thus: "Shout vehemently, and do not spare:
lift up thy voice as with a trumpet, and show My people their
transgressions, and the house of Jacob their sins. They seek Me from day to
day, and desire to know My ways, as a nation that did righteousness, and
forsook not the judgment of God. They ask of Me now righteous judgment, and
desire to draw near to God, saying, Wherefore have we fasted, and Thou seest
not? and afflicted our souls, and Thou hast not known? Because in the days
of your fasting you find your own pleasure, and oppress all those who are
subject to you. Behold, ye fast for strifes and debates, and smite the
humble with your fists. Why do ye fast for Me, as to-day, so that your voice
is heard aloud? This is not the fast which I have chosen, the day in which a
man shall afflict his soul. And not even if you bend your neck like a ring,
or clothe yourself in sackcloth and ashes, shall you call this a fast, and a
day acceptable to the Lord. This is not the fast which I have chosen, saith
the Lord; but loose every unrighteous bond, dissolve the terms of wrongous
covenants, let the oppressed go free, and avoid every iniquitous contract.
Deal thy bread to the hungry, and lead the homeless poor under thy dwelling;
if thou seest the naked, clothe him; and do not hide thyself from thine own
flesh. Then shall thy light break forth as the morning, and thy garments
 shall rise up quickly: and thy righteousness shall go before thee,
and the glory of God shall envelope thee. Then shalt thou cry, and the Lord
shall hear thee: while thou art speaking, He will say, Behold, I am here.
And if thou take away from thee the yoke, and the stretching out of the
hand, and the word of murmuring; and shalt give heartily thy bread to the
hungry, and shalt satisfy the afflicted soul; then shall thy light arise in
the darkness, and thy darkness shall be as the noon-day: and thy God shall
be with thee continually, and thou shalt be satisfied according as thy soul
desireth, and thy bones shall become fat, and shall be as a watered garden,
and as a fountain of water, or as a land where water fails not. 
"Circumcise, therefore, the foreskin of your heart, as the words of God in
all these passages demand."
 himatia; some read iamata, as in LXX., "thy health," the better
 Isa. lviii. 1-12.
Chapter XVI. Circumcision given as a sign, that the Jews might be driven away
for their evil deeds done to Christ and the Christians.
"And God himself proclaimed by Moses, speaking thus: "And circumcise the
hardness of your hearts, and no longer stiffen the neck. For the Lord your
God is both Lord of lords, and a great, mighty, and terrible God, who
regardeth not persons, and taketh not rewards.  And in Leviticus:
"Because they have transgressed against Me, and despised Me, and because
they have walked contrary to Me, I also walked contrary to them, and I shall
cut them off in the land of their enemies. Then shall their uncircumcised
heart be turned.  For the circumcision according to the flesh, which
is from Abraham, was given for a sign; that you may be separated from other
nations, and from us; and that you alone may suffer that which you now
justly suffer; and that your land may be desolate, and your cities burned
with fire; and that strangers may eat your fruit in your presence, and not
one of you may go up to Jerusalem.  For you are not recognised among
the rest of men by any other mark than your fleshly circumcision. For none
of you, I suppose, will venture to say that God neither did nor does foresee
the events, which are future, nor foreordained his deserts for each one.
Accordingly, these things have happened to you in fairness and justice, for
you have slain the Just One, and His prophets before Him; and now you reject
those who hope in Him, and in Him who sent Him God the Almighty and Maker of
all things cursing in your synagogues those that believe on Christ. For you
have not the power to lay hands upon us, on account of those who now have
the mastery. But as often as you could, you did so. Wherefore God, by
Isaiah, calls to you, saying, "Behold how the righteous man perished, and no
one regards it. For the righteous man is taken away from before iniquity.
His grave shall be in peace, he is taken away from the midst. Draw near
hither, ye lawless children, seed of the adulterers, and children of the
whore. Against whom have you sported yourselves, and against whom have you
opened the mouth, and against whom have you loosened the tongue? 
 Deut. x. 16 f.
 Lev. xxvi. 40, 41.
 See Apol., i. 47. The Jews [By Hadrian's recent edict] were
prohibited by law from entering Jerusalem on pain of death. And so Justin
sees in circumcision their own punishment.
 Isa. lvii. 1-4.
Chapter XVII. The Jews sent persons through the whole earth to spread
calumnies on Christians.
"For other nations have not inflicted on us and on Christ this wrong to such
an extent as you have, who in very deed are the authors of the wicked
prejudice against the Just One, and us who hold by Him. For after that you
had crucified Him, the only blameless and righteous Man, through whose
stripes those who approach the Father by Him are healed, when you knew that
He had risen from the dead and ascended to heaven, as the prophets foretold
He would, you not only did not repent of the wickedness which you had
committed, but at that time you selected and sent out from Jerusalem chosen
men through all the land to tell that the godless heresy of the Christians
had sprung up, and to publish those things which all they who knew us not
speak against us. So that you are the cause not only of your own
unrighteousness, but in fact of that of all other men. And Isaiah cries
justly: "By reason of you, My name is blasphemed among the Gentiles. 
And: "Woe unto their soul! because they have devised an evil device against
themselves, saying, Let us bind the righteous, for he is distasteful to us.
Therefore they shall eat the fruit of their doings. Woe unto the wicked!
evil shall be rendered to him according to the works of his hands. And
again, in other words:  "Woe unto them that draw their iniquity as
with a long cord, and their transgressions as with the harness of a
heifer's yoke: who say, Let his speed come near; and let the counsel of the
Holy One of Israel come, that we may know it. Woe unto them that call evil
good, and good evil; that put light for darkness, and darkness for light;
that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter!  Accordingly, you
displayed great zeal in publishing throughout all the land bitter and dark
and unjust things against the only blameless and righteous Light sent by
For He appeared distasteful to you when He cried among you, "It is written,
My house is the house of prayer; but ye have made it a den of thieves!
 He overthrew also the tables of the money-changers in the temple, and
exclaimed, "Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye pay
tithe of mint and rue, but do not observe the love of God and justice. Ye
whited sepulchres! appearing beautiful outward, but are within full of dead
men's bones.  And to the Scribes, "Woe unto you, Scribes! for ye have
the keys, and ye do not enter in yourselves, and them that are entering in
ye hinder; ye blind guides!
 Isa. lii. 5.
 Isa. iii. 9 ff.
 Isa. v. 18, 20.
 Matt. xxi. 13.
 This and following quotation taken promiscuously from Matt. xxiii.
and Luke xi.
Chapter XVIII. Christians would observe the law, if they did not know why it
"For since you have read, O Trypho, as you yourself admitted, the doctrines
taught by our Saviour, I do not think that I have done foolishly in adding
some short utterances of His to the prophetic statements. Wash therefore,
and be now clean, and put away iniquity from your souls, as God bids you be
washed in this laver, and be circumcised with the true circumcision. For we
too would observe the fleshly circumcision, and the Sabbaths, and in short
all the feasts, if we did not know for what reason they were enjoined
you, namely, on account of your transgressions and the hardness of your
hearts. For if we patiently endure all things contrived against us by wicked
men and demons, so that even amid cruelties unutterable, death and torments,
we pray for mercy to those who inflict such things upon us, and do not wish
to give the least retort to any one, even as the new Lawgiver commanded us:
how is it, Trypho, that we would not observe those rites which do not harm
us, I speak of fleshly circumcision, and Sabbaths, and feasts?
Chapter XIX. Circumcision unknown before Abraham. The law was given by Moses
on account of the hardness of their hearts.
"It is this about which we are at a loss, and with reason, because, while
you endure such things, you do not observe all the other customs which we
are now discussing."
"This circumcision is not, however, necessary for all men, but for you
alone, in order that, as I have already said, you may suffer these things
which you now justly suffer. Nor do we receive that useless baptism of
cisterns, for it has nothing to do with this baptism of life. Wherefore also
God has announced that you have forsaken Him, the living fountain, and
digged for yourselves broken cisterns which can hold no water. Even you, who
are the circumcised according to the flesh, have need of our circumcision;
but we, having the latter, do not require the former. For if it were
necessary, as you suppose, God would not have made Adam uncircumcised; would
not have had respect to the gifts of Abel when, being uncircumcised, he
offered sacrifice and would not have been pleased with the uncircumcision of
Enoch, who was not found, because God had translated him. Lot, being
uncircumcised, was saved from Sodom, the angels themselves and the Lord
sending him out. Noah was the beginning of our race; yet, uncircumcised,
along with his children he went into the ark. Melchizedek, the priest of the
Most High, was uncircumcised; to whom also Abraham the first who received
circumcision after the flesh, gave tithes, and he blessed him: after whose
order God declared, by the mouth of David, that He would establish the
everlasting priest. Therefore to you alone this circumcision was necessary,
in order that the people may be no people, and the nation no nation; as also
Hosea,  one of the twelve prophets, declares. Moreover, all those
righteous men already mentioned, though they kept no Sabbaths,  were
pleasing to God; and after them Abraham with all his descendants until
Moses, under whom your nation appeared unrighteous and ungrateful to God,
making a calf in the wilderness: wherefore God, accommodating Himself to
that nation, enjoined them also to offer sacrifices, as if to His name, in
order that you might not serve idols. Which precept, however, you have not
observed; nay, you sacrificed your children to demons. And you were
commanded to keep Sabbaths, that you might retain the memorial of God. For
His word makes this announcement, saying, "That ye may know that I am God
who redeemed you. 
 Hos. i. and Hos. ii.
 [They did not Sabbatize; but Justin does not deny what is implied in
many Scriptures, that they marked the week, and noted the seventh day. Gen.
ii. 3, Gen. viii. 10, 12.]
 Ezek. xx. 12.
Chapter XX. Why choice of meats was prescribed.
"Moreover, you were commanded to abstain from certain kinds of food, in
order that you might keep God before your eyes while you ate and drank,
seeing that you were prone and very ready to depart from His knowledge, as
Moses also affirms: "The people ate and drank, and rose up to play. 
And again: "Jacob ate, and was satisfied, and waxed fat; and he who was
beloved kicked: he waxed fat, he grew thick, he was enlarged, and he forsook
God who had made him.  For it was told you by Moses in the book of
Genesis, that God granted to Noah, being a just man, to eat of every animal,
but not of flesh with the blood, which is dead."  And as he was ready
to say, "as the green herbs," I anticipated him: "Why do you not receive
this statement, "as the green herbs, in the sense in which it was given by
God, to wit, that just as God has granted the herbs for sustenance to man,
even so has He given the animals for the diet of flesh? But, you say, a
distinction was laid down thereafter to Noah, because we do not eat certain
herbs. As you interpret it, the thing is incredible. And first I shall not
occupy myself with this, though able to say and to hold that every vegetable
is food, and fit to be eaten. But although we discriminate between green
herbs, not eating all, we refrain from eating some, not because they are
common or unclean, but because they are bitter, or deadly, or thorny. But we
lay hands on and take of all herbs which are sweet, very nourishing and
good, whether they are marine or land plants. Thus also God by the mouth of
Moses commanded you to abstain from unclean and improper  and violent
animals: when, moreover, though you were eating manna in the desert, and
were seeing all those wondrous acts wrought for you by God, you made and
worshipped the golden calf.  Hence he cries continually, and justly,
"They are foolish children, in whom is no faith. 
 Ex. xxxii. 6.
 Deut. xxxii. 15.
 nekrimaion, or "dieth of itself;" com. reading was ekrimaion, which
was supposed to be derived from ekriptō, and to mean "which ought to be cast
out:" the above was suggested by H. Stephanus.
 aoikos kai paranomos.
 "The reasoning of St. Justin is not quite clear to interpreters. As
we abstain from some herbs, not because they are forbidden by law, but
because they are deadly; so the law of abstinence from improper and violent
animals was imposed not on Noah, but on you as a yoke on account of your
 Deut. xxxii. 6, 20.
Chapter XXI. Sabbaths were instituted on account of the people's sins, and
not for a work of righteousness.
"Moreover, that God enjoined you to keep the Sabbath, and impose on you
other precepts for a sign, as I have already said, on account of your
unrighteousness, and that of your fathers, as He declares that for the sake
of the nations, lest His name be profaned among them, therefore He permitted
some of you to remain alive, these words of His can prove to you: they are
narrated by Ezekiel thus: "I am the Lord your God; walk in My statutes, and
keep My judgments, and take no part in the customs of Egypt; and hallow My
Sabbaths; and they shall be a sign between Me and you, that ye may know that
I am the Lord your God. Notwithstanding ye rebelled against Me, and your
children walked not in My statutes, neither kept My judgments to do them:
which if a man do, he shall live in them. But they polluted My Sabbaths. And
I said that I would pour out My fury upon them in the wilderness, to
accomplish My anger upon them; yet I did it not; that My name might not be
altogether profaned in the sight of the heathen. I led them out before their
eyes, and I lifted up Mine hand unto them in the wilderness, that I would
scatter them among the heathen, and disperse them through the countries;
because they had not executed My judgments, but had despised My statutes,
and polluted My Sabbaths, and their eyes were after the devices of their
fathers. Wherefore I gave them also statutes which were not good, and
judgments whereby they shall not live. And I shall pollute them in their own
gifts, that I may destroy all that openeth the womb, when I pass through
 Ezek. xx. 19-26.
Chapter XXII. So also were sacrifices and oblations.
"And that you may learn that it was for the sins of your own nation, and for
their idolatries and not because there was any necessity for such
sacrifices, that they were likewise enjoined, listen to the manner in which
He speaks of these by Amos, one of the twelve, saying: "Woe unto you that
desire the day of the Lord! to what end is this day of the Lord for you? It
is darkness and not light, as when a man flees from the face of a lion, and
a bear meets him; and he goes into his house, and leans his hands against
the wall, and the serpent bites him. Shall not the day of the Lord be
darkness and not light, even very dark, and no brightness in it? I have
hated, I have despised your feast-days, and I will not smell in your solemn
assemblies: wherefore, though ye offer Me your burnt-offerings and
sacrifices, I will not accept them; neither will I regard the
peace-offerings of your presence. Take thou away from Me the multitude of
thy songs and psalms; I will not hear thine instruments. But let judgment be
rolled down as water, and righteousness as an impassable torrent. Have ye
offered unto Me victims and sacrifices in the wilderness, O house of Israel?
saith the Lord. And have ye taken up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the star
of your god Raphan, the figures which ye made for yourselves? And I will
carry you away beyond Damascus, saith the Lord, whose name is the Almighty
God. Woe to them that are at ease in Zion, and trust in the mountain of
Samaria: those who are named among the chiefs have plucked away the
first-fruits of the nations: the house of Israel have entered for
themselves. Pass all of you unto Calneh, and see; and from thence go ye unto
Hamath the great, and go down thence to Gath of the strangers, the noblest
of all these kingdoms, if their boundaries are greater than your boundaries.
Ye who come to the evil day, who are approaching, and who hold to false
Sabbaths; who lie on beds of ivory, and are at ease upon their couches; who
eat the lambs out of the flock, and the sucking calves out of the midst of
the herd; who applaud at the sound of the musical instruments; they reckon
them as stable, and not as fleeting, who drink wine in bowls, and anoint
themselves with the chief ointments, but they are not grieved for the
affliction of Joseph. Wherefore now they shall be captives, among the first
of the nobles who are carried away; and the house of evil-doers shall be
removed, and the neighing of horses shall be taken away from Ephraim.
 And again by Jeremiah: "Collect your flesh, and sacrifices, and eat:
for concerning neither sacrifices nor libations did I command your fathers
in the day in which I took them by the hand to lead them out of Egypt.
 And again by David, in the forty-ninth Psalm, He thus said: "The God
of gods, the Lord hath spoken, and called the earth, from the rising of the
sun unto the going down thereof. Out of Zion is the perfection of His
beauty. God, even our God, shall come openly, and shall not keep silence.
Fire shall burn before Him, and it shall be very tempestuous round about
Him. He shall call to the heavens above, and to the earth, that He may judge
His people. Assemble to Him His saints; those that have made a covenant with
Him by sacrifices. And the heavens shall declare His righteousness, for God
is judge. Hear, O My people, and I will speak to thee; O Israel, and I will
testify to thee, I am God, even thy God. I will not reprove thee for thy
sacrifices; thy burnt-offerings are continually before me. I will take no
bullocks out of thy house, nor he-goats out of thy folds: for all the beasts
of the field are Mine, the herds and the oxen on the mountains. I know all
the fowls of the heavens, and the beauty of the field is Mine. If I were
hungry, I would not tell thee; for the world is Mine, and the fulness
thereof. Will I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats? Offer
unto God the sacrifice of praise, and pay thy vows unto the Most High, and
call upon Me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt
glorify Me. But unto the wicked God saith, What hast thou to do to declare
My statutes, and to take My covenant into thy mouth? But thou hast hated
instruction, and cast My words behind thee. When thou sawest a thief, thou
consentedst with him; and hast been partaker with the adulterer. Thy mouth
has framed evil, and thy tongue has enfolded deceit. Thou sittest and
speakest against thy brother; thou slanderest thine own mother's son. These
things hast thou done, and I kept silence; thou thoughtest that I would be
like thyself in wickedness. I will reprove thee, and set thy sins in order
before thine eyes. Now consider this, ye that forget God, lest He tear you
in pieces, and there be none to deliver. The sacrifice of praise shall
glorify Me; and there is the way in which I shall show him My salvation.
 Accordingly He neither takes sacrifices from you nor commanded them
at first to be offered because they are needful to Him, but because of your
sins. For indeed the temple, which is called the temple in Jerusalem, He
admitted to be His house or court, not as though He needed it, but in order
that you, in this view of it, giving yourselves to Him, might not worship
idols. And that this is so, Isaiah says: "What house have ye built Me? saith
the Lord. Heaven is My throne, and earth is My footstool. 
 Amos v. 18 to end, Amos vi. 1-7.
 Jer. vii. 21 f.
 Ps. l. (in E. V.).
 Isa. lxvi. 1.
Chapter XXIII. The opinion of the Jews regarding the law does an injury to
"But if we do not admit this, we shall be liable to fall into foolish
opinions, as if it were not the same God who existed in the times of Enoch
and all the rest, who neither were circumcised after the flesh, nor observed
Sabbaths, nor any other rites, seeing that Moses enjoined such observances;
or that God has not wished each race of mankind continually to perform the
same righteous actions: to admit which, seems to be ridiculous and absurd.
Therefore we must confess that He, who is ever the same, has commanded these
and such like institutions on account of sinful men, and we must declare Him
to be benevolent, foreknowing, needing nothing, righteous and good. But if
this be not so, tell me, sir, what you think of those matters which we are
investigating." And when no one responded: "Wherefore, Trypho, I will
proclaim to you, and to those who wish to become proselytes, the divine
message which I heard from that man.  Do you see that the elements are
not idle, and keep no Sabbaths? Remain as you were born. For if there was no
need of circumcision before Abraham, or of the observance of Sabbaths, of
feasts and sacrifices, before Moses; no more need is there of them now,
after that, according to the will of God, Jesus Christ the Son of God has
been born without sin, of a virgin sprung from the stock of Abraham. For
when Abraham himself was in uncircumcision, he was justified and blessed by
reason of the faith which he reposed in God, as the Scripture tells.
Moreover, the Scriptures and the facts themselves compel us to admit that He
received circumcision for a sign, and not for righteousness. So that it was
justly recorded concerning the people, that the soul which shall not be
circumcised on the eighth day shall be cut off from his family. And,
furthermore, the inability of the female sex to receive fleshly
circumcision, proves that this circumcision has been given for a sign, and
not for a work of righteousness. For God has given likewise to women the
ability to observe all things which are righteous and virtuous; but we see
that the bodily form of the male has been made different from the bodily
form of the female; yet we know that neither of them is righteous or
unrighteous merely for this cause, but [is considered righteous] by reason
of piety and righteousness.
 The man he met by the sea-shore.
Chapter XXIV. The Christians circumcision far more excellent.
"Now, sirs," I said, "it is possible for us to show how the eighth day
possessed a certain mysterious import, which the seventh day did not
possess, and which was promulgated by God through these rites. But lest I
appear now to diverge to other subjects, understand what I say: the blood of
that circumcision is obsolete, and we trust in the blood of salvation; there
is now another covenant, and another law has gone forth from Zion. Jesus
Christ circumcises all who will as was declared above with knives of stone;
 that they may be a righteous nation, a people keeping faith, holding
to the truth, and maintaining peace. Come then with me, all who fear God,
who wish to see the good of Jerusalem. Come, let us go to the light of the
Lord; for He has liberated His people, the house of Jacob. Come, all
nations; let us gather ourselves together at Jerusalem, no longer plagued by
war for the sins of her people. "For I was manifest to them that sought Me
not; I was found of them that asked not for Me;  He exclaims by
Isaiah: "I said, Behold Me, unto nations which were not called by My name. I
have spread out My hands all the day unto a disobedient and gainsaying
people, which walked in a way that was not good, but after their own sins.
It is a people that provoketh Me to my face. 
 Josh. v. 2; Isa. xxvi. 2, 3.
 Isa. lxv. 1-3.
 Isa. lxv. 1-3.
Chapter XXV. The Jews boast in vain that they are sons of Abraham.
"Those who justify themselves, and say they are sons of Abraham, shall be
desirous even in a small degree to receive the inheritance along with you;
 as the Holy Spirit, by the mouth of Isaiah, cries, speaking thus
while he personates them: "Return from heaven, and behold from the
habitation of Thy holiness and glory. Where is Thy zeal and strength? Where
is the multitude of Thy mercy? for Thou hast sustained us, O Lord. For Thou
art our Father, because Abraham is ignorant of us, and Israel has not
recognised us. But Thou, O Lord, our Father, deliver us: from the beginning
Thy name is upon us. O Lord, why hast Thou made us to err from Thy way? and
hardened our hearts, so that we do not fear Thee? Return for Thy servants
sake, the tribes of Thine inheritance, that we may inherit for a little Thy
holy mountain. We were as from the beginning, when Thou didst not bear rule
over us, and when Thy name was not called upon us. If Thou wilt open the
heavens, trembling shall seize the mountains before Thee: and they shall be
melted, as wax melts before the fire; and fire shall consume the
adversaries, and Thy name shall be manifest among the adversaries; the
nations shall be put into disorder before Thy face. When Thou shall do
glorious things, trembling shall seize the mountains before Thee. From the
beginning we have not heard, nor have our eyes seen a God besides Thee: and
Thy works,  the mercy which Thou shall show to those who repent. He
shall meet those who do righteousness, and they shall remember Thy ways.
Behold, Thou art wroth, and we were sinning. Therefore we have erred and
become all unclean, and all our righteousness is as the rags of a woman set
apart: and we have faded away like leaves by reason of our iniquities; thus
the wind will take us away. And there is none that calleth upon Thy name, or
remembers to take hold of Thee; for Thou hast turned away Thy face from us,
and hast given us up on account of our sins. And now return, O Lord, for we
are all Thy people. The city of Thy holiness has become desolate. Zion has
become as a wilderness, Jerusalem a curse; the house, our holiness, and the
glory which our fathers blessed, has been burned with fire; and all the
glorious nations  have fallen along with it. And in addition to these
[misfortunes], O Lord, Thou hast refrained Thyself, and art silent, and hast
humbled us very much. " 
And Trypho remarked, "What is this you say? that none of us shall inherit
anything on the holy mountain of God?"
 Other edd. have, "with us."
 Otto reads: "Thy works which Thou shalt do to those who wait for
 Some suppose the correct reading to be, "our glorious institutions
[manners, customs, or ordinances] have," etc., ethē for ethnē.
 Isa. lxiii. 15 to end, and Isa. lxiv.
Chapter XXVI. No salvation to the Jews except through Christ.
And I replied, "I do not say so; but those who have persecuted and do
persecute Christ, if they do not repent, shall not inherit anything on the
holy mountain. But the Gentiles, who have believed on Him, and have repented
of the sins which they have committed, they shall receive the inheritance
along with the patriarchs and the prophets, and the just men who are
descended from Jacob, even although they neither keep the Sabbath, nor are
circumcised, nor observe the feasts. Assuredly they shall receive the holy
inheritance of God. For God speaks by Isaiah thus: "I, the Lord God, have
called Thee in righteousness, and will hold Thine hand, and will strengthen
Thee; and I have given Thee for a covenant of the people, for a light of the
Gentiles, to open the eyes of the blind, to bring out them that are bound
from the chains, and those who sit in darkness from the prison-house.
 And again: "Lift up a standard  for the people; for, lo, the
Lord has made it heard unto the end of the earth. Say ye to the daughters of
Zion, Behold, thy Saviour has come; having His reward, and His work before
His face: and He shall call it a holy nation, redeemed by the Lord. And thou
shalt be called a city sought out, and not forsaken. Who is this that cometh
from Edom? in red garments from Bosor? This that is beautiful in apparel,
going up with great strength? I speak righteousness, and the judgment of
salvation. Why are Thy garments red, and Thine apparel as from the trodden
wine-press? Thou art full of the trodden grape. I have trodden the
wine-press all alone, and of the people there is no man with Me; and I have
trampled them in fury, and crushed them to the ground, and spilled their
blood on the earth. For the day of retribution has come upon them, and the
year of redemption is present. And I looked, and there was none to help; and
I considered, and none assisted: and My arm delivered; and My fury came on
them, and I trampled them in My fury, and spilled their blood on the
earth. " 
 Isa. xlii. 6, 7.
 susseismon, "a shaking," is the original reading; but LXX has
sussēmon, a standard or signal, and this most edd. adopt.
 Isa. lxii. 10 to end, Isa. lxiii. 1-6.
Chapter XXVII. Why God taught the same things by the prophets as by Moses.
And Trypho said, "Why do you select and quote whatever you wish from the
prophetic writings, but do not refer to those which expressly command the
Sabbath to be observed? For Isaiah thus speaks: "If thou shalt turn away thy
foot from the Sabbaths, so as not to do thy pleasure on the holy day, and
shalt call the Sabbaths the holy delights of thy God; if thou shalt not lift
thy foot to work, and shalt not speak a word from thine own mouth; then thou
shalt trust in the Lord, and He shall cause thee to go up to the good things
of the land; and He shall feed thee with the inheritance of Jacob thy
father: for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it. " 
And I replied, "I have passed them by, my friends, not because such
prophecies were contrary to me, but because you have understood, and do
understand, that although God commands you by all the prophets to do the
same things which He also commanded by Moses, it was on account of the
hardness of your hearts, and your ingratitude towards Him, that He
continually proclaims them, in order that, even in this way, if you
repented, you might please Him, and neither sacrifice your children to
demons, nor be partakers with thieves, nor lovers of gifts, nor hunters
after revenge, nor fail in doing judgment for orphans, nor be inattentive to
the justice due to the widow nor have your hands full of blood. "For the
daughters of Zion have walked with a high neck, both sporting by winking
with their eyes, and sweeping along their dresses.  For they are all
gone aside, He exclaims, "they are all become useless. There is none that
understands, there is not so much as one. With their tongues they have
practised deceit, their throat is an open sepulchre, the poison of asps is
under their lips, destruction and misery are in their paths, and the way of
peace they have not known.  So that, as in the beginning, these
things were enjoined you because of your wickedness, in like manner because
of your stedfastness in it, or rather your increased proneness to it, by
means of the same precepts He calls you to a remembrance or knowledge of it.
But you are a people hard-hearted and without understanding, both blind and
lame, children in whom is no faith, as He Himself says, honouring Him only
with your lips, far from Him in your hearts, teaching doctrines that are
your own and not His. For, tell me, did God wish the priests to sin when
they offer the sacrifices on the Sabbaths? or those to sin, who are
circumcised and do circumcise on the Sabbaths; since He commands that on the
eighth day even though it happen to be a Sabbath those who are born shall
be always circumcised? or could not the infants be operated upon one day
previous or one day subsequent to the Sabbath, if He knew that it is a
sinful act upon the Sabbaths? Or why did He not teach those who are called
righteous and pleasing to Him, who lived before Moses and Abraham, who were
not circumcised in their foreskin, and observed no Sabbaths to keep these
 Isa. lviii. 13, 14.
 Isa. iii. 16.
 Various passages strung together; comp. Rom. iii. 10, and foll.
Chapter XXVIII. True righteousness is obtained by Christ.
And Trypho replied, "We heard you adducing this consideration a little ago,
and we have given it attention: for, to tell the truth, it is worthy of
attention; and that answer which pleases most namely, that so it seemed
good to Him does not satisfy me. For this is ever the shift to which those
have recourse who are unable to answer the question."
Then I said, "Since I bring from the Scriptures and the facts themselves
both the proofs and the inculcation of them, do not delay or hesitate to put
faith in me, although I am an uncircumcised man; so short a time is left you
in which to become proselytes. If Christ's coming shall have anticipated
you, in vain you will repent, in vain you will weep; for He will not hear
you. "Break up your fallow ground, Jeremiah has cried to the people, "and
sow not among thorns. Circumcise yourselves to the Lord, and circumcise the
foreskin of your heart.  Do not sow, therefore, among thorns, and in
untilled ground, whence you can have no fruit. Know Christ; and behold the
fallow ground, good, good and fat, is in your hearts. "For, behold, the days
come, saith the Lord, that I will visit all them that are circumcised in
their foreskins; Egypt, and Judah,  and Edom, and the sons of Moab.
For all the nations are uncircumcised, and all the house of Israel are
uncircumcised in their hearts.  Do you see how that God does not mean
this circumcision which is given for a sign? For it is of no use to the
Egyptians, or the sons of Moab, or the sons of Edom. But though a man be a
Scythian or a Persian, if he has the knowledge of God and of His Christ, and
keeps the everlasting righteous decrees, he is circumcised with the good and
useful circumcision, and is a friend of God, and God rejoices in his gifts
and offerings. But I will lay before you, my friends, the very words of God,
when He said to the people by Malachi, one of the twelve prophets, "I have
no pleasure in you, saith the Lord; and I shall not accept your sacrifices
at your hands: for from the rising of the sun unto its setting My name shall
be glorified among the Gentiles; and in every place a sacrifice is offered
unto My name, even a pure sacrifice: for My name is honoured among the
Gentiles, saith the Lord; but ye profane it.  And by David He said,
"A people whom I have not known, served Me; at the hearing of the ear they
obeyed Me. 
 Jer. iv. 3.
 So in A.V., but supposed to be Idumæa.
 Jer. ix. 25 f.
 Mal. i. 10, etc.
 Ps. xviii. 43.
Chapter XXIX. Christ is useless to those who observe the law.
"Let us glorify God, all nations gathered together; for He has also visited
us. Let us glorify Him by the King of glory, by the Lord of hosts. For He
has been gracious towards the Gentiles also; and our sacrifices He esteems
more grateful than yours. What need, then, have I of circumcision, who have
been witnessed to by God? What need have I of that other baptism, who have
been baptized with the Holy Ghost? I think that while I mention this, I
would persuade even those who are possessed of scanty intelligence. For
these words have neither been prepared by me, nor embellished by the art of
man; but David sung them, Isaiah preached them, Zechariah proclaimed them,
and Moses wrote them. Are you acquainted with them, Trypho? They are
contained in your Scriptures, or rather not yours, but ours.  For we
believe them; but you, though you read them, do not catch the spirit that is
in them. Be not offended at, or reproach us with, the bodily uncircumcision
with which God has created us; and think it not strange that we drink hot
water on the Sabbaths, since God directs the government of the universe on
this day equally as on all others; and the priests, as on other days, so on
this, are ordered to offer sacrifices; and there are so many righteous men
who have performed none of these legal ceremonies, and yet are witnessed to
by God Himself.
 [This striking claim of the Old Testament Scriptures is noteworthy.]
Chapter XXX. Christians possess the true righteousness.
"But impute it to your own wickedness, that God even can be accused by those
who have no understanding, of not having always instructed all in the same
righteous statutes. For such institutions seemed to be unreasonable and
unworthy of God to many men, who had not received grace to know that your
nation were called to conversion and repentance of spirit,  while they
were in a sinful condition and labouring under spiritual disease; and that
the prophecy which was announced subsequent to the death of Moses is
everlasting. And this is mentioned in the Psalm, my friends.  And that
we, who have been made wise by them, confess that the statutes of the Lord
are sweeter than honey and the honey-comb, is manifest from the fact that,
though threatened with death, we do not deny His name. Moreover, it is also
manifest to all, that we who believe in Him pray to be kept by Him from
strange, i.e., from wicked and deceitful, spirits; as the word of prophecy,
personating one of those who believe in Him, figuratively declares. For we
do continually beseech God by Jesus Christ to preserve us from the demons
which are hostile to the worship of God, and whom we of old time served, in
order that, after our conversion by Him to God, we may be blameless. For we
call Him Helper and Redeemer, the power of whose name even the demons do
fear; and at this day, when they are exorcised in the name of Jesus Christ,
crucified under Pontius Pilate, governor of Judæa, they are overcome. And
thus it is manifest to all, that His Father has given Him so great power, by
virtue of which demons are subdued to His name, and to the dispensation of
 Or, "repentance of the Father;" patros for pneumatos. Maranus
explains the confusion on the ground of the similarity between the
contractions for the words, prs and pns.
 Ps. xix.
Chapter XXXI. If Christ's power be now so great, how much greater at the
"But if so great a power is shown to have followed and to be still following
the dispensation of His suffering, how great shall that be which shall
follow His glorious advent! For He shall come on the clouds as the Son of
man, so Daniel foretold, and His angels shall come with Him. These are the
words: "I beheld till the thrones were set; and the Ancient of days did sit,
whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of His head like the pure
wool. His throne was like a fiery flame, His wheels as burning fire. A fiery
stream issued and came forth from before Him. Thousand thousands ministered
unto Him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before Him. The books
were opened, and the judgment was set. I beheld then the voice of the great
words which the horn speaks: and the beast was beat down, and his body
destroyed, and given to the burning flame. And the rest of the beasts were
taken away from their dominion, and a period of life was given to the beasts
until a season and time. I saw in the vision of the night, and, behold, one
like the Son of man coming with the clouds of heaven; and He came to the
Ancient of days, and stood before Him. And they who stood by brought Him
near; and there were given Him power and kingly honour, and all nations of
the earth by their families, and all glory, serve Him. And His dominion is
an everlasting dominion, which shall not be taken away; and His kingdom
shall not be destroyed. And my spirit was chilled within my frame, and the
visions of my head troubled me. I came near unto one of them that stood by,
and inquired the precise meaning of all these things. In answer he speaks to
me, and showed me the judgment of the matters: These great beasts are four
kingdoms, which shall perish from the earth, and shall not receive dominion
for ever, even for ever and ever. Then I wished to know exactly about the
fourth beast, which destroyed all [the others] and was very terrible, its
teeth of iron, and its nails of brass; which devoured, made waste, and
stamped the residue with its feet: also about the ten horns upon its head,
and of the one which came up, by means of which three of the former fell.
And that horn had eyes, and a mouth speaking great things; and its
countenance excelled the rest. And I beheld that horn waging war against the
saints, and prevailing against them, until the Ancient of days came; and He
gave judgment for the saints of the Most High. And the time came, and the
saints of the Most High possessed the kingdom. And it was told me concerning
the fourth beast: There shall be a fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall
prevail over all these kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall
destroy and make it thoroughly waste. And the ten horns are ten kings that
shall arise; and one shall arise after them;  and he shall surpass the
first in evil deeds, and he shall subdue three kings, and he shall speak
words against the Most High, and shall overthrow the rest of the saints of
the Most High, and shall expect to change the seasons and the times. And it
shall be delivered into his hands for a time, and times, and half a time.
And the judgment sat, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and
to destroy it unto the end. And the kingdom, and the power, and the great
places of the kingdoms under the heavens, were given to the holy people of
the Most High, to reign in an everlasting kingdom: and all powers shall be
subject to Him, and shall obey Him. Hitherto is the end of the matter. I,
Daniel, was possessed with a very great astonishment, and my speech was
changed in me; yet I kept the matter in my heart. " 
 Literally, "And the ten horns, ten kings shall arise after them."
 Dan. vii. 9-28.
Chapter XXXII. Trypho objecting that Christ is described as glorious by
Daniel, Justin distinguishes two advents.
And when I had ceased, Trypho said, "These and such like Scriptures, sir,
compel us to wait for Him who, as Son of man, receives from the Ancient of
days the everlasting kingdom. But this so-called Christ of yours was
dishonourable and inglorious, so much so that the last curse contained in
the law of God fell on him, for he was crucified."
Then I replied to him, "If, sirs, it were not said by the Scriptures which I
have already quoted, that His form was inglorious, and His generation not
declared, and that for His death the rich would suffer death, and with His
stripes we should be healed, and that He would be led away like a sheep; and
if I had not explained that there would be two advents of His, one in which
He was pierced by you; a second, when you shall know Him whom you have
pierced, and your tribes shall mourn, each tribe by itself, the women apart,
and the men apart, then I must have been speaking dubious and obscure
things. But now, by means of the contents of those Scriptures esteemed holy
and prophetic amongst you, I attempt to prove all [that I have adduced], in
the hope that some one of you may be found to be of that remnant which has
been left by the grace of the Lord of Sabaoth for the eternal salvation. In
order, therefore, that the matter inquired into may be plainer to you, I
will mention to you other words also spoken by the blessed David, from which
you will perceive that the Lord is called the Christ by the Holy Spirit of
prophecy; and that the Lord, the Father of all, has brought Him again from
the earth, setting Him at His own right hand, until He makes His enemies His
footstool; which indeed happens from the time that our Lord Jesus Christ
ascended to heaven, after He rose again from the dead, the times now running
on to their consummation; and he whom Daniel foretells would have dominion
for a time, and times, and an half, is even already at the door, about to
speak blasphemous and daring things against the Most High. But you, being
ignorant of how long he will have dominion, hold another opinion. For you
interpret the "time as being a hundred years. But if this is so, the man of
sin must, at the shortest, reign three hundred and fifty years, in order
that we may compute that which is said by the holy Daniel "and times to be
two times only. All this I have said to you in digression, in order that you
at length may be persuaded of what has been declared against you by God,
that you are foolish sons; and of this, "Therefore, behold, I will proceed
to take away this people, and shall take them away; and I will strip the
wise of their wisdom, and will hide the understanding of their prudent
men;  and may cease to deceive yourselves and those who hear you, and
may learn of us, who have been taught wisdom by the grace of Christ. The
words, then, which were spoken by David, are these:  "The Lord said
unto My Lord, Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy
footstool. The Lord shall send the rod of Thy strength out of Sion: rule
Thou also in the midst of Thine enemies. With Thee shall be, in the day, the
chief of Thy power, in the beauties of Thy saints. From the womb, before the
morning star, have I begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and will not
repent: Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek. The Lord
is at Thy right hand: He has crushed kings in the day of His wrath: He shall
judge among the heathen, He shall fill [with] the dead bodies.  He
shall drink of the brook in the way; therefore shall He lift up the head.
 Isa. xxix. 14.
 Ps. cx.
 plērōsei ptōmata; Lat. version, implebit ruinas. Thirlby suggested
that an omission has taken place in the mss. by the transcriber's fault.
Chapter XXXIII. Ps. cx. is not spoken of Hezekiah. He proves that Christ was
first humble, then shall be glorious.
"And," I continued, "I am not ignorant that you venture to expound this
psalm as if it referred to king Hezekiah; but that you are mistaken, I shall
prove to you from these very words forthwith. "The Lord hath sworn, and will
not repent, it is said; and, "Thou art a priest forever, after the order of
Melchizedek, with what follows and precedes. Not even you will venture to
object that Hezekiah was either a priest, or is the everlasting priest of
God; but that this is spoken of our Jesus, these expressions show. But your
ears are shut up, and your hearts are made dull.  For by this
statement, "The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent: Thou art a priest for
ever, after the order of Melchizedek, with an oath God has shown Him (on
account of your unbelief) to be the High Priest after the order of
Melchizedek; i.e., as Melchizedek was described by Moses as the priest of
the Most High, and he was a priest of those who were in uncircumcision, and
blessed the circumcised Abraham who brought him tithes, so God has shown
that His everlasting Priest, called also by the Holy Spirit Lord, would be
Priest of those in uncircumcision. Those too in circumcision who approach
Him, that is, believing Him and seeking blessings from Him, He will both
receive and bless. And that He shall be first humble as a man, and then
exalted, these words at the end of the Psalm show: "He shall drink of the
brook in the way, and then, "Therefore shall He lift up the head.
 pepērōntai. Maranus thinks pepōrōntai more probable, "hardened."
Chapter XXXIV. Nor does Ps. lxxii. apply to Solomon, whose faults Christians
"Further, to persuade you that you have not understood anything of the
Scriptures, I will remind you of another psalm, dictated to David by the
Holy Spirit, which you say refers to Solomon, who was also your king. But it
refers also to our Christ. But you deceive yourselves by the ambiguous forms
of speech. For where it is said, "The law of the Lord is perfect, you do
not understand it of the law which was to be after Moses, but of the law
which was given by Moses, although God declared that He would establish a
new law and a new covenant. And where it has been said, "O God, give Thy
judgment to the king, since Solomon was king, you say that the Psalm refers
to him, although the words of the Psalm expressly proclaim that reference is
made to the everlasting King, i.e., to Christ. For Christ is King, and
Priest, and God, and Lord, and angel, and man, and captain, and stone, and a
Son born, and first made subject to suffering, then returning to heaven, and
again coming with glory, and He is preached as having the everlasting
kingdom: so I prove from all the Scriptures. But that you may perceive what
I have said, I quote the words of the Psalm; they are these: "O God, give
Thy judgment to the king, and Thy righteousness unto the king's son, to
judge Thy people with righteousness, and Thy poor with judgment. The
mountains shall take up peace to the people, and the little hills
righteousness. He shall judge the poor of the people, and shall save the
children of the needy, and shall abase the slanderer. He shall co-endure
with the sun, and before the moon unto all generations. He shall come down
like rain upon the fleece, as drops falling on the earth. In His days shall
righteousness flourish, and abundance of peace until the moon be taken away.
And He shall have dominion from sea to sea, and from the rivers unto the
ends of the earth. Ethiopians shall fall down before Him, and His enemies
shall lick the dust. The kings of Tarshish and the isles shall offer gifts;
the kings of Arabia and Seba shall offer gifts; and all the kings of the
earth shall worship Him, and all the nations shall serve Him: for He has
delivered the poor from the man of power, and the needy that hath no helper.
He shall spare the poor and needy, and shall save the souls of the needy: He
shall redeem their souls from usury and injustice, and His name shall be
honourable before them. And He shall live, and to Him shall be given of the
gold of Arabia, and they shall pray continually for Him: they shall bless
Him all the day. And there shall be a foundation on the earth, it shall be
exalted on the tops of the mountains: His fruit shall be on Lebanon, and
they of the city shall flourish like grass of the earth. His name shall be
blessed for ever. His name shall endure before the sun; and all tribes of
the earth shall be blessed in Him, all nations shall call Him blessed.
Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, who only doeth wondrous things; and
blessed be His glorious name for ever, and for ever and ever; and the whole
earth shall be filled with His glory. Amen, amen.  And at the close
of this Psalm which I have quoted, it is written, "The hymns of David the
son of Jesse are ended.  Moreover, that Solomon was a renowned and
great king, by whom the temple called that at Jerusalem was built, I know;
but that none of those things mentioned in the Psalm happened to him, is
evident. For neither did all kings worship him; nor did he reign to the ends
of the earth; nor did his enemies, falling before him, lick the dust. Nay,
also, I venture to repeat what is written in the book of Kings as committed
by him, how through a woman's influence he worshipped the idols of Sidon,
which those of the Gentiles who know God, the Maker of all things through
Jesus the crucified, do not venture to do, but abide every torture and
vengeance even to the extremity of death, rather than worship idols, or eat
meat offered to idols."
 Ps. lxxii.
 [A striking passage in De Maistre (Œuvres, vol. vi. p. 275) is worthy
Chapter XXXV. Heretics confirm the Catholics in the faith.
And Trypho said, "I believe, however, that many of those who say that they
confess Jesus, and are called Christians, eat meats offered to idols, and
declare that they are by no means injured in consequence." And I replied,
"The fact that there are such men confessing themselves to be Christians,
and admitting the crucified Jesus to be both Lord and Christ, yet not
teaching His doctrines, but those of the spirits of error, causes us who are
disciples of the true and pure doctrine of Jesus Christ, to be more faithful
and stedfast in the hope announced by Him. For what things He predicted
would take place in His name, these we do see being actually accomplished in
our sight. For he said, "Many shall come in My name, clothed outwardly in
sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves. "  And,
"There shall be schisms and heresies.  And, "Beware of false
prophets, who shall come to you clothed outwardly in sheep's clothing, but
inwardly they are ravening wolves.  And, "Many false Christs and
false apostles shall arise, and shall deceive many of the faithful. 
There are, therefore, and there were many, my friends, who, coming forward
in the name of Jesus, taught both to speak and act impious and blasphemous
things; and these are called by us after the name of the men from whom each
doctrine and opinion had its origin. (For some in one way, others in
another, teach to blaspheme the Maker of all things, and Christ, who was
foretold by Him as coming, and the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of
Jacob, with whom we have nothing in common, since we know them to be
atheists, impious, unrighteous, and sinful, and confessors of Jesus in name
only, instead of worshippers of Him. Yet they style themselves Christians,
just as certain among the Gentiles inscribe the name of God upon the works
of their own hands, and partake in nefarious and impious rites.) Some are
called Marcians, and some Valentinians, and some Basilidians, and some
Saturnilians, and others by other names; each called after the originator of
the individual opinion, just as each one of those who consider themselves
philosophers, as I said before, thinks he must bear the name of the
philosophy which he follows, from the name of the father of the particular
doctrine. So that, in consequence of these events, we know that Jesus
foreknew what would happen after Him, as well as in consequence of many
other events which He foretold would befall those who believed on and
confessed Him, the Christ. For all that we suffer, even when killed by
friends, He foretold would take place; so that it is manifest no word or act
of His can be found fault with. Wherefore we pray for you and for all other
men who hate us; in order that you, having repented along with us, may not
blaspheme Him who, by His works, by the mighty deeds even now wrought
through His name, by the words He taught, by the prophecies announced
concerning Him, is the blameless, and in all things irreproachable, Christ
Jesus; but, believing on Him, may be saved in His second glorious advent,
and may not be condemned to fire by Him."
 Matt. vii. 15.
 1 Cor. xi. 19.
 Matt. vii. 15.
 Matt. xxiv. 11.
Chapter XXXVI. He proves that Christ is called Lord of Hosts.
Then he replied, "Let these things be so as you say namely, that it was
foretold Christ would suffer, and be called a stone; and after His first
appearance, in which it had been announced He would suffer, would come in
glory, and be Judge finally of all, and eternal King and Priest. Now show if
this man be He of whom these prophecies were made."
And I said, "As you wish, Trypho, I shall come to these proofs which you
seek in the fitting place; but now you will permit me first to recount the
prophecies, which I wish to do in order to prove that Christ is called both
God and Lord of hosts, and Jacob, in parable by the Holy Spirit; and your
interpreters, as God says, are foolish, since they say that reference is
made to Solomon and not to Christ, when he bore the ark of testimony into
the temple which he built. The Psalm of David is this: "The earth is the
Lord s, and the fulness thereof; the world, and all that dwell therein. He
hath rounded it upon the seas, and prepared it upon the floods. Who shall
ascend into the hill of the Lord? or who shall stand in His holy place? He
that is clean of hands and pure of heart: who has not received his soul in
vain, and has not sworn guilefully to his neighbour: he shall receive
blessing from the Lord, and mercy from God his Saviour. This is the
generation of them that seek the Lord, that seek the face of the God of
Jacob.  Lift up your gates, ye rulers; and be ye lift up, ye
everlasting doors; and the King of glory shall come in. Who is this King of
glory? The Lord strong and mighty in battle. Lift up your gates, ye rulers;
and be ye lift up, ye everlasting doors; and the King of glory shall come
in. Who is this King of glory? The Lord of hosts, He is the King of
glory.  Accordingly, it is shown that Solomon is not the Lord of
hosts; but when our Christ rose from the dead and ascended to heaven, the
rulers in heaven, under appointment of God, are commanded to open the gates
of heaven, that He who is King of glory may enter in, and having ascended,
may sit on the right hand of the Father until He make the enemies His
footstool, as has been made manifest by another Psalm. For when the rulers
of heaven saw Him of uncomely and dishonoured appearance, and inglorious,
not recognising Him, they inquired, "Who is this King of glory? And the
Holy Spirit, either from the person of His Father, or from His own person,
answers them, "The Lord of hosts, He is this King of glory. For every one
will confess that not one of those who presided over the gates of the temple
at Jerusalem would venture to say concerning Solomon, though he was so
glorious a king, or concerning the ark of testimony, "Who is this King of
 Maranus remarks from Thirlby: "As Justin wrote a little before, "and
is called Jacob in parable, it seems to convince us that Justin wrote, "thy
face, O Jacob. " [The meaning in this latter case becomes plain, if we
observe that "O Israel" is equivalent to, and means, "O house of Jacob:" an
apostrophe to the Church of the ancient people.]
 Ps. xxiv.
Chapter XXXVII. The same is proved from other Psalms.
"Moreover, in the diapsalm of the forty-sixth Psalm, reference is thus made
to Christ: "God went up with a shout, the Lord with the sound of a trumpet.
Sing ye to our God, sing ye: sing to our King, sing ye; for God is King of
all the earth: sing with understanding. God has ruled over the nations. God
sits upon His holy throne. The rulers of the nations were assembled along
with the God of Abraham, for the strong ones of God are greatly exalted on
the earth.  And in the ninety-eighth Psalm, the Holy Spirit
reproaches you, and predicts Him whom you do not wish to be king to be King
and Lord, both of Samuel, and of Aaron, and of Moses, and, in short, of all
the others. And the words of the Psalm are these: "The Lord has reigned, let
the nations be angry: [it is] He who sits upon the cherubim, let the earth
be shaken. The Lord is great in Zion, and He is high above all the nations.
Let them confess Thy great name, for it is fearful and holy, and the honour
of the King loves judgment. Thou hast prepared equity; judgment and
righteousness hast Thou performed in Jacob. Exalt the Lord our God, and
worship the footstool of His feet; for He is holy. Moses and Aaron among His
priests, and Samuel among those who call upon His name. They called (says
the Scripture) on the Lord, and He heard them. In the pillar of the cloud He
spake to them; for  they kept His testimonies, and the commandment
which he gave them. O Lord our God, Thou heardest them: O God, Thou wert
propitious to them, and [yet] taking vengeance on all their inventions.
Exalt the Lord our God, and worship at His holy hill; for the Lord our God
is holy. " 
 Ps. xlvii. 5-9. [The diapsalm is here used for what follows the
 "For" wanting in both Codd.
 Ps. xcix.
Chapter XXXVIII. It is an annoyance to the Jew that Christ is said to be
adored. Justin confirms it, however, from Ps. xlv.
And Trypho said, "Sir, it were good for us if we obeyed our teachers, who
laid down a law that we should have no intercourse with any of you, and that
we should not have even any communication with you on these questions. For
you utter many blasphemies, in that you seek to persuade us that this
crucified man was with Moses and Aaron, and spoke to them in the pillar of
the cloud; then that he became man, was crucified, and ascended up to
heaven, and comes again to earth, and ought to be worshipped."
Then I answered, "I know that, as the word of God says, this great wisdom of
God, the Maker of all things, and the Almighty, is hid from you. Wherefore,
in sympathy with you, I am striving to the utmost that you may understand
these matters which to you are paradoxical; but if not, that I myself may be
innocent in the day of judgment. For you shall hear other words which appear
still more paradoxical; but be not confounded, nay, rather remain still more
zealous hearers and investigators, despising the tradition of your teachers,
since they are convicted by the Holy Spirit of inability to perceive the
truths taught by God, and of preferring to teach their own doctrines.
Accordingly, in the forty-fourth [forty-fifth] Psalm, these words are in
like manner referred to Christ: "My heart has brought forth a good matter;
 I tell my works to the King. My tongue is the pen of a ready writer.
Fairer in beauty than the sons of men: grace is poured forth into Thy lips:
therefore hath God blessed Thee for ever. Gird Thy sword upon Thy thigh, O
mighty One. Press on in Thy fairness and in Thy beauty, and prosper and
reign, because of truth, and of meekness, and of righteousness: and Thy
right hand shall instruct Thee marvellously. Thine arrows are sharpened, O
mighty One; the people shall fall under Thee; in the heart of the enemies of
the King [the arrows are fixed]. Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: a
sceptre of equity is the sceptre of Thy kingdom. Thou hast loved
righteousness, and hast hated iniquity; therefore thy God  hath
anointed Thee with the oil of gladness above Thy fellows. [He hath anointed
Thee] with myrrh,  and oil, and cassia, from Thy garments; from the
ivory palaces, whereby they made Thee glad. Kings daughters are in Thy
honour. The queen stood at Thy right hand, clad in garments 
embroidered with gold. Hearken, O daughter, and behold, and incline thine
ear, and forget thy people and the house of thy father: and the King shall
desire thy beauty; because He is thy Lord, they shall worship Him also. And
the daughter of Tyre [shall be there] with gifts. The rich of the people
shall entreat Thy face. All the glory of the King's daughter [is] within,
clad in embroidered garments of needlework. The virgins that follow her
shall be brought to the King; her neighbours shall be brought unto Thee:
they shall be brought with joy and gladness: they shall be led into the
King's shrine. Instead of thy fathers, thy sons have been born: Thou shalt
appoint them rulers over all the earth. I shall remember Thy name in every
generation: therefore the people shall confess Thee for ever, and for ever
 [Hebrew and Greek, "a good word," i.e., the Logos.]
 Or, "God, thy God."
 Literally, "garments of gold, variegated."
Chapter XXXIX. The Jews hate the Christians who believe this. How great the
distinction is between both!
"Now it is not surprising," I continued, "that you hate us who hold these
opinions, and convict you of a continual hardness of heart.  For
indeed Elijah, conversing with God concerning you, speaks thus: "Lord, they
have slain Thy prophets, and digged down Thine altars: and I am left alone,
and they seek my life. And He answers him: "I have still seven thousand men
who have not bowed the knee to Baal.  Therefore, just as God did not
inflict His anger on account of those seven thousand men, even so He has now
neither yet inflicted judgment, nor does inflict it, knowing that daily some
[of you] are becoming disciples in the name of Christ, and quitting the path
of error; who are also receiving gifts, each as he is worthy, illumined
through the name of this Christ. For one receives the spirit of
understanding, another of counsel, another of strength, another of healing,
another of foreknowledge, another of teaching, and another of the fear of
To this Trypho said to me, "I wish you knew that you are beside yourself,
talking these sentiments."
And I said to him, "Listen, O friend,  for I am not mad or beside
myself; but it was prophesied that, after the ascent of Christ to heaven, He
would deliver  us from error and give us gifts. The words are these:
"He ascended up on high; He led captivity captive; He gave gifts to men.
 Accordingly, we who have received gifts from Christ, who has ascended
up on high, prove from the words of prophecy that you, "the wise in
yourselves, and the men of understanding in your own eyes,  are
foolish, and honour God and His Christ by lip only. But we, who are
instructed in the whole truth,  honour Them both in acts, and in
knowledge, and in heart, even unto death. But you hesitate to confess that
He is Christ, as the Scriptures and the events witnessed and done in His
name prove, perhaps for this reason, lest you be persecuted by the rulers,
who, under the influence of the wicked and deceitful spirit, the serpent,
will not cease putting to death and persecuting those who confess the name
of Christ until He come again, and destroy them all, and render to each his
And Trypho replied, "Now, then, render us the proof that this man who you
say was crucified and ascended into heaven is the Christ of God. For you
have sufficiently proved by means of the Scriptures previously quoted by
you, that it is declared in the Scriptures that Christ must suffer, and come
again with glory, and receive the eternal kingdom over all the nations,
every kingdom being made subject to Him: now show us that this man is He."
And I replied, "It has been already proved, sirs, to those who have ears,
even from the facts which have been conceded by you; but that you may not
think me at a loss, and unable to give proof of what you ask, as I promised,
I shall do so at a fitting place. At present, I resume the consideration of
the subject which I was discussing.
 Literally, "of a hard-hearted opinion."
 1 Kings xix. 14, 18.
 ō houtos. [Or, Look you, listen!]
 Literally, "carry us captive."
 Ps. lxviii. 19.
 Isa. v. 21.
 Contrasting either Catholics with heretics, or Christians with Jews.
[Note this word Catholic, as here used in its legitimate primitive sense.]
Chapter XL. He returns to the Mosaic laws, and proves that they were figures
of the things which pertain to Christ.
"The mystery, then, of the lamb which God enjoined to be sacrificed as the
passover, was a type of Christ; with whose blood, in proportion to their
faith in Him, they anoint their houses, i.e., themselves, who believe on
Him. For that the creation which God created to wit, Adam was a house for
the spirit which proceeded from God, you all can understand. And that this
injunction was temporary, I prove thus. God does not permit the lamb of the
passover to be sacrificed in any other place than where His name was named;
knowing that the days will come, after the suffering of Christ, when even
the place in Jerusalem shall be given over to your enemies, and all the
offerings, in short, shall cease; and that lamb which was commanded to be
wholly roasted was a symbol of the suffering of the cross which Christ would
undergo. For the lamb,  which is roasted, is roasted and dressed up in
the form of the cross. For one spit is transfixed right through from the
lower parts up to the head, and one across the back, to which are attached
the legs of the lamb. And the two goats which were ordered to be offered
during the fast, of which one was sent away as the scape [goat], and the
other sacrificed, were similarly declarative of the two appearances of
Christ: the first, in which the elders of your people, and the priests,
having laid hands on Him and put Him to death, sent Him away as the scape
[goat]; and His second appearance, because in the same place in Jerusalem
you shall recognise Him whom you have dishonoured, and who was an offering
for all sinners willing to repent, and keeping the fast which Isaiah speaks
of, loosening the terms  of the violent contracts, and keeping the
other precepts, likewise enumerated by him, and which I have quoted, 
which those believing in Jesus do. And further, you are aware that the
offering of the two goats, which were enjoined to be sacrificed at the fast,
was not permitted to take place similarly anywhere else, but only in
 Some think this particularly refers to the paschal lamb, others to
any lamb which is roasted.
 Literally, "cords."
 Chap. xv.
Chapter XLI. The oblation of fine flour was a figure of the Eucharist.
"And the offering of fine flour, sirs," I said, "which was prescribed to be
presented on behalf of those purified from leprosy, was a type of the bread
of the Eucharist, the celebration of which our Lord Jesus Christ prescribed,
in remembrance of the suffering which He endured on behalf of those who are
purified in soul from all iniquity, in order that we may at the same time
thank God for having created the world, with all things therein, for the
sake of man, and for delivering us from the evil in which we were, and for
utterly overthrowing  principalities and powers by Him who suffered
according to His will. Hence God speaks by the mouth of Malachi, one of the
twelve [prophets], as I said before,  about the sacrifices at that
time presented by you: "I have no pleasure in you, saith the Lord; and I
will not accept your sacrifices at your hands: for, from the rising of the
sun unto the going down of the same, My name has been glorified among the
Gentiles, and in every place incense is offered to My name, and a pure
offering: for My name is great among the Gentiles, saith the Lord: but ye
profane it.  [So] He then speaks of those Gentiles, namely us, who in
every place offer sacrifices to Him, i.e., the bread of the Eucharist, and
also the cup of the Eucharist, affirming both that we glorify His name, and
that you profane [it]. The command of circumcision, again, bidding [them]
always circumcise the children on the eighth day, was a type of the true
circumcision, by which we are circumcised from deceit and iniquity through
Him who rose from the dead on the first day after the Sabbath, [namely
through] our Lord Jesus Christ. For the first day after the Sabbath,
remaining the first  of all the days, is called, however, the eighth,
according to the number of all the days of the cycle, and [yet] remains the
 Literally, "overthrowing with a perfect overthrow."
 Chap. xxviii.
 Mal. i. 10-12.
 Or, "being the first."
Chapter XLII. The bells on the priest's robe were a figure of the apostles.
"Moreover, the prescription that twelve bells  be attached to the
[robe] of the high priest, which hung down to the feet, was a symbol of the
twelve apostles, who depend on the power of Christ, the eternal Priest; and
through their voice it is that all the earth has been filled with the glory
and grace of God and of His Christ. Wherefore David also says: "Their sound
has gone forth into all the earth, and their words to the ends of the
world.  And Isaiah speaks as if he were personating the apostles,
when they say to Christ that they believe not in their own report, but in
the power of Him who sent them. And so he says: "Lord, who hath believed our
report? and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed? We have preached before
Him as if [He were] a child, as if a root in a dry ground.  (And what
follows in order of the prophecy already quoted.  ) But when the
passage speaks as from the lips of many, "We have preached before Him, and
adds, "as if a child, it signifies that the wicked shall become subject to
Him, and shall obey His command, and that all shall become as one child.
Such a thing as you may witness in the body: although the members are
enumerated as many, all are called one, and are a body. For, indeed, a
commonwealth and a church,  though many individuals in number, are in
fact as one, called and addressed by one appellation. And in short, sirs,"
said I, "by enumerating all the other appointments of Moses I can
demonstrate that they were types, and symbols, and declarations of those
things which would happen to Christ, of those who it was foreknown were to
believe in Him, and of those things which would also be done by Christ
Himself. But since what I have now enumerated appears to me to be
sufficient, I revert again to the order of the discourse. 
 Ex. xxviii. 33 gives no definite number of bells. Otto presumes
Justin to have confounded the bells and gems, which were twelve in number.
 Ps. xix. 4.
 Isa. liii. 1, 2.
 Chap. xiii.
 ekklēsia Lat. vers. has conventus.
 Literally, "to the discourse in order."
Chapter XLIII. He concludes that the law had an end in Christ, who was born
of the Virgin.
"As, then, circumcision began with Abraham, and the Sabbath and sacrifices
and offerings and feasts with Moses, and it has been proved they were
enjoined on account of the hardness of your people's heart, so it was
necessary, in accordance with the Father's will, that they should have an
end in Him who was born of a virgin, of the family of Abraham and tribe of
Judah, and of David; in Christ the Son of God, who was proclaimed as about
to come to all the world, to be the everlasting law and the everlasting
covenant, even as the forementioned prophecies show. And we, who have
approached God through Him, have received not carnal, but spiritual
circumcision, which Enoch and those like him observed. And we have received
it through baptism, since we were sinners, by God's mercy; and all men may
equally obtain it. But since the mystery of His birth now demands our
attention I shall speak of it. Isaiah then asserted in regard to the
generation of Christ, that it could not be declared by man, in words already
quoted:  "Who shall declare His generation? for His life is taken from
the earth: for the transgressions of my people was He led  to
death.  The Spirit of prophecy thus affirmed that the generation of
Him who was to die, that we sinful men might be healed by His stripes, was
such as could not be declared. Furthermore, that the men who believe in Him
may possess the knowledge of the manner in which He came into the world,
 the Spirit of prophecy by the same Isaiah foretold how it would
happen thus: "And the Lord spoke again to Ahaz, saying, Ask for thyself a
sign from the Lord thy God, in the depth, or in the height. And Ahaz said, I
will not ask, neither will I tempt the Lord. And Isaiah said, Hear then, O
house of David; Is it a small thing for you to contend with men, and how do
you contend with the Lord? Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign.
Behold, the virgin shall conceive, and shall bear a son, and his name shall
be called Immanuel. Butter and honey shall he eat, before he knows or
prefers the evil, and chooses out the good;  for before the child
knows good or ill, he rejects evil  by choosing out the good. For
before the child knows how to call father or mother, he shall receive the
power of Damascus and the spoil of Samaria in presence of the king of
Assyria. And the land shall be forsaken,  which thou shalt with
difficulty endure in consequence of the presence of its two kings. 
But God shall bring on thee, and on thy people, and on the house of thy
father, days which have not yet come upon thee since the day in which
Ephraim took away from Judah the king of Assyria.  Now it is evident
to all, that in the race of Abraham according to the flesh no one has been
born of a virgin, or is said to have been born [of a virgin], save this our
Christ. But since you and your teachers venture to affirm that in the
prophecy of Isaiah it is not said, "Behold, the virgin shall conceive, but,
"Behold, the young woman shall conceive, and bear a son; and [since] you
explain the prophecy as if [it referred] to Hezekiah, who was your king, I
shall endeavour to discuss shortly this point in opposition to you, and to
show that reference is made to Him who is acknowledged by us as Christ.
 Chap. xiii.
 Or, "was I led."
 Isa. liii. 8.
 Literally, "He was in the world, being born."
 See Chap. lxvi.
 Literally, "disobeys evil" (apeithei ponēra). Conjectured: apōthei,
and apeithei ponēria.
 The mss. of Justin read, "shall be taken:" katalēphthēsetai. This is
plainly a mistake for kataleiphthēsetai; but whether the mistake is
Justin's or the transcribers , it would be difficult to say, as Thirlby
 The rendering of this doubtful: literally, "from the face of the two
kings," and the words might go with "shall be forsaken."
 Isa. vii. 10-17 with Isa. viii. 4 inserted. The last clause may also
be translated, "in which He took away from Judah Ephraim, even the king of
Chapter XLIV. The Jews in vain promise themselves salvation, which cannot be
obtained except through Christ.
"For thus, so far as you are concerned, I shall be found in all respects
innocent, if I strive earnestly to persuade you by bringing forward
demonstrations. But if you remain hard-hearted, or weak in [forming] a
resolution, on account of death, which is the lot of the Christians, and are
unwilling to assent to the truth, you shall appear as the authors of your
own [evils]. And you deceive yourselves while you fancy that, because you
are the seed of Abraham after the flesh, therefore you shall fully inherit
the good things announced to be bestowed by God through Christ. For no one,
not even of them,  has anything to look for, but only those who in
mind are assimilated to the faith of Abraham, and who have recognised all
the mysteries: for I say,  that some injunctions were laid on you in
reference to the worship of God and practice of righteousness; but some
injunctions and acts were likewise mentioned in reference to the mystery of
Christ, on account of  the hardness of your people's hearts. And that
this is so, God makes known in Ezekiel, [when] He said concerning it: "If
Noah and Jacob  and Daniel should beg either sons or daughters, the
request would not be granted them.  And in Isaiah, of the very same
matter He spake thus: "The Lord God said, they shall both go forth and look
on the members [of the bodies] of the men that have transgressed. For their
worm shall not die, and their fire shall not be quenched, and they shall be
a gazing-stock to all flesh.  So that it becomes you to eradicate
this hope from your souls, and hasten to know in what way forgiveness of
sins, and a hope of inheriting the promised good things, shall be yours. But
there is no other [way] than this, to become acquainted with this Christ,
to be washed in the fountain  spoken of by Isaiah for the remission of
sins; and for the rest, to live sinless lives."
 i.e., of Abraham's seed.
 Justin distinguishes between such essential acts as related to God s
worship and the establishment of righteousness, and such ceremonial
observances as had a mere temporary significance. The recognition of this
distinction he alleges to be necessary to salvation: necessary in this
sense, that justification must be placed not on the latter, but on the
former; and without such recognition, a Jew would, as Justin says, rest his
hopes on his noble descent from Abraham.
 More probably, "or on account of," etc.
 In Bible, "Job;" Maranus prefers "Jacob," and thinks the mention of
his name very suitable to disprove the arrogant claims of Jacob's posterity.
 Ezek. xiv. 20.
 Isa. lxvi. 24.
 Some refer this to Christ's baptism. See Cyprian, Adv. Jud. i. 24.
Chapter XLV. Those who were righteous before and under the law shall be saved
And Trypho said, "If I seem to interrupt these matters, which you say must
be investigated, yet the question which I mean to put is urgent. Suffer me
And I replied, "Ask whatever you please, as it occurs to you; and I shall
endeavour, after questions and answers, to resume and complete the
Then he said, "Tell me, then, shall those who lived according to the law
given by Moses, live in the same manner with Jacob, Enoch, and Noah, in the
resurrection of the dead, or not?"
I replied to him, "When I quoted, sir, the words spoken by Ezekiel, that
"even if Noah and Daniel and Jacob were to beg sons and daughters, the
request would not be granted them, but that each one, that is to say, shall
be saved by his own righteousness, I said also, that those who regulated
their lives by the law of Moses would in like manner be saved. For what in
the law of Moses is naturally good, and pious, and righteous, and has been
prescribed to be done by those who obey it;  and what was appointed to
be performed by reason of the hardness of the people's hearts; was similarly
recorded, and done also by those who were under the law. Since those who did
that which is universally, naturally, and eternally good are pleasing to
God, they shall be saved through this Christ in the resurrection equally
with those righteous men who were before them, namely Noah, and Enoch, and
Jacob, and whoever else there be, along with those who have known 
this Christ, Son of God, who was before the morning star and the moon, and
submitted to become incarnate, and be born of this virgin of the family of
David, in order that, by this dispensation, the serpent that sinned from the
beginning, and the angels like him, may be destroyed, and that death may be
contemned, and for ever quit, at the second coming of the Christ Himself,
those who believe in Him and live acceptably, and be no more: when some are
sent to be punished unceasingly into judgment and condemnation of fire; but
others shall exist in freedom from suffering, from corruption, and from
grief, and in immortality."
 It, i.e., the law, or "what in the law," etc.
 Those who live after Christ.
Chapter XLVI. Trypho asks whether a man who keeps the law even now will be
saved. Justin proves that it contributes nothing to righteousness.
"But if some, even now, wish to live in the observance of the institutions
given by Moses, and yet believe in this Jesus who was crucified, recognising
Him to be the Christ of God, and that it is given to Him to be absolute
Judge of all, and that His is the everlasting kingdom, can they also be
saved?" he inquired of me.
And I replied, "Let us consider that also together, whether one may now
observe all the Mosaic institutions."
And he answered, "No. For we know that, as you said, it is not possible
either anywhere to sacrifice the lamb of the passover, or to offer the goats
ordered for the fast; or, in short, [to present] all the other offerings."
And I said, "Tell [me] then yourself, I pray, some things which can be
observed; for you will be persuaded that, though a man does not keep or has
not performed the eternal  decrees, he may assuredly be saved."
Then he replied, "To keep the Sabbath, to be circumcised, to observe months,
and to be washed if you touch anything prohibited by Moses, or after sexual
And I said, "Do you think that Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Noah, and Job, and all
the rest before or after them equally righteous, also Sarah the wife of
Abraham, Rebekah the wife of Isaac, Rachel the wife of Jacob, and Leah, and
all the rest of them, until the mother of Moses the faithful servant, who
observed none of these [statutes], will be saved?"
And Trypho answered, "Were not Abraham and his descendants circumcised?"
And I said, "I know that Abraham and his descendants were circumcised. The
reason why circumcision was given to them I stated at length in what has
gone before; and if what has been said does not convince you,  let us
again search into the matter. But you are aware that, up to Moses, no one in
fact who was righteous observed any of these rites at all of which we are
talking, or received one commandment to observe, except that of
circumcision, which began from Abraham."
And he replied, "We know it, and admit that they are saved."
Then I returned answer, "You perceive that God by Moses laid all such
ordinances upon you on account of the hardness of your people's hearts, in
order that, by the large number of them, you might keep God continually, and
in every action, before your eyes, and never begin to act unjustly or
impiously. For He enjoined you to place around you [a fringe] of purple dye,
 in order that you might not forget God; and He commanded you to wear
a phylactery,  certain characters, which indeed we consider holy,
being engraved on very thin parchment; and by these means stirring you up
 to retain a constant remembrance of God: at the same time, however,
convincing you, that in your hearts you have not even a faint remembrance of
God's worship. Yet not even so were you dissuaded from idolatry: for in the
times of Elijah, when [God] recounted the number of those who had not bowed
the knee to Baal, He said the number was seven thousand; and in Isaiah He
rebukes you for having sacrificed your children to idols. But we, because we
refuse to sacrifice to those to whom we were of old accustomed to sacrifice,
undergo extreme penalties, and rejoice in death, believing that God will
raise us up by His Christ, and will make us incorruptible, and undisturbed,
and immortal; and we know that the ordinances imposed by reason of the
hardness of your people's hearts, contribute nothing to the performance of
righteousness and of piety."
 "Eternal," i.e., as the Jew thinks.
 Literally, "put you out of countenance."
 Num. xv. 38.
 Deut. vi. 6.
 Literally, "importuning."
Chapter XLVII. Justin communicates with Christians who observe the law. Not a
few Catholics do otherwise.
And Trypho again inquired, "But if some one, knowing that this is so, after
he recognises that this man is Christ, and has believed in and obeys Him,
wishes, however, to observe these [institutions], will he be saved?"
I said, "In my opinion, Trypho, such an one will be saved, if he does not
strive in every way to persuade other men, I mean those Gentiles who have
been circumcised from error by Christ, to observe the same things as
himself, telling them that they will not be saved unless they do so. This
you did yourself at the commencement of the discourse, when you declared
that I would not be saved unless I observe these institutions."
Then he replied, "Why then have you said, "In my opinion, such an one will
be saved, unless there are some  who affirm that such will not be
"There are such people, Trypho," I answered; "and these do not venture to
have any intercourse with or to extend hospitality to such persons; but I do
not agree with them. But if some, through weak-mindedness, wish to observe
such institutions as were given by Moses, from which they expect some
virtue, but which we believe were appointed by reason of the hardness of the
people's hearts, along with their hope in this Christ, and [wish to perform]
the eternal and natural acts of righteousness and piety, yet choose to live
with the Christians and the faithful, as I said before, not inducing them
either to be circumcised like themselves, or to keep the Sabbath, or to
observe any other such ceremonies, then I hold that we ought to join
ourselves to such, and associate with them in all things as kinsmen and
brethren. But if, Trypho," I continued, "some of your race, who say they
believe in this Christ, compel those Gentiles who believe in this Christ to
live in all respects according to the law given by Moses, or choose not to
associate so intimately with them, I in like manner do not approve of them.
But I believe that even those, who have been persuaded by them to observe
the legal dispensation along with their confession of God in Christ, shall
probably be saved. And I hold, further, that such as have confessed and
known this man to be Christ, yet who have gone back from some cause to the
legal dispensation, and have denied that this man is Christ, and have
repented not before death, shall by no means be saved. Further, I hold that
those of the seed of Abraham who live according to the law, and do not
believe in this Christ before death, shall likewise not be saved, and
especially those who have anathematized and do anathematize this very Christ
in the synagogues, and everything by which they might obtain salvation and
escape the vengeance of fire.  For the goodness and the
loving-kindness of God, and His boundless riches, hold righteous and sinless
the man who, as Ezekiel  tells, repents of sins; and reckons sinful,
unrighteous, and impious the man who fails away from piety and righteousness
to unrighteousness and ungodliness. Wherefore also our Lord Jesus Christ
said, "In whatsoever things I shall take you, in these I shall judge you.
 "Or, Are there not some," etc.
 The text seems to be corrupt. Otto reads: "Do anathematize those who
put their trust in this very Christ so as to obtain salvation," etc.
 Ezek. xxxiii. 11-20.
 [Comp. St. John xii. 47, 48.] Grabius thinks this taken from the
[apocryphal] Gospel according to the Hebrews. It is not in the New or Old
Testament. [Query. Is it not, rather, one of the traditional sayings
preserved among early Christians?]
Chapter XLVIII. Before the divinity of Christ is proved, he [Trypho] demands
that it be settled that He is Christ.
And Trypho said, "We have heard what you think of these matters. Resume the
discourse where you left off, and bring it to an end. For some of it appears
to me to be paradoxical, and wholly incapable of proof. For when you say
that this Christ existed as God before the ages, then that He submitted to
be born and become man, yet that He is not man of man, this [assertion]
appears to me to be not merely paradoxical, but also foolish."
And I replied to this, "I know that the statement does appear to be
paradoxical, especially to those of your race, who are ever unwilling to
understand or to perform the [requirements] of God, but [ready to perform]
those of your teachers, as God Himself declares.  Now assuredly,
Trypho," I continued," [the proof] that this man  is the Christ of God
does not fail, though I be unable to prove that He existed formerly as Son
of the Maker of all things, being God, and was born a man by the Virgin. But
since I have certainly proved that this man is the Christ of God, whoever He
be, even if I do not prove that He pre-existed, and submitted to be born a
man of like passions with us, having a body, according to the Father's will;
in this last matter alone is it just to say that I have erred, and not to
deny that He is the Christ, though it should appear that He was born man of
men, and [nothing more] is proved [than this], that He has become Christ by
election. For there are some, my friends," I said, "of our race,  who
admit that He is Christ, while holding Him to be man of men; with whom I do
not agree, nor would I,  even though most of those who have [now] the
same opinions as myself should say so; since we were enjoined by Christ
Himself to put no faith in human doctrines,  but in those proclaimed
by the blessed prophets and taught by Himself."
 Comp. Isa. xxix. 13.
 Or, "such a man."
 Some read, "of your race," referring to the Ebionites. Maranus
believes the reference is to the Ebionites, and supports in a long note the
reading "our," inasmuch as Justin would be more likely to associate these
Ebionites with Christians than with Jews, even though they were heretics.
 Langus translates: "Nor would, indeed, many who are of the same
opinion as myself say so."
 [Note this emphatic testimony of primitive faith.]
Chapter XLIX. To those who object that Elijah has not yet come, he replies
that he is the precursor of the first advent.
And Trypho said, "Those who affirm him to have been a man, and to have been
anointed by election, and then to have become Christ, appear to me to speak
more plausibly than you who hold those opinions which you express. For we
all expect that Christ will be a man [born] of men, and that Elijah when he
comes will anoint him. But if this man appear to be Christ, he must
certainly be known as man [born] of men; but from the circumstance that
Elijah has not yet come, I infer that this man is not He [the Christ]."
Then I inquired of him, "Does not Scripture, in the book of Zechariah,
 say that Elijah shall come before the great and terrible day of the
And he answered, "Certainly."
"If therefore Scripture compels you to admit that two advents of Christ were
predicted to take place, one in which He would appear suffering, and
dishonoured, and without comeliness; but the other in which He would come
glorious and Judge of all, as has been made manifest in many of the
fore-cited passages, shall we not suppose that the word of God has
proclaimed that Elijah shall be the precursor of the great and terrible day,
that is, of His second advent?"
"Certainly," he answered.
"And, accordingly, our Lord in His teaching," I continued, "proclaimed that
this very thing would take place, saying that Elijah would also come. And we
know that this shall take place when our Lord Jesus Christ shall come in
glory from heaven; whose first manifestation the Spirit of God who was in
Elijah preceded as herald in [the person of] John, a prophet among your
nation; after whom no other prophet appeared among you. He cried, as he sat
by the river Jordan: "I baptize you with water to repentance; but He that is
stronger than I shall come, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: He shall
baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire: whose fan is in His hand, and
He will thoroughly purge His floor, and will gather the wheat into the barn;
but the chaff He will burn up with unquenchable fire.  And this very
prophet your king Herod had shut up in prison; and when his birthday was
celebrated, and the niece  of the same Herod by her dancing had
pleased him, he told her to ask whatever she pleased. Then the mother of the
maiden instigated her to ask the head of John, who was in prison; and having
asked it, [Herod] sent and ordered the head of John to be brought in on a
charger. Wherefore also our Christ said, [when He was] on earth, to those
who were affirming that Elijah must come before Christ: "Elijah shall come,
and restore all things; but I say unto you, that Elijah has already come,
and they knew him not, but have done to him whatsoever they chose. 
And it is written, "Then the disciples understood that He spake to them
about John the Baptist. "
And Trypho said, "This statement also seems to me paradoxical; namely, that
the prophetic Spirit of God, who was in Elijah, was also in John."
To this I replied, "Do you not think that the same thing happened in the
case of Joshua the son of Nave (Nun), who succeeded to the command of the
people after Moses, when Moses was commanded to lay his hands on Joshua, and
God said to him, "I will take of the spirit which is in thee, and put it on
him? " 
And he said, "Certainly."
"As therefore," I say, "while Moses was still among men, God took of the
spirit which was in Moses and put it on Joshua, even so God was able to
cause [the spirit] of Elijah to come upon John; in order that, as Christ at
His first coming appeared inglorious, even so the first coming of the
spirit, which remained always pure in Elijah  like that of Christ,
might be perceived to be inglorious. For the Lord said He would wage war
against Amalek with concealed hand; and you will not deny that Amalek fell.
But if it is said that only in the glorious advent of Christ war will be
waged with Amalek, how great will the fulfilment  of Scripture be
which says, "God will wage war against Amalek with concealed hand! You can
perceive that the concealed power of God was in Christ the crucified, before
whom demons, and all the principalities and powers of the earth, tremble."
 Mal. iv. 5.
 Matt. iii. 11, 12.
 Literally, "cousin."
 Matt. xvii. 12.
 Num. xi. 17, spoken of the seventy elders. Justin confuses what is
said here with Num. xxvii. 18 and Deut. xxxiv. 9.
 The meaning is, that no division of person took place. Elijah
remained the same after as before his spirit was shed on John.
 Literally, "fruit."
Chapter L. It is proved from Isaiah that John is the precursor of Christ.
And Trypho said, "You seem to me to have come out of a great conflict with
many persons about all the points we have been searching into, and therefore
quite ready to return answers to all questions put to you. Answer me then,
first, how you can show that there is another God besides the Maker of all
things; and then you will show, [further], that He submitted to be born of
I replied, "Give me permission first of all to quote certain passages from
the prophecy of Isaiah, which refer to the office of forerunner discharged
by John the Baptist and prophet before this our Lord Jesus Christ."
"I grant it," said he.
Then I said, "Isaiah thus foretold John's forerunning: "And Hezekiah said to
Isaiah, Good is the word of the Lord which He spake: Let there be peace and
righteousness in my days.  And, "Encourage the people; ye priests,
speak to the heart of Jerusalem, and encourage her, because her humiliation
is accomplished. Her sin is annulled; for she has received of the Lord s
hand double for her sins. A voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare
the ways of the Lord; make straight the paths of our God. Every valley shall
be filled up, and every mountain and hill shall be brought low: and the
crooked shall be made straight, and the rough way shall be plain ways; and
the glory of the Lord shall be seen, and all flesh shall see the salvation
of God: for the Lord hath spoken it. A voice of one saying, Cry; and I said,
What shall I cry? All flesh is grass, and all the glory of man as the flower
of grass. The grass has withered, and the flower of it has fallen away; but
the word of the Lord endureth for ever. Thou that bringest good tidings to
Zion, go up to the high mountain; thou that bringest good tidings to
Jerusalem, lift up thy voice with strength. Lift ye up, be not afraid; tell
the cities of Judah, Behold your God! Behold, the Lord comes with strength,
and [His] arm comes with authority. Behold, His reward is with Him, and His
work before Him. As a shepherd He will tend His flock, and will gather the
lambs with [His] arm, and cheer on her that is with young. Who has measured
the water with [his] hand, and the heaven with a span, and all the earth
with [his] fist? Who has weighed the mountains, and [put] the valleys into a
balance? Who has known the mind of the Lord? And who has been His
counsellor, and who shall advise Him? Or with whom did He take counsel, and
he instructed Him? Or who showed Him judgment? Or who made Him to know the
way of understanding? All the nations are reckoned as a drop of a bucket,
and as a turning of a balance, and shall be reckoned as spittle. But Lebanon
is not sufficient to burn, nor the beasts sufficient for a burnt-offering;
and all the nations are considered nothing, and for nothing. " 
 Isa. xxxix. 8.
 Isa. xl. 1-17.
Chapter LI. It is proved that this prophecy has been fulfilled.
And when I ceased, Trypho said, "All the words of the prophecy you repeat,
sir, are ambiguous, and have no force in proving what you wish to prove."
Then I answered, "If the prophets had not ceased, so that there were no more
in your nation, Trypho, after this John, it is evident that what I say in
reference to Jesus Christ might be regarded perhaps as ambiguous. But if
John came first calling on men to repent, and Christ, while [John] still sat
by the river Jordan, having come, put an end to his prophesying and
baptizing, and preached also Himself, saying that the kingdom of heaven is
at hand, and that He must suffer many things from the Scribes and Pharisees,
and be crucified, and on the third day rise again, and would appear again in
Jerusalem, and would again eat and drink with His disciples; and foretold
that in the interval between His [first and second] advent, as I previously
said,  priests and false prophets would arise in His name, which
things do actually appear; then how can they be ambiguous, when you may be
persuaded by the facts? Moreover, He referred to the fact that there would
be no longer in your nation any prophet, and to the fact that men recognised
how that the New Testament, which God formerly announced [His intention of]
promulgating, was then present, i.e., Christ Himself; and in the following
terms: "The law and the prophets were until John the Baptist; from that time
the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, and the violent take it by force.
And if you can  receive it, he is Elijah, who was to come. He that
hath ears to hear, let him hear. 
 Chap. xxv.
 "Are willing."
 Matt. xi. 12-15.
Chapter LII. Jacob predicted two advents of Christ.
"And it was prophesied by Jacob the patriarch  that there would be two
advents of Christ, and that in the first He would suffer, and that after He
came there would be neither prophet nor king in your nation (I proceeded),
and that the nations who believed in the suffering Christ would look for His
future appearance. And for this reason the Holy Spirit had uttered these
truths in a parable, and obscurely: for," I added, "it is said, "Judah, thy
brethren have praised thee: thy hands [shall be] on the neck of thine
enemies; the sons of thy father shall worship thee. Judah is a lion's whelp;
from the germ, my son, thou art sprung up. Reclining, he lay down like a
lion, and like [a lion s] whelp: who shall raise him up? A ruler shall not
depart from Judah, or a leader from his thighs, until that which is laid up
in store for him shall come; and he shall be the desire of nations, binding
his foal to the vine, and the foal of his ass to the tendril of the vine. He
shall wash his garments in wine, and his vesture in the blood of the grape.
His eyes shall be bright with  wine, and his teeth white like milk.
 Moreover, that in your nation there never failed either prophet or
ruler, from the time when they began until the time when this Jesus Christ
appeared and suffered, you will not venture shamelessly to assert, nor can
you prove it. For though you affirm that Herod, after  whose [reign]
He suffered, was an Ashkelonite, nevertheless you admit that there was a
high priest in your nation; so that you then had one who presented offerings
according to the law of Moses, and observed the other legal ceremonies; also
[you had] prophets in succession until John, (even then, too, when your
nation was carried captive to Babylon, when your land was ravaged by war,
and the sacred vessels carried off); there never failed to be a prophet
among you, who was lord, and leader, and ruler of your nation. For the
Spirit which was in the prophets anointed your kings, and established them.
But after the manifestation and death of our Jesus Christ in your nation,
there was and is nowhere any prophet: nay, further, you ceased to exist
under your own king, your land was laid waste, and forsaken like a lodge in
a vineyard; and the statement of Scripture, in the mouth of Jacob, "And He
shall be the desire of nations, meant symbolically His two advents, and
that the nations would believe in Him; which facts you may now at length
discern. For those out of all the nations who are pious and righteous
through the faith of Christ, look for His future appearance.
 [Gen. xlix. 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 18, 24. These texts are frequently
referred to by Justin.]
 Or, "in comparison of."
 Gen. xlix. 8-12.
 aph hou; many translated "under whom," as if eph hou. This would be
erroneous. Conjectured also ephuge for epathen.
Chapter LIII. Jacob predicted that Christ would ride on an ass, and Zechariah
"And that expression, "binding his foal to the vine, and the ass's foal to
the vine tendril, was a declaring beforehand both of the works wrought by
Him at His first advent, and also of that belief in Him which the nations
would repose. For they were like an unharnessed foal, which was not bearing
a yoke on its neck, until this Christ came, and sent His disciples to
instruct them; and they bore the yoke of His word, and yielded the neck to
endure all [hardships], for the sake of the good things promised by Himself,
and expected by them. And truly our Lord Jesus Christ, when He intended to
go into Jerusalem, requested His disciples to bring Him a certain ass, along
with its foal, which was bound in an entrance of a village called Bethphage;
and having seated Himself on it, He entered into Jerusalem. And as this was
done by Him in the manner in which it was prophesied in precise terms that
it would be done by the Christ, and as the fulfilment was recognised, it
became a clear proof that He was the Christ. And though all this happened
and is proved from Scripture, you are still hard-hearted. Nay, it was
prophesied by Zechariah, one of the twelve [prophets], that such would take
place, in the following words: "Rejoice greatly, daughter of Zion; shout,
and declare, daughter of Jerusalem; behold, thy King shall come to thee,
righteous, bringing salvation, meek, and lowly, riding on an ass, and the
foal of an ass.  Now, that the Spirit of prophecy, as well as the
patriarch Jacob, mentioned both an ass and its foal, which would be used by
Him; and, further, that He, as I previously said, requested His disciples to
bring both beasts; [this fact] was a prediction that you of the synagogue,
along with the Gentiles, would believe in Him. For as the unharnessed colt
was a symbol of the Gentiles even so the harnessed ass was a symbol of your
nation. For you possess the law which was imposed [upon you] by the
prophets. Moreover, the prophet Zechariah foretold that this same Christ
would be smitten, and His disciples scattered: which also took place. For
after His crucifixion, the disciples that accompanied Him were dispersed,
until He rose from the dead, and persuaded them that so it had been
prophesied concerning Him, that He would suffer; and being thus persuaded,
they went into all the world, and taught these truths. Hence also we are
strong in His faith and doctrine, since we have [this our] persuasion both
from the prophets, and from those who throughout the world are seen to be
worshippers of God in the name of that crucified One. The following is said,
too, by Zechariah: "O sword, rise up against My Shepherd, and against the
man of My people, saith the Lord of hosts. Smite the Shepherd, and His flock
shall be scattered. 
 Zech. ix. 9.
 Zech. xiii. 7.
Chapter LIV. What the blood of the grape signifies.
"And that expression which was committed to writing  by Moses, and
prophesied by the patriarch Jacob, namely, "He shall wash His garments with
wine, and His vesture with the blood of the grape, signified that He would
wash those that believe in Him with His own blood. For the Holy Spirit
called those who receive remission of sins through Him, His garments;
amongst whom He is always present in power, but will be manifestly present
at His second coming. That the Scripture mentions the blood of the grape has
been evidently designed, because Christ derives blood not from the seed of
man, but from the power of God. For as God, and not man, has produced the
blood of the vine, so also [the Scripture] has predicted that the blood of
Christ would be not of the seed of man, but of the power of God. But this
prophecy, sirs, which I repeated, proves that Christ is not man of men,
begotten in the ordinary course of humanity."
 Literally, "inquired into."
Chapter LV. Trypho asks that Christ be proved God, but without metaphor.
Justin promises to do so.
And Trypho answered, "We shall remember this your exposition, if you
strengthen [your solution of] this difficulty by other arguments: but now
resume the discourse, and show us that the Spirit of prophecy admits another
God besides the Maker of all things, taking care not to speak of the sun and
moon, which, it is written,  God has given to the nations to worship
as gods; and oftentimes the prophets, employing  this manner of
speech, say that "thy God is a God of gods, and a Lord of lords, adding
frequently, "the great and strong and terrible [God]. For such expressions
are used, not as if they really were gods, but because the Scripture is
teaching us that the true God, who made all things, is Lord alone of those
who are reputed gods and lords. And in order that the Holy Spirit may
convince [us] of this, He said by the holy David, "The gods of the nations,
reputed gods, are idols of demons, and not gods;  and He denounces a
curse on those who worship them."
And I replied, "I would not bring forward these proofs, Trypho, by which I
am aware those who worship these [idols] and such like are condemned, but
such [proofs] as no one could find any objection to. They will appear
strange to you, although you read them every day; so that even from this
fact we  understand that, because of your wickedness, God has withheld
from you the ability to discern the wisdom of His Scriptures; yet [there
are] some exceptions, to whom, according to the grace of His long-suffering,
as Isaiah said, He has left a seed of  salvation, lest your race be
utterly destroyed, like Sodom and Gomorrah. Pay attention, therefore, to
what I shall record out of the holy Scriptures, which  do not need to
be expounded, but only listened to.
 Deut. iv. 19, an apparent [i.e., evident] misinterpretation of the
passage. [But see St. John x. 33-36.]
 Or, "misusing."
 Ps. xcvi. 5.
 Com. reading, "you;" evidently wrong.
 Literally, "for."
 Two constructions, "which" referring either to Scriptures as whole,
or to what he records from them. Last more probable.
Chapter LVI. God who appeared to Moses is distinguished from God the Father.
"Moses, then, the blessed and faithful servant of God, declares that He who
appeared to Abraham under the oak in Mamre is God, sent with the two angels
in His company to judge Sodom by Another who remains ever in the
supercelestial places, invisible to all men, holding personal intercourse
with none, whom we believe to be Maker and Father of all things; for he
speaks thus: "God appeared to him under the oak in Mamre, as he sat at his
tent-door at noontide. And lifting up his eyes, he saw, and behold, three
men stood before him; and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the
door of his tent; and he bowed himself toward the ground, and said; "
 (and so on;)  "Abraham gat up early in the morning to the
place where he stood before the Lord: and he looked toward Sodom and
Gomorrah, and toward the adjacent country, and beheld, and, lo, a flame went
up from the earth, like the smoke of a furnace. " And when I had made an
end of quoting these words, I asked them if they had understood them.
And they said they had understood them, but that the passages adduced
brought forward no proof that there is any other God or Lord, or that the
Holy Spirit says so, besides the Maker of all things.
Then I replied, "I shall attempt to persuade you, since you have understood
the Scriptures, [of the truth] of what I say, that there is, and that there
is said to be, another God and Lord subject to  the Maker of all
things; who is also called an Angel, because He announces to men whatsoever
the Maker of all things above whom there is no other God wishes to announce
to them." And quoting once more the previous passage, I asked Trypho, "Do
you think that God appeared to Abraham under the oak in Mamre, as the
He said, "Assuredly."
"Was He one of those three," I said, "whom Abraham saw, and whom the Holy
Spirit of prophecy describes as men?"
He said, "No; but God appeared to him, before the vision of the three. Then
those three whom the Scripture calls men, were angels; two of them sent to
destroy Sodom, and one to announce the joyful tidings to Sarah, that she
would bear a son; for which cause he was sent, and having accomplished his
errand, went away." 
"How then," said I, "does the one of the three, who was in the tent, and who
said, "I shall return to thee hereafter, and Sarah shall have a son, 
appear to have returned when Sarah had begotten a son, and to be there
declared, by the prophetic word, God? But that you may clearly discern what
I say, listen to the words expressly employed by Moses; they are these: "And
Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian bond-woman, whom she bore to
Abraham, sporting with Isaac her son, and said to Abraham, Cast out this
bond-woman and her son; for the son of this bond-woman shall not share the
inheritance of my son Isaac. And the matter seemed very grievous in
Abraham's sight, because of his son. But God said to Abraham, Let it not be
grievous in thy sight because of the son, and because of the bond-woman. In
all that Sarah hath said unto thee, hearken to her voice; for in Isaac shall
thy seed be called.  Have you perceived, then, that He who said under
the oak that He would return, since He knew it would be necessary to advise
Abraham to do what Sarah wished him, came back as it is written; and is God,
as the words declare, when they so speak: "God said to Abraham, Let it not
be grievous in thy sight because of the son, and because of the
bond-woman? " I inquired. And Trypho said, "Certainly; but you have not
proved from this that there is another God besides Him who appeared to
Abraham, and who also appeared to the other patriarchs and prophets. You
have proved, however, that we were wrong in believing that the three who
were in the tent with Abraham were all angels."
I replied again, "If I could not have proved to you from the Scriptures that
one of those three is God, and is called Angel,  because, as I already
said, He brings messages to those to whom God the Maker of all things wishes
[messages to be brought], then in regard to Him who appeared to Abraham on
earth in human form in like manner as the two angels who came with Him, and
who was God even before the creation of the world, it were reasonable for
you to entertain the same belief as is entertained by the whole of your
"Assuredly," he said, "for up to this moment this has been our belief."
Then I replied, "Reverting to the Scriptures, I shall endeavour to persuade
you, that He who is said to have appeared to Abraham, and to Jacob, and to
Moses, and who is called God, is distinct from Him who made all
things, numerically, I mean, not [distinct] in will. For I affirm that He
has never at any time done  anything which He who made the world above
whom there is no other God has not wished Him both to do and to engage
And Trypho said, "Prove now that this is the case, that we also may agree
with you. For we do not understand you to affirm that He has done or said
anything contrary to the will of the Maker of all things."
Then I said, "The Scripture just quoted by me will make this plain to you.
It is thus: "The sun was risen on the earth, and Lot entered into Segor
(Zoar); and the Lord rained on Sodom sulphur and fire from the Lord out of
heaven, and overthrew these cities and all the neighbourhood. " 
Then the fourth of those who had remained with Trypho said, "It  must
therefore necessarily be said that one of the two angels who went to Sodom,
and is named by Moses in the Scripture Lord, is different from Him who also
is God and appeared to Abraham." 
"It is not on this ground solely," I said, "that it must be admitted
absolutely that some other one is called Lord by the Holy Spirit besides Him
who is considered Maker of all things; not solely [for what is said] by
Moses, but also [for what is said] by David. For there is written by him:
"The Lord says to my Lord, Sit on My right hand, until I make Thine enemies
Thy footstool,  as I have already quoted. And again, in other words:
"Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever. A sceptre of equity is the sceptre
of Thy kingdom: Thou hast loved righteousness and hated iniquity: therefore
God, even Thy God, hath anointed Thee with the oil of gladness above Thy
fellows.  If, therefore, you assert that the Holy Spirit calls some
other one God and Lord, besides the Father of all things and His Christ,
answer me; for I undertake to prove to you from Scriptures themselves, that
He whom the Scripture calls Lord is not one of the two angels that went to
Sodom, but He who was with them, and is called God, that appeared to
And Trypho said, "Prove this; for, as you see, the day advances, and we are
not prepared for such perilous replies; since never yet have we heard any
man investigating, or searching into, or proving these matters; nor would we
have tolerated your conversation, had you not referred everything to the
Scriptures:  for you are very zealous in adducing proofs from them;
and you are of opinion that there is no God above the Maker of all
Then I replied, "You are aware, then, that the Scripture says, "And the Lord
said to Abraham, Why did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I truly conceive? for I
am old. Is anything impossible with God? At the time appointed shall I
return to thee according to the time of life, and Sarah shall have a son.
 And after a little interval: "And the men rose up from thence, and
looked towards Sodom and Gomorrah; and Abraham went with them, to bring them
on the way. And the Lord said, I will not conceal from Abraham, my servant,
what I do.  And again, after a little, it thus says: "The Lord said,
The cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great,  and their sins are very
grievous. I will go down now, and see whether they have done altogether
according to their cry which has come unto me; and if not, that I may know.
And the men turned away thence, and went to Sodom. But Abraham was standing
before the Lord; and Abraham drew near, and said, Wilt Thou destroy the
righteous with the wicked? "  (and so on,  for I do not think
fit to write over again the same words, having written them all before, but
shall of necessity give those by which I established the proof to Trypho and
his companions. Then I proceeded to what follows, in which these words are
recorded:) "And the Lord went His way as soon as He had left communing
with Abraham; and [Abraham] went to his place. And there came two angels to
Sodom at even. And Lot sat in the gate of Sodom;  and what follows
until, "But the men put forth their hands, and pulled Lot into the house to
them, and shut to the door of the house;  and what follows till, "And
the angels laid hold on his hand, and on the hand of his wife, and on the
hands of his daughters, the Lord being merciful to him. And it came to pass,
when they had brought them forth abroad, that they said, Save, save thy
life. Look not behind thee, nor stay in all the neighbourhood; escape to the
mountain, lest thou be taken along with [them]. And Lot said to them, I
beseech [Thee], O Lord, since Thy servant hath found grace in Thy sight, and
Thou hast magnified Thy righteousness, which Thou showest towards me in
saving my life; but I cannot escape to the mountain, lest evil overtake me,
and I die. Behold, this city is near to flee unto, and it is small: there I
shall be safe, since it is small; and any soul shall live. And He said to
him, Behold, I have accepted thee  also in this matter, so as not to
destroy the city for which thou hast spoken. Make haste to save thyself
there; for I shall not do anything till thou be come thither. Therefore he
called the name of the city Segor (Zoar). The sun was risen upon the earth;
and Lot entered into Segor (Zoar). And the Lord rained on Sodom and Gomorrah
sulphur and fire from the Lord out of heaven; and He overthrew these cities,
and all the neighbourhood. "  And after another pause I added: "And
now have you not perceived, my friends, that one of the three, who is both
God and Lord, and ministers to Him who is in the heavens, is Lord of the two
angels? For when [the angels] proceeded to Sodom, He remained behind, and
communed with Abraham in the words recorded by Moses; and when He departed
after the conversation, Abraham went back to his place. And when he came [to
Sodom], the two angels no longer conversed with Lot, but Himself, as the
Scripture makes evident; and He is the Lord who received commission from the
Lord who [remains] in the heavens, i.e., the Maker of all things, to inflict
upon Sodom and Gomorrah the [judgments] which the Scripture describes in
these terms: "The Lord rained down upon Sodom and Gomorrah sulphur and fire
from the Lord out of heaven. "
 Gen. xviii. 1, 2.
 Gen. xix. 27, 28; "and so on" inserted probably not by Justin, but by
some copyist, as is evident from succeeding words.
 Some, "besides;" but probably as above.
 Or, "going away, departed."
 Gen. xviii. 10.
 Gen. xxi. 9-12.
 Or, "Messenger." [The "Jehovah-angel" of the Pentateuch, passim.] In
the various passages in which Justin assigns the reason for Christ being
called angel or messenger, Justin uses also the verb angellō, to convey
messages, to announce. The similarity between angelos and angellō cannot be
retained in English, and therefore the point of Justin's remarks is lost to
the English reader.
 Some supply, "or said."
 Gen. xix. 23.
 Or, "We must of necessity think, that besides the one of the two
angels who came down to Sodom, and whom the Scripture by Moses calls Lord,
God Himself appeared to Abraham."
 This passage is rather confused: the translation is necessarily free,
but, it is believed, correct. Justin's friend wishes to make out that two
distinct individuals are called Lord or God in the narrative.
 Ps. cx. 1.
 Ps. xlv. 6, 7.
 [Note again the fidelity of Justin to this principle, and the fact
that in no other way could a Jew be persuaded to listen to a Christian. Acts
 Gen. xviii. 13, 14.
 Gen. xviii. 16, 17.
 Literally, "is multiplied."
 Gen. xviii. 20-23.
 Comp. Note 2, p. 223.
 Gen. xviii. 33, Gen. xix. 1.
 Gen. xix. 10.
 Literally, "I have admired thy face."
 Gen. xix. 16-25.
Chapter LVII. The Jew objects, why is He said to have eaten, if He be God?
Answer of Justin.
Then Trypho said when I was silent, "That Scripture compels us to admit
this, is manifest; but there is a matter about which we are deservedly at a
loss namely, about what was said to the effect that [the Lord] ate what was
prepared and placed before him by Abraham; and you would admit this."
I answered, "It is written that they ate; and if we believe  that it
is said the three ate, and not the two alone who were really angels, and are
nourished in the heavens, as is evident to us, even though they are not
nourished by food similar to that which mortals use (for, concerning the
sustenance of manna which supported your fathers in the desert, Scripture
speaks thus, that they ate angels food): [if we believe that three ate],
then I would say that the Scripture which affirms they ate bears the same
meaning as when we would say about fire that it has devoured all things; yet
it is not certainly understood that they ate, masticating with teeth and
jaws. So that not even here should we be at a loss about anything, if we are
acquainted even slightly with figurative modes of expression, and able to
rise above them."
And Trypho said, "It is possible that [the question] about the mode of
eating may be thus explained: [the mode, that is to say,] in which it is
written, they took and ate what had been prepared by Abraham: so that you
may now proceed to explain to us how this God who appeared to Abraham, and
is minister to God the Maker of all things, being born of the Virgin, became
man, of like passions with all, as you said previously."
Then I replied, "Permit me first, Trypho, to collect some other proofs on
this head, so that you, by the large number of them, may be persuaded of
[the truth of] it, and thereafter I shall explain what you ask."
And he said, "Do as seems good to you; for I shall be thoroughly pleased."
 Literally, "hear."
Chapter LVIII. The same is proved from the visions which appeared to Jacob.
Then I continued, "I purpose to quote to you Scriptures, not that I am
anxious to make merely an artful display of words; for I possess no such
faculty, but God's grace alone has been granted to me to the understanding
of His Scriptures, of which grace I exhort all to become partakers freely
and bounteously, in order that they may not, through want of it, 
incur condemnation in the judgment which God the Maker of all things shall
hold through my Lord Jesus Christ."
And Trypho said, "What you do is worthy of the worship of God; but you
appear to me to feign ignorance when you say that you do not possess a store
of artful words."
I again replied, "Be it so, since you think so; yet I am persuaded that I
speak the truth.  But give me your attention, that I may now rather
adduce the remaining proofs."
"Proceed," said he.
And I continued: "It is again written by Moses, my brethren, that He who is
called God and appeared to the patriarchs is called both Angel and Lord, in
order that from this you may understand Him to be minister to the Father of
all things, as you have already admitted, and may remain firm, persuaded by
additional arguments. The word of God, therefore, [recorded] by Moses, when
referring to Jacob the grandson of Abraham, speaks thus: "And it came to
pass, when the sheep conceived, that I saw them with my eyes in the dream:
And, behold, the he-goats and the rams which leaped upon the sheep and
she-goats were spotted with white, and speckled and sprinkled with a dun
colour. And the Angel of God said to me in the dream, Jacob, Jacob. And I
said, What is it, Lord? And He said, Lift up thine eyes, and see that the
he-goats and rams leaping on the sheep and she-goats are spotted with white,
speckled, and sprinkled with a dun colour. For I have seen what Laban doeth
unto thee. I am the God who appeared to thee in Bethel,  where thou
anointedst a pillar and vowedst a vow unto Me. Now therefore arise, and get
thee out of this land, and depart to the land of thy birth, and I shall be
with thee.  And again, in other words, speaking of the same Jacob, it
thus says: "And having risen up that night, he took the two wives, and the
two women-servants, and his eleven children, and passed over the ford
Jabbok; and he took them and went over the brook, and sent over all his
belongings. But Jacob was left behind alone, and an Angel  wrestled
with him until morning. And He saw that He is not prevailing against him,
and He touched the broad part of his thigh; and the broad part of Jacob s
thigh grew stiff while he wrestled with Him. And He said, Let Me go, for the
day breaketh. But he said, I will not let Thee go, except Thou bless me. And
He said to him, What is thy name? And he said, Jacob. And He said, Thy name
shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name; for thou hast
prevailed with God, and with men shalt be powerful. And Jacob asked Him, and
said, Tell me Thy name. But he said, Why dost thou ask after My name? And He
blessed him there. And Jacob called the name of that place Peniel, 
for I saw God face to face, and my soul rejoiced.  And again, in
other terms, referring to the same Jacob, it says the following: "And Jacob
came to Luz, in the land of Canaan, which is Bethel, he and all the people
that were with him. And there he built an altar, and called the name of that
place Bethel; for there God appeared to him when he fled from the face of
his brother Esau. And Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, died, and was buried beneath
Bethel under an oak: and Jacob called the name of it The Oak of Sorrow. And
God appeared again to Jacob in Luz, when he came out from Mesopotamia in
Syria, and He blessed him. And God said to him, Thy name shall be no more
called Jacob, but Israel shall he thy name.  He is called God, and He
is and shall be God." And when all had agreed on these grounds, I continued:
"Moreover, I consider it necessary to repeat to you the words which narrate
how He who is both Angel and God and Lord, and who appeared as a man to
Abraham, and who wrestled in human form with Jacob, was seen by him when he
fled from his brother Esau. They are as follows: "And Jacob went out from
the well of the oath,  and went toward Charran.  And he lighted
on a spot, and slept there, for the sun was set; and he gathered of the
stones of the place, and put them under his head. And he slept in that
place; and he dreamed, and, behold, a ladder was set up on the earth, whose
top reached to heaven; and the angels of God ascended and descended upon it.
And the Lord stood  above it, and He said, I am the Lord, the God of
Abraham thy father, and of Isaac; be not afraid: the land whereon thou
liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed; and thy seed shall be as the
dust of the earth, and shall be extended to the west, and south, and north,
and east: and in thee, and in thy seed, shall all families of the earth be
blessed. And, behold, I am with thee, keeping thee in every way wherein thou
goest, and will bring thee again into this land; for I will not leave thee,
until I have done all that I have spoken to thee of. And Jacob awaked out of
his sleep, and said, Surely the Lord is in this place, and I knew it not.
And he was afraid, and said, How dreadful is this place! this is none other
than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven. And Jacob rose up in
the morning, and took the stone which he had placed under his head, and he
set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it; and Jacob called
the name of the place The House of God, and the name of the city formerly
was Ulammaus. " 
 Literally, "for this sake." [Note here and elsewhere the primitive
rule as to the duty of all men to search the Scriptures.]
 Or, "speak otherwise."
 Literally, "in the place of God."
 Gen. xxxi. 10-13.
 Some read, "a man."
 Literally, "the face of God."
 Gen. xxxii. 22-30.
 Gen. xxxv. 6-10.
 Or, "Beersheba."
 So, LXX. and N.T.; Heb. "Haran."
 Literally, "was set up."
 Gen. xxviii. 10-19. [Oulamlouz. Sept. Luz Eng.]
Chapter LIX. God distinct from the Father conversed with Moses.
When I had spoken these words, I continued: "Permit me, further, to show you
from the book of Exodus how this same One, who is both Angel, and God, and
Lord, and man, and who appeared in human form to Abraham and Isaac, 
appeared in a flame of fire from the bush, and conversed with Moses." And
after they said they would listen cheerfully, patiently, and eagerly, I went
on: "These words are in the book which bears the title of Exodus: "And after
many days the king of Egypt died, and the children of Israel groaned by
reason of the works;  and so on until, "Go and gather the elders of
Israel, and thou shalt say unto them, The Lord God of your fathers, the God
of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath appeared to me,
saying, I am surely beholding you, and the things which have befallen you in
Egypt. "  In addition to these words, I went on: "Have you perceived,
sirs, that this very God whom Moses speaks of as an Angel that talked to him
in the flame of fire, declares to Moses that He is the God of Abraham, of
Isaac, and of Jacob?"
 Some conjecture "Jacob," others insert "Jacob" after "Isaac." [Gen.
xxii. The Jehovah-angel was seen no doubt by Isaac, as well as by his
 Ex. ii. 23.
 Ex. iii. 16.
Chapter LX. Opinions of the Jews with regard to Him who appeared in the bush.
Then Trypho said, "We do not perceive this from the passage quoted by you,
but [only this], that it was an angel who appeared in the flame of fire, but
God who conversed with Moses; so that there were really two persons in
company with each other, an angel and God, that appeared in that vision."
I again replied, "Even if this were so, my friends, that an angel and God
were together in the vision seen by Moses, yet, as has already been proved
to you by the passages previously quoted, it will not be the Creator of all
things that is the God that said to Moses that He was the God of Abraham,
and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, but it will be He who has been
proved to you to have appeared to Abraham, ministering to the will of the
Maker of all things, and likewise carrying into execution His counsel in the
judgment of Sodom; so that, even though it be as you say, that there were
two an angel and God he who has but the smallest intelligence will not
venture to assert that the Maker and Father of all things, having left all
supercelestial matters, was visible on a little portion of the earth."
And Trypho said, "Since it has been previously proved that He who is called
God and Lord, and appeared to Abraham, received from the Lord, who is in the
heavens, that which He inflicted on the land of Sodom, even although an
angel had accompanied the God who appeared to Moses, we shall perceive that
the God who communed with Moses from the bush was not the Maker of all
things, but He who has been shown to have manifested Himself to Abraham and
to Isaac and to Jacob; who also is called and is perceived to be the Angel
of God the Maker of all things, because He publishes to men the commands of
the Father and Maker of all things."
And I replied, "Now assuredly, Trypho, I shall show that, in the vision of
Moses, this same One alone who is called an Angel, and who is God, appeared
to and communed with Moses. For the Scripture says thus: "The Angel of the
Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire from the bush; and he sees that the
bush burns with fire, but the bush was not consumed. And Moses said, I will
turn aside and see this great sight, for the bush is not burnt. And when the
Lord saw that he is turning aside to behold, the Lord called to him out of
the bush.  In the same manner, therefore, in which the Scripture
calls Him who appeared to Jacob in the dream an Angel, then [says] that the
same Angel who appeared in the dream spoke to him,  saying, "I am the
God that appeared to thee when thou didst flee from the face of Esau thy
brother; and [again] says that, in the judgment which befell Sodom in the
days of Abraham, the Lord had inflicted the punishment  of the Lord
who [dwells] in the heavens; even so here, the Scripture, in announcing that
the Angel of the Lord appeared to Moses, and in afterwards declaring him to
be Lord and God, speaks of the same One, whom it declares by the many
testimonies already quoted to be minister to God, who is above the world,
above whom there is no other [God].
 Ex. iii. 2-4.
 Gen. xxxv. 7.
 Literally, "judgment."
Chapter LXI Wisdom is begotten of the Father, as fire from fire.
"I shall give you another testimony, my friends," said I, "from the
Scriptures, that God begat before all creatures a Beginning,  [who
was] a certain rational power [proceeding] from Himself, who is called by
the Holy Spirit, now the Glory of the Lord, now the Son, again Wisdom, again
an Angel, then God, and then Lord and Logos; and on another occasion He
calls Himself Captain, when He appeared in human form to Joshua the son of
Nave (Nun). For He can be called by all those names, since He ministers to
the Father's will, and since He was begotten of the Father by an act of
will;  just as we see  happening among ourselves: for when we
give out some word, we beget the word; yet not by abscission, so as to
lessen the word  [which remains] in us, when we give it out: and just
as we see also happening in the case of a fire, which is not lessened when
it has kindled [another], but remains the same; and that which has been
kindled by it likewise appears to exist by itself, not diminishing that from
which it was kindled. The Word of Wisdom, who is Himself this God begotten
of the Father of all things, and Word, and Wisdom, and Power, and the Glory
of the Begetter, will bear evidence to me, when He speaks by Solomon the
following: "If I shall declare to you what happens daily, I shall call to
mind events from everlasting, and review them. The Lord made me the
beginning of His ways for His works. From everlasting He established me in
the beginning, before He had made the earth, and before He had made the
deeps, before the springs of the waters had issued forth, before the
mountains had been established. Before all the hills He begets me. God made
the country, and the desert, and the highest inhabited places under the sky.
When He made ready the heavens, I was along with Him, and when He set up His
throne on the winds: when He made the high clouds strong, and the springs of
the deep safe, when He made the foundations of the earth, I was with Him
arranging. I was that in which He rejoiced; daily and at all times I
delighted in His countenance, because He delighted in the finishing of the
habitable world, and delighted in the sons of men. Now, therefore, O son,
hear me. Blessed is the man who shall listen to me, and the mortal who shall
keep my ways, watching  daily at my doors, observing the posts of my
ingoings. For my outgoings are the outgoings of life, and [my] will has been
prepared by the Lord. But they who sin against me, trespass against their
own souls; and they who hate me love death. 
 Or, "in the beginning, before all creatures." [Justin's reference to
Josh. i. 13-15 deserves special consideration; for he supposes that the true
Joshua (Jesus) was the substance, and the true "captain of salvation," of
whom this one was but a shadow (Heb. iv. 8, margin), type, and pledge. See
 The act of will or volition is on the part of the Father.
 Or, "Do we not see," etc.
 The word, logos translated "word," means both the thinking power or
reason which produces ideas and the expression of these ideas. And Justin
passes here from the one meaning to the other. When we utter a thought, the
utterance of it does not diminish the power of thought in us, though in one
sense the thought has gone away from us.
 The mss. of Justin read "sleeping," but this is regarded as the
mistake of some careless transcriber.
 Prov. viii. 21 ff.
Chapter LXII. The words "Let Us make man" agree with the testimony of
"And the same sentiment was expressed, my friends, by the word of God
[written] by Moses, when it indicated to us, with regard to Him whom it has
pointed out,  that God speaks in the creation of man with the very
same design, in the following words: "Let Us make man after our image and
likeness. And let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the
fowl of the heaven, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over
all the creeping things that creep on the earth. And God created man: after
the image of God did He create him; male and female created He them. And God
blessed them, and said, Increase and multiply, and fill the earth, and have
power over it.  And that you may not change the [force of the] words
just quoted, and repeat what your teachers assert, either that God said to
Himself, "Let Us make, just as we, when about to do something, oftentimes
say to ourselves, "Let us make; or that God spoke to the elements, to wit,
the earth and other similar substances of which we believe man was formed,
"Let Us make, I shall quote again the words narrated by Moses himself, from
which we can indisputably learn that [God] conversed with some one who was
numerically distinct from Himself, and also a rational Being. These are the
words: "And God said, Behold, Adam has become as one of us, to know good and
evil.  In saying, therefore, "as one of us, [Moses] has declared
that [there is a certain] number of persons associated with one another, and
that they are at least two. For I would not say that the dogma of that
heresy  which is said to be among you  is true, or that the
teachers of it can prove that [God] spoke to angels, or that the human frame
was the workmanship of angels. But this Offspring, which was truly brought
forth from the Father, was with the Father before all the creatures, and the
Father communed with Him; even as the Scripture by Solomon has made clear,
that He whom Solomon calls Wisdom, was begotten as a Beginning before all
His creatures and as Offspring by God, who has also declared this same thing
in the revelation made by Joshua the son of Nave (Nun). Listen, therefore,
to the following from the book of Joshua, that what I say may become
manifest to you; it is this: "And it came to pass, when Joshua was near
Jericho, he lifted up his eyes, and sees a man standing over against him.
And Joshua approached to Him, and said, Art thou for us, or for our
adversaries? And He said to him, I am Captain of the Lord's host: now have I
come. And Joshua fell on his face on the ground, and said to Him, Lord, what
commandest Thou Thy servant? And the Lord's Captain says to Joshua, Loose
the shoes off thy feet; for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground.
And Jericho was shut up and fortified, and no one went out of it. And the
Lord said to Joshua, Behold, I give into thine hand Jericho, and its king,
[and] its mighty men. " 
 Justin, since he is of opinion that the Word is the beginning of the
universe, thinks that by these words, "in the beginning," Moses indicated
the Word, like many other writers. Hence also he says in Ap. i. 23, that
Moses declares the Word "to be begotten first by God." If this explanation
does not satisfy, read, "with regard to Him whom I have pointed out"
 Gen. i. 26, 28.
 Gen. iii. 22.
 Heresy or sect.
 Or, "among us." Maranus pronounces against this latter reading for
the following reasons: (1.) The Jews had their own heresies which supplied
many things to the Christian heresies, especially to Menander and
Saturninus. (2.) The sect which Justin here refutes was of opinion that God
spoke to angels. But those angels, as Menander and Saturninus invented,
"exhorted themselves, saying, Let us make," etc. (3.) The expression
didaskaloi suits the rabbins well. So Justin frequently calls them. (4.)
Those teachers seem for no other cause to have put the words in the
angels mouths than to eradicate the testimony by which they proved divine
 Josh. v. 13 ad fin., and Josh.vi. 1, 2.
Chapter LXIII. It is proved that this God was incarnate.
And Trypho said, "This point has been proved to me forcibly, and by many
arguments, my friend. It remains, then, to prove that He submitted to become
man by the Virgin, according to the will of His Father; and to be crucified,
and to die. Prove also clearly, that after this He rose again and ascended
I answered, "This, too, has been already demonstrated by me in the
previously quoted words of the prophecies, my friends; which, by recalling
and expounding for your sakes, I shall endeavour to lead you to agree with
me also about this matter. The passage, then, which Isaiah records, "Who
shall declare His generation? for His life is taken away from the earth,
 does it not appear to you to refer to One who, not having descent
from men, was said to be delivered over to death by God for the
transgressions of the people? of whose blood, Moses (as I mentioned before),
when speaking in parable, said, that He would wash His garments in the blood
of the grape; since His blood did not spring from the seed of man, but from
the will of God. And then, what is said by David, "In the splendours of Thy
holiness have I begotten Thee from the womb, before the morning star. 
The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever, after
the order of Melchizedek,  does this not declare to you  that
[He was] from of old,  and that the God and Father of all things
intended Him to be begotten by a human womb? And speaking in other words,
which also have been already quoted, [he says]: "Thy throne, O God, is for
ever and ever: a sceptre of rectitude is the sceptre of Thy kingdom. Thou
hast loved righteousness, and hast hated iniquity: therefore God, even thy
God, hath anointed Thee with the oil of gladness above Thy fellows. [He hath
anointed Thee] with myrrh, and oil, and cassia from Thy garments, from the
ivory palaces, whereby they made Thee glad. Kings daughters are in Thy
honour. The queen stood at Thy right hand, clad in garments embroidered with
gold.  Hearken, O daughter, and behold, and incline thine ear, and
forget thy people and the house of thy father; and the King shall desire thy
beauty: because he is thy Lord, and thou shalt worship Him. 
Therefore these words testify explicitly that He is witnessed to by Him who
established these things,  as deserving to be worshipped, as God and
as Christ. Moreover, that the word of God speaks to those who believe in Him
as being one soul, and one synagogue, and one church, as to a daughter; that
it thus addresses the church which has sprung from His name and partakes of
His name (for we are all called Christians), is distinctly proclaimed in
like manner in the following words, which teach us also to forget [our] old
ancestral customs, when they speak thus:  "Hearken, O daughter, and
behold, and incline thine ear; forget thy people and the house of thy
father, and the King shall desire thy beauty: because He is thy Lord, and
thou shalt worship Him. "
 Isa. liii. 8.
 Note this beautiful rendering, Ps. cx. 3.
 Ps. cx. 4.
 Or, "to us."
 anōthen; in Lat. vers. antiquitus, which Maranus prefers.
 Literally, "garments of gold, variegated."
 Ps. xlv. 6-11.
 The incarnation, etc.
 "Being so," literally.
Chapter LXIV. Justin adduces other proofs to the Jew, who denies that he
needs this Christ.
Here Trypho said, "Let Him be recognised as Lord and Christ and God, as the
Scriptures declare, by you of the Gentiles, who have from His name been all
called Christians; but we who are servants of God that made this same
[Christ], do not require to confess or worship Him."
To this I replied, "If I were to be quarrelsome and light-minded like you,
Trypho, I would no longer continue to converse with you, since you are
prepared not to understand what has been said, but only to return some
captious answer;  but now, since I fear the judgment of God, I do not
state an untimely opinion concerning any one of your nation, as to whether
or not some of them may be saved by the grace of the Lord of Sabaoth.
Therefore, although you act wrongfully, I shall continue to reply to any
proposition you shall bring forward, and to any contradiction which you
make; and, in fact, I do the very same to all men of every nation, who wish
to examine along with me, or make inquiry at me, regarding this subject.
Accordingly, if you had bestowed attention on the Scriptures previously
quoted by me, you would already have understood, that those who are saved of
your own nation are saved through this  [man], and partake of His lot;
and you would not certainly have asked me about this matter. I shall again
repeat the words of David previously quoted by me, and beg of you to
comprehend them, and not to act wrongfully, and stir each other up to give
merely some contradiction. The words which David speaks, then, are these:
"The Lord has reigned; let the nations be angry: [it is] He who sits upon
the cherubim; let the earth be shaken. The Lord is great in Zion; and He is
high above all the nations. Let them confess Thy great name, for it is
fearful and holy; and the honour of the king loves judgment. Thou hast
prepared equity; judgment and righteousness hast Thou performed in Jacob.
Exalt the Lord our God, and worship the footstool of His feet; for He is
holy. Moses and Aaron among His priests, and Samuel among them that call
upon His name; they called on the Lord, and He heard them. In the pillar of
the cloud He spake to them; for they kept His testimonies and His
commandments which He gave them.  And from the other words of David,
also previously quoted, which you foolishly affirm refer to Solomon,
[because] inscribed for Solomon, it can be proved that they do not refer to
Solomon, and that this [Christ] existed before the sun, and that those of
your nation who are saved shall be saved through Him. [The words] are these:
"O God, give Thy judgment to the king, and Thy righteousness unto the
king's son. He shall judge  Thy people with righteousness, and Thy
poor with judgment. The mountains shall take up peace to the people, and the
little hills righteousness. He shall judge the poor of the people, and shall
save the children of the needy, and shall abase the slanderer: and He shall
co-endure with the sun, and before the moon unto all generations; and so on
until, "His name endureth before the sun, and all tribes of the earth shall
be blessed in Him. All nations shall call Him blessed. Blessed be the Lord,
the God of Israel, who only doeth wondrous things: and blessed be His
glorious name for ever and ever: and the whole earth shall be filled with
His glory. Amen, Amen.  And you remember from other words also spoken
by David, and which I have mentioned before, how it is declared that He
would come forth from the highest heavens, and again return to the same
places, in order that you may recognise Him as God coming forth from above,
and man living among men; and [how it is declared] that He will again
appear, and they who pierced Him shall see Him, and shall bewail Him. [The
words] are these: "The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament
showeth His handiwork. Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night
showeth knowledge: They are not speeches or words whose voices are heard.
Their sound has gone out through all the earth, and their words to the ends
of the world. In the sun has he set his habitation; and he, like a
bridegroom going forth from his chamber, will rejoice as a giant to run his
race: from the highest heaven is his going forth, and he returns to the
highest heaven, and there is not one who shall be hidden from his heat. "
 Literally, "but only sharpen yourselves to say something."
 [Or, "this one."]
 Ps. xcix. 1-7.
 Or, "to judge," as in chap. xxxiv.
 Ps. lxxii. 1, etc.
 Ps. xix. 1-6.
Chapter LXV. The Jew objects that God does not give His glory to another.
Justin explains the passage.
And Trypho said, "Being shaken  by so many Scriptures, I know not what
to say about the Scripture which Isaiah writes, in which God says that He
gives not His glory to another, speaking thus "I am the Lord God; this is my
name; my glory will I not give to another, nor my virtues. " 
And I answered, "If you spoke these words, Trypho, and then kept silence in
simplicity and with no ill intent, neither repeating what goes before nor
adding what comes after, you must be forgiven; but if [you have done so]
because you imagined that you could throw doubt on the passage, in order
that I might say the Scriptures contradicted each other, you have erred. But
I shall not venture to suppose or to say such a thing; and if a Scripture
which appears to be of such a kind be brought forward, and if there be a
pretext [for saying] that it is contrary [to some other], since I am
entirely convinced that no Scripture contradicts another, I shall admit
rather that I do not understand what is recorded, and shall strive to
persuade those who imagine that the Scriptures are contradictory, to be
rather of the same opinion as myself. With what intent, then, you have
brought forward the difficulty, God knows. But I shall remind you of what
the passage says, in order that you may recognise even from this very
[place] that God gives glory to His Christ alone. And I shall take up some
short passages, sirs, those which are in connection with what has been said
by Trypho, and those which are also joined on in consecutive order. For I
will not repeat those of another section, but those which are joined
together in one. Do you also give me your attention. [The words] are these:
"Thus saith the Lord, the God that created the heavens, and made  them
fast, that established the earth, and that which is in it; and gave breath
to the people upon it, and spirit to them who walk therein: I the Lord God
have called Thee in righteousness, and will hold Thine hand, and will
strengthen Thee; and I have given Thee for a covenant of the people, for a
light of the Gentiles, to open the eyes of the blind, to bring out them that
are bound from the chains, and those who sit in darkness from the
prison-house. I am the Lord God; this is my name: my glory will I not give
to another, nor my virtues to graven images. Behold, the former things are
come to pass; new things which I announce, and before they are announced
they are made manifest to you. Sing unto the Lord a new song: His
sovereignty [is] from the end of the earth. [Sing], ye who descend into the
sea, and continually sail  [on it]; ye islands, and inhabitants
thereof. Rejoice, O wilderness, and the villages thereof, and the houses;
and the inhabitants of Cedar shall rejoice, and the inhabitants of the rock
shall cry aloud from the top of the mountains: they shall give glory to God;
they shall publish His virtues among the islands. The Lord God of hosts
shall go forth, He shall destroy war utterly, He shall stir up zeal, and He
shall cry aloud to the enemies with strength. "  And when I repeated
this, I said to them, "Have you perceived, my friends, that God says He will
give Him whom He has established as a light of the Gentiles, glory, and to
no other; and not, as Trypho said, that God was retaining the glory to
Then Trypho answered, "We have perceived this also; pass on therefore to the
remainder of the discourse."
 Literally, "importuned."
 Isa. xlii. 8.
 Literally, "fixed."
 Or, "ye islands which sail on it;" or without "continually."
 Isa. xlii. 5-13.
Chapter LXVI. He proves from Isaiah that God was born from a virgin.
And I, resuming the discourse where I had left off  at a previous
stage, when proving that He was born of a virgin, and that His birth of a
virgin had been predicted by Isaiah, quoted again the same prophecy. It is
as follows "And the Lord spoke again to Ahaz, saying, Ask for thyself a sign
from the Lord thy God, in the depth or in the height. And Ahaz said I will
not ask, neither will I tempt the Lord. And Isaiah said, Hear then, O house
of David; Is it no small thing for you to contend with men? And how do you
contend with the Lord? Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign;
Behold, the virgin shall conceive, and shall bear a son, and they shall call
his name Immanuel. Butter and honey shall he eat; before he knows or prefers
the evil he will choose out the good. For before the child knows ill or
good, he rejects evil by choosing out the good. For before the child knows
how to call father or mother, he shall receive the power of Damascus, and
the spoil of Samaria, in presence of the king of Assyria. And the land shall
be forsaken, which  thou shalt with difficulty endure in consequence
of the presence of its two kings. But God shall bring on thee, and on thy
people, and on the house of thy father, days which have not yet come upon
thee since the day in which Ephraim took away from Judah the king of
Assyria. "  And I continued: "Now it is evident to all, that in the
race of Abraham according to the flesh no one has been born of a virgin, or
is said to have been born [of a virgin], save this our Christ."
 Chap. xliii.
 hēn, which is in chap. xliii., is here omitted, but ought to be
inserted without doubt.
 Isa. vii. 10-17, with Isa. viii. 4 inserted between vers. 16 and 17.
Chapter LXVII. Trypho compares Jesus with Perseus; and would prefer [to say]
that He was elected [to be Christ] on account of observance of the law.
Justin speaks of the law as formerly.
And Trypho answered, "The Scripture has not, "Behold, the virgin shall
conceive, and bear a son, but, "Behold, the young woman shall conceive, and
bear a son, and so on, as you quoted. But the whole prophecy refers to
Hezekiah, and it is proved that it was fulfilled in him, according to the
terms of this prophecy. Moreover, in the fables of those who are called
Greeks, it is written that Perseus was begotten of Danae, who was a virgin;
he who was called among them Zeus having descended on her in the form of a
golden shower. And you ought to feel ashamed when you make assertions
similar to theirs, and rather [should] say that this Jesus was born man of
men. And if you prove from the Scriptures that He is the Christ, and that on
account of having led a life conformed to the law, and perfect, He deserved
the honour of being elected to be Christ, [it is well]; but do not venture
to tell monstrous phenomena, lest you be convicted of talking foolishly like
Then I said to this, "Trypho, I wish to persuade you, and all men in short,
of this, that even though you talk worse things in ridicule and in jest, you
will not move me from my fixed design; but I shall always adduce from the
words which you think can be brought forward [by you] as proof [of your own
views], the demonstration of what I have stated along with the testimony of
the Scriptures. You are not, however, acting fairly or truthfully in
attempting to undo those things in which there has been constantly agreement
between us; namely, that certain commands were instituted by Moses on
account of the hardness of your people's hearts. For you said that, by
reason of His living conformably to law, He was elected and became Christ,
if indeed He were proved to be so."
And Trypho said, "You admitted  to us that He was both circumcised,
and observed the other legal ceremonies ordained by Moses."
And I replied, "I have admitted it, and do admit it: yet I have admitted
that He endured all these not as if He were justified by them, but
completing the dispensation which His Father, the Maker of all things, and
Lord and God, wished Him [to complete]. For I admit that He endured
crucifixion and death, and the incarnation, and the suffering of as many
afflictions as your nation put upon Him. But since again you dissent from
that to which you but lately assented, Trypho, answer me: Are those
righteous patriarchs who lived before Moses, who observed none of those
[ordinances] which, the Scripture shows, received the commencement of
[their] institution from Moses, saved, [and have they attained to] the
inheritance of the blessed?"
And Trypho said, "The Scriptures compel me to admit it."
"Likewise I again ask you," said I, "did God enjoin your fathers to present
the offerings and sacrifices because He had need of them, or because of the
hardness of their hearts and tendency to idolatry?"
"The latter," said he, "the Scriptures in like manner compel us to admit."
"Likewise," said I, "did not the Scriptures predict that God promised to
dispense a new covenant besides that which [was dispensed] in the mountain
This, too, he replied, had been predicted.
Then I said again, "Was not the old covenant laid on your fathers with fear
and trembling, so that they could not give ear to God?"
He admitted it.
"What then?" said I: "God promised that there would be another covenant, not
like that old one, and said that it would be laid on them without fear, and
trembling, and lightnings, and that it would be such as to show what kind of
commands and deeds God knows to be eternal and suited to every nation, and
what commandments He has given, suiting them to the hardness of your
people's hearts, as He exclaims also by the prophets."
"To this also," said he, "those who are lovers of truth and not lovers of
strife must assuredly assent."
Then I replied, "I know not how you speak of persons very fond of strife,
[since] you yourself oftentimes were plainly acting in this very manner,
frequently contradicting what you had agreed to."
 We have not seen that Justin admitted this; but it is not to be
supposed that the passage where he did admit it has been lost, as Perionius
suspected; for sometimes Justin refers to passages at other places, which he
did not relate in their own place. Maranus.
Chapter LXVIII. He complains of the obstinacy of Trypho; he answers his
objection; he convicts the Jews of bad faith.
And Trypho said, "You endeavour to prove an incredible and well-nigh
impossible thing; [namely], that God endured to be born and become man."
"If I undertook," said I, "to prove this by doctrines or arguments of man,
you should not bear with me. But if I quote frequently Scriptures, and so
many of them, referring to this point, and ask you to comprehend them, you
are hard-hearted in the recognition of the mind and will of God. But if you
wish to remain for ever so, I would not be injured at all; and for ever
retaining the same [opinions] which I had before I met with you, I shall
And Trypho said, "Look, my friend, you made yourself master of these
[truths] with much labour and toil.  And we accordingly must
diligently scrutinize all that we meet with, in order to give our assent to
those things which the Scriptures compel us [to believe]."
Then I said to this, "I do not ask you not to strive earnestly by all means,
in making an investigation of the matters inquired into; but [I ask you],
when you have nothing to say, not to contradict those things which you said
you had admitted."
And Trypho said, "So we shall endeavour to do."
I continued again: "In addition to the questions I have just now put to you,
I wish to put more: for by means of these questions I shall strive to bring
the discourse to a speedy termination."
And Trypho said, "Ask the questions."
Then I said, "Do you think that any other one is said to be worthy of
worship and called Lord and God in the Scriptures, except the Maker of all,
and Christ, who by so many Scriptures was proved to you to have become
And Trypho replied, "How can we admit this, when we have instituted so great
an inquiry as to whether there is any other than the Father alone?"
Then I again said, "I must ask you this also, that I may know whether or not
you are of a different opinion from that which you admitted some time
He replied, "It is not, sir."
Then again I, "Since you certainly admit these things, and since Scripture
says, "Who shall declare His generation? ought you not now to suppose that
He is not the seed of a human race?"
And Trypho said, "How then does the Word say to David, that out of his loins
God shall take to Himself a Son, and shall establish His kingdom, and shall
set Him on the throne of His glory?"
And I said, "Trypho, if the prophecy which Isaiah uttered, "Behold, the
virgin shall conceive, is said not to the house of David, but to another
house of the twelve tribes, perhaps the matter would have some difficulty;
but since this prophecy refers to the house of David, Isaiah has explained
how that which was spoken by God to David in mystery would take place. But
perhaps you are not aware of this, my friends, that there were many sayings
written obscurely, or parabolically, or mysteriously, and symbolical
actions, which the prophets who lived after the persons who said or did them
"Assuredly," said Trypho.
"If therefore, I shall show that this prophecy of Isaiah refers to our
Christ, and not to Hezekiah, as you say, shall I not in this matter, too,
compel you not to believe your teachers, who venture to assert that the
explanation which your seventy elders that were with Ptolemy the king of the
Egyptians gave, is untrue in certain respects? For some statements in the
Scriptures, which appear explicitly to convict them of a foolish and vain
opinion, these they venture to assert have not been so written. But other
statements, which they fancy they can distort and harmonize with human
actions,  these, they say, refer not to this Jesus Christ of ours, but
to him of whom they are pleased to explain them. Thus, for instance, they
have taught you that this Scripture which we are now discussing refers to
Hezekiah, in which, as I promised, I shall show they are wrong. And since
they are compelled, they agree that some Scriptures which we mention to
them, and which expressly prove that Christ was to suffer, to be worshipped,
and [to be called] God, and which I have already recited to you, do refer
indeed to Christ, but they venture to assert that this man is not Christ.
But they admit that He will come to suffer, and to reign, and to be
worshipped, and to be God;  and this opinion I shall in like manner
show to be ridiculous and silly. But since I am pressed to answer first to
what was said by you in jest, I shall make answer to it, and shall
afterwards give replies to what follows.
 [Note the courteous admission of Trypho, and the consent of both
parties to the duty of searching the Scriptures.]
 teōs: Vulg. para Theō, vitiose. Otto.
 The text is corrupt, and various emendations have been proposed.
 Or, "and to be worshipped as God."
Chapter LXIX. The devil, since he emulates the truth, has invented fables
about Bacchus, Hercules, and Æsculapius.
"Be well assured, then, Trypho," I continued, "that I am established in the
knowledge of and faith in the Scriptures by those counterfeits which he who
is called the devil is said to have performed among the Greeks; just as some
were wrought by the Magi in Egypt, and others by the false prophets in
Elijah's days. For when they tell that Bacchus, son of Jupiter, was begotten
by [Jupiter s] intercourse with Semele, and that he was the discoverer of
the vine; and when they relate, that being torn in pieces, and having died,
he rose again, and ascended to heaven; and when they introduce wine 
into his mysteries, do I not perceive that [the devil] has imitated the
prophecy announced by the patriarch Jacob, and recorded by Moses? And when
they tell that Hercules was strong, and travelled over all the world, and
was begotten by Jove of Alcmene, and ascended to heaven when he died, do I
not perceive that the Scripture which speaks of Christ, "strong as a giant
to run his race,  has been in like manner imitated? And when he [the
devil] brings forward Æsculapius as the raiser of the dead and healer of all
diseases, may I not say that in this matter likewise he has imitated the
prophecies about Christ? But since I have not quoted to you such Scripture
as tells that Christ will do these things, I must necessarily remind you of
one such: from which you can understand, how that to those destitute of a
knowledge of God, I mean the Gentiles, who, "having eyes, saw not, and
having a heart, understood not, worshipping the images of wood, [how even
to them] Scripture prophesied that they would renounce these [vanities], and
hope in this Christ. It is thus written: "Rejoice, thirsty wilderness: let
the wilderness be glad, and blossom as the lily: the deserts of the Jordan
shall both blossom and be glad: and the glory of Lebanon was given to it,
and the honour of Carmel. And my people shall see the exaltation of the
Lord, and the glory of God. Be strong, ye careless hands and enfeebled
knees. Be comforted, ye faint in soul: be strong, fear not. Behold, our God
gives, and will give, retributive judgment. He shall come and save us. Then
the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall hear.
Then the lame shall leap as an hart, and the tongue of the stammerers shall
be distinct: for water has broken forth in the wilderness, and a valley in
the thirsty land; and the parched ground shall become pools, and a spring of
water shall [rise up] in the thirsty land.  The spring of living
water which gushed forth from God in the land destitute of the knowledge of
God, namely the land of the Gentiles, was this Christ, who also appeared in
your nation, and healed those who were maimed, and deaf, and lame in body
from their birth, causing them to leap, to hear, and to see, by His word.
And having raised the dead, and causing them to live, by His deeds He
compelled the men who lived at that time to recognise Him. But though they
saw such works, they asserted it was magical art. For they dared to call Him
a magician, and a deceiver of the people. Yet He wrought such works, and
persuaded those who were [destined to] believe on Him; for even if any one
be labouring under a defect of body, yet be an observer of the doctrines
delivered by Him, He shall raise him up at His second advent perfectly
sound, after He has made him immortal, and incorruptible, and free from
 Or, "an ass." The ass was sacred to Bacchus; and many fluctuate
between oinon and onon.
 Ps. xix. 5.
 Isa. xxxv. 1-7.
Chapter LXX. So also the mysteries of Mithras are distorted from the
prophecies of Daniel and Isaiah.
"And when those who record the mysteries of Mithras say that he was begotten
of a rock, and call the place where those who believe in him are initiated a
cave, do I not perceive here that the utterance of Daniel, that a stone
without hands was cut out of a great mountain, has been imitated by them,
and that they have attempted likewise to imitate the whole of Isaiah s
 words?  For they  contrived that the words of
righteousness be quoted also by them.  But I must repeat to you the
words of Isaiah referred to, in order that from them you may know that these
things are so. They are these: "Hear, ye that are far off, what I have done;
those that are near shall know my might. The sinners in Zion are removed;
trembling shall seize the impious. Who shall announce to you the everlasting
place? The man who walks in righteousness, speaks in the right way, hates
sin and unrighteousness, and keeps his hands pure from bribes, stops the
ears from hearing the unjust judgment of blood closes the eyes from seeing
unrighteousness: he shall dwell in the lofty cave of the strong rock. Bread
shall be given to him, and his water [shall be] sure. Ye shall see the King
with glory, and your eyes shall look far off. Your soul shall pursue
diligently the fear of the Lord. Where is the scribe? where are the
counsellors? where is he that numbers those who are nourished, the small and
great people? with whom they did not take counsel, nor knew the depth of the
voices, so that they heard not. The people who are become depreciated, and
there is no understanding in him who hears.  Now it is evident, that
in this prophecy [allusion is made] to the bread which our Christ gave us to
eat,  in remembrance of His being made flesh for the sake of His
believers, for whom also He suffered; and to the cup which He gave us to
drink,  in remembrance of His own blood, with giving of thanks. And
this prophecy proves that we shall behold this very King with glory; and the
very terms of the prophecy declare loudly, that the people foreknown to
believe in Him were foreknown to pursue diligently the fear of the Lord.
Moreover, these Scriptures are equally explicit in saying, that those who
are reputed to know the writings of the Scriptures, and who hear the
prophecies, have no understanding. And when I hear, Trypho," said I, "that
Perseus was begotten of a virgin, I understand that the deceiving serpent
counterfeited also this.
 The text here has tauta poiēsai homoiōs. Maranus suggests 'Ēsaiou for
poiēsai; and so we have translated.
 Justin says that the priests of Mithras imitated all the words of
Isaiah about to be quoted; and to prove it, is content with a single
example, namely, the precepts of righteousness, which they were wont to
relate to him, as in these words of Isaiah: "He who walks in
righteousness," etc. Justin omitted many other passages, as easy and
obvious. For since Mithras is the same as fire, it manifestly answers to the
fire of which Isaiah speaks. And since Justin reminded them who are
initiated, that they are said to be initiated by Mithras himself, it was not
necessary to remind them that the words of Isaiah are imitated in this: "You
shall see the King with glory." Bread and water are referred to by Isaiah:
so also in these mysteries of Mithras, Justin testifies that bread and a cup
of water are placed before them (Apol. i.). Maranus.
 i.e., the devils.
 i.e., the priests of Mithras.
 Isa. xxxiii. 13-19.
 Literally, "to do," poiein. [The horrible charge of banqueting on
blood, etc., constantly repeated against Christians, was probably based on
the Eucharist. See Kaye's Illustrations from Tatian, Athenagorus, and
Theoph. Antioch., cap. ix. p. 153.]
 Literally, "to do," poiein. [The horrible charge of banqueting on
blood, etc., constantly repeated against Christians, was probably based on
the Eucharist. See Kaye's Illustrations from Tatian, Athenagorus, and
Theoph. Antioch., cap. ix. p. 153.]
Chapter LXXI. The Jews reject the interpretation of the LXX., from which,
moreover, they have taken away some passages.
"But I am far from putting reliance in your teachers, who refuse to admit
that the interpretation made by the seventy elders who were with Ptolemy
[king] of the Egyptians is a correct one; and they attempt to frame another.
And I wish you to observe, that they have altogether taken away many
Scriptures from the translations effected by those seventy elders who were
with Ptolemy, and by which this very man who was crucified is proved to have
been set forth expressly as God, and man, and as being crucified, and as
dying; but since I am aware that this is denied by all of your nation, I do
not address myself to these points, but I proceed  to carry on my
discussions by means of those passages which are still admitted by you. For
you assent to those which I have brought before your attention, except that
you contradict the statement, "Behold, the virgin shall conceive, and say
it ought to be read, "Behold, the young woman shall conceive. And I
promised to prove that the prophecy referred, not, as you were taught, to
Hezekiah, but to this Christ of mine: and now I shall go to the proof."
Here Trypho remarked, "We ask you first of all to tell us some of the
Scriptures which you allege have been completely cancelled."
 Or, "profess."
Chapter LXXII. Passages have been removed by the Jews from Esdras and
And I said, "I shall do as you please. From the statements, then, which
Esdras made in reference to the law of the passover, they have taken away
the following: "And Esdras said to the people, This passover is our Saviour
and our refuge. And if you have understood, and your heart has taken it in,
that we shall humble Him on a standard, and  thereafter hope in Him,
then this place shall not be forsaken for ever, says the God of hosts. But
if you will not believe Him, and will not listen to His declaration, you
shall be a laughing-stock to the nations.  And from the sayings of
Jeremiah they have cut out the following: "I [was] like a lamb that is
brought to the slaughter: they devised a device against me, saying, Come,
let us lay on wood on His bread, and let us blot Him out from the land of
the living; and His name shall no more be remembered.  And since this
passage from the sayings of Jeremiah is still written in some copies [of the
Scriptures] in the synagogues of the Jews (for it is only a short time since
they were cut out), and since from these words it is demonstrated that the
Jews deliberated about the Christ Himself, to crucify and put Him to death,
He Himself is both declared to be led as a sheep to the slaughter, as was
predicted by Isaiah, and is here represented as a harmless lamb; but being
in a difficulty about them, they give themselves over to blasphemy. And
again, from the sayings of the same Jeremiah these have been cut out: "The
Lord God remembered His dead people of Israel who lay in the graves; and He
descended to preach to them His own salvation. 
 Or, "even if we."
 It is not known where this passage comes from.
 Jer. xi. 19.
 This is wanting in our Scriptures: it is cited by Iren., iii. 20,
under the name of Isaiah, and in iv. 22 under that of Jeremiah. Maranus.
Chapter LXXIII. [The words] "From the wood" have been cut out of Ps. xcvi.
"And from the ninety-fifth (ninety-sixth) Psalm they have taken away this
short saying of the words of David: "From the wood.  For when the
passage said, "Tell ye among the nations, the Lord hath reigned from the
wood, they have left, "Tell ye among the nations, the Lord hath reigned.
Now no one of your people has ever been said to have reigned as God and Lord
among the nations, with the exception of Him only who was crucified, of whom
also the Holy Spirit affirms in the same Psalm that He was raised again, and
freed from [the grave], declaring that there is none like Him among the gods
of the nations: for they are idols of demons. But I shall repeat the whole
Psalm to you, that you may perceive what has been said. It is thus: "Sing
unto the Lord a new song; sing unto the Lord, all the earth. Sing unto the
Lord, and bless His name; show forth His salvation from day to day. Declare
His glory among the nations, His wonders among all people. For the Lord is
great, and greatly to be praised: He is to be feared above all the gods. For
all the gods of the nations are demons but the Lord made the heavens.
Confession and beauty are in His presence; holiness and magnificence are in
His sanctuary. Bring to the Lord, O ye countries of the nations, bring to
the Lord glory and honour, bring to the Lord glory in His name. Take
sacrifices, and go into His courts; worship the Lord in His holy temple. Let
the whole earth be moved before Him: tell ye among the nations, the Lord
hath reigned.  For He hath established the world, which shall not be
moved; He shall judge the nations with equity. Let the heavens rejoice, and
the earth be glad; let the sea and its fulness shake. Let the fields and all
therein be joyful. Let all the trees of the wood be glad before the Lord:
for He comes, for He comes to judge the earth. He shall judge the world with
righteousness, and the people with His truth. "
Here Trypho remarked, "Whether [or not] the rulers of the people have erased
any portion of the Scriptures, as you affirm, God knows; but it seems
"Assuredly," said I, "it does seem incredible. For it is more horrible than
the calf which they made, when satisfied with manna on the earth; or than
the sacrifice of children to demons; or than the slaying of the prophets.
But," said I, "you appear to me not to have heard the Scriptures which I
said they had stolen away. For such as have been quoted are more than enough
to prove the points in dispute, besides those which are retained by us,
 and shall yet be brought forward."
 These words were not taken away by the Jews, but added by some
Christian. Otto. [A statement not proved.]
 It is strange that "from the wood" is not added; but the audacity of
the copyists in such matters is well known. Maranus.
 Many think, "you."
Chapter LXXIV. The beginning of Ps. xcvi. is attributed to the Father [by
Trypho]. But [it refers] to Christ by these words: "Tell ye among the nations
that the Lord," etc.
Then Trypho said, "We know that you quoted these because we asked you. But
it does not appear to me that this Psalm which you quoted last from the
words of David refers to any other than the Father and Maker of the heavens
and earth. You, however, asserted that it referred to Him who suffered, whom
you also are eagerly endeavouring to prove to be Christ."
And I answered, "Attend to me, I beseech you, while I speak of the statement
which the Holy Spirit gave utterance to in this Psalm; and you shall know
that I speak not sinfully, and that we  are not really bewitched; for
so you shall be enabled of yourselves to understand many other statements
made by the Holy Spirit. "Sing unto the Lord a new song; sing unto the Lord,
all the earth: sing unto the Lord, and bless His name; show forth His
salvation from day to day, His wonderful works among all people. He bids
the inhabitants of all the earth, who have known the mystery of this
salvation, i.e., the suffering of Christ, by which He saved them, sing and
give praises to God the Father of all things, and recognise that He is to be
praised and feared, and that He is the Maker of heaven and earth, who
effected this salvation in behalf of the human race, who also was crucified
and was dead, and who was deemed worthy by Him (God) to reign over all the
earth. As [is clearly seen  ] also by the land into which [He said] He
would bring [your fathers]; [for He thus speaks]:  "This people [shall
go a whoring after other gods], and shall forsake Me, and shall break my
covenant which I made with them in that day; and I will forsake them, and
will turn away My face from them; and they shall be devoured,  and
many evils and afflictions shall find them out; and they shall say in that
day, Because the Lord my God is not amongst us, these misfortunes have found
us out. And I shall certainly turn away My face from them in that day, on
account of all the evils which they have committed, in that they have turned
to other gods. 
 In text, "you." Maranus suggests, as far better, "we."
 Something is here wanting; the suggested reading of Maranus has been
adopted. [As to omissions between this Chapter and the next, critics are not
agreed. The Benedictine editors see no proofs of them.]
 Deut. xxxi. 16-18.
 Literally, "for food."
 The first conference seems to have ended hereabout. [It occupied two
days. But the student must consult the learned note of Kaye (Justin Martyr,
p. 20. Rivingtons, London. 1853).]
Chapter LXXV. It is proved that Jesus was the name of God in the book of
"Moreover, in the book of Exodus we have also perceived that the name of God
Himself which, He says, was not revealed to Abraham or to Jacob, was Jesus,
and was declared mysteriously through Moses. Thus it is written: "And the
Lord spake to Moses, Say to this people, Behold, I send My angel before thy
face, to keep thee in the way, to bring thee into the land which I have
prepared for thee. Give heed to Him, and obey Him; do not disobey Him. For
He will not draw back from you; for My name is in Him.  Now
understand that He who led your fathers into the land is called by this name
Jesus, and first called Auses  (Oshea). For if you shall understand
this, you shall likewise perceive that the name of Him who said to Moses,
"for My name is in Him, was Jesus. For, indeed, He was also called Israel,
and Jacob's name was changed to this also. Now Isaiah shows that those
prophets who are sent to publish tidings from God are called His angels and
apostles. For Isaiah says in a certain place, "Send me.  And that the
prophet whose name was changed, Jesus [Joshua], was strong and great, is
manifest to all. If, then, we know that God revealed Himself in so many
forms to Abraham, and to Jacob, and to Moses, how are we at a loss, and do
not believe that, according to the will of the Father of all things, it was
possible for Him to be born man of the Virgin, especially after we have such
 Scriptures, from which it can be plainly perceived that He became so
according to the will of the Father?
 Ex. xxiii. 20, 21.
 [Num. xiii. 16.]
 Isa. vi. 8.
 Or, "so many."
Chapter LXXVI. From other passages the same majesty and government of Christ
"For when Daniel speaks of "one like unto the Son of man who received the
everlasting kingdom, does he not hint at this very thing? For he declares
that, in saying "like unto the Son of man, He appeared, and was man, but
not of human seed. And the same thing he proclaimed in mystery when he
speaks of this stone which was cut out without hands. For the expression "it
was cut out without hands signified that it is not a work of man, but [a
work] of the will of the Father and God of all things, who brought Him
forth. And when Isaiah says, "Who shall declare His generation? he meant
that His descent could not be declared. Now no one who is a man of men has a
descent that cannot be declared. And when Moses says that He will wash His
garments in the blood of the grape, does not this signify what I have now
often told you is an obscure prediction, namely, that He had blood, but not
from men; just as not man, but God, has begotten the blood of the vine? And
when Isaiah calls Him the Angel of mighty counsel,  did he not
foretell Him to be the Teacher of those truths which He did teach when He
came [to earth]? For He alone taught openly those mighty counsels which the
Father designed both for all those who have been and shall be well-pleasing
to Him, and also for those who have rebelled against His will, whether men
or angels, when He said: "They shall come from the east [and from the west
 ], and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the
kingdom of heaven: but the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into
outer darkness.  And, "Many shall say to Me in that day, Lord, Lord,
have we not eaten, and drunk, and prophesied, and cast out demons in Thy
name? And I will say to them, Depart from Me.  Again, in other words,
by which He shall condemn those who are unworthy of salvation, He said,
"Depart into outer darkness, which the Father has prepared for Satan and
his, angels.  And again, in other words, He said, "I give unto you
power to tread on serpents, and on scorpions, and on scolopendras, and on
all the might of the enemy.  And now we, who believe on our Lord
Jesus, who was crucified under Pontius Pilate, when we exorcise all demons
and evil spirits, have them subjected to us. For if the prophets declared
obscurely that Christ would suffer, and thereafter be Lord of all, yet that
[declaration] could not be understood by any man until He Himself persuaded
the apostles that such statements were expressly related in the Scriptures.
For He exclaimed before His crucifixion: "The Son of man must suffer many
things, and be rejected by the Scribes and Pharisees, and be crucified, and
on the third day rise again.  And David predicted that He would be
born from the womb before sun and moon,  according to the Father s
will, and made Him known, being Christ, as God strong and to be
 [Isa. ix. 6, according to LXX.]
 Not in all edd.
 Matt. viii. 11.
 Matt. vii. 22.
 Matt. xxv. 41.
 Luke x. 19. ["And on scolopendras" (i.e. centipedes) not in the
 Luke ix. 22.
 Justin puts "sun and moon" instead of "Lucifer." [Ps. cx. 3, Sept,
compounded with Prov. viii. 27.] Maranus says, David did predict, not that
Christ would be born of Mary before sun and moon, but that it would happen
before sun and moon that He would be born of a virgin.
Chapter LXXVII. He returns to explain the prophecy of Isaiah.
Then Trypho said, "I admit that such and so great arguments are sufficient
to persuade one; but I wish [you] to know that I ask you for the proof which
you have frequently proposed to give me. Proceed then to make this plain to
us, that we may see how you prove that that [passage] refers to this Christ
of yours. For we assert that the prophecy relates to Hezekiah." And I
replied, "I shall do as you wish. But show me yourselves first of all how it
is said of Hezekiah, that before he knew how to call father or mother, he
received the power of Damascus and the spoils of Samaria in the presence of
the king of Assyria. For it will not be conceded to you, as you wish to
explain it, that Hezekiah waged war with the inhabitants of Damascus and
Samaria in presence of the king of Assyria. "For before the child knows how
to call father or mother, the prophetic word said, "He shall take the power
of Damascus and spoils of Samaria in presence of the king of Assyria. For
if the Spirit of prophecy had not made the statement with an addition,
"Before the child knows how to call father or mother, he shall take the
power of Damascus and spoils of Samaria, but had only said, "And shall bear
a son, and he shall take the power of Damascus and spoils of Samaria, then
you might say that God foretold that he would take these things, since He
foreknew it. But now the prophecy has stated it with this addition: "Before
the child knows how to call father or mother, he shall take the power of
Damascus and spoils of Samaria. And you cannot prove that such a thing ever
happened to any one among the Jews. But we are able to prove that it
happened in the case of our Christ. For at the time of His birth, Magi who
came from Arabia worshipped Him, coming first to Herod, who then was
sovereign in your land, and whom the Scripture calls king of Assyria on
account of his ungodly and sinful character. For you know," continued I,
"that the Holy Spirit oftentimes announces such events by parables and
similitudes; just as He did towards all the people in Jerusalem, frequently
saying to them, "Thy father is an Amorite, and thy mother a Hittite. 
 Ezek. xvi. 3.
Chapter LXXVIII. He proves that this prophecy harmonizes with Christ alone,
from what is afterwards written.
"Now this king Herod, at the time when the Magi came to him from Arabia, and
said they knew from a star which appeared in the heavens that a King had
been born in your country, and that they had come to worship Him, learned
from the elders of your people that it was thus written regarding Bethlehem
in the prophet: "And thou, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, art by no means
least among the princes of Judah; for out of thee shall go forth the leader
who shall feed my people.  Accordingly the Magi from Arabia came to
Bethlehem and worshipped the Child, and presented Him with gifts, gold and
frankincense, and myrrh; but returned not to Herod, being warned in a
revelation after worshipping the Child in Bethlehem. And Joseph, the spouse
of Mary, who wished at first to put away his betrothed Mary, supposing her
to be pregnant by intercourse with a man, i.e., from fornication, was
commanded in a vision not to put away his wife; and the angel who appeared
to him told him that what is in her womb is of the Holy Ghost. Then he was
afraid, and did not put her away; but on the occasion of the first census
which was taken in Judæa, under Cyrenius, he went up from Nazareth, where he
lived, to Bethlehem, to which he belonged, to be enrolled; for his family
was of the tribe of Judah, which then inhabited that region. Then along with
Mary he is ordered to proceed into Egypt, and remain there with the Child
until another revelation warn them to return into Judæa. But when the Child
was born in Bethlehem, since Joseph could not find a lodging in that
village, he took up his quarters in a certain cave near the village; and
while they were there Mary brought forth the Christ and placed Him in a
manger, and here the Magi who came from Arabia found Him. I have repeated to
you," I continued, "what Isaiah foretold about the sign which foreshadowed
the cave; but for the sake of those who have come with us to-day, I shall
again remind you of the passage." Then I repeated the passage from Isaiah
which I have already written, adding that, by means of those words, those
who presided over the mysteries of Mithras were stirred up by the devil to
say that in a place, called among them a cave, they were initiated by him.
 "So Herod, when the Magi from Arabia did not return to him, as he had
asked them to do, but had departed by another way to their own country,
according to the commands laid on them; and when Joseph, with Mary and the
Child, had now gone into Egypt, as it was revealed to them to do; as he did
not know the Child whom the Magi had gone to worship, ordered simply the
whole of the children then in Bethlehem to be massacred. And Jeremiah
prophesied that this would happen, speaking by the Holy Ghost thus: "A voice
was heard in Ramah, lamentation and much wailing, Rachel weeping for her
children; and she would not be comforted, because they are not. 
Therefore, on account of the voice which would be heard from Ramah, i.e.,
from Arabia (for there is in Arabia at this very time a place called Rama),
wailing would come on the place where Rachel the wife of Jacob called
Israel, the holy patriarch, has been buried, i.e., on Bethlehem; while the
women weep for their own slaughtered children, and have no consolation by
reason of what has happened to them. For that expression of Isaiah "He shall
take the power of Damascus and spoils of Samaria, foretold that the power
of the evil demon that dwelt in Damascus should be overcome by Christ as
soon as He was born; and this is proved to have happened. For the Magi, who
were held in bondage  for the commission of all evil deeds through the
power of that demon, by coming to worship Christ, shows that they have
revolted from that dominion which held them captive; and this [dominion] the
Scripture has showed us to reside in Damascus. Moreover, that sinful and
unjust power is termed well in parable, Samaria.  And none of you can
deny that Damascus was, and is, in the region of Arabia, although now it
belongs to what is called Syrophœnicia. Hence it would be becoming for you,
sirs, to learn what you have not perceived, from those who have received
grace from God, namely, from us Christians; and not to strive in every way
to maintain your own doctrines, dishonouring those of God. Therefore also
this grace has been transferred to us, as Isaiah says, speaking to the
following effect: "This people draws near to Me, they honour Me with their
lips, but their heart is far from Me; but in vain they worship Me, teaching
the commands and doctrines of men. Therefore, behold, I will proceed 
to remove this people, and I shall remove them; and I shall take away the
wisdom of their wise men, and bring to nothing the understanding of the
prudent men. " 
 Mic. v. 2.
 Text has, by "them;" but Maranus says the artifice lay in the
priest's compelling the initiated to say that Mithras himself was the
initiator in the cave.
 Jer. xxxi. 15.
 Literally, "spoiled."
 Justin thinks the "spoils of Samaria" denote spoils of Satan;
Tertull. thinks that they are spoils of Christ.
 Literally, "add."
 Isa. xxix. 13, 14.
Chapter LXXIX. He proves against Trypho that the wicked angels have revolted
On this, Trypho, who was somewhat angry, but respected the Scriptures, as
was manifest from his countenance, said to me, "The utterances of God are
holy, but your expositions are mere contrivances, as is plain from what has
been explained by you; nay, even blasphemies, for you assert that angels
sinned and revolted from God."
And I, wishing to get him to listen to me, answered in milder tones, thus:
"I admire, sir, this piety of yours; and I pray that you may entertain the
same disposition towards Him to whom angels are recorded to minister, as
Daniel says; for [one] like the Son of man is led to the Ancient of days,
and every kingdom is given to Him for ever and ever. But that you may know,
sir," continued I, "that it is not our audacity which has induced us to
adopt this exposition, which you reprehend, I shall give you evidence from
Isaiah himself; for he affirms that evil angels have dwelt and do dwell in
Tanis, in Egypt. These are [his] words: "Woe to the rebellious children!
Thus saith the Lord, You have taken counsel, but not through Me; and [made]
agreements, but not through My Spirit, to add sins to sins; who have sinned
 in going down to Egypt (but they have not inquired at Me), that they
may be assisted by Pharaoh, and be covered with the shadow of the Egyptians.
For the shadow of Pharaoh shall be a disgrace to you, and a reproach to
those who trust in the Egyptians; for the princes in Tanis  are evil
angels. In vain will they labour for a people which will not profit them by
assistance, but [will be] for a disgrace and a reproach [to them]. 
And, further, Zechariah tells, as you yourself have related, that the devil
stood on the right hand of Joshua the priest, to resist him; and [the Lord]
said, "The Lord, who has taken  Jerusalem, rebuke thee.  And
again, it is written in Job,  as you said yourself, how that the
angels came to stand before the Lord, and the devil came with them. And we
have it recorded by Moses in the beginning of Genesis, that the serpent
beguiled Eve, and was cursed. And we know that in Egypt there were magicians
who emulated  the mighty power displayed by God through the faithful
servant Moses. And you are aware that David said, "The gods of the nations
are demons. " 
 LXX. "who walk," poreuomenoi for ponēreuomenoi.
 In E. V. "Zoan."
 Isa. xxx. 1-5.
 ekdexamenos; in chap. cxv. inf. it is eklexamenos.
 Zech. iii. 1.
 Job i. 6.
 Maranus suggests the insertion of epoiēsan or epeirasan before
 Ps. xcvi. 5.
Chapter LXXX. The opinion of Justin with regard to the reign of a thousand
years. Several Catholics reject it.
And Trypho to this replied, "I remarked to you sir, that you are very
anxious to be safe in all respects, since you cling to the Scriptures. But
tell me, do you really admit that this place, Jerusalem, shall be rebuilt;
and do you expect your people to be gathered together, and made joyful with
Christ and the patriarchs, and the prophets, both the men of our nation, and
other proselytes who joined them before your Christ came? or have you given
way, and admitted this in order to have the appearance of worsting us in the
Then I answered, "I am not so miserable a fellow, Trypho, as to say one
thing and think another. I admitted to you formerly,  that I and many
others are of this opinion, and [believe] that such will take place, as you
assuredly are aware;  but, on the other hand, I signified to you that
many who belong to the pure and pious faith, and are true Christians, think
otherwise. Moreover, I pointed out to you that some who are called
Christians, but are godless, impious heretics, teach doctrines that are in
every way blasphemous, atheistical, and foolish. But that you may know that
I do not say this before you alone, I shall draw up a statement, so far as I
can, of all the arguments which have passed between us; in which I shall
record myself as admitting the very same things which I admit to you. 
For I choose to follow not men or men's doctrines, but God and the doctrines
[delivered] by Him. For if you have fallen in with some who are called
Christians, but who do not admit this [truth],  and venture to
blaspheme the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob;
who say there is no resurrection of the dead, and that their souls, when
they die, are taken to heaven; do not imagine that they are Christians, even
as one, if he would rightly consider it, would not admit that the Sadducees,
or similar sects of Genistæ, Meristæ,  Galilæans, Hellenists, 
Pharisees, Baptists, are Jews (do not hear me impatiently when I tell you
what I think), but are [only] called Jews and children of Abraham,
worshipping God with the lips, as God Himself declared, but the heart was
far from Him. But I and others, who are right-minded Christians on all
points, are assured that there will be a resurrection of the dead, and a
thousand years  in Jerusalem, which will then be built, adorned, and
enlarged, [as] the prophets Ezekiel and Isaiah and others declare.
 Justin made no previous allusion to this point, so far as we know
from the writing preserved.
 Or, "so as to believe thoroughly that such will take place" (after
 [A hint of the origin of this work. See Kaye's Note, p. 18].
 i.e., resurrection.
 Maranus says, Hieron. thinks the Genistæ were so called because they
were sprung from Abraham (genos) the Meristæ so called because they
separated the Scriptures. Josephus bears testimony to the fact that the
sects of the Jews differed in regard to fate and providence; the Pharisees
submitting all things indeed to God, with the exception of human will; the
Essenes making no exceptions, and submitting all to God. I believe therefore
that the Genistæ were so called because they believed the world to in
general governed by God; the Meristæ, because they believed that a fate or
providence belonged to each man.
 Otto says, the author and chief of this sect of Galilæans was Judas
Galilæus, who, after the exile of king Archelaus, when the Romans wished to
raise a tax in Judæa, excited his countrymen to the retaining of their
former liberty. The Hellenists, or rather Hellenæans. No one mentions this
sect but Justin; perhaps Herodians or Hillelæans (from R. Hillel).
 We have translated the text of Justin as it stands. Commentators make
the sense, "and that there will be a thousand years in Jerusalem," or "that
the saints will live a thousand years in Jerusalem."
Chapter LXXXI. He endeavours to prove this opinion from Isaiah and the
"For Isaiah spake thus concerning this space of a thousand years: "For there
shall be the new heaven and the new earth, and the former shall not be
remembered, or come into their heart; but they shall find joy and gladness
in it, which things I create. For, Behold, I make Jerusalem a rejoicing, and
My people a joy; and I shall rejoice over Jerusalem, and be glad over My
people. And the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, or the voice
of crying. And there shall be no more there a person of immature years, or
an old man who shall not fulfil his days.  For the young man shall be
an hundred years old;  but the sinner who dies an hundred years old,
 he shall be accursed. And they shall build houses, and shall
themselves inhabit them; and they shall plant vines, and shall themselves
eat the produce of them, and drink the wine. They shall not build, and
others inhabit; they shall not plant, and others eat. For according to the
days of the tree of life shall be the days of my people; the works of their
toil shall abound.  Mine elect shall not toil fruitlessly, or beget
children to be cursed; for they shall be a seed righteous and blessed by the
Lord, and their offspring with them. And it shall come to pass, that before
they call I will hear; while they are still speaking, I shall say, What is
it? Then shall the wolves and the lambs feed together, and the lion shall
eat straw like the ox; but the serpent [shall eat] earth as bread. They
shall not hurt or maltreat each other on the holy mountain, saith the
Lord.  Now we have understood that the expression used among these
words, "According to the days of the tree [of life  ] shall be the
days of my people; the works of their toil shall abound obscurely predicts
a thousand years. For as Adam was told that in the day he ate of the tree he
would die, we know that he did not complete a thousand years. We have
perceived, moreover, that the expression, "The day of the Lord is as a
thousand years,  is connected with this subject. And further, there
was a certain man with us, whose name was John, one of the apostles of
Christ, who prophesied, by a revelation that was made to him, that those who
believed in our Christ would dwell  a thousand years in Jerusalem; and
that thereafter the general, and, in short, the eternal resurrection and
judgment of all men would likewise take place. Just as our Lord also said,
"They shall neither marry nor be given in marriage, but shall be equal to
the angels, the children of the God of the resurrection. 
 Literally, "time."
 Literally, "the son of an hundred years."
 Literally, "the son of an hundred years."
 Or, as in margin of A. V., "they shall make the works of their toil
continue long," so reading palaiōsousin for pleonasousin: thus also LXX.
 Isa. lxv. 17 to end.
 These words are not found in the mss.
 Ps. xc. 4; 2 Pet. iii. 8.
 Literally, "make." [A very noteworthy passage, as a primitive
exposition of Rev. xx. 4-5. See Kaye, chap. v.]
 Luke xx. 35f.
Chapter LXXXII. The prophetical gifts of the Jews were transferred to the
"For the prophetical gifts remain with us, even to the present time. And
hence you ought to understand that [the gifts] formerly among your nation
have been transferred to us. And just as there were false prophets
contemporaneous with your holy prophets, so are there now many false
teachers amongst us, of whom our Lord forewarned us to beware; so that in no
respect are we deficient, since we know that He foreknew all that would
happen to us after His resurrection from the dead and ascension to heaven.
For He said we would be put to death, and hated for His name's sake; and
that many false prophets and false Christs would appear in His name, and
deceive many: and so has it come about. For many have taught godless,
blasphemous, and unholy doctrines, forging them in His name; have taught,
too, and even yet are teaching, those things which proceed from the unclean
spirit of the devil, and which were put into their hearts. Therefore we are
most anxious that you be persuaded not to be misled by such persons, since
we know that every one who can speak the truth, and yet speaks it not, shall
be judged by God, as God testified by Ezekiel, when He said, "I have made
thee a watchman to the house of Judah. If the sinner sin, and thou warn him
not, he himself shall die in his sin; but his blood will I require at thine
hand. But if thou warn him, thou shalt be innocent.  And on this
account we are, through fear, very earnest in desiring to converse [with
men] according to the Scriptures, but not from love of money, or of glory,
or of pleasure. For no man can convict us of any of these [vices]. No more
do we wish to live like the rulers of your people, whom God reproaches when
He says, "Your rulers are companions of thieves, lovers of bribes, followers
of the rewards.  Now, if you know certain amongst us to be of this
sort, do not for their sakes blaspheme the Scriptures and Christ, and do not
assiduously strive to give falsified interpretations.
 Ezek. iii. 17, 18, 19.
 Isa. i. 23.
Chapter LXXXIII. It is proved that the Psalm, "The Lord said to My Lord,"
etc., does not suit Hezekiah.
"For your teachers have ventured to refer the passage, "The Lord says to my
Lord, Sit at my right hand, till I make Thine enemies Thy footstool, to
Hezekiah; as if he were requested to sit on the right side of the temple,
when the king of Assyria sent to him and threatened him; and he was told by
Isaiah not to be afraid. Now we know and admit that what Isaiah said took
place; that the king of Assyria desisted from waging war against Jerusalem
in Hezekiah's days, and the angel of the Lord slew about 185, 000 of the
host of the Assyrians. But it is manifest that the Psalm does not refer to
him. For thus it is written, "The Lord says to my Lord, Sit at My right
hand, till I make Thine enemies Thy footstool. He shall send forth a rod of
power over  Jerusalem, and it shall rule in the midst of Thine 
enemies. In the splendour of the saints before the morning star have I
begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest
for ever after the order of Melchizedek. Who does not admit, then, that
Hezekiah is no priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek? And who does
not know that he is not the redeemer of Jerusalem? And who does not know
that he neither sent a rod of power into Jerusalem, nor ruled in the midst
of his enemies; but that it was God who averted from him the enemies, after
he mourned and was afflicted? But our Jesus, who has not yet come in glory,
has sent into Jerusalem a rod of power, namely, the word of calling and
repentance [meant] for all nations over which demons held sway, as David
says, "The gods of the nations are demons. And His strong word has
prevailed on many to forsake the demons whom they used to serve, and by
means of it to believe in the Almighty God because the gods of the nations
are demons.  And we mentioned formerly that the statement, "In the
splendour of the saints before the morning star have I begotten Thee from
the womb, is made to Christ.
 epi, but afterwards eis. Maranus thinks that epi is the insertion of
 Or better, "His." This quotation from Ps. cx. is put very differently
from the previous quotation of the same Psalm in chap. xxxii. [Justin often
quotes from memory. Kaye, cap. viii.]
 This last clause is thought to be an interpolation.
Chapter LXXXIV. That prophecy, "Behold, a virgin," etc., suits Christ alone.
"Moreover, the prophecy, "Behold, the virgin shall conceive, and bear a
son, was uttered respecting Him. For if He to whom Isaiah referred was not
to be begotten of a virgin, of whom  did the Holy Spirit declare,
"Behold, the Lord Himself shall give us a sign: behold, the virgin shall
conceive, and bear a son? For if He also were to be begotten of sexual
intercourse, like all other first-born sons, why did God say that He would
give a sign which is not common to all the first-born sons? But that which
is truly a sign, and which was to be made trustworthy to mankind, namely,
that the first-begotten of all creation should become incarnate by the
Virgin's womb, and be a child, this he anticipated by the Spirit of
prophecy, and predicted it, as I have repeated to you, in various ways; in
order that, when the event should take place, it might be known as the
operation of the power and will of the Maker of all things; just as Eve was
made from one of Adam's ribs, and as all living beings were created in the
beginning by the word of God. But you in these matters venture to pervert
the expositions which your elders that were with Ptolemy king of Egypt gave
forth, since you assert that the Scripture is not so as they have expounded
it, but says, "Behold, the young woman shall conceive, as if great events
were to be inferred if a woman should beget from sexual intercourse: which
indeed all young women, with the exception of the barren, do; but even
these, God, if He wills, is able to cause [to bear]. For Samuel's mother,
who was barren, brought forth by the will of God; and so also the wife of
the holy patriarch Abraham; and Elisabeth, who bore John the Baptist, and
other such. So that you must not suppose that it is impossible for God to do
anything He wills. And especially when it was predicted that this would take
place, do not venture to pervert or misinterpret the prophecies, since you
will injure yourselves alone, and will not harm God.
 Or, "why was it."
Chapter LXXXV. He proves that Christ is the Lord of Hosts from Ps. xxiv., and
from his authority over demons.
"Moreover, some of you venture to expound the prophecy which runs, "Lift up
your gates, ye rulers; and be ye lift up, ye everlasting doors, that the
King of glory may enter,  as if it referred likewise to Hezekiah, and
others of you [expound it] of Solomon; but neither to the latter nor to the
former, nor, in short, to any of your kings, can it be proved to have
reference, but to this our Christ alone, who appeared without comeliness,
and inglorious, as Isaiah and David and all the Scriptures said; who is the
Lord of hosts, by the will of the Father who conferred on Him [the dignity];
who also rose from the dead, and ascended to heaven, as the Psalm and the
other Scriptures manifested when they announced Him to be Lord of hosts; and
of this you may, if you will, easily be persuaded by the occurrences which
take place before your eyes. For every demon, when exorcised in the name of
this very Son of God who is the First-born of every creature, who became
man by the Virgin, who suffered, and was crucified under Pontius Pilate by
your nation, who died, who rose from the dead, and ascended into heaven is
overcome and subdued. But though you exorcise any demon in the name of any
of those who were amongst you either kings, or righteous men, or prophets,
or patriarchs it will not be subject to you. But if any of you exorcise it
in [the name of] the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of
Jacob, it will perhaps be subject to you. Now assuredly your exorcists, I
have said,  make use of craft when they exorcise, even as the Gentiles
do, and employ fumigations and incantations.  But that they are angels
and powers whom the word of prophecy by David [commands] to lift up the
gates, that He who rose from the dead, Jesus Christ, the Lord of hosts,
according to the will of the Father, might enter, the word of David has
likewise showed; which I shall again recall to your attention for the sake
of those who were not with us yesterday, for whose benefit, moreover, I sum
up many things I said yesterday. And now, if I say this to you, although I
have repeated it many times, I know that it is not absurd so to do. For it
is a ridiculous thing to see the sun, and the moon, and the other stars,
continually keeping the same course, and bringing round the different
seasons; and to see the computer who may be asked how many are twice two,
because he has frequently said that they are four, not ceasing to say again
that they are four; and equally so other things, which are confidently
admitted, to be continually mentioned and admitted in like manner; yet that
he who founds his discourse on the prophetic Scriptures should leave them
and abstain from constantly referring to the same Scriptures, because it is
thought he can bring forth something better than Scripture. The passage,
then, by which I proved that God reveals that there are both angels and
hosts in heaven is this: "Praise the Lord from the heavens: praise Him in
the highest. Praise Him, all His angels: praise Him, all His hosts. "
Then one of those who had come with them on the second day, whose name was
Mnaseas, said, "We are greatly pleased that you undertake to repeat the same
things on our account."
And I said, "Listen, my friends, to the Scripture which induces me to act
thus. Jesus commanded [us] to love even [our] enemies, as was predicted by
Isaiah in many passages, in which also is contained the mystery of our own
regeneration, as well, in fact, as the regeneration of all who expect that
Christ will appear in Jerusalem, and by their works endeavour earnestly to
please Him. These are the words spoken by Isaiah: "Hear the word of the
Lord, ye that tremble at His word. Say, our brethren, to them that hate you
and detest you, that the name of the Lord has been glorified. He has
appeared to your joy, and they shall be ashamed. A voice of noise from the
city, a voice from the temple,  a voice of the Lord who rendereth
recompense to the proud. Before she that travailed brought forth, and before
the pains of labour came, she brought forth a male child. Who hath heard
such a thing? and who hath seen such a thing? has the earth brought forth in
one day? and has she produced a nation at once? for Zion has travailed and
borne her children. But I have given such an expectation even to her that
does not bring forth, said the Lord. Behold, I have made her that begetteth,
and her that is barren, saith the Lord. Rejoice, O Jerusalem, and hold a
joyous assembly, all ye that love her. Be glad, all ye that mourn for her,
that ye may suck and be filled with the breast of her consolation, that
having suck ye may be delighted with the entrance of His glory. " 
 Ps. xxiv. 7.
 Chap. lxxvi.
 katadesmoi, by some thought to be verses by which evil spirits, once
expelled, were kept from returning. Plato (Rep.) speaks of incantations by
which demons were summoned to the help of those who practised such rites;
but Justin refers to them only as being expelled. Others regard them as
 Ps. cxlviii. 1, 2. [Kaye's citations (chap. ix. p. 181) from Tatian,
concerning angels and demons, are valuable aids to the understanding of
Justin in his frequent references to this subject.]
 In both mss. "people."
 Isa. lxvi. 5-11.
Chapter LXXXVI. There are various figures in the Old Testament of the wood of
the cross by which Christ reigned.
And when I had quoted this, I added, "Hear, then, how this Man, of whom the
Scriptures declare that He will come again in glory after His crucifixion,
was symbolized both by the tree of life, which was said to have been planted
in paradise, and by those events which should happen to all the just. Moses
was sent with a rod to effect the redemption of the people; and with this in
his hands at the head of the people, he divided the sea. By this he saw the
water gushing out of the rock; and when he cast a tree into the waters of
Marah, which were bitter, he made them sweet. Jacob, by putting rods into
the water-troughs, caused the sheep of his uncle to conceive, so that he
should obtain their young. With his rod the same Jacob boasts that he had
crossed the river. He said he had seen a ladder, and the Scripture has
declared that God stood above it. But that this was not the Father, we have
proved from the Scriptures. And Jacob, having poured oil on a stone in the
same place, is testified to by the very God who appeared to him, that he had
anointed a pillar to the God who appeared to him. And that the stone
symbolically proclaimed Christ, we have also proved by many Scriptures; and
that the unguent, whether it was of oil, or of stacte,  or of any
other compounded sweet balsams, had reference to Him, we have also proved,
 inasmuch as the word says: "Therefore God, even Thy God, hath
anointed Thee with the oil of gladness above Thy fellows.  For indeed
all kings and anointed persons obtained from Him their share in the names of
kings and anointed: just as He Himself received from the Father the titles
of King, and Christ, and Priest, and Angel, and such like other titles which
He bears or did bear. Aaron's rod, which blossomed, declared him to be the
high priest. Isaiah prophesied that a rod would come forth from the root of
Jesse, [and this was] Christ. And David says that the righteous man is "like
the tree that is planted by the channels of waters, which should yield its
fruit in its season, and whose leaf should not fade.  Again, the
righteous is said to flourish like the palm-tree. God appeared from a tree
to Abraham, as it is written, near the oak in Mamre. The people found
seventy willows and twelve springs after crossing the Jordan.  David
affirms that God comforted him with a rod and staff. Elisha, by casting a
stick  into the river Jordan, recovered the iron part of the axe with
which the sons of the prophets had gone to cut down trees to build the house
in which they wished to read and study the law and commandments of God; even
as our Christ, by being crucified on the tree, and by purifying [us] with
water, has redeemed us, though plunged in the direst offences which we have
committed, and has made [us] a house of prayer and adoration. Moreover, it
was a rod that pointed out Judah to be the father of Tamar's sons by a great
 [Myrrh. Christ the (Anointed) Rock is also referred to by Jacob (Gen.
 In chap. lxiii. probably, where the same Psalm is quoted.
 Ps. xlv. 7.
 Ps. i. 3.
 The Red Sea, not the Jordan. [Ex. xv. 27.]
 Literally, "a tree."
Chapter LXXXVII. Trypho maintains in objection these words: "And shall rest
on Him," etc. They are explained by Justin.
Hereupon Trypho, after I had spoken these words, said, "Do not now suppose
that I am endeavouring, by asking what I do ask, to overturn the statements
you have made; but I wish to receive information respecting those very
points about which I now inquire. Tell me, then, how, when the Scripture
asserts by Isaiah, "There shall come forth a rod from the root of Jesse; and
a flower shall grow up from the root of Jesse; and the Spirit of God shall
rest upon Him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel
and might, the spirit of knowledge and piety: and the spirit of the fear of
the Lord shall fill Him:  (now you admitted to me," continued he,
"that this referred to Christ, and you maintain Him to be pre-existent God,
and having become incarnate by God's will, to be born man by the Virgin:)
how He can be demonstrated to have been pre-existent, who is filled with the
powers of the Holy Ghost, which the Scripture by Isaiah enumerates, as if He
were in lack of them?"
Then I replied, "You have inquired most discreetly and most prudently, for
truly there does seem to be a difficulty; but listen to what I say, that you
may perceive the reason of this also. The Scripture says that these
enumerated powers of the Spirit have come on Him, not because He stood in
need of them, but because they would rest in Him, i.e., would find their
accomplishment in Him, so that there would be no more prophets in your
nation after the ancient custom: and this fact you plainly perceive. For
after Him no prophet has arisen among you. Now, that [you may know that]
your prophets, each receiving some one or two powers from God, did and spoke
the things which we have learned from the Scriptures, attend to the
following remarks of mine. Solomon possessed the spirit of wisdom, Daniel
that of understanding and counsel, Moses that of might and piety, Elijah
that of fear, and Isaiah that of knowledge; and so with the others: each
possessed one power, or one joined alternately with another; also Jeremiah,
and the twelve [prophets], and David, and, in short, the rest who existed
amongst you. Accordingly He  rested, i.e., ceased, when He came, after
whom, in the times of this dispensation wrought out by Him amongst men,
 it was requisite that such gifts should cease from you; and having
received their rest in Him, should again, as had been predicted, become
gifts which, from the grace of His Spirit's power, He imparts to those who
believe in Him, according as He deems each man worthy thereof. I have
already said, and do again say, that it had been prophesied that this would
be done by Him after His ascension to heaven. It is accordingly said, 
"He ascended on high, He led captivity captive, He gave gifts unto the sons
of men. And again, in another prophecy it is said: "And it shall come to
pass after this, I will pour out My Spirit on all flesh, and on My servants,
and on My handmaids, and they shall prophesy. 
 Isa. xi. 1 ff.
 He, that is, the Spirit. The following "He" is Christ.
 Or, "wrought out amongst His people." So Otto.
 Literally, "He said accordingly." Ps. lxviii. 18.
 Joel ii. 28 f.
Chapter LXXXVIII. Christ has not received the Holy Spirit on account of
"Now, it is possible to see amongst us women and men who possess gifts of
the Spirit of God; so that it was prophesied that the powers enumerated by
Isaiah would come upon Him, not because He needed power, but because these
would not continue after Him. And let this be a proof to you, namely, what I
told you was done by the Magi from Arabia, who as soon as the Child was born
came to worship Him, for even at His birth He was in possession of His
power; and as He grew up like all other men, by using the fitting means, He
assigned its own [requirements] to each development, and was sustained by
all kinds of nourishment, and waited for thirty years, more or less, until
John appeared before Him as the herald of His approach, and preceded Him in
the way of baptism, as I have already shown. And then, when Jesus had gone
to the river Jordan, where John was baptizing, and when He had stepped into
the water, a fire  was kindled in the Jordan; and when He came out of
the water, the Holy Ghost lighted on Him like a dove, [as] the apostles of
this very Christ of ours wrote. Now, we know that he did not go to the river
because He stood in need of baptism, or of the descent of the Spirit like a
dove; even as He submitted to be born and to be crucified, not because He
needed such things, but because of the human race, which from Adam had
fallen under the power of death and the guile of the serpent, and each one
of which had committed personal transgression. For God, wishing both angels
and men, who were endowed with free-will, and at their own disposal, to do
whatever He had strengthened each to do, made them so, that if they chose
the things acceptable to Himself, He would keep them free from death and
from punishment; but that if they did evil, He would punish each as He sees
fit. For it was not His entrance into Jerusalem sitting on an ass, which we
have showed was prophesied, that empowered Him to be Christ, but it
furnished men with a proof that He is the Christ; just as it was necessary
in the time of John that men have proof, that they might know who is Christ.
For when John remained  by the Jordan, and preached the baptism of
repentance, wearing only a leathern girdle and a vesture made of camels
hair, eating nothing but locusts and wild honey, men supposed him to be
Christ; but he cried to them, "I am not the Christ, but the voice of one
crying; for He that is stronger than I shall come, whose shoes I am not
worthy to bear.  And when Jesus came to the Jordan, He was considered
to be the son of Joseph the carpenter; and He appeared without comeliness,
as the Scriptures declared; and He was deemed a carpenter (for He was in the
habit of working as a carpenter when among men, making ploughs and yokes; by
which He taught the symbols of righteousness and an active life); but then
the Holy Ghost, and for man's sake, as I formerly stated, lighted on Him in
the form of a dove, and there came at the same instant from the heavens a
voice, which was uttered also by David when he spoke, personating Christ,
what the Father would say to Him: "Thou art My Son: this day have I begotten
Thee;  [the Father] saying that His generation would take place for
men, at the time when they would become acquainted with Him: "Thou art My
Son; this day have I begotten thee. " 
 [The Shechinah probably attended the descent of the Holy Spirit, and
what follows in the note seems a gratuitous explanation. The Ebionite
corruption of a truth need not be resorted to. See chap. cxxviii: The fire
in the bush.] Justin learned this either from tradition or from apocryphal
books. Mention is made of a fire both in the Ebionite Gospel and in another
publication called Pauli prædicatio, the readers and users of which denied
that the rite of baptism had been duly performed, unless quam mox in aquam
descenderunt, statim super aquam ignis appareat.
 Literally, "sat."
 Isa. i. 27.
 Ps. ii. 7.
 The repetition seems quite superfluous.
Chapter LXXXIX. The cross alone is offensive to Trypho on account of the
curse, yet it proves that Jesus is Christ.
Then Trypho remarked, "Be assured that all our nation waits for Christ; and
we admit that all the Scriptures which you have quoted refer to Him.
Moreover, I do also admit that the name of Jesus, by which the the son of
Nave (Nun) was called, has inclined me very strongly to adopt this view. But
whether Christ should be so shamefully crucified, this we are in doubt
about. For whosoever is crucified is said in the law to be accursed, so that
I am exceedingly incredulous on this point. It is quite clear, indeed, that
the Scriptures announce that Christ had to suffer; but we wish to learn if
you can prove it to us whether it was by the suffering cursed in the law."
I replied to him, "If Christ was not to suffer, and the prophets had not
foretold that He would be led to death on account of the sins of the people,
and be dishonoured and scourged, and reckoned among the transgressors, and
as a sheep be led to the slaughter, whose generation, the prophet says, no
man can declare, then you would have good cause to wonder. But if these are
to be characteristic of Him and mark Him out to all, how is it possible for
us to do anything else than believe in Him most confidently? And will not as
many as have understood the writings of the prophets, whenever they hear
merely that He was crucified, say that this is He and no other?"
Chapter XC. The stretched-out hands of Moses signified beforehand the cross.
"Bring us on, then," said [Trypho], "by the Scriptures, that we may also be
persuaded by you; for we know that He should suffer and be led as a sheep.
But prove to us whether He must be crucified and die so disgracefully and so
dishonourably by the death cursed in the law.  For we cannot bring
ourselves even to think of this."
"You know," said I, "that what the prophets said and did they veiled by
parables and types, as you admitted to us; so that it was not easy for all
to understand the most [of what they said], since they concealed the truth
by these means, that those who are eager to find out and learn it might do
so with much labour."
They answered, "We admitted this."
"Listen, therefore," say I, "to what follows; for Moses first exhibited this
seeming curse of Christ's by the signs which he made."
"Of what [signs] do you speak?" said he.
"When the people," replied I, "waged war with Amalek, and the son of Nave
(Nun) by name Jesus (Joshua), led the fight, Moses himself prayed to God,
stretching out both hands, and Hur with Aaron supported them during the
whole day, so that they might not hang down when he got wearied. For if he
gave up any part of this sign, which was an imitation of the cross, the
people were beaten, as is recorded in the writings of Moses; but if he
remained in this form, Amalek was proportionally defeated, and he who
prevailed prevailed by the cross. For it was not because Moses so prayed
that the people were stronger, but because, while one who bore the name of
Jesus (Joshua) was in the forefront of the battle, he himself made the sign
of the cross. For who of you knows not that the prayer of one who
accompanies it with lamentation and tears, with the body prostrate, or with
bended knees, propitiates God most of all? But in such a manner neither he
nor any other one, while sitting on a stone, prayed. Nor even the stone
symbolized Christ, as I have shown.
 [This intense abhorrence of the cross made it worth while to show
that these similitudes existed under the law. They were ad hominem appeals,
and suited to Jewish modes of thought.]
Chapter XCI. The cross was foretold in the blessings of Joseph, and in the
serpent that was lifted up.
"And God by Moses shows in another way the force of the mystery of the
cross, when He said in the blessing wherewith Joseph was blessed, "From the
blessing of the Lord is his land; for the seasons of heaven, and for the
dews, and for the deep springs from beneath, and for the seasonable fruits
of the sun,  and for the coming together of the months, and for the
heights of the everlasting mountains, and for the heights of the hills, and
for the ever-flowing rivers, and for the fruits of the fatness of the earth;
and let the things accepted by Him who appeared in the bush come on the head
and crown of Joseph. Let him be glorified among his brethren;  his
beauty is [like] the firstling of a bullock; his horns the horns of an
unicorn: with these shall he push the nations from one end of the earth to
another.  Now, no one could say or prove that the horns of an unicorn
represent any other fact or figure than the type which portrays the cross.
For the one beam is placed upright, from which the highest extremity is
raised up into a horn, when the other beam is fitted on to it, and the ends
appear on both sides as horns joined on to the one horn. And the part which
is fixed in the centre, on which are suspended those who are crucified, also
stands out like a horn; and it also looks like a horn conjoined and fixed
with the other horns. And the expression, "With these shall he push as with
horns the nations from one end of the earth to another, is indicative of
what is now the fact among all the nations. For some out of all the nations,
through the power of this mystery, having been so pushed, that is, pricked
in their hearts, have turned from vain idols and demons to serve God. But
the same figure is revealed for the destruction and condemnation of the
unbelievers; even as Amalek was defeated and Israel victorious when the
people came out of Egypt, by means of the type of the stretching out of
Moses hands, and the name of Jesus (Joshua), by which the son of Nave (Nun)
was called. And it seems that the type and sign, which was erected to
counteract the serpents which bit Israel, was intended for the salvation of
those who believe that death was declared to come thereafter on the serpent
through Him that would be crucified, but salvation to those who had been
bitten by him and had betaken themselves to Him that sent His Son into the
world to be crucified.  For the Spirit of prophecy by Moses did not
teach us to believe in the serpent, since it shows us that he was cursed by
God from the beginning; and in Isaiah tells us that he shall be put to death
as an enemy by the mighty sword, which is Christ.
 There is a variety of reading here: either abussou pēgōn katōthen
katharōn: or, abussou pēgōn katōthen, kai kath hōran gennēmatōn, k.t.l.,
which we prefer.
 The translation in the text is a rendering of the Septuagint. The
mss. of Justin read: "Being glorified as the first-born among his
 Deut. xxxiii. 13-17.
 [A clumsy exposition of St. John iii. 14.]
Chapter XCII. Unless the scriptures be understood through God's great grace,
God will not appear to have taught always the same righteousness.
"Unless, therefore, a man by God's great grace receives the power to
understand what has been said and done by the prophets, the appearance of
being able to repeat the words or the deeds will not profit him, if he
cannot explain the argument of them. And will they not assuredly appear
contemptible to many, since they are related by those who understood them
not? For if one should wish to ask you why, since Enoch, Noah with his sons,
and all others in similar circumstances, who neither were circumcised nor
kept the Sabbath, pleased God, God demanded by other leaders, and by the
giving of the law after the lapse of so many generations, that those who
lived between the times of Abraham and of Moses be justified by
circumcision, and that those who lived after Moses be justified by
circumcision and the other ordinances to wit, the Sabbath, and sacrifices,
and libations,  and offerings; [God will be slandered] unless you
show, as I have already said, that God who foreknew was aware that your
nation would deserve expulsion from Jerusalem, and that none would be
permitted to enter into it. (For  you are not distinguished in any
other way than by the fleshly circumcision, as I remarked previously. For
Abraham was declared by God to be righteous, not on account of circumcision,
but on account of faith. For before he was circumcised the following
statement was made regarding him: "Abraham believed God, and it was
accounted unto him for righteousness.  And we, therefore, in the
uncircumcision of our flesh, believing God through Christ, and having that
circumcision which is of advantage to us who have acquired it namely, that
of the heart we hope to appear righteous before and well-pleasing to God:
since already we have received His testimony through the words of the
prophets.) [And, further, God will be slandered unless you show] that you
were commanded to observe the Sabbath, and to present offerings, and that
the Lord submitted to have a place called by the name of God, in order that,
as has been said, you might not become impious and godless by worshipping
idols and forgetting God, as indeed you do always appear to have been. (Now,
that God enjoined the ordinances of Sabbaths and offerings for these
reasons, I have proved in what I previously remarked; but for the sake of
those who came to-day, I wish to repeat nearly the whole.) For if this is
not the case, God will be slandered,  as having no foreknowledge, and
as not teaching all men to know and to do the same acts of righteousness
(for many generations of men appear to have existed before Moses); and the
Scripture is not true which affirms that "God is true and righteous, and all
His ways are judgments, and there is no unrighteousness in him. But since
the Scripture is true, God is always willing that such even as you be
neither foolish nor lovers of yourselves, in order that you may obtain the
salvation of Christ,  who pleased God, and received testimony from
Him, as I have already said, by alleging proof from the holy words of
 Or, "ashes," spodōn for spondōn.
 We have adopted the parenthesis inserted by Maranus. Langus would
insert before it, ti hexete apokrinasthai; "What will you have to answer?"
 Gen. xv. 6.
 We have supplied this phrase twice above.
 Literally, salvation along with Christ, that is, salvation by the aid
Chapter XCIII. The same kind of righteousness is bestowed on all. Christ
comprehends it in two precepts.
"For [God] sets before every race of mankind that which is always and
universally just, as well as all righteousness; and every race knows that
adultery, and fornication, and homicide,  and such like, are sinful;
and though they all commit such practices, yet they do not escape from the
knowledge that they act unrighteously whenever they so do, with the
exception of those who are possessed with an unclean spirit, and who have
been debased by education, by wicked customs, and by sinful institutions,
and who have lost, or rather quenched and put under, their natural ideas.
For we may see that such persons are unwilling to submit to the same things
which they inflict upon others, and reproach each other with hostile
consciences for the acts which they perpetrate. And hence I think that our
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ spoke well when He summed up all righteousness
and piety in two commandments. They are these: "Thou shalt love the Lord thy
God with all thy heart, and with all thy strength, and thy neighbour as
thyself.  For the man who loves God with all the heart, and with all
the strength, being filled with a God-fearing mind, will reverence no other
god; and since God wishes it, he would reverence that angel who is beloved
by the same Lord and God. And the man who loves his neighbour as himself
will wish for him the same good things that he wishes for himself, and no
man will wish evil things for himself. Accordingly, he who loves his
neighbour would pray and labour that his neighbour may be possessed of the
same benefits as himself. Now nothing else is neighbour to man than that
similarly-affectioned and reasonable being man. Therefore, since all
righteousness is divided into two branches, namely, in so far as it regards
God and men, whoever, says the Scripture, loves the Lord God with all the
heart, and all the strength, and his neighbour as himself, would be truly a
righteous man. But you were never shown to be possessed of friendship or
love either towards God, or towards the prophets, or towards yourselves,
but, as is evident, you are ever found to be idolaters and murderers of
righteous men, so that you laid hands even on Christ Himself; and to this
very day you abide in your wickedness, execrating those who prove that this
man who was crucified by you is the Christ. Nay, more than this, you suppose
that He was crucified as hostile to and cursed by God, which supposition is
the product of your most irrational mind. For though you have the means of
understanding that this man is Christ from the signs given by Moses, yet you
will not; but, in addition, fancying that we can have no arguments, you put
whatever question comes into your minds, while you yourselves are at a loss
for arguments whenever you meet with some firmly established Christian.
 andromania is read in mss. for androphonia.
 Matt. xxii. 37.
Chapter XCIV. In what sense he who hangs on a tree is cursed.
"For tell me, was it not God who commanded by Moses that no image or
likeness of anything which was in heaven above or which was on the earth
should be made, and yet who caused the brazen serpent to be made by Moses in
the wilderness, and set it up for a sign by which those bitten by serpents
were saved? Yet is He free from unrighteousness. For by this, as I
previously remarked, He proclaimed the mystery, by which He declared that He
would break the power of the serpent which occasioned the transgression of
Adam, and [would bring] to them that believe on Him [who was foreshadowed]
by this sign, i.e., Him who was to be crucified, salvation from the fangs of
the serpent, which are wicked deeds, idolatries, and other unrighteous acts.
Unless the matter be so understood, give me a reason why Moses set up the
brazen serpent for a sign, and bade those that were bitten gaze at it, and
the wounded were healed; and this, too, when he had himself commanded that
no likeness of anything whatsoever should be made."
On this, another of those who came on the second day said, "You have spoken
truly: we cannot give a reason. For I have frequently interrogated the
teachers about this matter, and none of them gave me a reason: therefore
continue what you are speaking; for we are paying attention while you unfold
the mystery, on account of which the doctrines of the prophets are falsely
Then I replied, "Just as God commanded the sign to be made by the brazen
serpent, and yet He is blameless; even so, though a curse lies in the law
against persons who are crucified, yet no curse lies on the Christ of God,
by whom all that have committed things worthy of a curse are saved. 
 [Gal. iii. 13.]
Chapter XCV. Christ took upon Himself the curse due to us.
"For the whole human race will be found to be under a curse. For it is
written in the law of Moses, "Cursed is every one that continueth not in all
things that are written in the book of the law to do them.  And no
one has accurately done all, nor will you venture to deny this; but some
more and some less than others have observed the ordinances enjoined. But if
those who are under this law appear to be under a curse for not having
observed all the requirements, how much more shall all the nations appear to
be under a curse who practise idolatry, who seduce youths, and commit other
crimes? If, then, the Father of all wished His Christ for the whole human
family to take upon Him the curses of all, knowing that, after He had been
crucified and was dead, He would raise Him up, why do you argue about Him,
who submitted to suffer these things according to the Father's will, as if
He were accursed, and do not rather bewail yourselves? For although His
Father caused Him to suffer these things in behalf of the human family, yet
you did not commit the deed as in obedience to the will of God. For you did
not practise piety when you slew the prophets. And let none of you say: If
His Father wished Him to suffer this, in order that by His stripes the human
race might be healed, we have done no wrong. If, indeed, you repent of your
sins, and recognise Him to be Christ, and observe His commandments, then you
may assert this; for, as I have said before, remission of sins shall be
yours. But if you curse Him and them that believe on Him, and, when you have
the power, put them to death, how is it possible that requisition shall not
be made of you, as of unrighteous and sinful men, altogether hard-hearted
and without understanding, because you laid your hands on Him?
 Deut. xxvii. 26.
Chapter XCVI. That curse was a prediction of the things which the Jews would
"For the statement in the law, "Cursed is every one that hangeth on a
tree,  confirms our hope which depends on the crucified Christ, not
because He who has been crucified is cursed by God, but because God foretold
that which would be done by you all, and by those like to you, who do not
know  that this is He who existed before all, who is the eternal
Priest of God, and King, and Christ. And you clearly see that this has come
to pass. For you curse in your synagogues all those who are called 
from Him Christians; and other nations effectively carry out the curse,
putting to death those who simply confess themselves to be Christians; to
all of whom we say, You are our brethren; rather recognise the truth of God.
And while neither they nor you are persuaded by us, but strive earnestly to
cause us to deny the name of Christ, we choose rather and submit to death,
in the full assurance that all the good which God has promised through
Christ He will reward us with. And in addition to all this we pray for you,
that Christ may have mercy upon you. For He taught us to pray for our
enemies also, saying, "Love your enemies; be kind and merciful, as your
heavenly Father is.  For we see that the Almighty God is kind and
merciful, causing His sun to rise on the unthankful and on the righteous,
and sending rain on the holy and on the wicked; all of whom He has taught us
He will judge.
 Deut. xxi. 23.
 We read epistamenōn for epistamenon. Otherwise to be translated: "God
foretold that which you did not know," etc.
 legomenōn for genomenōn.
 Luke vi. 35.
Chapter XCVII. Other predictions of the cross of Christ.
"For it was not without design that the prophet Moses, when Hur and Aaron
upheld his hands, remained in this form until evening. For indeed the Lord
remained upon the tree almost until evening, and they buried Him at
eventide; then on the third day He rose again. This was declared by David
thus: "With my voice I cried to the Lord, and He heard me out of His holy
hill. I laid me down, and slept; I awaked, for the Lord sustained me.
 And Isaiah likewise mentions concerning Him the manner in which He
would die, thus: "I have spread out My hands unto a people disobedient, and
gainsaying, that walk in a way which is not good.  And that He would
rise again, Isaiah himself said: "His burial has been taken away from the
midst, and I will give the rich for His death.  And again, in other
words, David in the twenty-first  Psalm thus refers to the suffering
and to the cross in a parable of mystery: "They pierced my hands and my
feet; they counted all my bones. They considered and gazed on me; they
parted my garments among themselves, and cast lots upon my vesture. For
when they crucified Him, driving in the nails, they pierced His hands and
feet; and those who crucified Him parted His garments among themselves, each
casting lots for what he chose to have, and receiving according to the
decision of the lot. And this very Psalm you maintain does not refer to
Christ; for you are in all respects blind, and do not understand that no one
in your nation who has been called King or Christ has ever had his hands or
feet pierced while alive, or has died in this mysterious fashion to wit, by
the cross save this Jesus alone.
 Ps. iii. 4, 5.
 Isa. lxv. 2; comp. also Rom. x. 21.
 Isa. liii. 9.
 That is, Ps. xxii. 16-18.
Chapter XCVIII. Predictions of Christ in Ps. xxii.
"I shall repeat the whole Psalm, in order that you may hear His reverence to
the Father, and how He refers all things to Him, and prays to be delivered
by Him from this death; at the same time declaring in the Psalm who they are
that rise up against Him, and showing that He has truly become man capable
of suffering. It is as follows: "O God, my God, attend to me: why hast Thou
forsaken me? The words of my transgressions are far from my salvation. O my
God, I will cry to Thee in the day-time, and Thou wilt not hear; and in the
night-season, and it is not for want of understanding in me. But Thou, the
Praise of Israel, inhabitest the holy place. Our fathers trusted in Thee;
they trusted, and Thou didst deliver them. They cried unto Thee, and were
delivered: they trusted in Thee, and were not confounded. But I am a worm,
and no man; a reproach of men, and despised of the people. All they that see
me laughed me to scorn; they spake with the lips, they shook the head: He
trusted on the Lord: let Him deliver him, let Him save him, since he desires
Him. For Thou art He that took me out of the womb; my hope from the breasts
of my mother: I was cast upon Thee from the womb. Thou art my God from my
mother's belly: be not far from me, for trouble is near; for there is none
to help. Many calves have compassed me; fat bulls have beset me round. They
opened their mouth upon me, as a ravening and roaring lion. All my bones are
poured out and dispersed like water. My heart has become like wax melting in
the midst of my belly. My strength is dried up like a potsherd; and my
tongue has cleaved to my throat; and Thou hast brought me into the dust of
death. For many dogs have surrounded me; the assembly of the wicked have
beset me round. They pierced my hands and my feet, they did tell all my
bones. They did look and stare upon me; they parted my garments among them,
and cast lots upon my vesture. But do not Thou remove Thine assistance from
me, O Lord: give heed to help me; deliver my soul from the sword, and my
 only-begotten from the hand of the dog. Save me from the lion s
mouth, and my humility from the horns of the unicorns. I will declare Thy
name to my brethren; in the midst of the Church will I praise Thee. Ye that
fear the Lord, praise Him: all ye the seed of Jacob, glorify Him. Let all
the seed of Israel fear Him. "
 Probably should be "Thy."
Chapter XCIX. In the commencement of the Psalm are Christ's dying words.
And when I had said these words, I continued: "Now I will demonstrate to you
that the whole Psalm refers thus to Christ, by the words which I shall again
explain. What is said at first "O God, my God, attend to me: why hast Thou
forsaken me? announced from the beginning that which was to be said in the
time of Christ. For when crucified, He spake: "O God, my God, why hast Thou
forsaken me? And what follows: "The words of my transgressions are far from
my salvation. O my God, I will cry to Thee in the day-time, and Thou wilt
not hear; and in the night-season, and it is not for want of understanding
in me. These, as well as the things which He was to do, were spoken. For on
the day on which He was to be crucified,  having taken three of His
disciples to the hill called Olivet, situated opposite to the temple in
Jerusalem, He prayed in these words: "Father, if it be possible, let this
cup pass from me.  And again He prayed: "Not as I will, but as Thou
wilt;  showing by this that He had become truly a suffering man. But
lest any one should say, He did not know then that He had to suffer, He adds
immediately in the Psalm: "And it is not for want of understanding in me.
Even as there was no ignorance on God's part when He asked Adam where he
was, or asked Cain where Abel was; but [it was done] to convince each what
kind of man he was, and in order that through the record [of Scripture] we
might have a knowledge of all: so likewise Christ declared that ignorance
was not on His side, but on theirs, who thought that He was not the Christ,
but fancied they would put Him to death, and that He, like some common
mortal, would remain in Hades.
 [Jewish computation of the evening as part of the succeeding day.]
 Matt. xxvi. 39.
Chapter C. In what sense Christ is [called] Jacob, and Israel, and Son of
"Then what follows "But Thou, the praise of Israel, inhabitest the holy
place declared that He is to do something worthy of praise and wonderment,
being about to rise again from the dead on the third day after the
crucifixion; and this He has obtained from the Father. For I have showed
already that Christ is called both Jacob and Israel; and I have proved that
it is not in the blessing of Joseph and Judah alone that what relates to Him
was proclaimed mysteriously, but also in the Gospel it is written that He
said: "All things are delivered unto me by My Father; and, "No man knoweth
the Father but the Son; nor the Son but the Father, and they to whom the Son
will reveal Him.  Accordingly He revealed to us all that we have
perceived by His grace out of the Scriptures, so that we know Him to be the
first-begotten of God, and to be before all creatures; likewise to be the
Son of the patriarchs, since He assumed flesh by the Virgin of their family,
and submitted to become a man without comeliness, dishonoured, and subject
to suffering. Hence, also, among His words He said, when He was discoursing
about His future sufferings: "The Son of man must suffer many things, and be
rejected by the Pharisees and Scribes, and be crucified, and on the third
day rise again.  He said then that He was the Son of man, either
because of His birth by the Virgin, who was, as I said, of the family of
David  and Jacob, and Isaac, and Abraham; or because Adam  was
the father both of Himself and of those who have been first enumerated from
whom Mary derives her descent. For we know that the fathers of women are the
fathers likewise of those children whom their daughters bear. For [Christ]
called one of His disciples previously known by the name of Simon Peter;
since he recognised Him to be Christ the Son of God, by the revelation of
His Father: and since we find it recorded in the memoirs of His apostles
that He is the Son of God, and since we call Him the Son, we have understood
that He proceeded before all creatures from the Father by His power and will
(for He is addressed in the writings of the prophets in one way or another
as Wisdom, and the Day,  and the East, and a Sword, and a Stone, and a
Rod, and Jacob, and Israel); and that He became man by the Virgin, in order
that the disobedience which proceeded from the serpent might receive its
destruction in the same manner in which it derived its origin. For Eve, who
was a virgin and undefiled, having conceived the word of the serpent,
brought forth disobedience and death. But the Virgin Mary received faith and
joy, when the angel Gabriel announced the good tidings to her that the
Spirit of the Lord would come upon her, and the power of the Highest would
overshadow her: wherefore also the Holy Thing begotten of her is the Son of
God;  and she replied, "Be it unto me according to thy word. " 
And by her has He been born, to whom we have proved so many Scriptures
refer, and by whom God destroys both the serpent and those angels and men
who are like him; but works deliverance from death to those who repent of
their wickedness and believe upon Him.
 Matt. xi. 27.
 Matt. xvi. 21.
 [Note this testimony to Mary's descent from David.]
 The text is, auton ton 'Abraam patera. Thirlby proposed auton tou
'Adam: Maranus changed this into autou ton 'Adam patera.
 It is not easy, says Maranus, to say in what Scripture Christ is so
called. [Clearly he refers to the Dayspring (St. Luke i. 78) as the LXX.
render many texts of the O.T. See Zech. iii. 8.] Perhaps Justin had in his
mind the passage, "This the day which the Lord hath made" (Ps. cxviii. 24).
Clem. Alex. teaches that Christ is here referred to.
 Luke i. 35. See Meyer in loc.
 Luke i. 38.
Chapter CI. Christ refers all things to the Father
"Then what follows of the Psalm is this, in which He says: "Our fathers
trusted in Thee; they trusted, and Thou didst deliver them. They cried unto
Thee, and were not confounded. But I am a worm, and no man; a reproach of
men, and despised of the people; which show that He admits them to be His
fathers, who trusted in God and were saved by Him, who also were the fathers
of the Virgin, by whom He was born and became man; and He foretells that He
shall be saved by the same God, but boasts not in accomplishing anything
through His own will or might. For when on earth He acted in the very same
manner, and answered to one who addressed Him as "Good Master: "Why callest
thou me good? One is good, my Father who is in heaven.  But when He
says, "I am a worm, and no man; a reproach of men, and despised of the
people, He prophesied the things which do exist, and which happen to Him.
For we who believe on Him are everywhere a reproach, "despised of the
people; for, rejected and dishonoured by your nation, He suffered those
indignities which you planned against Him. And the following: "All they that
see me laughed me to scorn; they spake with the lips, they shook the head:
He trusted in the Lord; let Him deliver him, since he desires Him; this
likewise He foretold should happen to Him. For they that saw Him crucified
shook their heads each one of them, and distorted their lips, and twisting
their noses to each other,  they spake in mockery the words which are
recorded in the memoirs of His apostles: "He said he was the Son of God: let
him come down; let God save him.
 Luke xviii. 18 f.
 The text is corrupt, and the meaning doubtful. Otto translates:
naribus inter se certantes.
Chapter CII. The prediction of the events which happened to Christ when He
was born. Why God permitted it.
"And what follows "My hope from the breasts of my mother. On Thee have I
been cast from the womb; from my mother's belly Thou art my God: for there
is no helper. Many calves have compassed me; fat bulls have beset me round.
They opened their mouth upon me, as a ravening and a roaring lion. All my
bones are poured out and dispersed like water. My heart has become likes wax
melting in the midst of my belly. My strength is become dry like a potsherd;
and my tongue has cleaved to my throat foretold what would come to pass;
for the statement, "My hope from the breasts of my mother, [is thus
explained]. As soon as He was born in Bethlehem, as I previously remarked,
king Herod, having learned from the Arabian Magi about Him, made a plot to
put Him to death and by God's command Joseph took Him with Mary and departed
into Egypt. For the Father had decreed that He whom He had begotten should
be put to death, but not before He had grown to manhood, and proclaimed the
word which proceeded from Him. But if any of you say to us, Could not God
rather have put Herod to death? I return answer by anticipation: Could not
God have cut off in the beginning the serpent, so that he exist not, rather
than have said, "And I will put enmity between him and the woman, and
between his seed and her seed?  Could He not have at once created a
multitude of men? But yet, since He knew that it would be good, He created
both angels and men free to do that which is righteous, and He appointed
periods of time during which He knew it would be good for them to have the
exercise of free-will; and because He likewise knew it would be good, He
made general and particular judgments; each one's freedom of will, however,
being guarded. Hence Scripture says the following, at the destruction of the
tower, and division and alteration of tongues: "And the Lord said, Behold,
the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they have begun
to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them of all which they have
attempted to do.  And the statement, "My strength is become dry like
a potsherd, and my tongue has cleaved to my throat, was also a prophecy of
what would be done by Him according to the Father's will. For the power of
His strong word, by which He always confuted the Pharisees and Scribes, and,
in short, all your nation's teachers that questioned Him, had a cessation
like a plentiful and strong spring, the waters of which have been turned
off, when He kept silence, and chose to return no answer to any one in the
presence of Pilate; as has been declared in the memoirs of His apostles, in
order that what is recorded by Isaiah might have efficacious fruit, where it
is written, "The Lord gives me a tongue, that I may know when I ought to
speak.  Again, when He said, "Thou art my God; be not far from me,
He taught that all men ought to hope in God who created all things, and seek
salvation and help from Him alone; and not suppose, as the rest of men do,
that salvation can be obtained by birth, or wealth, or strength, or wisdom.
And such have ever been your practices: at one time you made a calf, and
always you have shown yourselves ungrateful, murderers of the righteous, and
proud of your descent. For if the Son of God evidently states that He can be
saved, [neither]  because He is a son, nor because He is strong or
wise, but that without God He cannot be saved, even though He be sinless, as
Isaiah declares in words to the effect that even in regard to His very
language He committed no sin (for He committed no iniquity or guile with His
mouth), how do you or others who expect to be saved without this hope,
suppose that you are not deceiving yourselves?
 Gen. iii. 15.
 Gen. xi. 6.
 Isa. l. 4.
 Not found in mss.
Chapter CIII. The Pharisees are the bulls: the roaring lion is Herod or the
"Then what is next said in the Psalm "For trouble is near, for there is none
to help me. Many calves have compassed me; fat bulls have beset me round.
They opened their mouth upon me as a ravening and roaring lion. All my bones
are poured out and dispersed like water, was likewise a prediction of the
events which happened to Him. For on that night when some of your nation,
who had been sent by the Pharisees and Scribes, and teachers,  came
upon Him from the Mount  of Olives, those whom Scripture called
butting and prematurely destructive calves surrounded Him. And the
expression, "Fat bulls have beset me round, He spoke beforehand of those
who acted similarly to the calves, when He was led before your teachers. And
the Scripture described them as bulls, since we know that bulls are authors
of calves existence. As therefore the bulls are the begetters of the
calves, so your teachers were the cause why their children went out to the
Mount of Olives to take Him and bring Him to them. And the expression, "For
there is none to help, is also indicative of what took place. For there was
not even a single man to assist Him as an innocent person. And the
expression, "They opened their mouth upon me like a roaring lion,
designates him who was then king of the Jews, and was called Herod, a
successor of the Herod who, when Christ was born, slew all the infants in
Bethlehem born about the same time, because he imagined that amongst them He
would assuredly be of whom the Magi from Arabia had spoken; for he was
ignorant of the will of Him that is stronger than all, how He had commanded
Joseph and Mary to take the Child and depart into Egypt, and there to remain
until a revelation should again be made to them to return into their own
country. And there they did remain until Herod, who slew the infants in
Bethlehem, was dead, and Archelaus had succeeded him. And he died before
Christ came to the dispensation on the cross which was given Him by His
Father. And when Herod succeeded Archelaus, having received the authority
which had been allotted to him, Pilate sent to him by way of compliment
Jesus bound; and God foreknowing that this would happen, had thus spoken:
"And they brought Him to the Assyrian, a present to the king.  Or He
meant the devil by the lion roaring against Him: whom Moses calls the
serpent, but in Job and Zechariah he is called the devil, and by Jesus is
addressed as Satan, showing that a compounded name was acquired by him from
the deeds which he performed. For "Sata in the Jewish and Syrian tongue
means apostate; and "Nas is the word from which he is called by
interpretation the serpent, i.e., according to the interpretation of the
Hebrew term, from both of which there arises the single word Satanas. For
this devil, when [Jesus] went up from the river Jordan, at the time when the
voice spake to Him, "Thou art my Son: this day have I begotten Thee, 
is recorded in the memoirs of the apostles to have come to Him and tempted
Him, even so far as to say to Him, "Worship me; and Christ answered him,
"Get thee behind me, Satan: thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him
only shalt thou serve.  For as he had deceived Adam, so he hoped
 that he might contrive some mischief against Christ also. Moreover,
the statement, "All my bones are poured out  and dispersed like water;
my heart has become like wax, melting in the midst of my belly, was a
prediction of that which happened to Him on that night when men came out
against Him to the Mount of Olives to seize Him. For in the memoirs which I
say were drawn up by His apostles and those who followed them, [it is
recorded] that His sweat fell down like drops of blood while He was praying,
and saying, "If it be possible, let this cup pass:  His heart and
also His bones trembling; His heart being like wax melting in His belly:
 in order that we may perceive that the Father wished His Son really
 to undergo such sufferings for our sakes, and may not say that He,
being the Son of God, did not feel what was happening to Him and inflicted
on Him. Further, the expression, "My strength is dried up like a potsherd,
and my tongue has cleaved to my throat, was a prediction, as I previously
remarked, of that silence, when He who convicted all your teachers of being
unwise returned no answer at all.
 kai tōn didaskalōn, adopted instead of kata tēn didaskalian,
"according to their instructions."
 apo tou orous. Justin seems to have supposed that the Jews came on
Christ from some point of the hill while He was in the valley below. 'Epi
tou orous and epi to oros have been suggested.
 Hos. x. 6.
 Ps. ii. 7; Matt. iii. 17.
 Matt. iv. 9, 10.
 Literally, "said."
 Maranus says it is hardly to be doubted that Justin read, "I am
poured out like water," etc.
 Luke xxii. 44, 42.
 [Breast, rather. The (koilē) cavity of the nobler viscera.]
 Justin refers to the opinion of the Docetes, that Christ suffered in
appearance merely, and not in reality.
Chapter CIV. Circumstances of Christ's death are predicted in this Psalm.
"And the statement, "Thou hast brought me into the dust of death; for many
dogs have surrounded me: the assembly of the wicked have beset me round.
They pierced my hands and my feet. They did tell all my bones. They did look
and stare upon me. They parted my garments among them, and cast lots upon my
vesture, was a prediction, as I said before, of the death to which the
synagogue of the wicked would condemn Him, whom He calls both dogs and
hunters, declaring that those who hunted Him were both gathered together and
assiduously striving to condemn Him. And this is recorded to have happened
in the memoirs of His apostles. And I have shown that, after His
crucifixion, they who crucified Him parted His garments among them.
Chapter CV. The Psalm also predicts the crucifixion and the subject of the
last prayers of Christ on Earth.
"And what follows of the Psalm, "But Thou, Lord, do not remove Thine
assistance from me; give heed to help me. Deliver my soul from the sword,
and my  only-begotten from the hand of the dog; save me from the
lion's mouth, and my humility from the horns of the unicorns, was also
information and prediction of the events which should befall Him. For I have
already proved that He was the only-begotten of the Father of all things,
being begotten in a peculiar manner Word and Power by Him, and having
afterwards become man through the Virgin, as we have learned from the
memoirs. Moreover, it is similarly foretold that He would die by
crucifixion. For the passage, "Deliver my soul from the sword, and my 
only-begotten from the hand of the dog; save me from the lion's mouth, and
my humility from the horns of the unicorns, is indicative of the suffering
by which He should die, i.e., by crucifixion. For the "horns of the,
unicorns, I have already explained to you, are the figure of the cross
only. And the prayer that His soul should be saved from the sword, and
lion's mouth, and hand of the dog, was a prayer that no one should take
possession of His soul: so that, when we arrive at the end of life, we may
ask the same petition from God, who is able to turn away every shameless
evil angel from taking our souls. And that the souls survive, I have shown
 to you from the fact that the soul of Samuel was called up by the
witch, as Saul demanded. And it appears also, that all the souls of similar
righteous men and prophets fell under the dominion of such powers, as is
indeed to be inferred from the very facts in the case of that witch. Hence
also God by His Son teaches  us for whose sake these things seem to
have been done, always to strive earnestly, and at death to pray that our
souls may not fall into the hands of any such power. For when Christ was
giving up His spirit on the cross, He said, "Father, into Thy hands I
commend my spirit,  as I have learned also from the memoirs. For He
exhorted His disciples to surpass the pharisaic way of living, with the
warning, that if they did not, they might be sure they could not be saved;
and these words are recorded in the memoirs: "Unless your righteousness
exceed that of the Scribes and Pharisees, ye shall not enter into the
kingdom of heaven. 
 See note on chap. xcviii.
 This demonstration is not given. [It could not be. The woman was
herself frightened by the direct interposition of God. 1 Sam. xxviii. 12,
 Sylburg proposed dikaious ginesthai for di ous gin, "to strive
earnestly to become righteous, and at death to pray."
 Luke xxiii. 46.
 Matt. v. 20.
Chapter CVI. Christ's resurrection is foretold in the conclusion of the
"The remainder of the Psalm makes it manifest that He knew His Father would
grant to Him all things which He asked, and would raise Him from the dead;
and that He urged all who fear God to praise Him because He had compassion
on all races of believing men, through the mystery of Him who was crucified;
and that He stood in the midst of His brethren the apostles (who repented of
their flight from Him when He was crucified, after He rose from the dead,
and after they were persuaded by Himself that, before His passion He had
mentioned to them that He must suffer these things, and that they were
announced beforehand by the prophets), and when living with them sang
praises to God, as is made evident in the memoirs of the apostles. The words
are the following: "I will declare Thy name to my brethren; in the midst of
the Church will I praise Thee. Ye that fear the Lord, praise Him; all ye,
the seed of Jacob, glorify Him. Let all the seed of Israel fear Him. And
when it is said that He changed the name of one of the apostles to Peter;
and when it is written in the memoirs of Him that this so happened, as well
as that He changed the names of other two brothers, the sons of Zebedee, to
Boanerges, which means sons of thunder; this was an announcement of the fact
that it was He by whom Jacob was called Israel, and Oshea called Jesus
(Joshua), under whose name the people who survived of those that came from
Egypt were conducted into the land promised to the patriarchs. And that He
should arise like a star from the seed of Abraham, Moses showed before hand
when he thus said, "A star shall arise from Jacob, and a leader from
Israel;  and another Scripture says, "Behold a man; the East is His
name.  Accordingly, when a star rose in heaven at the time of His
birth, as is recorded in the memoirs of His apostles, the Magi from Arabia,
recognising the sign by this, came and worshipped Him.
 Num. xxiv. 17.
 [Or, "Dayspring."] Zech. vi. 12 (according to LXX.).
Chapter CVII. The same is taught from the history of Jonah.
"And that He would rise again on the third day after the crucifixion, it is
written  in the memoirs that some of your nation, questioning Him,
said, "Show us a sign; and He replied to them, "An evil and adulterous
generation seeketh after a sign; and no sign shall be given them, save the
sign of Jonah. And since He spoke this obscurely, it was to be understood
by the audience that after His crucifixion He should rise again on the third
day. And He showed that your generation was more wicked and more adulterous
than the city of Nineveh; for the latter, when Jonah preached to them, after
he had been cast up on the third day from the belly of the great fish, that
after three (in other versions, forty)  days they should all perish,
proclaimed a fast of all creatures, men and beasts, with sackcloth, and with
earnest lamentation, with true repentance from the heart, and turning away
from unrighteousness, in the belief that God is merciful and kind to all who
turn from wickedness; so that the king of that city himself, with his nobles
also, put on sackcloth and remained fasting and praying, and obtained their
request that the city should not be overthrown. But when Jonah was grieved
that on the (fortieth) third day, as he proclaimed, the city was not
overthrown, by the dispensation of a gourd  springing up from the
earth for him, under which he sat and was shaded from the heat (now the
gourd had sprung up suddenly, and Jonah had neither planted nor watered it,
but it had come up all at once to afford him shade), and by the other
dispensation of its withering away, for which Jonah grieved, [God] convicted
him of being unjustly displeased because the city of Nineveh had not been
overthrown, and said, "Thou hast had pity on the gourd, for the which thou
hast not laboured, neither madest it grow; which came up in a night, and
perished in a night. And shall I not spare Nineveh, the great city, wherein
dwell more than six score thousand persons that cannot discern between their
right hand and their left hand; and also much cattle? 
 Matt. xii. 38 f.
 In the LXX. only three days are recorded, though in the Hebrew and
other versions forty. The parenthetic clause is probably the work of a
 Read kikuōna for sikuōna.
 Jon. iv. 10 f.
Chapter CVIII. The resurrection of Christ did not convert the Jews. But
through the whole world they have sent men to accuse Christ.
"And though all the men of your nation knew the incidents in the life of
Jonah, and though Christ said amongst you that He would give the sign of
Jonah, exhorting you to repent of your wicked deeds at least after He rose
again from the dead, and to mourn before God as did the Ninevites, in order
that your nation and city might not be taken and destroyed, as they have
been destroyed; yet you not only have not repented, after you learned that
He rose from the dead, but, as I said before  you have sent chosen and
ordained men throughout all the world to proclaim that a godless and lawless
heresy had sprung from one Jesus, a Galilæan deceiver, whom we crucified,
but his disciples stole him by night from the tomb, where he was laid when
unfastened from the cross, and now deceive men by asserting that he has
risen from the dead and ascended to heaven. Moreover, you accuse Him of
having taught those godless, lawless, and unholy doctrines which you mention
to the condemnation of those who confess Him to be Christ, and a Teacher
from and Son of God. Besides this, even when your city is captured, and your
land ravaged, you do not repent, but dare to utter imprecations on Him and
all who believe in Him. Yet we do not hate you or those who, by your means,
have conceived such prejudices against us; but we pray that even now all of
you may repent and obtain mercy from God, the compassionate and
long-suffering Father of all.
 Chap. xvii.
Chapter CIX. The conversion of the Gentiles has been predicted by Micah.
"But that the Gentiles would repent of the evil in which they led erring
lives, when they heard the doctrine preached by His apostles from Jerusalem,
and which they learned  through them, suffer me to show you by quoting
a short statement from the prophecy of Micah, one of the twelve [minor
prophets]. This is as follows: "And in the last days the mountain of the
Lord shall be manifest, established on the top of the mountains; it shall be
exalted above the hills, and people shall flow unto it.  And many
nations shall go, and say, Come, let us go up to the mountain of the Lord,
and to the house of the God of Jacob; and they shall enlighten us in His
way, and we shall walk in His paths: for out of Zion shall go forth the law,
and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. And He shall judge among many
peoples, and shall rebuke strong nations afar off; and they shall beat their
swords into ploughshares, and their spears into sickles: nation shall not
lift up a sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more. And
each man shall sit under his vine and under his fig tree; and there shall be
none to terrify: for the mouth of the Lord of hosts hath spoken it. For all
people will walk in the name of their gods; but we will walk in the name of
the Lord our God for ever. And it shall come to pass in that day, that I
will assemble her that is afflicted, and gather her that is driven out, and
whom I had plagued; and I shall make her that is afflicted a remnant, and
her that is oppressed a strong nation. And the Lord shall reign over them in
Mount Zion from henceforth, and even for ever. " 
 Read mathonta for pathonta.
 Literally, "people shall place a river in it."
 Mic. iv. 1 ff.
Chapter CX. A portion of the prophecy already fulfilled in the Christians:
the rest shall be fulfilled at the second advent.
And when I had finished these words, I continued: "Now I am aware that your
teachers, sirs, admit the whole of the words of this passage to refer to
Christ; and I am likewise aware that they maintain He has not yet come; or
if they say that He has come, they assert that it is not known who He is;
but when He shall become manifest and glorious, then it shall be known who
He is. And then, they say, the events mentioned in this passage shall
happen, just as if there was no fruit as yet from the words of the prophecy.
O unreasoning men! understanding not what has been proved by all these
passages, that two advents of Christ have been announced: the one, in which
He is set forth as suffering, inglorious, dishonoured, and crucified; but
the other, in which He shall come from heaven with glory, when the man of
apostasy,  who speaks strange things against the Most High, shall
venture to do unlawful deeds on the earth against us the Christians, who,
having learned the true worship of God from the law, and the word which went
forth from Jerusalem by means of the apostles of Jesus, have fled for safety
to the God of Jacob and God of Israel; and we who were filled with war, and
mutual slaughter, and every wickedness, have each through the whole earth
changed our warlike weapons, our swords into ploughshares, and our spears
into implements of tillage, and we cultivate piety, righteousness,
philanthropy, faith, and hope, which we have from the Father Himself through
Him who was crucified; and sitting each under his vine, i.e., each man
possessing his own married wife. For you are aware that the prophetic word
says, "And his wife shall be like a fruitful vine.  Now it is evident
that no one can terrify or subdue us who have believed in Jesus over all the
world. For it is plain that, though beheaded, and crucified, and thrown to
wild beasts, and chains, and fire, and all other kinds of torture, we do not
give up our confession; but the more such things happen, the more do others
and in larger numbers become faithful, and worshippers of God through the
name of Jesus. For just as if one should cut away the fruit-bearing parts of
a vine, it grows up again, and yields other branches flourishing and
fruitful; even so the same thing happens with us. For the vine planted by
God and Christ the Saviour is His people. But the rest of the prophecy shall
be fulfilled at His second coming. For the expression, "He that is afflicted
[and driven out], i.e., from the world, [implies] that, so far as you and
all other men have it in your power, each Christian has been driven out not
only from his own property, but even from the whole world; for you permit no
Christian to live. But you say that the same fate has befallen your own
nation. Now, if you have been cast out after defeat in battle, you have
suffered such treatment justly indeed, as all the Scriptures bear witness;
but we, though we have done no such [evil acts] after we knew the truth of
God, are testified to by God, that, together with the most righteous, and
only spotless and sinless Christ, we are taken away out of the earth. For
Isaiah cries, "Behold how the righteous perishes, and no man lays it to
heart; and righteous men are taken away, and no man considers it. 
 2 Thess. ii. 3; and see chap. xxxii.
 Ps. cxxviii. 3.
 Isa. lvii. 1.
Chapter CXI. The two advents were signified by the two goats. Other figures
of the first advent, in which the Gentiles are freed by the blood of Christ.
"And that it was declared by symbol, even in the time of Moses, that there
would be two advents of this Christ, as I have mentioned previously, [is
manifest] from the symbol of the goats presented for sacrifice during the
fast. And again, by what Moses and Joshua did, the same thing was
symbolically announced and told beforehand. For the one of them, stretching
out his hands, remained till evening on the hill, his hands being supported;
and this reveals a type of no other thing than of the cross: and the other,
whose name was altered to Jesus (Joshua), led the fight, and Israel
conquered. Now this took place in the case of both those holy men and
prophets of God, that you may perceive how one of them could not bear up
both the mysteries: I mean, the type of the cross and the type of the name.
For this is, was, and shall be the strength of Him alone, whose name every
power dreads, being very much tormented because they shall be destroyed by
Him. Therefore our suffering and crucified Christ was not cursed by the law,
but made it manifest that He alone would save those who do not depart from
His faith. And the blood of the passover, sprinkled on each man's door-posts
and lintel, delivered those who were saved in Egypt, when the first-born of
the Egyptians were destroyed. For the passover was Christ, who was
afterwards sacrificed, as also Isaiah said, "He was led as a sheep to the
slaughter.  And it is written, that on the day of the passover you
seized Him, and that also during the passover you crucified Him. And as the
blood of the passover saved those who were in Egypt, so also the blood of
Christ will deliver from death those who have believed. Would God, then,
have been deceived if this sign had not been above the doors? I do not say
that; but I affirm that He announced beforehand the future salvation for the
human race through the blood of Christ. For the sign of the scarlet thread,
which the spies, sent to Jericho by Joshua, son of Nave (Nun), gave to Rahab
the harlot, telling her to bind it to the window through which she let them
down to escape from their enemies, also manifested the symbol of the blood
of Christ, by which those who were at one time harlots and unrighteous
persons out of all nations are saved, receiving remission of sins, and
continuing no longer in sin.
 Isa. liii. 7.
Chapter CXII. The Jews expound these signs jejunely and feebly, and take up
their attention only with insignificant matters.
"But you, expounding these things in a low [and earthly] manner, impute much
weakness to God, if you thus listen to them merely, and do not investigate
the force of the words spoken. Since even Moses would in this way be
considered a transgressor: for he enjoined that no likeness of anything in
heaven, or on earth, or in the sea, be made; and then he himself made a
brazen serpent and set it on a standard, and bade those who were bitten look
at it: and they were saved when they looked at it. Will the serpent, then,
which (I have already said) God had in the beginning cursed and cut off by
the great sword, as Isaiah says,  be understood as having preserved at
that time the people? and shall we receive these things in the foolish
acceptation of your teachers, and [regard] them not as signs? And shall we
not rather refer the standard to the resemblance of the crucified Jesus,
since also Moses by his outstretched hands, together with him who was named
Jesus (Joshua), achieved a victory for your people? For in this way we shall
cease to be at a loss about the things which the lawgiver did, when he,
without forsaking God, persuaded the people to hope in a beast through which
transgression and disobedience had their origin. And this was done and said
by the blessed prophet with much intelligence and mystery; and there is
nothing said or done by any one of the prophets, without exception, which
one can justly reprehend, if he possess the knowledge which is in them. But
if your teachers only expound to you why female camels are spoken of in this
passage, and are not in that; or why so many measures of fine flour and so
many measures of oil [are used] in the offerings; and do so in a low and
sordid manner, while they never venture either to speak of or to expound the
points which are great and worthy of investigation, or command you to give
no audience to us while we expound them, and to come not into conversation
with us; will they not deserve to hear what our Lord Jesus Christ said to
them: "Whited sepulchres, which appear beautiful outward, and within are
full of dead men's bones; which pay tithe of mint, and swallow a camel: ye
blind guides!  If, then, you will not despise the doctrines of those
who exalt themselves and wish to be called Rabbi, Rabbi, and come with such
earnestness and intelligence to the words of prophecy as to suffer the same
inflictions from your own people which the prophets themselves did, you
cannot receive any advantage whatsoever from the prophetic writings.
 Isa. xxvii. 1.
 Matt. xxiii. 27, 23, 24. [Note the examples he gives of the
rabbinical expositions. He consents to their principle, but gives nobler
Chapter CXIII. Joshua was a figure of Christ.
"What I mean is this. Jesus (Joshua), as I have now frequently remarked, who
was called Oshea, when he was sent to spy out the land of Canaan, was named
by Moses Jesus (Joshua). Why he did this you neither ask, nor are at a loss
about it, nor make strict inquiries. Therefore Christ has escaped your
notice; and though you read, you understand not; and even now, though you
hear that Jesus is our Christ, you consider not that the name was bestowed
on Him not purposelessly nor by chance. But you make a theological
discussion as to why one "a was added to Abraham's first name; and as to
why one "r was added to Sarah's name, you use similar high-sounding
disputations.  But why do you not similarly investigate the reason why
the name of Oshea the son of Nave (Nun), which his father gave him, was
changed to Jesus (Joshua)? But since not only was his name altered, but he
was also appointed successor to Moses, being the only one of his
contemporaries who came out from Egypt, he led the surviving people into the
Holy Land; and as he, not Moses, led the people into the Holy Land, and as
he distributed it by lot to those who entered along with him, so also Jesus
the Christ will turn again the dispersion of the people, and will distribute
the good land to each one, though not in the same manner. For the former
gave them a temporary inheritance, seeing he was neither Christ who is God,
nor the Son of God; but the latter, after the holy resurrection, 
shall give us the eternal possession. The former, after he had been named
Jesus (Joshua), and after he had received strength from His Spirit, caused
the sun to stand still. For I have proved that it was Jesus who appeared to
and conversed with Moses, and Abraham, and all the other patriarchs without
exception, ministering to the will of the Father; who also, I say, came to
be born man by the Virgin Mary, and I lives for ever. For the latter is He
after  whom and by whom the Father will renew both the heaven and the
earth; this is He who shall shine an eternal light in Jerusalem; this is he
who is the king of Salem after the order of Melchizedek, and the eternal
Priest of the Most High. The former is said to have circumcised the people a
second time with knives of stone (which was a sign of this circumcision with
which Jesus Christ Himself has circumcised us from the idols made of stone
and of other materials), and to have collected together those who were
circumcised from the uncircumcision, i.e., from the error of the world, in
every place by the knives of stone, to wit, the words of our Lord Jesus. For
I have shown that Christ was proclaimed by the prophets in parables a Stone
and a Rock. Accordingly the knives of stone we shall take to mean His words,
by means of which so many who were in error have been circumcised from
uncircumcision with the circumcision of the heart, with which God by Jesus
commanded those from that time to be circumcised who derived their
circumcision from Abraham, saying that Jesus (Joshua) would circumcise a
second time with knives of stone those who entered into that holy land.
 According to the LXX., Sara was altered to Sarrha, and Abram to
 Or, "resurrection of the saints."
 Justin seems to mean that the renewal of heaven and earth dates from
the incarnation of Christ. [St. Matt. xix. 28.]
Chapter CXIV. Some rules for discerning what is said about Christ. The
circumcision of the Jews is very different from that which Christians
"For the Holy Spirit sometimes brought about that something, which was the
type of the future, should be done clearly; sometimes He uttered words about
what was to take place, as if it was then taking place, or had taken place.
And unless those who read perceive this art, they will not be able to follow
the words of the prophets as they ought. For example's sake, I shall repeat
some prophetic passages, that you may understand what I say. When He speaks
by Isaiah, "He was led as a sheep to the slaughter, and like a lamb before
the shearer,  He speaks as if the suffering had already taken place.
And when He says again, "I have stretched out my hands to a disobedient and
gainsaying people;  and when He says, "Lord, who hath believed our
report?  the words are spoken as if announcing events which had
already come to pass. For I have shown that Christ is oftentimes called a
Stone in parable, and in figurative speech Jacob and Israel. And again, when
He says, "I shall behold the heavens, the works of Thy fingers, 
unless I understand His method of using words,  I shall not understand
intelligently, but just as your teachers suppose, fancying that the Father
of all, the unbegotten God, has hands and feet, and fingers, and a soul,
like a composite being; and they for this reason teach that it was the
Father Himself who appeared to Abraham and to Jacob. Blessed therefore are
we who have been circumcised the second time with knives of stone. For your
first circumcision was and is performed by iron instruments, for you remain
hard-hearted; but our circumcision, which is the second, having been
instituted after yours, circumcises us from idolatry and from absolutely
every kind of wickedness by sharp stones, i.e., by the words [preached] by
the apostles of the corner-stone cut out without hands. And our hearts are
thus circumcised from evil, so that we are happy to die for the name of the
good Rock, which causes living water to burst forth for the hearts of those
who by Him have loved the Father of all, and which gives those who are
willing to drink of the water of life. But you do not comprehend me when I
speak these things; for you have not understood what it has been prophesied
that Christ would do, and you do not believe us who draw your attention to
what has been written. For Jeremiah thus cries: "Woe unto you! because you
have forsaken the living fountain, and have digged for yourselves broken
cisterns that can hold no water. Shall there be a wilderness where Mount
Zion is, because I gave Jerusalem a bill of divorce in your sight? 
 Isa. liii. 7.
 Isa. lxv. 2.
 Isa. liii. 1.
 Ps. viii. 3.
 Literally, "the operation of His words." Editors have changed tōn
logōn into ton logon or tou logou: but there is no need of change.
 Jer. ii. 13.
Chapter CXV. Prediction about the Christians in Zechariah. The malignant way
which the Jews have in disputations.
"But you ought to believe Zechariah when he shows in parable the mystery of
Christ, and announces it obscurely. The following are his words: "Rejoice,
and be glad, O daughter of Zion: for, lo, I come, and I shall dwell in the
midst of thee, saith the Lord. And many nations shall be added to the Lord
in that day. And they shall be my people, and I will dwell in the midst of
thee; and they shall know that the Lord of hosts hath sent me unto thee. And
the Lord shall inherit Judah his portion in the holy land, and He shall
choose Jerusalem again. Let all flesh fear before the Lord, for He is raised
up out of His holy clouds. And He showed me Jesus (Joshua) the high priest
standing before the angel [of the Lord  ]; and the devil stood at his
right hand to resist him. And the Lord said to the devil, The Lord who hath
chosen Jerusalem rebuke thee. Behold, is not this a brand plucked out of the
fire? " 
As Trypho was about to reply and contradict me, I said, "Wait and hear what
I say first: for I am not to give the explanation which you suppose, as if
there had been no priest of the name of Joshua (Jesus) in the land of
Babylon, where your nation were prisoners. But even if I did, I have shown
that if there  was a priest named Joshua (Jesus) in your nation, yet
the prophet had not seen him in his revelation, just as he had not seen
either the devil or the angel of the Lord by eyesight, and in his waking
condition, but in a trance, at the time when the revelation was made to him.
 But I now say, that as [Scripture] said that the Son of Nave (Nun) by
the name Jesus (Joshua) wrought powerful works and exploits which proclaimed
beforehand what would be performed by our Lord; so I proceed now to show
that the revelation made among your people in Babylon in the days of Jesus
(Joshua) the priest, was an announcement of the things to be accomplished by
our Priest, who is God, and Christ the Son of God the Father of all.
"Indeed, I wondered," continued I, "why a little ago you kept silence while
I was speaking, and why you did not interrupt me when I said that the son of
Nave (Nun) was the only one of contemporaries who came out of Egypt that
entered the Holy Land along with the men described as younger than that
generation. For you swarm and light on sores like flies. For though one
should speak ten thousand words well, if there happen to be one little word
displeasing to you, because not sufficiently intelligible or accurate, you
make no account of the many good words, but lay hold of the little word, and
are very zealous in setting it up as something impious and guilty; in order
that, when you are judged with the very same judgment by God, you may have a
much heavier account to render for your great audacities, whether evil
actions, or bad interpretations which you obtain by falsifying the truth.
For with what judgment you judge, it is righteous that you be judged withal.
 Omitted by Justin in this place.
 Zech. ii. 10-13, Zech. iii. 1, 2.
 The reading suggested by Maranus, ei men ēn.
 [Noteworthy as to prophetic vision.]
Chapter CXVI. It is shown how this prophecy suits the Christians.
"But to give you the account of the revelation of the holy Jesus Christ, I
take up again my discourse, and I assert that even that revelation was made
for us who believe on Christ the High Priest, namely this crucified One; and
though we lived in fornication and all kinds of filthy conversation, we have
by the grace of our Jesus, according to His Father's will, stripped
ourselves of all those filthy wickednesses with which we were imbued. And
though the devil is ever at hand to resist us, and anxious to seduce all to
himself, yet the Angel of God, i.e., the Power of God sent to us through
Jesus Christ, rebukes him, and he departs from us. And we are just as if
drawn out from the fire, when purified from our former sins, and [rescued]
from the affliction and the fiery trial by which the devil and all his
coadjutors try us; out of which Jesus the Son of God has promised again to
deliver us,  and invest us with prepared garments, if we do His
commandments; and has undertaken to provide an eternal kingdom [for us]. For
just as that Jesus (Joshua), called by the prophet a priest, evidently had
on filthy garments because he is said to have taken a harlot for a wife,
 and is called a brand plucked out of the fire, because he had
received remission of sins when the devil that resisted him was rebuked;
even so we, who through the name of Jesus have believed as one man in God
the Maker of all, have been stripped, through the name of His first-begotten
Son, of the filthy garments, i.e., of our sins; and being vehemently
inflamed by the word of His calling, we are the true high priestly race of
God, as even God Himself bears witness, saying that in every place among the
Gentiles sacrifices are presented to Him well-pleasing and pure. Now God
receives sacrifices from no one, except through His priests. 
 Maranus changed apospa into apospan, an emendation adopted in our
translation. Otto retains the reading of the ms. "out of which Jesus the Son
of God again snatches us. He promised that He would clothe us with," etc.
 Justin either confuses Joshua son of Josedech with Hosea the prophet,
or he refers to the Jewish tradition that "filthy garments" signified either
an illicit marriage, or sins of the people, or the squalor of captivity.
 [Isa. lxvi. 21; Rom. xv. 15, 16, 17 (Greek); 1 Pet. ii. 9.]
Chapter CXVII. Malachi's prophecy concerning the sacrifices of the
Christians. It cannot be taken as referring to the prayers of Jews of the
"Accordingly, God, anticipating all the sacrifices which we offer through
this name, and which Jesus the Christ enjoined us to offer, i.e., in the
Eucharist of the bread and the cup, and which are presented by Christians in
all places throughout the world, bears witness that they are well-pleasing
to Him. But He utterly rejects those presented by you and by those priests
of yours, saying, "And I will not accept your sacrifices at your hands; for
from the rising of the sun to its setting my name is glorified among the
Gentiles (He says); but ye profane it.  Yet even now, in your love of
contention, you assert that God does not accept the sacrifices of those who
dwelt then in Jerusalem, and were called Israelites; but says that He is
pleased with the prayers of the individuals of that nation then dispersed,
and calls their prayers sacrifices. Now, that prayers and giving of thanks,
when offered by worthy men, are the only perfect and well-pleasing
sacrifices to God, I also admit. For such alone Christians have undertaken
to offer, and in the remembrance effected by their solid and liquid food,
whereby the suffering of the Son of God  which He endured is brought
to mind, whose name the high priests of your nation and your teachers have
caused to be profaned and blasphemed over all the earth. But these filthy
garments, which have been put by you on all who have become Christians by
the name of Jesus, God shows shall be taken away from us, when He shall
raise all men from the dead, and appoint some to be incorruptible, immortal,
and free from sorrow in the everlasting and imperishable kingdom; but shall
send others away to the everlasting punishment of fire. But as to you and
your teachers deceiving yourselves when you interpret what the Scripture
says as referring to those of your nation then in dispersion, and maintain
that their prayers and sacrifices offered in every place are pure and
well-pleasing, learn that you are speaking falsely, and trying by all means
to cheat yourselves: for, first of all, not even now does your nation extend
from the rising to the setting of the sun, but there are nations among which
none of your race ever dwelt. For there is not one single race of men,
whether barbarians, or Greeks, or whatever they may be called, nomads, or
vagrants, or herdsmen living in tents, among whom prayers and giving of
thanks are not offered through the name of the crucified Jesus.  And
then,  as the Scriptures show, at the time when Malachi wrote this,
your dispersion over all the earth, which now exists, had not taken place.
 Mal. i. 10-12.
 Or, "God of God."
 [Note this testimony to the catholicity of the Church in the second
century. And see Kaye (compare with Gibbon), cap. vi. 112.]
 eita de for eidotes.
Chapter CXVIII. He exhorts to repentance before Christ comes; in whom
Christians, since they believe, are far more religious than Jews.
"So that you ought rather to desist from the love of strife, and repent
before the great day of judgment come, wherein all those of your tribes who
have pierced this Christ shall mourn as I have shown has been declared by
the Scriptures. And I have explained that the Lord swore, "after the order
of Melchizedek,  and what this prediction means; and the prophecy of
Isaiah which says, "His burial is taken away from the midst,  I have
already said, referred to the future burying and rising again of Christ; and
I have frequently remarked that this very Christ is the Judge of all the
living and the dead. And Nathan likewise, speaking to David about Him, thus
continued: "I will be His Father, and He shall be my Son; and my mercy shall
I not take away from Him, as I did from them that went before Him; and I
will establish Him in my house, and in His kingdom for ever.  And
Ezekiel says, "There shall be no other prince in the house but He. 
For He is the chosen Priest and eternal King, the Christ, inasmuch as He is
the Son of God; and do not suppose that Isaiah or the other prophets speak
of sacrifices of blood or libations being presented at the altar on His
second advent, but of true and spiritual praises and giving of thanks. And
we have not in vain believed in Him, and have not been led astray by those
who taught us such doctrines; but this has come to pass through the
wonderful foreknowledge of God, in order that we, through the calling of the
new and eternal covenant, that is, of Christ, might be found more
intelligent and God-fearing than yourselves, who are considered to be lovers
of God and men of understanding, but are not. Isaiah, filled with admiration
of this, said: "And kings shall shut their mouths: for those to whom no
announcement has been made in regard to Him  shall see; and those who
heard not shall understand. Lord, who hath believed our report? and to whom
is the arm of the Lord revealed? 
"And in repeating this,  Trypho," I continued, "as far as is
allowable, I endeavour to do so for the sake of those who came with you
to-day, yet briefly and concisely."
Then he replied, "You do well; and though you repeat the same things at
considerable length, be assured that I and my companions listen with
 Ps. cx. 4.
 Isa. liii. 8.
 2 Sam. vii. 14f.
 Ezek. xliv. 3.
 The mss. read "them." Otto has changed it to "Him."
 Isa. lii. 15, Isa. liii. 1.
 [Let this apology be noted.]
Chapter CXIX. Christians are the holy people promised to Abraham. They have
been called like Abraham.
Then I said again, "Would you suppose, sirs, that we could ever have
understood these matters in the Scriptures, if we had not received grace to
discern by the will of Him whose pleasure it was? in order that the saying
of Moses  might come to pass, "They provoked me with strange [gods],
they provoked me to anger with their abominations. They sacrificed to demons
whom they knew not; new gods that came newly up, whom their fathers knew
not. Thou hast forsaken God that begat thee, and forgotten God that brought
thee up. And the Lord saw, and was jealous, and was provoked to anger by
reason of the rage of His sons and daughters: and He said, I will turn My
face away from them, and I will show what shall come on them at the last;
for it is a very froward generation, children in whom is no faith. They have
moved Me to jealousy with that which is not God, they have provoked Me to
anger with their idols; and I will move them to jealousy with that which is
not a nation, I will provoke them to anger with a foolish people. For a fire
is kindled from Mine anger, and it shall burn to Hades. It shall consume the
earth and her increase, and set on fire the foundations of the mountains; I
will heap mischief on them.  And after that Righteous One was put to
death, we flourished as another people, and shot forth as new and prosperous
corn; as the prophets said, "And many nations shall betake themselves to the
Lord in that day for a people: and they shall dwell in the midst of all the
earth.  But we are not only a people, but also a holy people, as we
have shown already.  "And they shall call them the holy people,
redeemed by the Lord.  Therefore we are not a people to be despised,
nor a barbarous race, nor such as the Carian and Phrygian nations; but God
has even chosen us and He has become manifest to those who asked not after
Him. "Behold, I am God, He says, "to the nation which called not on My
name.  For this is that nation which God of old promised to Abraham,
when He declared that He would make him a father of many nations; not
meaning, however, the Arabians, or Egyptians, or Idumæans, since Ishmael
became the father of a mighty nation, and so did Esau; and there is now a
great multitude of Ammonites. Noah, moreover, was the father of Abraham, and
in fact of all men; and others were the progenitors of others. What larger
measure of grace, then, did Christ bestow on Abraham? This, namely, that He
called him with His voice by the like calling, telling him to quit the land
wherein he dwelt. And He has called all of us by that voice, and we have
left already the way of living in which we used to spend our days, passing
our time in evil after the fashions of the other inhabitants of the earth;
and along with Abraham we shall inherit the holy land, when we shall receive
the inheritance for an endless eternity, being children of Abraham through
the like faith. For as he believed the voice of God, and it was imputed to
him for righteousness, in like manner we having believed God's voice spoken
by the apostles of Christ, and promulgated to us by the prophets, have
renounced even to death all the things of the world. Accordingly, He
promises to him a nation of similar faith, God-fearing, righteous, and
delighting the Father; but it is not you, "in whom is no faith.
 Literally, "in the time of Moses."
 Deut. xxxii. 16-23.
 Zech. ii. 11.
 See chap. cx.
 Isa. lxii. 12.
 Isa. lxv. 1.
Chapter CXX. Christians were promised to Isaac, Jacob, and Judah.
"Observe, too, how the same promises are made to Isaac and to Jacob. For
thus He speaks to Isaac: "And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth
be blessed.  And to Jacob: "And in thee and in thy seed shall all
families of the earth be blessed.  He says that neither to Esau nor
to Reuben, nor to any other; only to those of whom the Christ should arise,
according to the dispensation, through the Virgin Mary. But if you would
consider the blessing of Judah, you would perceive what I say. For the seed
is divided from Jacob, and comes down through Judah, and Phares, and Jesse,
and David. And this was a symbol of the fact that some of your nation would
be found children of Abraham, and found, too, in the lot of Christ; but that
others, who are indeed children of Abraham, would be like the sand on the
sea-shore, barren and fruitless, much in quantity, and without number
indeed, but bearing no fruit whatever, and only drinking the water of the
sea. And a vast multitude in your nation are convicted of being of this
kind, imbibing doctrines of bitterness and godlessness, but spurning the
word of God. He speaks therefore in the passage relating to Judah: "A prince
shall not fail from Judah, nor a ruler from his thighs, till that which is
laid up for him come; and He shall be the expectation of the nations.
 And it is plain that this was spoken not of Judah, but of Christ. For
all we out of all nations do expect not Judah, but Jesus, who led your
fathers out of Egypt. For the prophecy referred even to the advent of
Christ: "Till He come for whom this is laid up, and He shall be the
expectation of nations. Jesus came, therefore, as we have shown at length,
and is expected again to appear above the clouds; whose name you profane,
and labour hard to get it profaned over all the earth. It were possible for
me, sirs," I continued, "to contend against you about the reading which you
so interpret, saying it is written, "Till the things laid up for Him
come; though the Seventy have not so explained it, but thus, "Till He comes
for whom this is laid up. But since what follows indicates that the
reference is to Christ (for it is, "and He shall be the expectation of
nations ), I do not proceed to have a mere verbal controversy with you, as I
have not attempted to establish proof about Christ from the passages of
Scripture which are not admitted by you  which I quoted from the words
of Jeremiah the prophet, and Esdras, and David; but from those which are
even now admitted by you, which had your teachers comprehended, be well
assured they would have deleted them, as they did those about the death of
Isaiah, whom you sawed asunder with a wooden saw. And this was a mysterious
type of Christ being about to cut your nation in two, and to raise those
worthy of the honour to the everlasting kingdom along with the holy
patriarchs and prophets; but He has said that He will send others to the
condemnation of the unquenchable fire along with similar disobedient and
impenitent men from all the nations. "For they shall come, He said, "from
the west and from the east, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and
Jacob in the kingdom of heaven; but the children of the kingdom shall be
cast out into outer darkness.  And I have mentioned these things,
taking nothing whatever into consideration, except the speaking of the
truth, and refusing to be coerced by any one, even though I should be
forthwith torn in pieces by you. For I gave no thought to any of my people,
that is, the Samaritans, when I had a communication in writing with Cæsar,
 but stated that they were wrong in trusting to the magician Simon of
their own nation, who, they say, is God above all power, and authority, and
 Gen. xxvi. 4.
 Gen. xxviii. 14.
 Gen. xlix. 10.
 [Note this important point. He forbears to cite the New Testament.]
 Matt. viii. 11 f.
 The Apology, i. chap. xxvi.; ii. chap. xv.
Chapter CXXI. From the fact that the Gentiles believe in Jesus, it is evident
that He is Christ.
And as they kept silence, I went on: "[The Scripture], speaking by David
about this Christ, my friends, said no longer that "in His seed the nations
should be blessed, but "in Him. So it is here: "His name shall rise up for
ever above the sun; and in Him shall all nations be blessed.  But if
all nations are blessed in Christ, and we of all nations believe in Him,
then He is indeed the Christ, and we are those blessed by Him. God formerly
gave the sun as an object of worship,  as it is written, but no one
ever was seen to endure death on account of his faith in the sun; but for
the name of Jesus you may see men of every nation who have endured and do
endure all sufferings, rather than deny Him. For the word of His truth and
wisdom is more ardent and more light-giving than the rays of the sun, and
sinks down into the depths of heart and mind. Hence also the Scripture said,
"His name shall rise up above the sun. And again, Zechariah says, "His name
is the East.  And speaking of the same, he says that "each tribe
shall mourn.  But if He so shone forth and was so mighty in His first
advent (which was without honour and comeliness, and very contemptible),
that in no nation He is unknown, and everywhere men have repented of the old
wickedness in each nation's way of living, so that even demons were subject
to His name, and all powers and kingdoms feared His name more than they
feared all the dead, shall He not on His glorious advent destroy by all
means all those who hated Him, and who unrighteously departed from Him, but
give rest to His own, rewarding them with all they have looked for? To us,
therefore, it has been granted to hear, and to understand, and to be saved
by this Christ, and to recognise all the [truths revealed] by the Father.
Wherefore He said to Him: "It is a great thing for Thee to be called my
servant, to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and turn again the dispersed of
Israel. I have appointed Thee for a light to the Gentiles, that Thou mayest
be their salvation unto the end of the earth. 
 Ps. lxxii. 17.
 So Justin concludes from Deut. iv. 19; comp. chap. lv. [The
explanation is not very difficult (see Rom. i. 28), but the language of
Justin is unguarded.]
 Zech. vi. 12.
 Zech. xii. 12.
 Isa. xlix. 6.
Chapter CXXII. The Jews understand this of the proselytes without reason.
"You think that these words refer to the stranger  and the proselytes,
but in fact they refer to us who have been illumined by Jesus. For Christ
would have borne witness even to them; but now you are become twofold more
the children of hell, as He said Himself.  Therefore what was written
by the prophets was spoken not of those persons, but of us, concerning whom
the Scripture speaks: "I will lead the blind by a way which they knew not;
and they shall walk in paths which they have not known. And I am witness,
saith the Lord God, and my servant whom I have chosen.  To whom,
then, does Christ bear witness? Manifestly to those who have believed. But
the proselytes not only do not believe, but twofold more than yourselves
blaspheme His name, and wish to torture and put to death us who believe in
Him; for in all points they strive to be like you. And again in other words
He cries: "I the Lord have called Thee in righteousness, and will hold Thine
hand, and will strengthen Thee, and will give Thee for a covenant of the
people, for a light of the Gentiles, to open the eyes of the blind, to bring
out the prisoners from their bonds.  These words, indeed, sirs, refer
also to Christ, and concern the enlightened nations; or will you say again,
He speaks to them of the law and the proselytes?"
Then some of those who had come on the second day cried out as if they had
been in a theatre, "But what? does He not refer to the law, and to those
illumined by it? Now these are proselytes."
"No," I said, looking towards Trypho, "since, if the law were able to
enlighten the nations and those who possess it, what need is there of a new
covenant? But since God announced beforehand that He would send a new
covenant, and an everlasting law and commandment, we will not understand
this of the old law and its proselytes, but of Christ and His proselytes,
namely us Gentiles, whom He has illumined, as He says somewhere: "Thus saith
the Lord, In an acceptable time have I heard Thee, and in a day of salvation
have I helped Thee, and I have given Thee for a covenant of the people, to
establish the earth, and to inherit the deserted.  What, then, is
Christ's inheritance? Is it not the nations? What is the covenant of God? Is
it not Christ? As He says in another place: "Thou art my Son; this day have
I begotten Thee. Ask of Me, and I shall give Thee the nations for Thine
inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for Thy possession.
 Gēora or Geiora. Found in LXX., Ex. xii. 19 and Isa. xiv. 1.
 Matt. xxiii. 15.
 Isa. xlii. 16, Isa. xliii. 10.
 Isa. xlii. 6.
 Isa. xlix. 8.
 Ps. ii. 7 f.
Chapter CXXIII. Ridiculous interpretations of the Jews. Christians are the
"As, therefore, all these latter prophecies refer to Christ and the nations,
you should believe that the former refer to Him and them in like manner. For
the proselytes have no need of a covenant, if, since there is one and the
same law imposed on all that are circumcised, the Scripture speaks about
them thus: "And the stranger shall also be joined with them, and shall be
joined to the house of Jacob;  and because the proselyte, who is
circumcised that he may have access to the people, becomes like one of
themselves,  while we who have been deemed worthy to be called a
people are yet Gentiles, because we have not been circumcised. Besides, it
is ridiculous for you to imagine that the eyes of the proselytes are to be
opened while your own are not, and that you be understood as blind and deaf
while they are enlightened. And it will be still more ridiculous for you, if
you say that the law has been given to the nations, but you have not known
it. For you would have stood in awe of God's wrath, and would not have been
lawless, wandering sons; being much afraid of hearing God always say,
"Children in whom is no faith. And who are blind, but my servants? and deaf,
but they that rule over them? And the servants of God have been made blind.
You see often, but have not observed; your ears have been opened, and you
have not heard.  Is God's commendation of you honourable? and is
God's testimony seemly for His servants? You are not ashamed though you
often hear these words. You do not tremble at God's threats, for you are a
people foolish and hard-hearted. "Therefore, behold, I will proceed to
remove this people, saith the Lord; "and I will remove them, and destroy
the wisdom of the wise, and hide the understanding of the prudent. 
Deservedly too: for you are neither wise nor prudent, but crafty and
unscrupulous; wise only to do evil, but utterly incompetent to know the
hidden counsel of God, or the faithful covenant of the Lord, or to find out
the everlasting paths. "Therefore, saith the Lord, I will raise up to Israel
and to Judah the seed of men and the seed of beasts.  And by Isaiah
He speaks thus concerning another Israel: "In that day shall there be a
third Israel among the Assyrians and the Egyptians, blessed in the land
which the Lord of Sabaoth hath blessed, saying, blessed shall my people in
Egypt and in Assyria be, and Israel mine inheritance.  Since then God
blesses this people, and calls them Israel, and declares them to be His
inheritance, how is it that you repent not of the deception you practise on
yourselves, as if you alone were the Israel, and of execrating the people
whom God has blessed? For when He speaks to Jerusalem and its environs, He
thus added: "And I will beget men upon you, even my people Israel; and they
shall inherit you, and you shall be a possession for them; and you shall be
no longer bereaved of them. " 
"What, then?" says Trypho; "are you Israel? and speaks He such things of
"If, indeed," I replied to him, "we had not entered into a lengthy 
discussion on these topics, I might have doubted whether you ask this
question in ignorance; but since we have brought the matter to a conclusion
by demonstration and with your assent, I do not believe that you are
ignorant of what I have just said, or desire again mere contention, but that
you are urging me to exhibit the same proof to these men." And in compliance
with the assent expressed in his eyes, I continued: "Again in Isaiah, if you
have ears to hear it, God, speaking of Christ in parable, calls Him Jacob
and Israel. He speaks thus: "Jacob is my servant, I will uphold Him; Israel
is mine elect, I will put my Spirit upon Him, and He shall bring forth
judgment to the Gentiles. He shall not strive, nor cry, neither shall any
one hear His voice in the street: a bruised reed He shall not break, and
smoking flax He shall not quench; but He shall bring forth judgment to
truth: He shall shine,  and shall not be broken till He have set
judgment on the earth. And in His name shall the Gentiles trust.  As
therefore from the one man Jacob, who was surnamed Israel, all your nation
has been called Jacob and Israel; so we from Christ, who begat us unto God,
like Jacob, and Israel, and Judah, and Joseph, and David, are called and are
the true sons of God, and keep the commandments of Christ."
 Isa. xiv. 1.
 Literally, "a native of the land."
 Deut. xxxii. 20; Isa. xlii. 19 f.
 Isa. xxix. 14.
 Jer. xxxi. 27.
 Isa. xix. 24 f.
 Ezek. xxxvi. 12.
 [I cannot forbear to note this "Americanism" in the text.]
 LXX. analampsei, as above. The reading of the text is analēpsei.
 Isa. xlii. 1-4.
Chapter CXXIV. Christians are the sons of God.
And when I saw that they were perturbed because I said that we are the sons
of God, I anticipated their questioning, and said, "Listen, sirs, how the
Holy Ghost speaks of this people, saying that they are all sons of the
Highest; and how this very Christ will be present in their assembly,
rendering judgment to all men. The words are spoken by David, and are,
according to your version of them, thus: "God standeth in the congregation
of gods; He judgeth among the gods. How long do ye judge unjustly, and
accept the persons of the wicked? Judge for the orphan and the poor, and do
justice to the humble and needy. Deliver the needy, and save the poor out of
the hand of the wicked. They know not, neither have they understood; they
walk on in darkness: all the foundations of the earth shall be shaken. I
said, Ye are gods, and are all children of the Most High. But ye die like
men, and fall like one of the princes. Arise, O God! judge the earth, for
Thou shalt inherit all nations.  But in the version of the Seventy it
is written, "Behold, ye die like men, and fall like one of the princes,
 in order to manifest the disobedience of men, I mean of Adam and
Eve, and the fall of one of the princes, i.e., of him who was called the
serpent, who fell with a great overthrow, because he deceived Eve. But as my
discourse is not intended to touch on this point, but to prove to you that
the Holy Ghost reproaches men because they were made like God, free from
suffering and death, provided that they kept His commandments, and were
deemed deserving of the name of His sons, and yet they, becoming like Adam
and Eve, work out death for themselves; let the interpretation of the Psalm
be held just as you wish, yet thereby it is demonstrated that all men are
deemed worthy of becoming "gods," and of having power to become sons of the
Highest; and shall be each by himself judged and condemned like Adam and
Eve. Now I have proved at length that Christ is called God.
 Ps. lxxxii.
 In the text there is certainly no distinction given. But if we read
"as a man," in the first quotation we shall be
able to follow Justin's argument.
Chapter CXXV. He explains what force the word Israel has, and how it suits
"I wish, sirs," I said, "to learn from you what is the force of the name
Israel." And as they were silent, I continued: "I shall tell you what I
know: for I do not think it right, when I know, not to speak; or, suspecting
that you do know, and yet from envy or from voluntary ignorance deceive
yourselves,  to be continually solicitous; but I speak all things
simply and candidly, as my Lord said: "A sower went forth to sow the seed;
and some fell by the wayside; and some among thorns, and some on stony
ground, and some on good ground.  I must speak, then, in the hope of
finding good ground somewhere; since that Lord of mine, as One strong and
powerful, comes to demand back His own from all, and will not condemn His
steward if He recognises that he, by the knowledge that the Lord is powerful
and has come to demand His own, has given it to every bank, and has not
digged for any cause whatsoever. Accordingly the name Israel signifies this,
A man who overcomes power; for Isra is a man overcoming, and El is power.
 And that Christ would act so when He became man was foretold by the
mystery of Jacob's wrestling with Him who appeared to him, in that He
ministered to the will of the Father, yet nevertheless is God, in that He is
the first-begotten of all creatures. For when He became man, as I previously
remarked, the devil came to Him i.e., that power which is called the serpent
and Satan tempting Him, and striving to effect His downfall by asking Him to
worship him. But He destroyed and overthrew the devil, having proved him to
be wicked, in that he asked to be worshipped as God, contrary to the
Scripture; who is an apostate from the will of God. For He answers him, "It
is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shall thou
serve.  Then, overcome and convicted, the devil departed at that
time. But since our Christ was to be numbed, i.e., by pain and experience of
suffering, He made a previous intimation of this by touching Jacob's thigh,
and causing it to shrink. But Israel was His name from the beginning, to
which He altered the name of the blessed Jacob when He blessed him with His
own name, proclaiming thereby that all who through Him have fled for refuge
to the Father, constitute the blessed Israel. But you, having understood
none of this, and not being prepared to understand, since you are the
children of Jacob after the fleshly seed, expect that you shall be assuredly
saved. But that you deceive yourselves in such matters, I have proved by
 The reading here is epistamai autos, which is generally abandoned for
 Matt. xiii. 3.
 [On Justin's Hebrew, see Kaye, p. 19.]
 Matt. iv. 10.
Chapter CXXVI. The various names of Christ according to both natures. It is
shown that He is God, and appeared to the patriarchs.
"But if you knew, Trypho," continued I, "who He is that is called at one
time the Angel of great counsel,  and a Man by Ezekiel, and like the
Son of man by Daniel, and a Child by Isaiah, and Christ and God to be
worshipped by David, and Christ and a Stone by many, and Wisdom by Solomon,
and Joseph and Judah and a Star by Moses, and the East by Zechariah, and the
Suffering One and Jacob and Israel by Isaiah again, and a Rod, and Flower,
and Corner-Stone, and Son of God, you would not have blasphemed Him who has
now come, and been born, and suffered, and ascended to heaven; who shall
also come again, and then your twelve tribes shall mourn. For if you had
understood what has been written by the prophets, you would not have denied
that He was God, Son of the only, unbegotten, unutterable God. For Moses
says somewhere in Exodus the following: "The Lord spoke to Moses, and said
to him, I am the Lord, and I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob,
being their God; and my name I revealed not to them, and I established my
covenant with them.  And thus again he says, "A man wrestled with
Jacob,  and asserts it was God; narrating that Jacob said, "I have
seen God face to face, and my life is preserved. And it is recorded that he
called the place where He wrestled with him, appeared to and blessed him,
the Face of God (Peniel). And Moses says that God appeared also to Abraham
near the oak in Mamre, when he was sitting at the door of his tent at
mid-day. Then he goes on to say: "And he lifted up his eyes and looked, and,
behold, three men stood before him; and when he saw them, he ran to meet
them.  After a little, one of them promises a son to Abraham:
"Wherefore did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I of a surety bear a child, and I
am old? Is anything impossible with God? At the time appointed I will
return, according to the time of life, and Sarah shall have a son. And they
went away from Abraham.  Again he speaks of them thus: "And the men
rose up from thence, and looked toward Sodom.  Then to Abraham He who
was and is again speaks: "I will not hide from Abraham, my servant, what I
intend to do. "  And what follows in the writings of Moses I quoted
and explained; "from which I have demonstrated," I said, "that He who is
described as God appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, and the other
patriarchs, was appointed under the authority of the Father and Lord, and
ministers to His will." Then I went on to say what I had not said before:
"And so, when the people desired to eat flesh, and Moses had lost faith in
Him, who also there is called the Angel, and who promised that God would
give them to satiety, He who is both God and the Angel, sent by the Father,
is described as saying and doing these things. For thus the Scripture says:
"And the Lord said to Moses, Will the Lord's hand not be sufficient? thou
shall know now whether my word shall conceal thee or not.  And again,
in other words, it thus says: "But the Lord spoke unto me, Thou shalt not go
over this Jordan: the Lord thy God, who goeth before thy face, He shall cut
off the nations. 
 [By Isaiah. "Counsellor" in English version.]
 Ex. vi. 2 ff.
 Gen. xxxii. 24, 30.
 Gen. xviii. 2.
 Gen. xviii. 13 f.
 Gen. xviii. 16.
 Gen. xviii. 17.
 Num. xi. 23.
 Deut. xxxi. 2 f.
Chapter CXXVII. These passages of Scripture do not apply to the Father, but
to the Word.
"These and other such sayings are recorded by the lawgiver and by the
prophets; and I suppose that I have stated sufficiently, that wherever
 God says, "God went up from Abraham,  or, "The Lord spake to
Moses,  and "The Lord came down to behold the tower which the sons of
men had built,  or when "God shut Noah into the ark,  you must
not imagine that the unbegotten God Himself came down or went up from any
place. For the ineffable Father and Lord of all neither has come to any
place, nor walks, nor sleeps, nor rises up, but remains in His own place,
wherever that is, quick to behold and quick to hear, having neither eyes nor
ears, but being of indescribable might; and He sees all things, and knows
all things, and none of us escapes His observation; and He is not moved or
confined to a spot in the whole world, for He existed before the world was
made. How, then, could He talk with any one, or be seen by any one, or
appear on the smallest portion of the earth, when the people at Sinai were
not able to look even on the glory of Him who was sent from Him; and Moses
himself could not enter into the tabernacle which he had erected, when it
was filled with the glory of God; and the priest could not endure to stand
before the temple when Solomon conveyed the ark into the house in Jerusalem
which he had built for it? Therefore neither Abraham, nor Isaac, nor Jacob,
nor any other man, saw the Father and ineffable Lord of all, and also of
Christ, but [saw] Him who was according to His will His Son, being God, and
the Angel because He ministered to His will; whom also it pleased Him to be
born man by the Virgin; who also was fire when He conversed with Moses from
the bush. Since, unless we thus comprehend the Scriptures, it must follow
that the Father and Lord of all had not been in heaven when what Moses wrote
took place: "And the Lord rained upon Sodom fire and brimstone from the Lord
out of heaven;  and again, when it is thus said by David: "Lift up
your gates, ye rulers; and be ye lift up, ye everlasting gates; and the King
of glory shall enter;  and again, when He says: "The Lord says to my
Lord, Sit at My right hand, till I make Thine enemies Thy footstool. 
 hotau pon instead of hotan mou.
 Gen. xviii. 22.
 Ex. vi. 29.
 Gen. xi. 5.
 Gen. vii. 16.
 Gen. xix. 24.
 Ps. xxiv. 7.
 Ps. cx. 1.
Chapter CXXVIII. The Word is sent not as an inanimate power, but as a person
begotten of the Father's substance.
"And that Christ being Lord, and God the Son of God, and appearing formerly
in power as Man, and Angel, and in the glory of fire as at the bush, so also
was manifested at the judgment executed on Sodom, has been demonstrated
fully by what has been said." Then I repeated once more all that I had
previously quoted from Exodus, about the vision in the bush, and the naming
of Joshua (Jesus), and continued: "And do not suppose, sirs, that I am
speaking superfluously when I repeat these words frequently: but it is
because I know that some wish to anticipate these remarks, and to say that
the power sent from the Father of all which appeared to Moses, or to
Abraham, or to Jacob, is called an Angel because He came to men (for by Him
the commands of the Father have been proclaimed to men); is called Glory,
because He appears in a vision sometimes that cannot be borne; is called a
Man, and a human being, because He appears arrayed in such forms as the
Father pleases; and they call Him the Word, because He carries tidings from
the Father to men: but maintain that this power is indivisible and
inseparable from the Father, just as they say that the light of the sun on
earth is indivisible and inseparable from the sun in the heavens; as when it
sinks, the light sinks along with it; so the Father, when He chooses, say
they, causes His power to spring forth, and when He chooses, He makes it
return to Himself. In this way, they teach, He made the angels. But it is
proved that there are angels who always exist, and are never reduced to that
form out of which they sprang. And that this power which the prophetic word
calls God, as has been also amply demonstrated, and Angel, is not numbered
[as different] in name only like the light of the sun but is indeed
something numerically distinct, I have discussed briefly in what has gone
before; when I asserted that this power was begotten from the Father, by His
power and will, but not by abscission, as if the essence of the Father were
divided; as all other things partitioned and divided are not the same after
as before they were divided: and, for the sake of example, I took the case
of fires kindled from a fire, which we see to be distinct from it, and yet
that from which many can be kindled is by no means made less, but remains
Chapter CXXIX. That is confirmed from other passages of Scripture.
"And now I shall again recite the words which I have spoken in proof of this
point. When Scripture says, "The Lord rained fire from the Lord out of
heaven, the prophetic word indicates that there were two in number: One
upon the earth, who, it says, descended to behold the cry of Sodom; Another
in heaven, who also is Lord of the Lord on earth, as He is Father and God;
the cause of His power and of His being Lord and God. Again, when the
Scripture records that God said in the beginning, "Behold, Adam has become
like one of Us,  this phrase, "like one of Us, is also indicative of
number; and the words do not admit of a figurative meaning, as the sophists
endeavour to affix on them, who are able neither to tell nor to understand
the truth. And it is written in the book of Wisdom: "If I should tell you
daily events, I would be mindful to enumerate them from the beginning. The
Lord created me the beginning of His ways for His works. From everlasting He
established me in the beginning, before He formed the earth, and before He
made the depths, and before the springs of waters came forth, before the
mountains were settled; He begets me before all the hills. "  When I
repeated these words, I added: "You perceive, my hearers, if you bestow
attention, that the Scripture has declared that this Offspring was begotten
by the Father before all things created; and that which is begotten is
numerically distinct from that which begets, any one will admit."
 Gen. iii. 22.
 Prov. viii. 22 ff.
Chapter CXXX. He returns to the conversion of the Gentiles, and shows that it
And when all had given assent, I said: "I would now adduce some passages
which I had not recounted before. They are recorded by the faithful servant
Moses in parable, and are as follows: "Rejoice, O ye heavens, with Him, and
let all the angels of God worship Him; "  and I added what follows of
the passage: "Rejoice, O ye nations, with His people, and let all the
angels of God be strengthened in Him: for the blood of His sons He avenges,
and will avenge, and will recompense His enemies with vengeance, and will
recompense those that hate Him; and the Lord will purify the land of His
people. And by these words He declares that we, the nations, rejoice with
His people, to wit, Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the prophets, and,
in short, all of that people who are well-pleasing to God, according to what
has been already agreed on between us. But we will not receive it of all
your nation; since we know from Isaiah  that the members of those who
have transgressed shall be consumed by the worm and unquenchable fire,
remaining immortal; so that they become a spectacle to all flesh. But in
addition to these, I wish, sirs," said I, "to add some other passages from
the very words of Moses, from which you may understand that God has from of
old dispersed all men according to their kindreds and tongues; and out of
all kindreds has taken to Himself your kindred, a useless, disobedient, and
faithless generation; and has shown that those who were selected out of
every nation have obeyed His will through Christ, whom He calls also Jacob,
and names Israel, and these, then, as I mentioned fully previously, must be
Jacob and Israel. For when He says, "Rejoice, O ye nations, with His
people, He allots the same inheritance to them, and does not call them by
the same name;  but when He says that they as Gentiles rejoice with
His people, He calls them Gentiles to reproach you. For even as you provoked
Him to anger by your idolatry, so also He has deemed those who were
idolaters worthy of knowing His will, and of inheriting His inheritance.
 Deut. xxxii. 43.
 Isa. lxvi. 24.
 The reading is, "and calls them by the same name." But the whole
argument shows that the Jews and Gentiles are distinguished by name. [But
that Gentiles are also called (Israel) by the same name is the point here.]
Chapter CXXXI. How much more faithful to God the Gentiles are who are
converted to Christ than the Jews.
"But I shall quote the passage by which it is made known that God divided
all the nations. It is as follows: "Ask thy father, and he will show thee;
thine elders, and they will tell thee; when the Most High divided the
nations, as He dispersed the sons of Adam. He set the bounds of the nations
according to the numbers of the children of Israel; and the Lord's portion
became His people Jacob, and Israel was the lot of His inheritance. "
 And having said this, I added: "The Seventy have translated it, "He
set the bounds of the nations according to the number of the angels of
God. But because my argument is again in nowise weakened by this, I have
adopted your exposition. And you yourselves, if you will confess the truth,
must acknowledge that we, who have been called by God through the despised
and shameful mystery of the cross (for the confession of which, and
obedience to which, and for our piety, punishments even to death have been
inflicted on us by demons, and by the host of the devil, through the aid
ministered to them by you), and endure all torments rather than deny Christ
even by word, through whom we are called to the salvation prepared
beforehand by the Father, are more faithful to God than you, who were
redeemed from Egypt with a high hand and a visitation of great glory, when
the sea was parted for you, and a passage left dry, in which [God] slew
those who pursued you with a very great equipment, and splendid chariots,
bringing back upon them the sea which had been made a way for your sakes; on
whom also a pillar of light shone, in order that you, more than any other
nation in the world, might possess a peculiar light, never-failing and
never-setting; for whom He rained manna as nourishment, fit for the heavenly
angels, in order that you might have no need to prepare your food; and the
water at Marah was made sweet; and a sign of Him that was to be crucified
was made, both in the matter of the serpents which bit you, as I already
mentioned (God anticipating before the proper times these mysteries, in
order to confer grace upon you, to whom you are always convicted of being
thankless), as well as in the type of the extending of the hands of Moses,
and of Oshea being named Jesus (Joshua); when you fought against Amalek:
concerning which God enjoined that the incident be recorded, and the name of
Jesus laid up in your understandings; saying that this is He who would blot
out the memorial of Amalek from under heaven. Now it is clear that the
memorial of Amalek remained after the son of Nave (Nun): but He makes it
manifest through Jesus, who was crucified, of whom also those symbols were
fore-announcements of all that would happen to Him, the demons would be
destroyed, and would dread His name, and that all principalities and
kingdoms would fear Him; and that they who believe in Him out of all nations
would be shown as God-fearing and peaceful men; and the facts already quoted
by me, Trypho, indicate this. Again, when you desired flesh, so vast a
quantity of quails was given you, that they could not be told; for whom also
water gushed from the rock; and a cloud followed you for a shade from heat,
and covering from cold, declaring the manner and signification of another
and new heaven; the latchets of your shoes did not break, and your shoes
waxed not old, and your garments wore not away, but even those of the
children grew along with them.
 Deut. xxxii. 7 ff.
Chapter CXXXII. How great the power was of the name of Jesus in the Old
"Yet after this you made a calf, and were very zealous in committing
fornication with the daughters of strangers, and in serving idols. And
again, when the land was given up to you with so great a display of power,
that you witnessed  the sun stand still in the heavens by the order of
that man whose name was Jesus (Joshua), and not go down for thirty-six
hours, as well as all the other miracles which were wrought for you as time
served;  and of these it seems good to me now to speak of another, for
it conduces to your hereby knowing Jesus, whom we also know to have been
Christ the Son of God, who was crucified, and rose again, and ascended to
heaven, and will come again to judge all men, even up to Adam himself. You
are aware, then," I continued, "that when the ark of the testimony was
seized by the enemies of Ashdod,  and a terrible and incurable malady
had broken out among them, they resolved to place it on a cart to which they
yoked cows that had recently calved, for the purpose of ascertaining by
trial whether or not they had been plagued by God's power on account of the
ark, and if God wished it to be taken back to the place from which it had
been carried away. And when they had done this, the cows, led by no man,
went not to the place whence the ark had been taken, but to the fields of a
certain man whose name was Oshea, the same as his whose name was altered to
Jesus (Joshua), as has been previously mentioned, who also led the people
into the land and meted it out to them: and when the cows had come into
these fields they remained there, showing to you thereby that they were
guided by the name of power;  just as formerly the people who survived
of those that came out of Egypt, were guided into the land by him who had
received the name Jesus (Joshua), who before was called Oshea.
 [Another Americanism. Greek, theasasthai.]
 The anacoluthon is in the original.
 See 1 Sam. v.
 Or, "by the power of the name." [1 Sam. vi. 14. Joshua in English
Chapter CXXXIII. The hard-heartedness of the Jews, for whom the Christians
"Now, although these and all other such unexpected and marvellous works were
wrought amongst and seen by you at different times, yet you are convicted by
the prophets of having gone to such a length as offering your own children
to demons; and besides all this, of having dared to do such things against
Christ; and you still dare to do them: for all which may it be granted to
you to obtain mercy and salvation from God and His Christ. For God, knowing
before that you would do such things, pronounced this curse upon you by the
prophet Isaiah: "Woe unto their soul! they have devised evil counsel against
themselves, saying, Let us bind the righteous man, for he is distasteful to
us. Therefore they shall eat the fruit of their own doings. Woe to the
wicked! evil, according to the works of his hands, shall befall him. O my
people, your exactors glean you, and those who extort from you shall rule
over you. O my people, they who call you blessed cause you to err, and
disorder the way of your paths. But now the Lord shall assist His people to
judgment, and He shall enter into judgment with the elders of the people and
the princes thereof. But why have you burnt up my vineyard? and why is the
spoil of the poor found in your houses? Why do you wrong my people, and put
to shame the countenance of the humble?  Again, in other words, the
same prophet spake to the same effect: "Woe unto them that draw their
iniquity as with a long cord, and their transgressions as with the harness
of an heifer's yoke: who say, Let His speed come near, and let the counsel
of the Holy One of Israel come, that we may know it. Woe unto them that call
evil good, and good evil! that put light for darkness, and darkness for
light! that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter! Woe unto them that
are wise in their own eyes, and prudent in their own sight! Woe unto those
that are mighty among you, who drink wine, who are men of strength, who
mingle strong drink! who justify the wicked for a reward, and take away
justice from the righteous! Therefore, as the stubble shall be burnt by the
coal of fire, and utterly consumed by the burning flame, their root shall be
as wool, and their flower shall go up like dust. For they would not have the
law of the Lord of Sabaoth, but despised  the word of the Lord, the
Holy One of Israel. And the Lord of Sabaoth was very angry, and laid His
hands upon them, and smote them; and He was provoked against the mountains,
and their carcases were in the midst like dung on the road. And for all this
they have not repented,  but their hand is still high.  For
verily your hand is high to commit evil, because ye slew the Christ, and do
not repent of it; but so far from that, ye hate and murder us who have
believed through Him in the God and Father of all, as often as ye can; and
ye curse Him without ceasing, as well as those who side with Him; while all
of us pray for you, and for all men, as our Christ and Lord taught us to do,
when He enjoined us to pray even for our enemies, and to love them that hate
us, and to bless them that curse us.
 Isa. iii. 9-15.
 Literally, "provoked."
 Literally, "turned away."
 Isa. v. 18-25.
Chapter CXXXIV. The marriages of Jacob are a figure of the Church.
"If, then, the teaching of the prophets and of Himself moves you, it is
better for you to follow God than your imprudent and blind masters, who even
till this time permit each man to have four or five wives; and if any one
see a beautiful woman and desire to have her, they quote the doings of Jacob
[called] Israel, and of the other patriarchs, and maintain that it is not
wrong to do such things; for they are miserably ignorant in this matter.
For, as I before said, certain dispensations of weighty mysteries were
accomplished in each act of this sort. For in the marriages of Jacob I shall
mention what dispensation and prophecy were accomplished, in order that you
may thereby know that your teachers never looked at the divine motive which
prompted each act, but only at the grovelling and corrupting passions.
Attend therefore to what I say. The marriages of Jacob were types of that
which Christ was about to accomplish. For it was not lawful for Jacob to
marry two sisters at once. And he serves Laban for [one of] the daughters;
and being deceived in [the obtaining of] the younger, he again served seven
years. Now Leah is your people and synagogue; but Rachel is our Church. And
for these, and for the servants in both, Christ even now serves. For while
Noah gave to the two sons the seed of the third as servants, now on the
other hand Christ has come to restore both the free sons and the servants
amongst them, conferring the same honour on all of them who keep His
commandments; even as the children of the free women and the children of the
bond women born to Jacob were all sons, and equal in dignity. And it was
foretold what each should be according to rank and according to
fore-knowledge. Jacob served Laban for speckled and many-spotted sheep; and
Christ served, even to the slavery of the cross, for the various and
many-formed races of mankind, acquiring them by the blood and mystery of the
cross. Leah was weak-eyed; for the eyes of your souls are excessively weak.
Rachel stole the gods of Laban, and has hid them to this day; and we have
lost our paternal and material gods. Jacob was hated for all time by his
brother; and we now, and our Lord Himself, are hated by you and by all men,
though we are brothers by nature. Jacob was called Israel; and Israel has
been demonstrated to be the Christ, who is, and is called, Jesus.
Chapter CXXXV. Christ is king of Israel, and Christians are the Israelitic
"And when Scripture says, "I am the Lord God, the Holy One of Israel, who
have made known Israel your King,  will you not understand that truly
Christ is the everlasting King? For you are aware that Jacob the son of
Isaac was never a king. And therefore Scripture again, explaining to us,
says what king is meant by Jacob and Israel: "Jacob is my Servant, I will
uphold Him; and Israel is mine Elect, my soul shall receive Him. I have
given Him my Spirit; and He shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles. He
shall not cry, and His voice shall not be heard without. The bruised reed He
shall not break, and the smoking flax He shall not quench, until He shall
bring forth judgment to victory. He shall shine, and shall not be broken,
until He set judgment on the earth. And in His name shall the Gentiles
trust.  Then is it Jacob the patriarch in whom the Gentiles and
yourselves shall trust? or is it not Christ? As, therefore, Christ is the
Israel and the Jacob, even so we, who have been quarried out from the bowels
of Christ, are the true Israelitic race. But let us attend rather to the
very word: "And I will bring forth, He says, "the seed out of Jacob, and
out of Judah: and it shall inherit My holy mountain; and Mine Elect and My
servants shall possess the inheritance, and shall dwell there; and there
shall be folds of flocks in the thicket, and the valley of Achor shall be a
resting-place of cattle for the people who have sought Me. But as for you,
who forsake Me, and forget My holy mountain, and prepare a table for demons,
and fill out drink for the demon, I shall give you to the sword. You shall
all fall with a slaughter; for I called you, and you hearkened not, and did
evil before me, and did choose that wherein I delighted not.  Such
are the words of Scripture; understand, therefore, that the seed of Jacob
now referred to is something else, and not, as may be supposed, spoken of
your people. For it is not possible for the seed of Jacob to leave an
entrance for the descendants of Jacob, or for [God] to have accepted the
very same persons whom He had reproached with unfitness for the inheritance,
and promise it to them again; but as there the prophet says, "And now, O
house of Jacob, come and let us walk in the light of the Lord; for He has
sent away His people, the house of Jacob, because their land was full, as at
the first, of soothsayers and divinations;  even so it is necessary
for us here to observe that there are two seeds of Judah, and two races, as
there are two houses of Jacob: the one begotten by blood and flesh, the
other by faith and the Spirit.
 Isa. xliii. 15.
 Isa. xlii. 1-4.
 Isa. lxv. 9-12.
 Isa. ii. 5 f.
Chapter CXXXVI. The Jews, in rejecting Christ, rejected God who sent him.
"For you see how He now addresses the people, saying a little before: "As
the grape shall be found in the cluster, and they will say, Destroy it not,
for a blessing is in it; so will I do for My servant's sake: for His sake I
will not destroy them all.  And thereafter He adds: "And I shall
bring forth the seed out of Jacob, and out of Judah. It is plain then that
if He thus be angry with them, and threaten to leave very few of them, He
promises to bring forth certain others, who shall dwell in His mountain. But
these are the persons whom He said He would sow and beget. For you neither
suffer Him when He calls you, nor hear Him when He speaks to you, but have
done evil in the presence of the Lord. But the highest pitch of your
wickedness lies in this, that you hate the Righteous One, and slew Him; and
so treat those who have received from Him all that they are and have, and
who are pious, righteous, and humane. Therefore "woe unto their soul, says
the Lord,  "for they have devised an evil counsel against themselves,
saying, Let us take away the righteous, for he is distasteful to us. For
indeed you are not in the habit of sacrificing to Baal, as were your
fathers, or of placing cakes in groves and on high places for the host of
heaven: but you have not accepted God's Christ. For he who knows not Him,
knows not the will of God; and he who insults and hates Him, insults and
hates Him that sent Him. And whoever believes not in Him, believes not the
declarations of the prophets, who preached and proclaimed Him to all.
 Isa. lxv. 8 f.
 Isa. iii. 9.
Chapter CXXXVII. He exhorts the Jews to be converted.
"Say no evil thing, my brothers, against Him that was crucified, and treat
not scornfully the stripes wherewith all may be healed, even as we are
healed. For it will be well if, persuaded by the Scriptures, you are
circumcised from hard-heartedness: not that circumcision which you have from
the tenets that are put into you; for that was given for a sign, and not for
a work of righteousness, as the Scriptures compel you [to admit]. Assent,
therefore, and pour no ridicule on the Son of God; obey not the Pharisaic
teachers, and scoff not at the King of Israel, as the rulers of your
synagogues teach you to do after your prayers: for if he that touches those
who are not pleasing  to God, is as one that touches the apple of
God's eye, how much more so is he that touches His beloved! And that this is
He, has been sufficiently demonstrated."
And as they kept silence, I continued: "My friends, I now refer to the
Scriptures as the Seventy have interpreted them; for when I quoted them
formerly as you possess them, I made proof of you [to ascertain] how you
were disposed.  For, mentioning the Scripture which says, "Woe unto
them! for they have devised evil counsel against themselves, saying 
(as the Seventy have translated, I continued): "Let us take away the
righteous, for he is distasteful to us; whereas at the commencement of the
discussion I added what your version has: "Let us bind the righteous, for he
is distasteful to us. But you had been busy about some other matter, and
seem to have listened to the words without attending to them. But now, since
the day is drawing to a close, for the sun is about to set, I shall add one
remark to what I have said, and conclude. I have indeed made the very same
remark already, but I think it would be right to bestow some consideration
on it again.
 Zech. ii. 8.
 [Justin's varied quotations of the same text seem to have been of
purpose. But consult Kaye's most useful note as to the text of the LXX., in
answer to objections of Wetstein, p. 20. ff.]
 Isa. iii. 9.
Chapter CXXXVIII. Noah is a figure of Christ, who has regenerated us by
water, and faith, and wood: [i.e., the cross.]
"You know, then, sirs," I said, "that God has said in Isaiah to Jerusalem:
"I saved thee in the deluge of Noah.  By this which God said was
meant that the mystery of saved men appeared in the deluge. For righteous
Noah, along with the other mortals at the deluge, i.e., with his own wife,
his three sons and their wives, being eight in number, were a symbol of the
eighth day, wherein Christ appeared when He rose from the dead, for ever the
first in power. For Christ, being the first-born of every creature, became
again the chief of another race regenerated by Himself through water, and
faith, and wood, containing the mystery of the cross; even as Noah was saved
by wood when he rode over the waters with his household. Accordingly, when
the prophet says, "I saved thee in the times of Noah, as I have already
remarked, he addresses the people who are equally faithful to God, and
possess the same signs. For when Moses had the rod in his hands, he led your
nation through the sea. And you believe that this was spoken to your nation
only, or to the land. But the whole earth, as the Scripture says, was
inundated, and the water rose in height fifteen cubits above all the
mountains: so that it is evident this was not spoken to the land, but to the
people who obeyed Him: for whom also He had before prepared a resting-place
in Jerusalem, as was previously demonstrated by all the symbols of the
deluge; I mean, that by water, faith, and wood, those who are
afore-prepared, and who repent of the sins which they have committed, shall
escape from the impending judgment of God.
 Isa. liv. 9 comes nearer to these words than any other passage; but
still the exact quotation is not in Isaiah, or in any other part of
Scripture. [It is quite probable that Isa. liv. 9 was thus misunderstood by
the Jews, as Trypho seems to acquiesce.]
Chapter CXXXIX. The blessings, and also the curse, pronounced by Noah were
prophecies of the future.
"For another mystery was accomplished and predicted in the days of Noah, of
which you are not aware. It is this: in the blessings wherewith Noah blessed
his two sons, and in the curse pronounced on his son's son. For the Spirit
of prophecy would not curse the son that had been by God blessed along with
[his brothers]. But since the punishment of the sin would cleave to the
whole descent of the son that mocked at his father's nakedness, he made the
curse originate with his son.  Now, in what he said, he foretold that
the descendants of Shem would keep in retention the property and dwellings
of Canaan: and again that the descendants of Japheth would take possession
of the property of which Shem's descendants had dispossessed Canaan s
descendants; and spoil the descendants of Shem, even as they plundered the
sons of Canaan. And listen to the way in which it has so come to pass. For
you, who have derived your lineage from Shem, invaded the territory of the
sons of Canaan by the will of God; and you possessed it. And it is manifest
that the sons of Japheth, having invaded you in turn by the judgment of God,
have taken your land from you, and have possessed it. Thus it is written:
"And Noah awoke from the wine, and knew what his younger son had done unto
him; and he said, Cursed be Canaan, the servant; a servant shall he be unto
his brethren. And he said, Blessed be the Lord God of Shem; and Canaan shall
be his servant. May the Lord enlarge Japheth, and let him dwell in the
houses of Shem; and let Canaan be his servant.  Accordingly, as two
peoples were blessed, those from Shem, and those from Japheth, and as the
offspring of Shem were decreed first to possess the dwellings of Canaan, and
the offspring of Japheth were predicted as in turn receiving the same
possessions, and to the two peoples there was the one people of Canaan
handed over for servants; so Christ has come according to the power given
Him from the Almighty Father, and summoning men to friendship, and blessing,
and repentance, and dwelling together, has promised, as has already been
proved, that there shall be a future possession for all the saints in this
same land. And hence all men everywhere, whether bond or free, who believe
in Christ, and recognise the truth in His own words and those of His
prophets, know that they shall be with Him in that land, and inherit
everlasting and incorruptible good.
 [But Justin goes on to show that it was prophetic foresight only: the
curse cleaves only to wicked descendants, the authors of idolatry. It was
removed by Christ. St. Matt. xv. 22-28.]
 Gen. ix. 24-27.
Chapter CXL. In Christ all are free. The Jews hope for salvation in vain
because they are sons of Abraham.
"Hence also Jacob, as I remarked before, being himself a type of Christ, had
married the two handmaids of his two free wives, and of them begat sons, for
the purpose of indicating beforehand that Christ would receive even all
those who amongst Japheth's race are descendants of Canaan, equally with the
free, and would have the children fellow-heirs. And we are such; but you
cannot comprehend this, because you cannot drink of the living fountain of
God, but of broken cisterns which can hold no water, as the Scripture says.
 But they are cisterns broken, and holding no water, which your own
teachers have digged, as the Scripture also expressly asserts, "teaching for
doctrines the commandments of men.  And besides, they beguile
themselves and you, supposing that the everlasting kingdom will be assuredly
given to those of the dispersion who are of Abraham after the flesh,
although they be sinners, and faithless, and disobedient towards God, which
the Scriptures have proved is not the case. For if so, Isaiah would never
have said this: "And unless the Lord of Sabaoth had left us a seed, we would
have been like Sodom and Gomorrah.  And Ezekiel: "Even if Noah, and
Jacob, and Daniel were to pray for sons or daughters, their request should
not be granted.  "But neither shall the father perish for the son,
nor the son for the father; but every one for his own sin, and each shall be
saved for his own righteousness.  And again Isaiah says: "They shall
look on the carcases  of them that have transgressed: their worm shall
not cease, and their fire shall not be quenched; and they shall be a
spectacle to all flesh.  And our Lord, according to the will of Him
that sent Him, who is the Father and Lord of all, would not have said, "They
shall come from the east, and from the west, and shall sit down with
Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven. But the children of
the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness.  Furthermore, I
have proved in what has preceded,  that those who were foreknown to be
unrighteous, whether men or angels, are not made wicked by God's fault, but
each man by his own fault is what he will appear to be.
 Jer. ii. 13.
 Isa. xxix. 13.
 Isa. i. 9.
 Ezek. xiv. 18, 20.
 Ezek. xviii. 20.
 Literally, "limbs."
 Isa. lxvi. 24.
 Matt. viii. 11 f.
 Chap. lxxxviii, cii.
Chapter CXLI. Free-will in men and angels.
"But that you may not have a pretext for saying that Christ must have been
crucified, and that those who transgressed must have been among your nation,
and that the matter could not have been otherwise, I said briefly by
anticipation, that God, wishing men and angels to follow His will, resolved
to create them free to do righteousness; possessing reason, that they may
know by whom they are created, and through whom they, not existing formerly,
do now exist; and with a law that they should be judged by Him, if they do
anything contrary to right reason: and of ourselves we, men and angels,
shall be convicted of having acted sinfully, unless we repent beforehand.
But if the word of God foretells that some angels and men shall be certainly
punished, it did so because it foreknew that they would be unchangeably
[wicked], but not because God had created them so. So that if they repent,
all who wish for it can obtain mercy from God: and the Scripture foretells
that they shall be blessed, saying, "Blessed is the man to whom the Lord
imputeth not sin;  that is, having repented of his sins, that he may
receive remission of them from God; and not as you deceive yourselves, and
some others who resemble you in this, who say, that even though they be
sinners, but know God, the Lord will not impute sin to them. We have as
proof of this the one fall of David, which happened through his boasting,
which was forgiven then when he so mourned and wept, as it is written. But
if even to such a man no remission was granted before repentance, and only
when this great king, and anointed one, and prophet, mourned and conducted
himself so, how can the impure and utterly abandoned, if they weep not, and
mourn not, and repent not, entertain the hope that the Lord will not impute
to them sin? And this one fall of David, in the matter of Uriah's wife,
proves, sirs," I said, "that the patriarchs had many wives, not to commit
fornication, but that a certain dispensation and all mysteries might be
accomplished by them; since, if it were allowable to take any wife, or as
many wives as one chooses, and how he chooses, which the men of your nation
do over all the earth, wherever they sojourn, or wherever they have been
sent, taking women under the name of marriage, much more would David have
been permitted to do this."
When I had said this, dearest Marcus Pompeius, I came to an end.
 Ps. xxxii. 2.
Chapter CXLII. The Jews return thanks, and leave Justin.
Then Trypho, after a little delay, said, "You see that it was not
intentionally that we came to discuss these points. And I confess that I
have been particularly pleased with the conference; and I think that these
are of quite the same opinion as myself. For we have found more than we
expected, and more than it was possible to have expected. And if we could do
this more frequently, we should be much helped in the searching of the
Scriptures themselves. But since," he said, "you are on the eve of
departure, and expect daily to set sail, do not hesitate to remember us as
friends when you are gone."
"For my part," I replied, "if I had remained, I would have wished to do the
same thing daily. But now, since I expect, with God's will and aid, to set
sail, I exhort you to give all diligence in this very great struggle for
your own salvation, and to be earnest in setting a higher value on the
Christ of the Almighty God than on your own teachers."
After this they left me, wishing me safety in my voyage, and from every
misfortune. And I, praying for them, said, "I can wish no better thing for
you, sirs, than this, that, recognising in this way that intelligence is
given to every man, you may be of the same opinion as ourselves, and believe
that Jesus is the Christ of God." 
 The last sentence is very dubious. For panti anthrōpinon noun read
panti anthrōpō ton noun. For poiēsēte read pisteusēte. And lastly, for to
hēmōn read ton 'Iēsoun. [But there is no doubt about the touching beauty of
this close; and truly Trypho seems "not far from the kingdom of God." Note
the marvellous knowledge of the Old Testament Scriptures, which Justin had
acquired, and which he could use in conversation. His quotations from the
Psalms, memoriter, are more accurate than others. See Kaye, p. 141.]
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