I eventually caught up, but I suspect that there are many others who need to understand the basics of Nuclear Physics and have not had anywhere to learn them. Therefore, I felt the need for this presentation.

I am not going to start at the very basics, and assume that you have heard of Newton and his Laws and the basics of the field of Physics.

So I will start out considering planets circling the Sun. We know that
Newton determined the equation for gravitational attraction, and
that Kepler had earlier discovered some useful relationships.
We can describe a Kinetic Energy for a planet as being given by
1/2 * m * V^{2}. As long as Gravitation is a Conservative
Force Field, and it is, we can also describe a Potential Energy
for a planet, which is actually calculated by mathematically Integrating
Newton's Gravitation equation over distance.

It is common to define a ZERO Potential Energy for a planet if it is at infinite distance from the Sun or star. That results in all actual values of Potential Energy for planets to be negative values.

Newton also discovered that Energy is Conserved, as long as no outside force or action is occurring. This now becomes useful. At that infinite distance, the Kinetic Energy is also zero, because the velocity of orbiting is unmeasurably small. Therefore, at infinite distance, we can say that the TOTAL Energy, Kinetic plus Potential, is zero, and that that total must be Conserved if the planet is allowed to fall toward the Sun or star. This results in the POSITIVE amount of Kinetic Energy always being exactly equal to the NEGATIVE amount of Potential Energy, so that the total is always zero.

We can therefore say that 1/2 * m * V^{2} = m * M * G / R, where R
is [the radius of an orbit or in other words] the distance of
separation between the planet and Sun, and M is the mass of the Sun.
We can take the simplest case where the planet is in a circular orbit.

**μ** is commonly used to
represent the product of the central mass M and G.

We can divide
both sides by the mass of the planet m and now get:
1/2 * V^{2} = **μ** / R.

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This is:
1/2 * **ω**^{2} * R^{2}
= **μ** / R.

We can then get 2 * k =
**ω**^{2} * R^{3}.

We know that a full circle or orbit is 2 *
**ω** radians and so the Period
of the orbit (time to go completely around once) T is
2 * **π** /
**ω**.

We can rewrite this as:
**ω** =
2 * **π** / T.

This allows us to replace the omega in our main equation to get
2 * k =
(2 * **π** / T)^{2} * R^{3}.

This gives k / (2 * **π**^{2})
= R^{3} / T^{2}.

This is the derivation of one of Kepler's Laws that he had observationally found earlier. Newton actually found that Kepler's Law was not precisely correct, because of an assumption (which we included in brackets above) which slightly alters it. The correction is because the R distance BETWEEN the planet and Sun is not actually the same as the R which is the orbital radius of the planet, as BOTH the planet and Sun orbit around a common point. For all planets in the solar system, that point happens to still be inside the Sun, so Kepler's Law is quite close to the correct equation. Newton simply showed WHY it is close and what the actual, more correct form, actually is. Newton's work also showed the more complex equation that applies for elliptic orbits, which confirmed another of Kepler's Laws in the process.

None of this might seem to have anything to do with Nuclear Physics! But it does! This reasoning showed the connection between the Potential Energy and the Kinetic, and then the Period, or its inverse, the frequency of the planet going around the Sun. THESE are important!

Physicists in the early 20th Century came to realize that atoms were made of nuclei and orbiting electrons. A lot of attention was focused on Hydrogen, because it was discovered to be the simplest, with only one electron orbiting, and it figured to be the easiest to figure out.

During the previous 50 years, a lot was learned about the spectra
of the Sun and various elements. Hydrogen has interesting patterns
of spectral lines, and it was eventually discovered that Hydrogen
can emit or absorb its shortest wavelength of around 915 Angstroms. During
roughly the same time, other Physicists had determine the
speed of light pretty accurately. It was quickly realized that the
FREQUENCY of the light radiated away must be the speed divided by
the wavelength. An Angstrom is 10^{-10} meter, and the
speed of light is around 3 * 10^{8} meters/second.
If light and other radiation all travels at the
speed of light, then we know that 915 Angstroms means the frequency
of that light of must be
(3 * 10^{8} meters/second) / (9.15 * 10^{-8} meter)
or around 3.3 * 10^{15} /second.

It was then reasonably concluded that the electron must be orbiting
at a rate of 3.3 * 10^{15} full orbits /second.

Another thing that had been discovered in the same time period is that the attraction that keeps atoms together is NOT gravitational at all, as it would be far, far too weak. It was found that it was electrical, or actually electrostatic attraction between a positively charged nucleus and negatively charged electrons. Very importantly, it was found that electrostatic attraction obeys the very same inverse square distance dependence that gravitation obeys. THIS means that all the equations and logic we used above regarding a planet orbiting the Sun should equally apply within an atom.

The 915 Angstrom wavelength of radiation absorbed or emitted was learned to be the DIFFERENCE in energy between a Hydrogen electron orbiting in a (circular) orbit and that electron having been sent away to infinity. In other words, using our planet reasoning above, the energy in that radiation DIRECTLY tells us what the POTENTIAL ENERGY of the electron is in that (circular) orbit.

Max Planck and others did a lot of measuring of the energy in the
energy of the radiation, and it was discovered that the energy
is always exactly proportional to the frequency (or inversely to
the wavelength) by the equation E = h *
**ν** (where h is called
the Planck Constant).
You might notice that we now have the (differential) energy
between an orbiting electron and that electron if it were at
infinite distance away from the nucleus. This is EXACTLY what
we were discussing for EITHER the Potential or the Kinetic
Energy of the planet earlier. We are getting somewhere!

By knowing the frequency of the energy emitted or absorbed, Planck's Law tells us the Energy involved, which is the amount that we had earlier defined as being the Potential Energy, which is the same as the Kinetic Energy due to Conservation of Energy of Helmholtz, Newton and others, which is also called the First Law of Thermodynamics.

Let's look at the Potential Energy first. Planck's Constant
is around 6.6 * 10^{-27} erg-second.
Therefore, we have 3.3 * 10^{15} /second * 6.6 * 10^{-27}
erg-second or 2.18 * 10^{-11} erg of energy. We know that
this must be equal to the Potential Energy in the electrostatic Field.
For a unit absolute electrostatic charge, this Potential Energy
is given by Q/R, where Q is the charge of the nucleus (in absolute
electrostatic charges) and R is again the radius or distance of the
electron from the nucleus. Both an electron and a proton (the charge
of a Hydrogen nucleus) has a charge of around 4.8 * 10^{-10}
absolute electrostatic charge.
We therefore have 2.18 * 10^{-11} =
(4.8 * 10^{-10})^{2} / R.

We can solve this for R = 2.3 * 10^{-19} / 2.18 * 10^{-11}
or R = 1.05 * 10^{-8} centimeter.

Therefore, it was early on determined that the orbital radius of the
electron in a Hydrogen atom must be around 10^{-8} centimeter.

This same reasoning can be applied to any wavelength of radiation given off or absorbed by any element, as well as for electrons which are orbiting in excited state orbits. For example, a Hydrogen atom can be (due to external energy) altered so that the electron orbits in a different orbit, where its wavelength if radiation given off or absorbed when being sent to infinity is around 3670 Angstroms. We will skip duplicating most of the calculations above, but we find that the Planck Energy is 1/4 the above. When we do the Potential Energy calculation above we find that the orbital radius is TWICE the orbital radius of the neutral atom's electron. This is referred to as the orbit where the Principal Quantum Number (N) is 2 rather than 1. There is also another excited state of the Hydrogen atom where the Principal Quantum number is 3, which results in spectroscopic lines that are different yet.

Also, it is not necessary for an electron to be completely ejected from an atom, as we have been discussing so far. an electron can instead move from one of these Principal Quantum States to another, and the result is that there are whole families of spectral lines which can be produced. One of the most famous for Hydrogen is called the Balmer Series of lines, where electrons which start out in the N = 2 state are energized to go into some higher N energy state, with each of these transitions producing a very prominent line in the spectrum of hydrogen.

By the way, the 1.05 * 10^{-8} centimeter orbital radius that
we calculated here is today commonly described in picometers as
being 105 pm. Also, many different effective diameters of atoms
exist in chemical reactions (valence shell orbitals) and through
many other types of experiments. All are roughly the same size,
although different types of experiments result in values that may
be different by a factor of two or three, usually larger.

This presentation was first placed on the Internet in 2003.

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Carl W. Johnson, Theoretical Physicist, Physics Degree from Univ of Chicago